PORTOFOLIU LA

LIMBA ENGLEZA

Vroti Loredana-Gabriela Clasa a XI-a E

Contents
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. Stative and dynamic verbs Present simple and present continuous Subject and object questions Describing people Present perfect and past simple Phrasal verbs Talking about travel Modals of obligation,permission and prohibition Make,let and allow Requests:asking for permission Requests;asking someone to do something Past simple and past continuous Past perfect simple Time linkers Talking about similarities and differences Both and neither Other materials

(have=experience) . He has a house in north London.the senses and states that don’t change. Here are some common stative verbs: agree dislike like prefer appear be belive belong contain fit forget hate know last love matter mean need own realize remember seem understand We can use most verbs in both the simple and the continuous forms.opinions. It is possible for some verbs to be both dynamic and stative if they have two different meanings. He seems friendly. Not I am loving you. It often snows in January. These are called stative verbs. They often describe emotions.Stative and dinamic verbs Some verbs can only be used in the simple form. (have=own) She’s having a few problems. These are called dynamic verbs. The weather is getting worse. I love you. Not He is seeming friendly.

.  to talk about habits and actions happen regularly She drives the kids to school every day. She’s going through a very rebellious phase. She lives in a small flat.Other common verbs that can be dynamic or stative (with different meanings) include: be feel see smell think Present simple and present continuous We use the present simple:  to talk about facts(things that are always true) and permanent situations. He’s trying to explain a problem to them. We use the present continuous:  to talk about actions that are happening at the moment of speaking.  to talk about temporary situations and activities.

(=I think this is permanent.) .We can sometimes use both the present simple and the present continuous. Our choice depends on how we see the action. (=I think this is temporary. I live in Madrid.) I’m living in Madrid.

which or how many) is the subject of the verb. Subject Who What Which party How many people verb thinks the test is a good idea? happens on New Year’s Eve? won the last election? voted for the government? .questions. what.Subject and object questions The usual word order in questions is: Auxiliary verb Who What Which party does do did subject he you you verb work for? do on New Year’s Eve? vote for? These questions are called object questions because the question words (who. the question word (who. In some Wh. does or did) with the present simple and the past simple. what. we don’t need auxiliary verb(do. These are called subject questions. With a subject question. which party) are the object of the verb.

think is incorrect. Many people.) What does she like? (we are asking about the person’s preferences or interests.) She looks +adjective: intelligent. Some English speakers use like instead of as if/as though. like+ noun like a doctor as if/as though+ phrase as if she needs a holiday.Describing people What is she like? (we are asking for a general description of the person. .) What does she look like? (we are asking for a description of the person’s appearance. however. She looks like she needs a holiday.

never. He’s just begun his journey. one night. yet. but the time isn’t important. Have you ever been to Australia? They’ve visited many interesting places. this month. We often use the present perfect to talk about general experience.Present perfect and past simple When we talk about past actions. this week. last week. (in the last few weeks includes present time) Common expressions that refer to unfinished time are: during in over The last few days/weeks/months/years Some the expressions can refer to both finished time and unfinished time Have you done anything interesting this morning? (=it’s still the morning) Did you do anything interesting this morning? (=the morning is now finished) Other expressions that we can use with both tenses include today. already. since. We use past simple:  when we ask when the event happened(with when) When did she arrive at Alice Springs?  when we say when the event happened(with time expressions like yesterday. He gave up his job last year. we can sometimes choose between the past simple and the present perfect. etc. She got there two weeks ago. recently). The event happened in the past. that indicate a finished time). She’s made a lot of friends in the last few weeks.g. just. Present perfect Affirmative subject + have/has + past participle Negative Question Past simple Affirmative Regular verbs: infinitive + -ed and Irregular verbs: see list of irregular verbs Negative Question Regular and irregular verbs: subject +didn't + infinitive Regular and irregular verbs: did +subject + infinitive subject + haven't/hasn't + past participle have/has + subject + past participle .  when we talk about actions in the past that happened in a period of time which is unfinished. ever. He’s already visited six different countries. We use the present perfect:  when the time isn’t stated.  with time expressions that don’t specify the exact time (e.

stop off). run out of. we cannot separate the verb and the particle. the object can come either before or after the particle. She dropped her husband off at the airport. the particle is in two parts (e. set out.Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs contain a verb and a particle (e.g. it) the object always comes before the particle. With a separable phrasal verb. her. Phrasal verbs are either separable or inseparable.g. If the object is a pronoun (e. He finally got over his illness. him. look forward to). Not He finally got his illness over. get by. She dropped off her husband at the airport.g. Will you see us off? Not Will you sec off us? . With some phrasal verbs. With an inseparable phrasal verb.

