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Mainstreaming CRM in Local

Governance:
CRMP Experience

CRMP is a technical assistance project of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, funded by the
United States Agency for International Development, and managed by Tetra Tech EM Inc.
Outline of the Presentation
I. Overview of the Philippine Coastal Zone
II. Local CRM adoption and implementation
1. Promoting CRM as a basic service of LGUs
2. Benchmarking LGU performance on CRM
III. Integration of shoreline and coastal tourism in CRM
1. Foreshore management initiatives of Dalaguete,
Cebu
2. CRM showcase tour and learning destinations
IV. Conclusions
I. Overview of the Philippine Coastal Zone
The Philippine coastal zone:
An endangered environment
Philippine coastal resources at a
glance
¾ 832 municipalities out of 1,541 or 54% are coastal
¾ Almost all major cities and provinces are coastal
¾ 62% of the population live in the coastal zone
¾ Destruction of fishery habitats (30% mangroves left compared to
1918; less than 5% of coral reefs in excellent condition)
¾ Overfishing (MSY reached in 1988; 10% fishstocks compared to 1940)
¾ Fish provide 50% of animal protein consumed
¾ Deteriorating water quality
Popular and
emerging
coastal
tourism
sites in the
Philippines
The Coastal
Resource
Management Project
Mission:
To catalyze coastal resource
management to a threshold that will
expand nationwide and be sustainable
beyond the life of the project
Strategic objectives:
¾ 3,000 km of shoreline with improved
management of coastal resources by the
end of 2002.
¾ CRM Institutionalization by 2004
Two-track approach:
1)Establish coastal resource management
on national and local agendas
2)Build the institutional competence of
local government to deliver coastal
resource management as a basic service
Key issues addressed by CRMP
¾ Open access to and illegal use of coastal resources resulting
in overexploitation of fish stocks and degradation of coastal
habitats
¾ Low awareness and capacity of local government units to
implement CRM as a basic service
¾ Lack of harmonized and integrated national policy
framework guiding local implementation of CRM
¾ Change in mind set on coastal resource use
II. Local CRM adoption and implementation
1. Promoting CRM as a basic service of LGUs
2. Benchmarking LGU performance on CRM

Private Province
sector LGU
NGO PO
Evolving mechanisms for CRM
1950’s to 1960’s 1970’s to 1980’s 1990’s

Coastal resource
development promoted Regulation of coastal
National legal and policy
by national government resources instituted by
framework provides
national government
for convergence of
national and local
coastal management Coastal
Demand approaches management
does not devolved to
surpass Open access regime
local government
supply as a basic
Community-based
resource management service
institutionalized as
essential element of
Fishers exploit coastal Community-based coastal management
resources in open access resource management approaches
regime models developed
Co-Management of Coastal Resources
LGU mandate for CRM
Planning
Protection
LOCAL Regulatory
GOVERNMENT FISHERIES
CODE CODE Enforcement
Legislation
AGRICULTURE Intergovernmental
AND FISHERIES relations
MODERNIZATION
ACT Relations with POs and
NGOs
Extension and
Technical Assistance
CRM – first and foremost is a
process of governance

¾ Involves both land and sea-based resources


¾ Involves human behavior in addition to the biophysical
environment
¾ Main ecosystems involved: seagrass, mangrove, coral
reef, estuaries, beaches
Establishing CRM as a basic
service of local government
Spatial coverage of a municipal
CRM plan
The coastal management planning
process adapted for Philippine local
government
National policy and legal framework

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3


Issue identification and CRM plan preparation Action plan and
baseline assessment and adoption project implementation

Local legislation
Information management,
education and outreach Coastal law enforcement
Regulation
Phase 5

External Annual program


preparation and Revenue
revenue
budgeting generation
sources

Phase 4

Monitoring and evaluation

Multisectoral and inter-LGU participation and resource sharing


CRM as a basic service of local
government Monitoring and Evaluation
Biophysical assessments
Socioeconomic assessments
Institutional assessments
Annual CRM plan review/revision

Coastal Coastal Resource Implementation


Information
Environmental Management and
Management
Profiling Planning Enforcement

Existing information 9 Information management MFARMC formed and Marine sanctuaries


and data compiled system established and active functional
Participatory coastal maintained Multi-year CRM plan Environment-friendly
resource assessments 9 Municipal coastal prepared and adopted enterprises established
completed database updated Mangroves rehabilitated and
Policy and legal
Scientific biophysical 9 Annual CRM status instruments enacted managed under CBFMAs
baseline assessments reports and maps Water and land use Coastal law enforcement
completed produced units operational
zoning maps integrated
Coastal environment 9 CRM Resource center CRM ordinances
profile completed Municipal waters
and “Hotline” established enforced
delineated

