Organism Toxoplasma g. Plasmodium (falciparum) Giardia l. E.


Type Protozoa Protozoa

Transmission/Entry Undercooked meat, cat poop Mosquito (very efficient transmission) Consumption, such as in contaminated water  small intestine. Consume cyst form

Life cycle Ingest cyst Sporozoite into bloodstream  liver Consumption of cyst form – then  trophozoite. Cyst  trophozoite.

Immune stuff

Protozoa Protozoa

Vivax strain cannot infect Duffy a / b persons Cleared by CMI, usually 23 weeks.

N. fowleri Trypanosomiasis

Protozoa Protozoa

SWIMMING Tsetse fly

Bite  trypomastigote spreads in bloodstream to lymph nodes / CNS. Enter as trypomastigotes, then form amastigotes.

Avoids destruction through antigenic variation

T. Cruzi


Reduviid bug bites/deposits feces.




Promastigotes engulfed by macrophages. No invasion Penetrate through intestinal wall  lungs or through skin  alveoli  coughed up/swallowed  adult worms in SI  release eggs. Cycle can repeat.

Trichuris trichiura Ascaris lumbricoides N. Americanus + A. duodenale Strongyloides stercoralis Loa loa

Roundworm Roundworm

Ingestion of eggs Ingestion of eggs  SI, such as in food Larva can penetrate skin Penetrate skin Tabanid fly

Roundworm “hookworm” Roundworm Roundworm

Pathology/Symptoms Transmitted x the placenta, especially if woman is infected during pregnancy  birth defects. Toxic to brain/eyes in AIDS patients. Can present like mononucleosis. In liver, infects hepatocytes, divides, cells burst. Then, they infect RBCs, feed off Hb, then they burst. Cyclical fevers, chills, headaches, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly. Falciparum is most severe – CNS, lung problems. Adheres but doesn’t invade brush border of duodenum  malabsorption of stuff bloating/flatulence, steatorrhea, weight loss. Invasion of colon  necrosis/cell death  dysentery/bloody diarrhea, megacolon. Enter portal  liver abscess (pain, WL) ( lung abscess). Meningitis: fever, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, headache. Ulcer @ bite site, fevers, headaches, lymphadenopathy, malaise, weight loss, symptoms resolve; then intermittent fevers, finally progression to encephalitis/meningitis as personality changes, sleepiness, coma, death. Gambiense (W. Africa) = milder/more chronic, human host. Rhodesiense (E. Africa) = more acute/worse, zoonosis: painless chancre. Amastigotes infect macrophages, lymph nodes, and bloodstream. Chagas’ Disease: acute phase = chagoma @ bite site, fever, lymphadenopathy, malaise, then asymptomatic, then recurs with megacolon, megaesophagus, cardiomegaly/arrhythmias Cutaneous: chancres that heal, mucocutaneous: chancre heals, then later oropharyngeal ulcers  damage face, or visceral = invasive: fevers, anemia/weight loss, thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly. Intestinal infection – abdominal pain / diarrhea. Mostly mild/asymptomatic: abd. pain, dysentery/intestinal infection. Lung: cough, SOB. Severe cases affect bile ducts/gall bladder, liver  malnutrition because of competition for nutrients and/or mechanical blockage. Suck blood in SI  anemia, also diarrhea, abd. pain, WL, rash at site. Presence in lung  cough or pneumonia. Anemia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, bloating. Rash @ site of entrance and lung symptoms are possible. Mostly asymptomatic; can have edema/swelling due to

also vomiting. edema. bancrofti Roundworm Many mosquito species Larvae enter skin through mosquito bite. can have weight loss/malnutrition. fish for latum. Offspring go to extremities and often come out of foot. Symptoms at egress site: hives. Burrows into skin – usually painless. splenomegaly. chills. inflammation. but also lungs (chest pain. Molecular mimicry. Inflammatory mass in lung  coughed up in rusty brown sputum/hemoptysis.painless. Consume eggs or larvae in pork Consume oncospheres Released by snails into water / baby worm penetrates through skin host responses. form adult in the SI Eggs  adults in the SI. also pruritic rash can occur. there’s fever. then are adults Out of crustacean  thorax. Consume larvae: attach to wall of SI  malnutrition. Liver: eggs  fibrosis. later. River blindness if parasites die near/in the eye. Skin: loss of pigmentation if long-term infection. Long-term: granulomas. Baby worm through diaphragm. hepatomegaly. ulceration – can progress to infection/gangrene. Mostly asymptomatic. PHTN. inflammation. cirrhosis.W. varices. lymphadenopathy. Chronic: in bile ducts – obstruction. Live in liver/biliary tract. mature/mate Cysts in muscles of meat are consumed. Long term haemotabium of bladder  inflammation  squamous cell cx. Acute: abdominal pain. Larvae infect. saginata T. inguinal swelling. Specific to the animal. eggs there. haemotabium Tapeworm from dogs Tapeworm Paragonimus Fluke Fasciola hepatica Fluke Eggs in fresh water  consume (cercariae) in shellfish Often eat in watercress/water chestnut Sarcoptes scabei Tunga penetrans Lice Mite Flea Hair . Larvae penetrate intestinal wall. anemia. irritation. Onchocerca volvulus Dracunculus medinensis D. Immune response  pruritus. esp. Feed daily on blood. through liver. seizure. diarrhea. solium Roundworm Roundworm Tapeworm Tapeworm Blackfly Consume the microcrustacea in drinking water Consume in beef (saginata). perforates. Baby worm in intestine. Eggs hatch in intestine  larvae Cercariae  schistosomulae that circulate. up to bile tract. Consume eggs: mostly asymptomatic except cysticercosis: oncospheres can go to brain. vomiting diarrhea. etc. pain. headache. In vessel: attach to wall / release eggs  inflammation  fibrosis and also impair flow. Worms on/in the eye  swelling Microfiliariae go into lymphatics  lymphadenitis + fever. Latum can impair B12 in particular. then can be itching. go through sub-q. Penetrate intestinal wall  peritoneal cavity  diaphragm  pleural area. Toxin released after death of adult worms can cause damage. then into lung. Try to get into feces/out of body. Inhibit complement and CMI. biliary obstruction). grow up to be adults. Acute: dermatitis @ site of entry. worse if they die in brain: encephalitis. hemoptysis). Skin  liver – mate in liver. Echinococcus granulosus Schistosoma mansoni. liver (abd. Incubation before symptoms. then throughout the body. Nodules are adult worms . Usually asymptomatic. possible elephantiasis through fibrosis/blockage of lymph drainage months later. Burrow into epidermis. 6-8 weeks after infection = immune reaction – dermatitis. latum/T. Can cause neuro symptoms. fever.

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