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Energy Management

…“Doing more with less”

Abstract
Though “energy can neither be created nor destroyed established principles and techniques through proper
“seems to be simple we are all aware that source of Energy Management. Average annual per capita
energy are limited .So the need to conserve energy has consumption for our country is 350 units compared to
now been universally acknowledged in order to save the 5000units for European country and 12000 units in USA
scarce and fast depleting non-renewable energy source This pints low level of industrialization. From last 50
such as coal, gas, oil, etc .The demand for energy is years, India has managed to increase its power
increasing very fastly in comparison to generation as it production 50 times, yet it faces energy crunch [1]. The
involves huge investment and long time to start a new reasons for energy crunch are due to:
generating station. So the need of hour is energy
management at both the supply side as well demand • Population explosion
side. • Elevation in standard of living of an average
This paper describes the supply side and demand side Indian.
management. It starts with supply side management • Adoption of energy intensive processes in our
which includes renewable source of energy, co industries
generation etc followed by demand side management • Unplanned strategies for industrialization and
for lighting, electric utilities, home appliances. Finally power generation
it describes DSM alternatives & energy audit.
One of the biggest challenges facing the engineer,
Keywords: supply side management, demand side government and almost every person is challenge of
management, utilities, lighting, Home appliances, DSM providing sustainable energy source to over 6 billion
alternatives, Indian context. Energy Audit people. The challenge is getting tougher by day in
context of exploding population and shrinking
resources. Present scenario of energy sector of India:
1. Introduction
Power is the engine of growth of any developing
• Demand increasing at a rate of 9-10% per
economy. No major economic activity can be sustained
annum,
without adequate and reliable supply of power. The
• Generating capacity increases at rate of 5-6%
country's power sector is infamous for its distribution
per annum.
sector inefficiencies, shares the top slot when it comes
to overall transmission and distribution (T&D) loss • Gap between demand and supply is increasing
levels as per Power Ministry data. Over half the energy at rate of 3-4% per annum.
used by man is wasted and Power theft is a major threat • Peak demand shortage is 14%
to Electricity supply companies. There is ample cope for
improvement, though there are often practical Expected Hydro Thermal units ratio for our country was
difficulties and the move for drastic energy saving 40:60, while in reality only 26:74 unit ratios is achieved.
measures might require unacceptable changes to our This results in unwanted increase in import of fossil fuel
present life style. The need to conserve our declining and results in higher cost of energy. Add to this it is
fuel resources, especially of electrical energy is now creating fly ash handling problems, etc. Formation of
widely accepted. By moderating our demand for energy, silt in the existing Hydel projects is threatening the
we can usefully extend the declining period energy operation of Hydel plants. Over and above the domestic
sources. This can be achieved by applying well demand in our country is growing beyond 18%, unlike
the domestic demand in developed countries (well with
in 4%). This is quite alarming. Every effort to increase
generation both from the Government and private sector
is facing lots of opposition for various reasons. Hence supply, renewables can play a major role in bridging the
the only way is to use the available energy in a much gap. The environmental impact of sources of energy
planned and productive way than ever before. This calls based on fossil fuel is rapidly generating great concern
for proper Energy Management. So what does indicate? as the impact of increasing levels of “greenhouse gases”
Should we still wait for government effort? Can’t we like carbon dioxide (CO2) on the global weather patterns
shoulder part of responsibility when it is proved fact that is becoming more apparent. In addition, unburnt
hydrocarbons (fuel) and the products of combustion,
∑small efforts = A Big achievement such as oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, cause far-
reaching damage to health and the environment.
So the time has come when each and every power user Renewable energy is largely available without chemical
has to think for efficient use of power and its processes and hence production of CO2 and other
management. The need of hour is therefore,’ demand gaseous emissions involved in renewable energy is
side and supply (resource) side management. This really negligible as they are only generated during the
means to reduce the load demand by efficient utilization manufacturing and installation of the necessary devices.
of existing generating capacity [4]. The burning of biomass, such as wood, does, however,
directly produce CO2 as a result of combustion but the
2. Energy Management gas is absorbed by new wood as it grows and hence the
It can be classified as: net emission is zero, as long as the fuel crop is
• Supply side management completely replenished.
• Demand side management
2.1.2 .Co-Generation System
2.1 Supply side Management The co-generation combines the process of recovering
steam and power from the same single fuel source.
Elements of supply side management Cogeneration (or Combined Heat and Power) systems
• Renewable energy source recycle exhaust energy from the primary power
generation process (in this case a gas turbine) into a
• Efficient boiler & Generator secondary power process, and from there remaining
• Cogeneration energy system exhaust energy is rechannelled again (in this case in the
• Captive generation form of steam) to provide energy that is used directly in
the environs of the power plant further increasing the
Energy saving by improved efficiency of operation can overall efficiency of the system.
be achieved on the supply side by technological As a result the utilization of energy improves from 30%-
improvement in electricity generation, refining 35% to 70%. It also reduces the cost of energy as cost of
operations, and so on. power is shared between power generation and process
steam.
2.1.1. Renewable Energy Sources
Most of the energy sources on Earth originate from the 2.1.3 Captive Generation
Sun. The Sun's radiation is equivalent to 1.4-kW/sq mi In the context of continuing gap between projected
in space before any attenuation due to traveling through generation and demand for power captive generation
the Earth’s atmosphere. This solar radiation is converted will ease the burden on distribution system and also
naturally into various energy streams. Wave energy make surplus power available.
results from the interaction between the convection-
driven winds and the surface of the sea; hydro-energy is 2.2 Demand Side Management
produced by the hydrological cycle; and biological
energy (biomass energy) is that which is stored in living
organisms by the process of photosynthesis. All these FROM TO
forms of energy are available as renewable resources Supply DSM/ Integrated
because of the continual replacement of the energy on a Emphasis Planning
daily, or even hourly, basis. By way of contrast, fossil Remote from Close to Customer
fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, although originally laid Customer Energy Service
down effectively as biomass, take millions of years to Electricity Company
form and need to be regarded as finite, non-renewable Producer
resources. Estimates suggest that approximately half of
the world’s oil reserves, and a smaller fraction of coal
reserves, have been used in little over 200 years. Oil will
never completely run out but, as demand outpaces
peak load under those circumstances decreases the
average cost to consumers.
2.2.1 What Is Demand-Side Management?
Load shifting: involves shifting load from on to off
peak periods. Popular application includes use of
• Incorporation of customer load
storage water heater, storage space heating, and coolness
• Modification as alternatives or addition to storage. The load shift from storage devices involve
traditional recourse planning. displacing what would have been conventional
• Intervention by utility on the “customer side of appliances served by electricity (e.g. installing thermal
the meter” to change magnitude or shape of energy storage water heater in place of regular electric
customer loads water heater).
• Broad range of alternatives for reducing,
adding or changing load
• Use of non renewable energy systems,
combined heat and power systems, independent
power purchase etc
• Partnership between customer and utility with
benefits to both
• Usually involves actions by utility on the
customer side of the meter

