MAHL HYDROPOWER PROJECT

1. PROJECT LOCATION
The project is located in Jhelum river valley about 22 km downstream of Kohala bridge and about 60 km south of Muzaffarabad and 85 km north-east of Rawalpindi. The dam site would be located downstream of confluence of Mahl river and Jhelum river. The catchment of Jhelum river at Mahl dam site is 26100 km2. The whole catchment is mountainous and mostly fed by rain, partly with snow fall and melting of glaciers. The coordinates of dam and powerhouse sites are listed below. Table – 1: Coordinates for Mahl HPP Site Weir Powerhouse Latitude 330 – 54’ – 10” 330 – 54’ – 00” Longitude 730 – 35’ – 02” 730 – 35’– 04”

2. ACCESSIBILITY The project area is accessible through a metalled road from Rawalpindi. There are two ways to approach the project area. The first way is through Murree to Kohala and then to Mahl dam site along left bank of Jhelum river. The second road route is from Murree directly to dam site via Kotli Sattian. On both ways, the road runs at higher elevations. The distance from Rawalpindi to powerhouse site via Kotli Satian is 85 km and to dam site at Hari Ghel is 125 km. All roads are metalled but single road. 3. FLOWS AT MAHL DAM SITE For Mahl project, the daily flows at Kohala gauging station have been considered. The catchment area of Jhelum river at Kohala station is 24,890 km2 where as that of Mahl river confluence, it is 26,049 km2. A correction factor of 0.9825 has been applied by comparing the flows of Jhelum river at Kohala and at Azad Pattan. The flow availability with their duration is presented in the table below. Table – 2: Estimated Flows for Jhelum River at Mahl Dam Discharge Discharge Flow Availability Flow Availability 3 (m /s) (m3/s) Q100 (100% of the year) 103.4 Q40 (40% of the year) 797.2 Q90 (90% of the year) Q80 (80% of the year) Q70 (70% of the year) Q60 (60% of the year) 2500
DISCHARGE (m /s)
3000

MAHL DAM SITE 225.6 Q- (20% of the year) 10 DAILY FLOWS 20YEAR 1989

179.9 286.3 386.7
1555 1792

Q30 (30% of the year) Q10 (10% of the year) Q00 (00% of the year) Qav (Mean Annual)

1082.5 1410.5 1802.1 10641.8 795.4

Q50 (50% of the year)
2000
3

555.6

2132 2439

500 0

JAN-1 JAN-2 JAN-3 FEB-1 FEB-2 FEB-3 MAR-1 MAR-2 MAR-3 APR-1 APR-2 APR-3 MAY-1 MAY-2 MAY-3 JUN-1 JUN-2 JUN-3 JUL-1 JUL2 JUL-3 AUG-1 AUG-2 AUG-3 SEP-1 SEP-2 SEP-3 OCT-1 OCT-2 OCT-3 NOV-1 NOV-2 NOV-3 DEC-1 DEC-2 DEC-3

234 211 178 190 188 208 290 447

848 639 509 473 360 559 366 329 300 266 220 214 268

The mean annual flows of Jhelum river at Mahl dam site has been estimated as 1500 795.4 m3/s by using flow data of Kohala from 1969 to 2004. The flow pattern of average year 1989 is presented in the figure below. 1000 Figure 1. 10 Daily Flows at Mahl Dam site
750 1011 916 1071

1784 1563 1332 1410 1734 1737 1119

Slides. hard to very hard. Calcite veins and patches are common. in Murree formation (Miocene age) which consists of alternate beds of sandstone (SS1 + SS2) and shale. hard. Sandstone-SS2 is brownish grey. Neelum river at Muzaffarabad contribute about 40% to the flows at dam site. fine grained. The slopes are mostly covered with overburden of various thickness. moderately jointed and highly fractured at places.1 Site Geology Mahl site is located on Jhelum river just downstream of the confluence of the Mahl and Jhelum rivers. Kunhar river contribute about 13% to the flows at dam site. Kaner Kas and Mahl river with their contribution of about 6% to the flows at Mahl dam site. The tributaries downstream of Kunhar river that confluence with Jhelum river to Mahl dam site are Agar nullah. moderately jointed and intereclated by shale. Sandstone (SS2) Brownish grey.• • • • Jhelum river at Domel contribute about 41% to the flows at dam site. medium grained. fine grained moderately Jointed intercalated by shale. Sandstone (SS1) Light grey. Shale is highly broken and sheared. Calcite veins and patches are common. medium hard. Calcite veins and . moderately jointed and highly fractured at places. 4. medium hard. SS1 is light greenish grey. 4. medium grained. Sandstone is moderate to highly fractured. Geology The rocks outcropped in the project area are alternate beds of sandstone (SS1+SS2) and shales of Murree formation (Miocene age). slips and creeps are common in the area. Calcite veins and patches are common.

5. valley is V-shaped and river is + 50 m wide between steeply sloping banks (50o . bushes. Shearing along some joints is also observed. Just upstream of the confluence a series of thick sandstone beds with shale inter beds outcrop on both banks of Mahl river steep slopes.50o ) from the river and rock is exposed to a height of about 50 m. At the proposed site. Extensive grouting is needed under foundation and in the abutments for the stability purposes. the joints are open and filled with silty clay.patches are also common. The strike and dip of bedding noted at left and right banks is as: NS / 69o E) NS / 80o E) (on left bank) (on right banks) This indicate an anticline structure present at dam axis.70o ) of thick sandstone with shale interbeds The left bank slopes at an angle of approximately (30o . the slopes on both sides are 45o . consisting of alternate beds sandstone and shales.60o. Both slopes are thickly vegetated with shrubs. Both side slopes are unstable upstream of Kohala bridge to tail end of reservoir due to frequent active slides. Shales are reddish brown. The left side slopes of thick sandstone are more stable than of the right side and suitable for construction of diversion/power tunnels.3g. therefore. highly permeable and bed rock is expected deep in river bed. A large active slide (+ 30 m in length) is present on the right bank of Mahl river extending from the bridge on Mahl river down to the confluence with Jhelum river. and look stable upto Kohala bridge in upstream end and are thickly vegetated by different types of trees. DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT COMPONENTS . Some joints noted on the left bank are as: N 50o W / 80o NE) (Bedding Joint) N 45o E / 80o SE) N 40o / 5o SE) N 50o W / Vertical Generally. Geophysical Institute. shrubs and grass. Quetta indicates that the project area lies in a very active zone which is designed as ‘Zone of Significant Seismic Danger’ with acceleration values of 0. splintery sheared at places and have the tendancy to disintegrate quickly in the wet conditions and create sliding which is the common phenomenon in Murree formation. Powerhouse is expected to be founded on rock. bushes. suggested that due consideration should be given in design for a safe seismic factor. The strike of beds is across the Mahl river dipping upstream at an angle of 80o. Generally. soft. It is. The seismic map of the region prepared by Pakistan Meteorological Department. grass and different kinds of trees.05g to 0. then slopes are covered with “Loose” talus material (ABGM). The reservoir will be created in Murree formation. The river bed is covered with thick alluvial cover (RBGM).

3 5. which will be obtained due to gross head of 81 m and design discharge of 1200 m3/s.The identified scheme “Mahl Hydropower Project” is basically a run-off-river scheme.a.a. A small storage in the lake upstream of dam would be used for daily peaking.5 million m3 would be required to provide design discharge of 1200 m3/s for 4 hours. The river bed elevation is assumed as 490 m.a.s. 550 to 540 m. The design discharge for each tunnel will be 400 m3/s.1 DAM SITE The dam site is selected just downstream of the confluence of Mahl river with Jhelum river.l.a.s. For diverting the river to left or right side. 5. The tunnel would be concrete lined. two units of small size are proposed to be located in the dam body adjacent to outlet bays.l approx. 5. the capacity of the project can be optimized / increased to 750 MW.s. A 100 m high concrete gravity dam with crest length as 3500 m with crest elevation of 590 m has been proposed. HEADRACE TUNNELS Three nos.2 RESERVOIR Due to relatively mild bed slope and V shape of valley a small reservoir would be created upstream of the dam. The maximum and minimum head water levels have been proposed as 585 m. The identified capacity of the project is 245MW. however.236 m3/s. The proposed layout will house bottom outlets in the main body to release flood water. 5. where rock on both banks of River is available. The plant will be a peaking plant yielding annual energy of 3798 GWh to be delivered to National grid at Rawat through a double circuit 220 kV transmission line.4 . This will avoid sediment entry into power intake. Each headrace tunnel would join a shaft type surge chamber at about 540 m. Each bottom outlet would be 10 m high and 10 m wide. The reservoir would be approximately 28 km long and surface area of 13 km2. the rock cover over tunnel varies from 100 to 350 m along the tunnel alignment. The approximate length of the headrace tunnel would be 700 m. The intake structure would be for three power tunnels with cross section area to have velocity less than 1 m/s.l. The live storage volume of 5. The dam would consist of 10 bottom outlets to release 1000 years estimated flood of 33. The power intake and powerhouse are proposed on the right bank. In the identified layout by MONENCO. headrace low pressure tunnels of diameter 12 m are proposed. The maximum operating level would be 585 m.s. INTAKE STRUCTURE The intake structure has been proposed on the right bank of Mahl River.l. Local material available near the dam would be used for coffer dam. From intake structure headrace tunnels would lead to the surge tank area.5 SURGE TANKS 5. respectively. coffer dam both on upstream and downstream would be constructed. The structure would be placed between El.

The pressure shaft would be steel lined and its approximate length would be 200 m.The surge tank of volume as 80. An access road to the portal of headrace tunnel and surge tank would be required. POWERHOUSE External slope type powerhouse is proposed on right bank of Jhelum river.000 m3 is located on the right bank of Jhelum river.l.7 5. of tunnel Pressure shaft Type of powerhouse No. TAILRACE CANAL The length of concrete lined tailrace canal would be 100 m discharging water from the powerhouse to Jhelum river. of units Tailrace length = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 1200 m3/s 75 m 750 MW 3798 GWh 61. The powerhouse will produce a minimum power of 120 MW and peak power of about 750 MW. due to change in power demand and power generation.8 5. The turbine level is 499 m.6 PRESSURE SHAFT From surge tank to powerhouse.0 SALIENT FEATURES OF MAHL HYDROPOWER PROJECT Design discharge Gross head Design capacity Mean annual energy Plant factor Type of weir Height of weir Crest length of weir No. The powerhouse is proposed with six vertical shaft Francis turbine units. It will be an underground structure of size 55 high with 25 m diameter. three shafts would lead to powerhouse.9 CONNECTIVITY TO THE GRID Mahl project would be connected to National grid at Rawat with 500 k V or double circuit 220 k V lines. 6. Vertical Francis 100 m .2 m. of Flood gates Tunnel Length Diameter. 5. The tailrace is proposed to be open channel dropping the design flow into Jhelum river.a. near the powerhouse. The maximum and minimum water levels will be 615 m and 560 m respectively to absorb up and down surges. However. For three pressure shafts. 5.s.2 % Concrete Gravity 100 m 350 m 10 3 x 700 m 12 m 200 m Surface Slope type 6. diameter of steel lined shaft will be 7. it will be split into 2 branches for 6 turbine units. The size of the powerhouse is 250 x 60 x 30 m.

SUMMARY OF COST ESTIMATE .MAHL HYDROPOWER PROJECT .

8 78.945 Figure 2.92 11.53 231.60 319.9 512.6 759.35 186.38 7.4 134.74 17.0 893.0 1327. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 DESCRIPTION CIVIL WORKS PREPARATORY WORKS MOBILIZATION / DEMOBILIZATION DIVERSION WORKS MAIN DAM WITH SPILLWAYS POWER TUNNELS SURGE TANKS PRESSURE SHAFT POWERHOUSE TAILRACE & OUTLET STRUCTURE Sub total Civil Works (1 to 9) HYDROMECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Sub total 11 to 13 TRANSPORTATION (E&M Equipment) ERECTION & COMMISSIONING CONTINGENCIES (15%) ENGINEERING & SUPERVISION (10% of 13) OWNER COST (10% of 1 3) SUB TOTAL 13 to 18 IMPORT CHARGES @ 5% OF 11 & 12 FOR.81 90.2 12.28 79.43 65.70 2.6 LOCAL 39.47 81.1 TOTAL 56.73 52.7 528.6 187.21 1.79 96.6 14.8 103.22 465.9 12.0 9.8 759.0 182.37 46.7 144.257 1712.60 7.5 499. 600 10 Daily Flows at Mahl Dam site MA HYDROPOWER PROJECT HL MEA MONTHLY PEA N K/OFF PEA ENERGY K 500 ENERGY (GWh) 400 450.7 25.9 1271. TOTAL PROJECT COST TRANSMISSION LINE PROJECT COST WITH TRANSMISSION IDC FOR PROJECT COST IDC FOR TRANSMISSION TOTAL COST WITH TRANS+IDC FOR.8 36.88 61.8 378.95 45.0 773.8 46.9 4.NO.85 47.04 93.71 54.3 22.40 2.23 360.0 554.918 6.23 450.04 23.0 589.7 154.0 89.88 27.91 46.04 93.3 365.40 269.5 18.3 122.05 90.13 76.8 52.56 74.8 4.04 112.76 54.3 89.01 0 J AN FEB M AR APR M AY JU N JU L AU G SEP O CT N OV D EC MONTH .2 42.3 19.5 36.3 27.6 54.2 52.46 25. 17.1 1.8 56.05 71.5 30.22 465.8 79.3 1258.05 93.1 42.92 18.2 20.99 OFF PEAK ENERGY PEAK ENERGY 300 200 100 47.

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