.Talking about travel Can I get a bus anywhere near/round here? Could you tell me the time of the next train? Could you tell us when we get to the station. please.40 for North Park left yet? Have you got change for a ten-pound note? I'd like a cab for the Pizzeria Roma. please. One single/A return to the town centre. please? Does this bus go to the airport? Has the 11.

The children are allowed to watch TV until ten o'clock. We use could + infinitive and was/were allowed to + infinitive to talk about permission in the past. Obligation We use must+ infinitive and has/have to to talk about obligation in the present. You must arrive 30 minutes before your flight. They didn't need to get up early because it was a holiday. You don't have to come if you don't want to. The monks were not allowed to speak. No obligation We use don't/doesn't have to + infinitive and don't/doesn't need to + infinitive talk about something that is not necessary (but it is allowed). . Many years ago people could smoke anywhere. You can drive in the UK when you are seventeen.Modals of obligation. We use didn't have to + infinitive and didn't need to + infinitive to talk about an absence of obligation in the past. British schoolchildren couldn't have long hair inthe 1950s. She was allowed to stay out until twelve o'clock. We use had to + infinitive to talk about obligation in the past. We use couldn't+infinitive and wasn't/weren't allowed to+infinitive to talk about prohibition in the past. She knew the restaurant manager so she didn't haveto pay for her meal. You mustn't open your papers before the exam begins. permission & prohibition (present & past time) Permission We use can + infinitive and is/are allowed to +infinitive to talk about permission in the present. You can't enter the US without a passport. He had to pay a lot of tax last year. I don't need to wear a tie to work. The students aren't allowed to take mobile phones to school. Prohibition We use can't + infinitive. mustn't + infinitive and isn't/aren't allowed to + infinitive to talk about something that is not allowed. We have to leave soon.

let & allow Permission We can use let + object + infinitive (without to) and allow + object + to + infinitive to talk about permission. Prohibition We can use doesn't/didn't let + object + infinitive (without to) and doesn't/didn't allow + object + to + infinitive to talk about prohibition. She made me do it again.Make. They don't allow animals to come into the house. They don't let me leave until five o'clock. He didn't let me speak. She lets her children do anything they want. The company makes the staff work very hard. . The teacher allowed the students to ask questions. Obligation We can use make/made + object + infinitive (without to) to talk about obligation. My father let me use his car.

. we usually give an explanation.....Requests: asking for permission Requests Can I (possibly) + infinitive . I'm afraid that..... ? Could I (possibly) + infinitive .. sure/of course/certainly/no problem/go ahead. ? Do you think I could + infinitive . ? I wonder if I could + infinitive . I'm sorry. ? Is it all right/OK ifl+ present tense . ? Responses Yes.. but... If we want to refuse permission. ..

we usually give am explanation. . If we want to refuse the request. sure/of course/certainly/no problem.Requests: asking someone to do something Requests Can you (possibly) + infinitive…? Could you (possibly) + infinitive…? Do you think you could + infinitive…? Responses Yes.

(= He won the lottery and then he married her. Negative subject + was/were + not + verb + -ing .) He married her when he had won the lottery.. Rescuers arrived. he was watching TV. completed actions.. He decided to buy a lottery ticket.. hadn’t Question What had I/you/he/she/we/they done? . We often use the past continuous and the past simple together. At nine o'clock last night.. but Selak had swum to safety. (= Selak swam to safety and then rescuers arrived. Past continuous Affirmative subject + was/were + verb + -ing . Compare the following pair of sentences: He had married her when he won the lottery. We use the past continuous for longer. We use the past simple for completed past actions.) We often use the past perfect and the past simple together to show the order in which two actions took place. Question Was/Were + subject + verb + -ing? Past perfect simple We use the past perfect to talk about completed actions in the past that happened before other actions in the past.) Affirmative & Negative I/You/He/She/We/They had broken a leg.Past simple & past continuous We use the past continuous for actions in progress at a particular time in the past. These actions are incomplete. 'background' actions and we use the past simple for shorter. (= He married her and then he won the lottery. Three friends were spending a weekend in London and they decided to go to a nightclub.