9 Revenue generation
Local fees, fines, taxes from
municipal water use collected

Annual CRM Budget Allocation


Training/Information
9 Personnel 9 Capital Outlay 9 Maintenance 9 Special Projects 9Education/Communication

Multisectoral and Inter-LGU Collaboration


9 Cost sharing 9 Watershed Management Planning
9 Enforcement 9 Resource Assessments
9 Training 9 IEC
CRM benchmarks for LGUs
Basic Requirements
9 1. Multi-year CRM Plan
9 2. Coastal resource assessment
9 3. CRM-related organizations
9 4. Annual CRM programming and budgeting
9 5. Shoreline/foreshore management
9 6. Best CRM practices being implemented:
a. Local legislation h. Solid waste management
b. Municipal water delineation i. Upland/watershed
c. Coastal zoning management
d. Fisheries management j. Coastal environment-
e. Coastal law enforcement friendly enterprise
f. Marine protected areas development
g. Mangrove management k. Revenue generation
h. Solid waste management l. Multi-institutional
collaboration for CRM
CRM benchmark system
Level 1 - Beginning CRM Level 2 - Intermediate CRM Level 3 - Advanced CRM

Acceptance of CRM as a basic Implementation of CRM plans Sustained long-term


underway with effective integration implementation of CRM with
service of municipal/city to local governance monitoring, measured results, and
government with planning and (2 to 5 years) positive returns
field interventions initiated (5 years or more)
(1 to 3 years)

9 Multi-year CRM drafted


9 Baseline assessment
conducted
9 CRM-related organizations
formed and active
9 Annual budget allocated for
CRM
9 Shoreline/foreshore
management measures
planned and initiated
¾ At least 2 CRM best practices
planned and initiated
Illustrative zoning and resource use plan
for the coastal area and municipal waters
(not to scale)
Open water Coral reef conservation zones
Strict protection zone

Municipal water Island


boundary

Marine reserves
Sustainable use zones
Buffer zone

Mangrove forest
conservation zones
Pier

Coastal tourism zone

Shoreline
setback
Urban areas
and settlements

Source: Huttche et al. 2002


Kilometers of shoreline where improved
management of coastal resources is being
implemented
Total areas initiated and targeted for
start-up (learning plus expansion areas)
4000 Learning and expansion areas targeted
for "completion"
3500 Learning and expansion areas "completed"
Municipalities and Cities (achieving CRM
Kilometers of shoreline

3000 indicators)

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Year
Number of LGUs implementing
CRM Best Practices
120

100
No. of LGUs

80

60

40

20

0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Year
III. Integration of shoreline and coastal
tourism in CRM
1. Foreshore management initiatives of
Dalaguete, Cebu
2. CRM showcase tour and
learning destinations
Integration of shoreline and coastal
tourism in CRM through LAC
planning system
STEP 5
Specify standards
for resource
STEP 4 & social
Inventory resource indicators STEP 6
& social Identify alternative
conditions opportunity class
allocations
STEP 3
Select indicators
STEP 7
of resource & Identify
social conditions actions for each
alternative
LAC
PLANNING
STEP 2
SYSTEM STEP 8
Define & describe
opportunity Evaluation &
classes selection of an
alternative
Limits of acceptable change have not
been considered in many shoreline areas STEP 1
Identify area
concerns & STEP 9
issues
Implement actions &
monitor conditions

Source: Stanley et al. 1985


Coastal shoreline setback required
by law in the Philippines and zones

Alienable & "Salvage or


disposable easement zone"
Mean high tide
No building
"setback" area Low tide
above high tide
line and foreshore Foreshore
area

Source: DENR et al. 2001


Power & functions
DENR :
To exercise exclusive jurisdiction of the management &
disposition of all lands of public domain and shall continue
to be the sole agency responsible for classification, sub-
classification, surveying & titling of lands in consultation
with appropriate agencies.
(Executive Order 192, June 10, 1987)

Director of Lands :
Shall have direct executive control of the survey,
classification, lease, sale or any other form of concession or
disposition and management of the lands of the public
domain…
(The Public Land Act, CA 141, as amended,
November 7, 1936)
Regulatory bodies and their
mandates
Agencies Mandate Legal Basis
Department of Environment Survey and management of alienable and CA 141
and Natural Resource disposable public land, issuances of lease
(DENR) and permits & over maters of forestry,
mining and environmental concerns
Bureau of Fisheries and Designation of foreshore lands as RA 8550
Aquatic Resources reservations for fish sanctuaries and as
mangrove cultivation areas
Department of Public Works Cases involving construction and CA 141 sec 66
and Highways (DPWH) development along foreshore areas
Philippine Port Authority Construction of pier / port PD 857
(PPA)
Philippine Estate Authority Activities pertaining to reclamation EO 525
(PEA)
Philippine Tourism Development of an area as a tourism zone LGC 81
Authority (PTA) and marine reserves

Local Government Units Construction and building activities covered LGC 51, RA 7161
by ordinance
Housing and Land Use Approves and exercises supervisory RA 7161
Regulatory Board authority over land use plans and zoning
ordinances of LGUs
Setback along a beach front from
edge of vegetation as stipulated by
DOT

Low tide High tide


line line Edge of vegetation

Sea Beach Vegetation Development zone


Energy-dissipation 30 m wide easement zone
zone

Source: UNDP/WTO/DOT 1991)


Effects of locating building too close to the
shoreline. Potential of damage to physical
structures from storm and storm waves
increases when no proper setback is applied
(adapted from Rees 1990)
No setback

Setback
Setbacks and natural beach vegetation are attractive while minimizing
impacts on the beach environment.
BEFORE: Moalboal beach in
1980 was very attractive and
spacious.

AFTER: Moalboal beach in 2001


has been almost totally lost due
to illegal building and sand
mining in foreshore areas.
Unplanned and unregulated
development along the
shoreline results in
environmental degradation
and resource use conflicts.

Proper development setbacks


on beaches allow for natural
cycles of sand movement and
storm surge that prevent
property damage. Public
access can also be maintained
in the foreshore area.
Foreshore management initiative
in Dalaguete, Cebu
¾ Location: Southeastern Cebu,
Central Visayas Region
¾ Area: 15,496 hectares
¾ Coastline: 15.31 km
¾ 33 barangays of which 10 are
coastal
¾ Population: 60,000
¾ Major industries: Agriculture
and fisheries
Foreshore Use Issues
¾ Diminishing mangrove
resources due to mangrove
cutting
¾ Sand quarrying
¾ Illegal structures along the
coast
¾ Laxity in implementation
and enforcement of
ordinances/laws
Foreshore use… (cont’d.)

¾ Lack of awareness on foreshore laws, roles of


agencies/parties involved
¾ Overlapping/conflicting responsibilities of
government
agencies
Municipal Initiatives on Foreshore
Management
The municipal Shoreline Management Program is incorporated
in the Coastal Resource Management Plan

¾ Objectives
ƒ To protect the shoreline from
further degradation due to
destructive activities
¾ Strategies:
ƒ Regulation of sand and coral mining
ƒ Protection and conservation of mangroves
ƒ Setting-up and maintenance of coastal setbacks for all development
ƒ Prohibition of the construction of dikes and seawalls in identified areas
that will impede the natural water and current flow
ƒ Conduct of massive IEC campaign
Municipal Initiatives… (cont’d.)

¾ Ground-level initiatives:
1. Community-based mangrove reforestation
(CMR-I) project (2002-2004) in 5 barangays.

Status: initiated in
one barangay
(Balud)
Municipal Initiatives… (cont’d.)

2. Inventory of structures along the


foreshore
ƒ conducted by SB representatives,
the Mun. Engr., MAO, CENRO,
Brgy. Council representatives,
MFARMC representatives,
Dalaguete Coastal Police
(DACOP), NGO representatives
ƒ output: listing of all existing
structures, types, claimants,
observations, a listing of all
pending foreshore lease
applications (FLAs), barangay-
level maps showing existing
foreshore use
Municipal Initiatives… (cont’d.)

¾ Policy level:
9 Municipal Ordinance prohibiting any
person or group to construct permanent
structures on the shore and foreshore lots
from Barangay Casay to Brgy. Obong
9 Declaring the foreshore areas
of the municipality as
“Municipal Reserve”
9 Creating a Municipal
Management Board to
oversee the foreshore and
shoreline use of
Dalaguete, Cebu
Best practices packaged and
showcased as CRM learning
destinations
CRM travel showcase tour
¾ Modules of experiential
interactive and educative
travel activities that feature
varied coastal environments,
best CRM practices and
challenges, as well as
snapshots of local coastal
culture and history.
Mindanao CRM Showcase
Tour Location and Main
Access Points

Manila
DAVAO CITY DAVAO DEL
NORTE
COMPOSTELA
Cebu VALLEY
DAVAO ORIENTAL
Davao ISLAND GARDEN
CITY OF SAMAL
.
MATI
STA. CRUZ
DIGOS
CITY

DAVAO DEL SUR

SARANGANI

Mindanao CRM
Showcase
Bohol CRM
Showcase
Cebu CRM
Showcase
Masbate
CRM
Showcase
Negros CRM Showcase
IV. Conclusions
¾ CRM should provide context for tourism planning.
¾ Participation in management decisions is essential at all levels
¾ National agencies with jurisdiction over coastal resources
need to assist LGUs and provide technical support
¾ Collaboration and synergy among agencies is essential
¾ Multiple education and communication strategies are required
to build a wide base of support for CRM
¾ Proven technical interventions must be pursued and applied
appropriately