Benefits of DSM
Utility Customer
Customer Benefit Societal
Benefits 1.Lower 1. Reduce
1. Satisfy cost of Pollution
Needs/Wants service 2.Conserve
2.Reduced 2. Improve Fig-1 Load Shape Objective
resources
Cost operating 3.Protect
3. Improve Efficiency, Global
Value of Flexibility Strategic conservation: is load shape change that results
Environme from utility-stimulated program directed at end use
Service 3.Reduce nt
4.Maintain/Im Capital consumption. The change reflects a modification of the
4.Maximize load shape involving a reduction in sales often as well a
prove lifestyle Needs customer
& 4. Improve change in pattern of use. Examples include
Welfare weatherization and appliances efficiency improvement.
productivity Customer
Service
Strategic load growth: is the load shape change that
refers to increase in sales, stimulated by the valley,
2.2.2 Three Dimension of DSM
beyond the valley filling Load growth may involve
increased market share of load that can be served by
• Load shape modification objectives
competing fuels as well as economic development in the
• End uses & Technologies service area. e.g. dual fuel heating, heat pump, and
• Implementation strategies promotional rate. In the future load growth may include
electrification.
2.2.3 Demand Side Management for Electrical
Utilities Flexible load shape: is a concept related to reliability, a
It is generally most convenient for utility to look at planning constraint. Once the anticipated load shape,
DSM in terms of broad load shaping objectives. The including demand side activity forecast over the
load shape is daily and seasonal electricity demand planning horizon, the power supply planner studies final
time-of-day, day-of-week, and season optimum supply side option.