Time linkers We can use white. The boy fell asleep the moment/as soon as/when he climbed onto the sofa. the party had finished. While/As/When the doctors were deciding what to do next. We can use by the time to show that one action has happened before another. He was reading a tetter while/as/when the doctors were deciding what to do next. he fell asleep. The moment/As soon as/When the boy climbed onto the sofa. he was reading a letter. We can use the moment. as and when to show that two actions happen at the same time. . The party had finished by the time we arrived. as soon as and when to show that one action happens immediately after another one. By the time we arrived.

the second statement will include do/don’t/does/doesn’t/did/didn’t. the second statement will include did/didn't. It is also possible to use too and neither after a pronoun. and we use neither after a negative statement. Differences When we want to say the opposite of another statement. Me too.Talking about similarities & differences Similarities We can make short statements that begin with so and neither to show a similarity or agreement between what we think and a statement made by another person. They won't be happy. I’m not hungry. She's got a cold. If the first statement is in the past simple. If the first statement is in the present simple. the second statement will include do/don't/does/doesn't. She's not well. . I'm feeling tired. So am I. We use a pronoun followed by an auxiliary verb. Neither will you. Neither has she. we don’t use so or neither. So have 1. I like this place. Neither did I. We use so after an affirmative statement. She doesn’t. He's Canadian. I don’t like hamburgers. We stress both the pronoun and the auxiliary verb. So do I. I didn't understand. The auxiliary verb in the first statement is repeated in the statement that begins with so or neither. I am. I can. I do! He wants a divorce. He hasn't finished. If the first statement is in the present simple or the past simple. Me neither. I can’t swim.

Both of them have children.) Neither of them has a good job. (=He has a good job and she has a good job. The meaning of both is positive and the meaning of neighter is negative. Neither is used with nor. both is used with and. Neither Ceri nor Philip speaks Slovenian. They both have children. . You didn’t! Both and neither We use both and neither to compare two people or things. When we name the two subjects. Both Ceri and Philip speak Spanish. (=He doesn’t have a good job and she doesn’t have a good job) We use a plural verb wehen both is the subject of the sentence. We normally use a singular verb when neither is the subject of a sentence. Both of them have a good job.They arrived early. Both can be used in two positions in a sentence.

At the age of 18. and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance. and Macbeth. later known as the King's Men. Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. acclaimed Shakespeare's genius. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608. religious beliefs. The Romantics. His surviving works. The Statue of Liberty . genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the sixteenth century. he wrote tragicomedies. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". In his last phase. In the twentieth century. King Lear. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive. and several other poems. His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied. his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. he began a successful career in London as an actor. where he died three years later. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. including Hamlet. and part owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men. considered some of the finest works in the English language. 154 sonnets. including some collaborations. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613. and the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that George Bernard Shaw called "bardolatry". he married Anne Hathaway. also known as romances. and collaborated with other playwrights. and whether the works attributed to him were written by others. Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613.His early plays were mainly comedies and histories. who bore him three children: Susanna. two long narrative poems.William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (born 26 April 1564 – died 23 April 1616) was an English poet and playwright. Between 1585 and 1592. performed and reinterpreted in varied cultural and political contexts throughout the world. and twins Hamnet and Judith. in particular. sexuality. writer. consist of 38 plays. widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's preeminent dramatist.