Valley filling: encompasses building off peak loads. 2.2.4 Ways to Conserve Electricity at Home
This is particularly desirable for those times of the year Appliances
when the long run incremental cost is less than the Conserving electricity has become increasingly
average price of electricity adding properly priced off important as energy rates and shortages have increased.
Consumers can find a number of ways to cut back on 8% reduction in acid rain and green house gas emission.
their electrical use, especially with appliances Thus it is evident that application of energy efficient
commonly found in the home. lighting will have tremendous impact on reducing power
Air condition: Check and clean the air conditioner's system peak demands.
filter once a month; make sure the air conditioning unit
is the proper size for the room it is cooling, ventilate the 2.2.7 Recent developments and energy saving options
house's attic to reduce heat build-up; install ceiling fans in lighting
to improve air circulation. It has been observed that the invention of compact
fluorescent (CFL) slim-line version and electronic
Dishwashers: Wash only a full load; turn off drying ballasts for fluorescent lamps, incandescent reflector
cycle, open door to air-dry dishes. lamps, mirror-optics based fluorescent luminaries etc
Washing machines and dryers: Use only with a full together with use of photo detector and electronic
load; use warm or cold water, reserving hot water use dimming for day light linking have opened up new
only for heavily soiled clothes; use only full loads for possibilities of energy conservation in domestic and
the dryer and if a second load is necessary, dry that load commercial sectors. A substantial saving in energy can
immediately after the first to retain as much heat as be realized by automatically switching of (using photo
possible; clean lint filter before each load. cell control) or by dimming (electronic control) the
artificial lighting installation or both, in accordance with
Computers: Turn off computers when not in use or set amount of day light available in an interior. Much
the computer to energy-saving mode. progress has been achieved light source and limners due
to development of heavy energy efficient, high intensity
Ovens: Use microwave instead of oven where possible; discharge (HID) lamps like high pressure sodium vapors
food in glass dishes can be cooked at lower temperature; (HPSV) lamps, metal halide lamps “reflux lamp” etc
preheating oven is usually unnecessary. and multifaceted mirror type prescion optics technology
(POT) based reflector etc are applied industrial and road
Refrigerators: Check door seals to make sure there are lighting sectors. For e.g. CFLs consume 75-80% less
no air leaks; clean condenser coils on the back of the energy than incandescent lamps with same amount of
refrigerator; keep refrigerator away from oven or light output and lifetime, 8-10 times longer.
dishwasher and give the unit breathing room; turn
thermostat down to 3°C (37°F); turn on energy saver 2.2.8 DSM Strategies
switch.
The following strategy may be adapted to design and
2.2.5. Technologies used in Demand Side implement DSM program:
Management.
These energy conservation technologies are • Identify the sectors and end-users as the potential
implemented to reduce total energy use. Specific targets
technologies include energy-efficient lighting, • Visualize the needs of the targeted sectors
appliances, and building equipment. • Develop the customized program
• Conduct analysis for cost-effectiveness
2.2.6 Demand side management on lighting • Prepare an implementation plan to market the
Lighting is most conspicuous examples of electric program
energy consumption. In India where power supply has • Implement programs
consistently fallen short of demand, electric lighting
accounts for as much as 17% of total electrical energy 3. DSM Alternatives
generated. Most of electric lighting in India occurs when
electric utilities have their system peaks. The system
peak occurs usually the evening hours from 6-10. It is • Energy Storage
mainly due to power drawn for lighting in all consumers • Cool storage
sectors, namely, industrial, commercial, and domestic. A • Heat storage
mare saving of 10% in electric lighting would amount to • Water heat utilization
reduction in power consumption by approximately 1700 • Storage water heater
MW which in turn corresponds to a cost saving of about
Rs17600crores in generating, transmitting, and
distributing the corresponding power capacity.
Regarding the environment it translates to approx 7%-
plant’s efficiency, but we need data to identify and
quantify the losses and subsequently suggest suitable
3.1 Natural Lighting: High windows will provide techno-economic solutions to minimize the losses. This
good light without glare, and the light will reach farther data can be acquired through energy audits[2].
into rooms. Install light shelves at windows sills or on
awnings above first floor windows to reflect light to the 4.1 Energy Audit: Definition & Types
ceiling and brighten the rooms; paint windowsills and Energy audit is a systematic study or survey to identify
jams a light color to reflect as much light as possible how energy is being used in a building or plant, and
into the room. identifies energy savings opportunities. Using proper
audit methods and equipment, an energy audit provides
the energy manager with essential information on how
3.2 Natural Heating and Cooling: Heating with
much, where and how energy is used within an
Sun; Using Building Mass and Proper Insulation
organization (factory or building).This will indicate the
performance at the overall plant or process level. The
• Maintain an insulated wall with a door(s) and energy manager can compare these performances
window(s) between the house and the greenhouse. against past and future levels for a proper energy
This will trap heat in winter when the sun is low on management. The main part of the energy audit report is
the horizon, and shade the rest of your house in the energy savings proposals comprising of technical and
summer when the sun is higher. economic analysis of projects. Looking at the final
• Use mass to maintain an even temperature; output, an energy audit can also be defined as a
consider heavy slabs and walls to retain heat in systematic search for energy conservation opportunities.
winter, and coolness in summer. This information can be transformed into energy savings
projects. It will facilitate the energy manager to draw up
an action plan listing the projects in order of priority. He
3.3 Cooling with shade will then present it to the organization’s management for
approval. Providing tangible data enables the
Avoid placing large unshaded windows on southern and management to be at a better position to appreciate and
western exposures. Use smart window shades (reflective decide on energy efficiency projects. Adopting this
side for summer, absorbing side for winter) [5]. activity as a routine or part of the organization’s culture
gives life to energy management, and controlling the
4. Energy Audit energy use by energy audit is what we refer to as Energy
Energy loss in Transmission & Distribution networks, Management by Facts[3][6].
any industrial process or plant is inevitable; it is a 5. Conclusions
foregone conclusion. But its economic and
environmental impacts are not to be taken lightly, thus With the serious and sincere attempt, our (peak)
explaining the growing need for industrial energy shortage of power to the extent of 15% in demand and
efficiency. Put simply, the level of energy efficiency a 10% in energy requirement can be wiped off through
plant or process can achieve is inversely proportionate various steps on conservation and management as a
to the energy loss that occurs; the higher the loss, the target to be achieved collectively by government,
lower the efficiency. Where and how do most of the supplier and consumers. It is necessary to provide
losses occur, how much energy is actually lost and are incentive to consumers for taking recourse to energy
they controllable or recoverable? The answers to these efficient management. Applied to lighting, energy
questions remain well concealed in a black box where management can result in significant saving in the
once energy is input, we do not know what really energy and therefore, cost without reducing lighting
happens to it inside and how many the losses are. It is standards and levels. Demand side management for
only when we look into the black box and extract these utilities influence customer uses of electricity and help
details that we are able to ascertain the performance of in managing the energy properly. Energy storage
the overall or process levels and respond more technique provides storage during off peak periods and
effectively to the weaknesses in energy management. utilizes that stored energy during peak periods. The
Overall energy losses in a plant can result from losses ways to conserve electricity in home provided in the
due to designs that do not incorporate energy efficient paper will help to have efficient energy management.
specifications such as heat recovery option; operations One unit of energy saved at demand side is equal to two
that run on inefficient methods; and poor or non-energy unit generated so
efficiency-conscious maintenance programmed.
Reducing these losses will substantially increase the
An attempt has been made to high light the importance
of Energy Management. If it enlightens the spirit among
few people then the purpose is served

6. Reference
[1] Dr. M.S. Raviprakasha, K.N. Balasubramanyam
Murthy and A. Narendranath Udupa, On Concepts,
Issues, Alternatives and Evaluation of Demand Side
Management, National Workshop on Energy Auditing
and Demand Side Management, Malnad College of
Engineering, Hassan, 1998, P.P.91-99.

[2] Dr.R. Nagaraja and Shivanand Marigudi, Energy


audit Concepts and methodology, National workshop on
Energy Auditing and Demand side Management,
Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan, 1998, P.P.01-
10.

[3] Mr. Y. S. Sachidanand, Need and scope of energy


Audit in Industries with a success case, National
workshop on Energy Auditing and Demand side
Management, Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan,
1998, P.P.11-22.

[4] Clarke De Willings , Willium M Smith, Senior


Member IEEE “Integrating Demand-Side Management
into Utility Planning” Proceedings of he IEEE, Vol. 77,
No. 6, June 1989

[5] Dilip R. Limaye, Member IEEE, “Implementation of


Demand-Side Management Programs”, Proceedings of
the IEEE, Vol. 73, No . 10, October1985

[6] N M Ijumba, J Ross “Electrical Energy Audit &


Load Management for Low Income Consumers”
Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 7, October1996