the Statue of Liberty is one of the most recognizable icons of the United States and was through much of its years one of the first glimpses of the United States for millions of immigrants after ocean voyages from Europe. which is coated in gold leaf (originally made of copper and later altered to hold glass panes). but with the pedestal and foundation. Stonehenge is . The statue is 151 ft (46 m) tall. patent for its structure. is a monument commemorating the centennial of the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Standing on Liberty Island in New York Harbor. hung on a framework of steel (originally puddled iron) with the exception of the flame of the torch. and returning Americans traveling by ship.Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi sculpted the statue and obtained a U. The pedestal was designed by architect Richard Morris Hunt. officially titled Liberty Enlightening the World. Eugène Viollet-leDuc was responsible for the choice of copper in the statue's construction. carrying a torch in her raised right hand and a tabula ansata.0 mi) west of Amesbury and 13 kilometres (8. It stands atop a rectangular stonework pedestal with a foundation in the shape of an irregular elevenpointed star. it welcomes visitors. Stonehenge Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire. Maurice Koechlin—chief engineer of Gustave Eiffel’s engineering company and designer of the Eiffel Tower—engineered the internal structure.S. and for the adoption of the repoussé technique. in her left arm.1 mi) north of Salisbury. It represents a woman wearing a stola. trampling a broken chain. where a malleable metal is hammered on the reverse side. a radiant crown and sandals.The Statue of Liberty. 1886. The statue is made of a sheathing of pure copper. dedicated on October 28. about 3. Worldwide.2 kilometres (2. it is 305 ft (93 m) tall. where the date of the Declaration of Independence JULY IV MDCCLXXVI is inscribed. One of the most famous sites in the world. given to the United States by the people of France to represent the friendship between the two countries established during the American Revolution. immigrants.

has suggested that the first stones were not erected until 24002200 BC. It is a national legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument. One recent theory. Burials continued at Stonehenge for at least another 500 years. . as described in the chronology below. including several hundred burial mounds. which constitute the earliest phase of the monument. Archaeological evidence found by the Stonehenge Riverside Project in 2008 indicates that Stonehenge served as a burial ground from its earliest beginnings. Stonehenge is owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage. however.composed of earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch. have been dated to about 3100 BC. while the surrounding land is owned by the National Trust. The site and its surroundings were added to the UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites in 1986 in a co-listing with Avebury henge monument. when the initial ditch and bank were first dug. The dating of cremated remains found on the site indicate burials from as early as 3000 BC. It is at the centre of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England. Archaeologists had believed that the iconic stone monument was erected around 2500 BC. whilst another suggests that bluestones may have been erected at the site as early as 3000 BC (see phase 1 below).

George Harrison (lead guitar. and Harrison died of cancer in 2001. the group later worked in many genres ranging from folk rock to psychedelic pop. They have received 7 Grammy Awards and 15 Ivor Novello Awards from the British Academy of Songwriters. they have sold more albums in the US than any other artist. Billboard magazine released a list of the all-time top-selling Hot 100 artists to celebrate the US singles chart's fiftieth anniversary. and held down the top spot longer. then retreated to the recording studio until their breakup in 1970. Rooted in skiffle and 1950s rock and roll. seeing their influence extend into the social and cultural revolutions of the 1960’s. Paul McCartney (bass guitar. vocals). "Love Me Do". McCartney and Starr remain active. The Beatles have had more number one albums on the UK charts. Gaining international popularity over the course of the next year. than any other musical act. including the album Sgt. The Beatles' music continues to be popular. often incorporating classical and other elements in innovative ways. vocals). they toured extensively until 1966. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967). In 2008. During their studio years. According to RIAA certifications. formed in Liverpool in 1960 and one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed acts in the history of popular music. The Beatles achieved UK mainstream success in late 1962 with their first single. Composers and Authors. widely regarded as a masterpiece.The Beatles The Beatles were an English rock band. transformed as their songwriting grew in sophistication. Each then found success in an independent musical career. Lennon was shot and killed in 1980. which first emerged as the "Beatlemania” fad. The nature of their enormous popularity. Nearly four decades after their breakup. From 1962 the group consisted of John Lennon (rhythm guitar. The group came to be perceived as the embodiment of progressive ideals. vocals). with The Beatles at number one. vocals) and Ringo Starr (drums. . The Beatles were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the 20th century's 100 most important and influential people. The Beatles produced what critics consider some of their finest material.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful