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PowerFactory

User’s Manual
DIgSILENT PowerFactory
Version 14.0
DIgSILENT GmbH
Gomaringen, Germany
July 2010
Publisher:
DIgSILENT GmbH
Heinrich-Hertz-Straße 9
72810 Gomaringen / Germany
Tel.: +49 (0) 7072 - 9168-0
Fax: +49 (0) 7072 - 9168-88
Please visit our homepage at:
http://www.digsilent.de
Copyright DIgSILENT GmbH.
All rights reserved. No part of this
publication may be reproduced or
distributed in any form without per-
mission of the publisher
July 2010
DIgSILENT PowerFactory User’s Manual
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Contents
General Information

Welcome 1-1

DIgSILENT Contact and Support 2-1

About this Guide 3-1
3.1 The PowerFactory User’s Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1
3.2 Used Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
3.3 The PowerFactory Help System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3

PowerFactory Overview 4-1
4.1 General Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1
4.2 PowerFactory Simulation Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2
4.3 General Design of PowerFactory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-3
4.4 Data Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4
4.5 User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-6
4.5.1 Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9
4.5.2 Main Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9
4.5.3 The Output Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
4.6 Getting Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18

Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts 5-1
5.1 Program Configurations and Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
5.2 The Log-on Dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
5.2.1 Log On Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2
5.2.2 License Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
5.2.3 Network Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-4
5.2.4 Database Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
5.2.5 Advanced Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
5.2.6 Appearance Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
5.3 User Accounts and User Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
5.3.1 PowerFactory Database Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6
5.3.2 The Database Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6
5.3.3 Creating and Managing User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-7
5.3.4 Creating User Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-8
5.3.5 The Demo Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-8
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User Settings 6-1
6.1 General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.2 Graphic Windows Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
6.3 Data Manager Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
6.4 Output Window Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
6.5 Functions Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
6.6 Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
6.7 Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
6.8 Station Ware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7

The PowerFactory Data Model 7-1
7.1 Database, Objects and Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.2 PowerFactory Project Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
7.2.1 The Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
7.2.2 The Network Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.2.3 Operation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.2.4 Study Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
7.2.5 Changed Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
7.3 The Network Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
7.3.1 Network Diagrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
7.3.2 Network Topology Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
7.3.3 Network Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
7.3.4 Variations and Expansion Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
7.4 The Equipment Type Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
7.5 The Operational Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
7.5.1 Circuit Breaker Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21
7.5.2 Demand Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
7.5.3 Faults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
7.5.4 Capability Curves for Generators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27
7.5.5 Outages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27
7.5.6 Running Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-29
7.5.7 Thermal Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-30
7.6 The Templates Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31
7.7 Parameter Characteristics and Parametric Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31
7.8 DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL) Scripts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-32

General Information about Analyses in PowerFactory 8-1
8.1 Calculation Commands in PowerFactory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.2 Edit relevant Objects for Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
8.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
8.4 Comparisons Between Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
8.4.1 Editing a Set Of Comparison Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
8.4.2 Update Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
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Handling

Basic Project Definition 9-1
9.1 Defining and Configuring a Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1
9.1.1 The Project Edit Dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-3
9.1.2 Project Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-4
9.1.3 Activating and Deactivating Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-5
9.1.4 Exporting and Importing of Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-6
9.2 Creating New Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-6

The Graphics Editor 10-1
10.1 Defining Network Models with the Graphical Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.1.1 Adding New Power System Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.1.2 Drawing Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
10.1.3 Drawing Branch Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
10.1.4 Marking and Editing Power System Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
10.1.5 Interconnecting Power Subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
10.1.6 Working with Substations in the Graphical Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
10.1.7 Working with Branches in the Graphical Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
10.1.8 Working with Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11
10.1.9 Defining and Working with Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-13
10.1.10 Working with Single Phase Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
10.2 Graphic Windows and Database Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
10.2.1 Network Diagrams and Graphical Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16
10.2.2 Active Graphics, Graphics Board and Study Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-17
10.2.3 Single Line Graphics and Data Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-18
10.2.4 Editing and Selecting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19
10.2.5 Creating New Graphic Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21
10.3 Basic Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22
10.3.1 The Page Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22
10.3.2 The Drawing Toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-23
10.3.3 The Active Grid Folder (Target Folder) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-23
10.4 Drawing Diagrams with already existing Network Elements . . . . . . . . . . . 10-24
10.4.1 Drawing Existing Terminals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-24
10.4.2 Drawing Existing Lines, Switch Gears and Transformers. . . . . . . . . 10-25
10.4.3 Building Single line Diagram from Imported Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-25
10.4.4 Creating a new substation in an Overview Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28
10.4.5 Show Detailed Substation Graphic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-29
10.5 Drawing of Network Components from Templates or Predefined Objects . . 10-29
10.6 Graphic Commands, Options and Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30
10.6.1 General Commands and Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30
10.6.2 Commands and Settings for Block Diagrams and Single Line Graphics10-37
10.6.3 Commands and Settings for Single Line Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-38
10.6.4 Graphic Layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-41
10.6.5 Color Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-45
10.6.6 The Title Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-46
10.6.7 The Legend Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-46
10.6.8 Editing and Changing Symbols of Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-46
10.7 Result Boxes-Text Boxes and Labels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-47
10.7.1 General Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-47
10.7.2 Editing Result Boxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-48
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10.7.3 Formatting Result Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-51
10.7.4 Text Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-51
10.7.5 Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-51

The Data Manager 11-1
11.1 Using the Data Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.1.1 Moving Around in the Database Tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
11.1.2 Adding New Items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
11.1.3 Deleting an Item. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
11.1.4 Cut, Copy, Paste and Move Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
11.1.5 The Data Manager Message Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
11.1.6 Additional Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
11.2 Defining Network Models with the Data Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
11.2.1 Defining New Network Components in the Data Manager . . . . . . . . 11-9
11.2.2 Connecting Network Components in the Data Manager . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
11.2.3 Defining Substations in the Data Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
11.2.4 Defining Branches in the Data Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
11.2.5 Defining Sites in the Data Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
11.2.6 Editing Network Components using the Data Manager . . . . . . . . . 11-11
11.3 Searching for Objects in the Data Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
11.3.1 Sorting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
11.3.2 Searching by Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
11.3.3 Using Filters for Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
11.4 Editing Data Objects in the Data Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16
11.4.1 Editing in Object Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17
11.4.2 Editing in "Detail'' Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17
11.4.3 Copy and Paste while Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19
11.5 The Flexible Data Page Tab in the Data Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
11.5.1 Customizing the Flexible Data Page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-21
11.6 The Input Window in the Data Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-22
11.6.1 Input Window Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-22
11.7 Save and Restore Parts of the Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23
11.7.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24
11.8 Spreadsheet Format Data Import/Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25
11.8.1 Export to Spreadsheet Programs (e. g. MS EXCEL) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25
11.8.2 Import from Spreadsheet Programs (e. g. MS EXCEL) . . . . . . . . . . 11-26

Grouping Objects 12-1
12.1 Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
12.2 Virtual Power Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
12.2.1 Defining and Editing a New Virtual Power Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.2.2 Applying a Virtual Power Plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
12.2.3 Inserting a Generator into a Virtual Power Plant and Defining its Virtual Power
Plant Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
12.3 Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
12.4 Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
12.5 Feeders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
12.6 Network Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
12.7 Network Owners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
12.8 Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
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12.9 Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9

Study Cases 13-1
13.1 Creating and Using Study Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
13.2 Summary Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
13.3 Study Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
13.4 The Study Case Edit Dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
13.5 Variation Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
13.6 Operation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
13.7 Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
13.8 Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
13.8.1 Switching Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
13.8.2 Set Parameter Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
13.8.3 Short-Circuit Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
13.8.4 Intercircuit Fault Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
13.8.5 Events of Synchronous Machines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
13.8.6 Events of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
13.8.7 Outage of Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
13.8.8 Save Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
13.9 Results Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
13.10 Variable Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
13.11 Triggers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
13.12 Graphic Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12

The Equipment Type Library 14-1

The Operational Library 15-1
15.1 Circuit Breaker Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
15.2 Demand Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
15.3 Fault Cases and Fault Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
15.4 Capability Curves (MVAr Limit Curves) for Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
15.4.1 Creating a New Capability Curve Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
15.4.2 Applying a Capability Curve from the Operational Library. . . . . . . . . 15-5
15.4.3 Defining an MVAr Limits Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
15.4.4 Editing a Capability Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
15.4.5 Defining a Variation of an MVAr Limits Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
15.4.6 Activating a Variation of an MVAr Limits Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
15.5 Element Outages and Generator Deratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
15.6 Running Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
15.6.1 Creating a Running Arrangement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
15.6.2 Selecting a Running Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9
15.6.3 Applying and Resetting a Running Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
15.6.4 Assigning a Running Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
15.7 Thermal Ratings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
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Operation Scenarios 16-1
16.1 Operation Scenario Subsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
16.2 Storage of Operational Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
16.3 Creating a New Operation Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
16.4 Activating Operation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-10
16.5 Saving Operation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11
16.6 Deactivating Operation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13
16.7 Performing Actions on Operation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13
16.8 Applying Operational Data from Operation Scenarios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14
16.9 Reporting Information about Operation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-15
16.10 Copying a Subset of an Operation Scenario to Another Operation Scenario16-15
16.11 Comparing Two Operation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-16

Network Variations and Expansion Stages 17-1
17.1 Basic Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
17.2 Creating New Variations and Expansion Stages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
17.3 Activating Variations and Expansion Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3
17.4 Conflicts During Activation of Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.5 Deleting an Expansion Stage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
17.6 Displaying the Activation Times of Expansion Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
17.7 Editing the Activation Times of Expansion Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
17.8 The Recording Expansion Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
17.9 Setting a Expansion Stage as the Recording Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
17.10 Displaying the Recording Expansion Stage in the Status Bar. . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
17.11 Checking/Editing the Study Time (Date/Time of the Calculation Case). . . . 17-6
17.12 The Variation Scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
17.13 Comparing Variations and Expansion Stages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
17.14 Splitting Expansion Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9
17.15 Applying Expansion Stages Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10
17.16 Consolidation of Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10
17.17 Coloring Variations and their Changes from within the Single Line Graphic17-10

Parameter Characteristics 18-1
18.1 Defining Scalar Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
18.2 Defining Discrete Time Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
18.3 Defining Discrete Parameter Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3
18.4 Defining Continuous Parameter Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
18.5 Defining Frequency Parameter Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
18.6 Defining Time Parameter Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
18.7 Defining Two-dimensional Parameter Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8
18.8 Importing Parameter Characteristics from Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10
18.9 Handling Scales and Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11

Defining Variable Sets 19-1
19.1 The Variable Set Monitor Dialogue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
19.2 Searching the Variables to Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3
19.3 Examples of Variable Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-4
19.4 Selecting the Bus to be Monitored . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-10
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Reporting Results in PowerFactory 20-1
20.1 Virtual Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1
20.1.1 Virtual Instrument Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3
20.1.2 Plots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-9
20.1.3 The Vector Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-19
20.1.4 The Voltage Profile Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-22
20.1.5 Schematic Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-24
20.1.6 The Waveform Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-25
20.1.7 The Curve-Input Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-27
20.1.8 Embedded Graphic Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-30
20.1.9 Tools for Virtual Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-31
20.1.10 User-Defined Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-41
20.2 Results, Graphs and Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-45
20.2.1 Result Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-45
20.2.2 The Form Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-48
20.2.3 The DIgSILENT Output Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-50
20.2.4 The Output of Device Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-57
20.2.5 Output of Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-60

Data Management 21-1
21.1 Project Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1
21.1.1 Creating a New Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2
21.1.2 Rollback Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
21.1.3 Checking Dependencies of a Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
21.1.4 Deleting a Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
21.2 Derived Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4
21.3 Comparing and Merging Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
21.4 Project Baselining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-9
21.5 Sharing Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-10
Power System Analysis Functions

Load Flow Analysis 22-1
22.1 Technical Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2
22.1.1 Network Representation and Calculation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2
22.1.2 Active and Reactive Power Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5
22.1.3 Load Flow Analysis of Low Voltage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-6
22.2 Executing Load Flow Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-6
22.3 Load Flow Calculation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-7
22.3.1 Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-7
22.3.2 Active Power Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-9
22.3.3 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-10
22.3.4 Iteration Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-12
22.3.5 Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-13
22.3.6 Low Voltage Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-14
22.3.7 Advanced Simulation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-15
22.4 Troubleshooting Load Flow Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-16
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22.5 Load Flow Sensitivities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-17
22.5.1 Load Flow Sensitivities Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-18
22.5.2 Load Flow Sensitivities Execution and Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-19
22.5.3 Technical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-20

Short-Circuit Analysis 23-1
23.1 Technical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
23.1.1 The Complete Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-3
23.1.2 The IEC 60909/VDE 0102 Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-5
23.2 Executing Short-Circuit Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-7
23.2.1 Toolbar/Main Menu Execution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-7
23.2.2 Context-Sensitive Menu Execution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-8
23.2.3 Faults on Busbars/Terminals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-8
23.2.4 Faults on Lines and Branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-9
23.2.5 Multiple Faults Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-10
23.3 Short-Circuit Calculation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-12
23.3.1 Basic Options (All Methods) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-12
23.3.2 Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-15
23.3.3 Basic Options (IEC 60909/VDE 0102 Method). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-16
23.3.4 Advanced Options (IEC 60909/VDE 0102 Method) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-17
23.3.5 Basic Options (ANSI C37 Method) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-20
23.3.6 Advanced Options (ANSI C37 Method). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-22
23.3.7 Basic Options (Complete Method) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-23
23.3.8 Advanced Options (Complete Method). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-25
23.3.9 Basic Options / Advanced Options (IEC 61363) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-26

Harmonics Analysis 24-1
24.1 Harmonic Load Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2
24.1.1 Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2
24.1.2 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-4
24.2 Frequency Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-4
24.2.1 Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-5
24.2.2 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-6
24.3 Filter Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-6
24.4 Modelling Harmonic Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-8
24.4.1 Harmonic Distortion Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-9
24.4.2 Magnitudes and Phase values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-11
24.4.3 Frequency Dependent Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-12
24.4.4 Waveform Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-14
24.5 Definition of Result Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-15

Stability and EMT Simulations 25-1
25.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2
25.2 Calculation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-3
25.2.1 Balanced RMS Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-3
25.2.2 Three-Phase RMS Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-3
25.2.3 Three-Phase EMT Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-4
25.3 Setting Up a Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-4
25.3.1 Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-6
25.3.2 Step Sizes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-7
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25.3.3 Step Size Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-8
25.3.4 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-9
25.3.5 Noise Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-11
25.3.6 Advanced Simulation Options - Load Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-12
25.4 Result Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-13
25.4.1 Saving Results from Previous Simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-14
25.5 Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-15
25.5.1 Switch Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-18
25.5.2 Parameter Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-18
25.5.3 Short-Circuit Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-18
25.5.4 Intercircuit Fault Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-19
25.5.5 Events of Synchronous Machines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-19
25.5.6 Events of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-19
25.5.7 Outage of Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-19
25.5.8 Save Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-20
25.5.9 Set Integration Step Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-20
25.5.10 Tap Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-20
25.6 Running a Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-20
25.7 Models for Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-21
25.7.1 System Modelling Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-21
25.7.2 The Composite Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-26
25.7.3 The Composite Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-29
25.7.4 The Common Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-32
25.7.5 The Composite Block Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-36
25.7.6 Drawing Composite Block Diagrams and Composite Frames . . . . . . 25-37
25.8 User Defined (DSL) Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-43
25.8.1 Modeling and Simulation Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-45
25.8.2 DSL Implementation: an Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-46
25.8.3 Defining DSL Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-50
25.9 The DIgSILENT Simulation Language (DSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-54
25.9.1 Terms and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-54
25.9.2 General DSL Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-55
25.9.3 DSL Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-55
25.9.4 DSL Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-56
25.9.5 Definition Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-56
25.9.6 Initial Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-57
25.9.7 Equation Code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-60
25.9.8 Equation Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-60
25.9.9 DSL Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-61
25.9.10 Events and Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-62
25.9.11 Example of a Complete DSL Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-63
25.10 Matlab Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-64
25.10.1 Implementation of Voltage Controller - Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-64
25.10.2 Implementation with Built-In Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-65
25.10.3 Implementation with Matlab Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-66
25.10.4 The Matlab File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-69
25.10.5 Additional notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-70
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Modal Analysis / Eigenvalue Calculation 26-1
26.1 Theory of Modal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1
26.2 Performing an Eigenvalue Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-4
26.3 Visualization of Modal Analysis Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-5
26.3.1 Output Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-5
26.3.2 Modal Analysis Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-7
26.3.3 Data Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-10

Model Parameter Identification 27-1
27.1 Target Functions and Composite Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-2
27.1.1 The Measurement File Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-3
27.1.2 Power System Element Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-3
27.1.3 Comparison Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-4
27.2 Creating The Composite Identification Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-4
27.2.1 The Comparison Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-5
27.3 Performing a Parameter Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-6
27.4 Identifying Primary Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-8

Contingency Analysis 28-1
28.1 Single Time Phase Contingency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1
28.2 The Single Time Phase Contingency Analysis Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-3
28.2.1 Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4
28.2.2 Effectiveness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-8
28.2.3 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-8
28.2.4 Representing Contingency Situations - Contingency Cases. . . . . . . . 28-9
28.3 Multiple Time Phase Contingency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-12
28.4 The Multiple Time Phase Contingency Analysis Command . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-13
28.4.1 Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-14
28.4.2 Effectiveness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-15
28.4.3 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-16
28.4.4 Defining Time Phases for Contingency Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-16
28.4.5 Representing Contingency Situations with Post-Fault Actions . . . . . 28-17
28.5 Creating Contingency Cases Using Fault Cases and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . 28-19
28.5.1 Browsing Fault Cases and Fault Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-20
28.5.2 Defining a Fault Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-21
28.5.3 Defining a Fault Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-21
28.6 Creating Contingency Cases Using the Contingency Definition Command . 28-22

Reliability Assessment 29-1
29.1 Network Reliability Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-1
29.1.1 Probabilistic Reliability Assessment - Technical Background . . . . . . . 29-2
29.1.2 The Reliability Assessment Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-6
29.1.3 Calculated Results for Reliability Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-13
29.1.4 Failure Models for Reliability Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-17
29.1.5 Load Modeling for Reliability Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-25
29.1.6 System State Enumeration in Reliability Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . 29-30
29.1.7 Failure Effect Analysis in Reliability Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-33
29.2 Voltage Sag Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-39
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29.2.1 Calculation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-39
29.2.2 Performing a Voltage Sag Table Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-42
29.3 Compact Reliability Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-45

Optimal Power Flow 30-1
30.1 AC Optimization (Interior Point Method) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1
30.1.1 Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-1
30.1.2 Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-15
30.1.3 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-16
30.1.4 Iteration Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-16
30.1.5 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-18
30.2 DC Optimization (Linear Programming). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-20
30.2.1 Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-21
30.2.2 Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-25
30.2.3 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-26
30.2.4 Iteration Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-27
30.3 Contingency Constrained DC Optimization (LP Method) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-28
30.3.1 Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-29
30.3.2 Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-35
30.3.3 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-35
30.3.4 Iteration Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-35
30.3.5 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-35

Optimization Tools for Distribution Networks 31-1
31.1 Optimal Capacitor Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-1
31.1.1 Objective Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-1
31.1.2 Optimization Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-4
31.1.3 Basic Options Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-5
31.1.4 Advanced Options Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-7
31.1.5 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-10
31.2 Open Tie Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-10
31.2.1 Optimization Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-10
31.2.2 Options Page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-11
31.3 Cable Size Optimization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-12
31.3.1 Objective Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-13
31.3.2 Optimization Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-13
31.3.3 Basic Options Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-13
31.3.4 Advanced Options Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-15

Protection 32-1
32.1 Creating a Protection Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-1
32.1.1 Example: a Time-Overcurrent Relay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-2
32.1.2 Editing the Relay Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-7
32.2 Basic Protection Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-10
32.2.1 The Current Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-10
32.2.2 The Voltage Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-12
32.2.3 The Relay Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-16
32.2.4 Directional Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-17
32.2.5 The Frequency Measurement Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-19
32.2.6 The Frequency Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-19
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32.2.7 The Fuse Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-20
32.2.8 The Instantaneous Overcurrent Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-21
32.2.9 The Logic Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-22
32.2.10 The Measurement Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-23
32.2.11 The Time Overcurrent Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-24
32.2.12 Under-/Overvoltage Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-26
32.3 Path Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-26
32.4 Protection Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-27
32.4.1 Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-27
32.4.2 Results in Single Line Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-27
32.4.3 Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-27
32.5 Short-Circuit Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-28
32.5.1 Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-28
32.5.2 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-29
32.6 Time-Overcurrent Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-30
32.6.1 Changing Tripping Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-31
32.7 The Time-Distance Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-38
32.7.1 The Path Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-40
32.7.2 Methods for calculation of tripping times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-40
32.7.3 Short-Circuit Calculation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-41
32.7.4 The x-Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-42
32.7.5 The Reference Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-42
32.7.6 Double-Click Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-42
32.7.7 The Context Sensitive Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-43
32.7.8 Set Relays Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-43
32.8 Relay Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-43
32.8.1 Modifying the Relay Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-45
32.9 The Protection Coordination Wizard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-47
32.9.1 Starting the Protection Coordination Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-47
32.9.2 The Protection Coordination Wizard Dialogue Window. . . . . . . . . . 32-49

Network Reduction 33-1
33.1 Network Reduction Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-1
33.2 Executing the Reduction Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-3
33.3 Network Reduction Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-5
33.3.1 Basic Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-5
33.3.2 Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-7
33.3.3 Advanced Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-8
33.3.4 Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-9
33.4 Technical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-10
33.4.1 Network Reduction for Load Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-10
33.4.2 Network Reduction for Short-Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-10
33.4.3 Handling of Slack Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33-10

State Estimation 34-1
34.1 Objective Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-2
34.2 Components of the PowerFactory State Estimator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-2
34.2.1 Plausibility Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-4
34.2.2 Observability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-4
34.2.3 State Estimation (Non-Linear Optimization) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-5
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34.3 State Estimator Data Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-5
34.3.1 Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-6
34.3.2 Activating the State Estimator Display Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-11
34.3.3 Editing the Element Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-12
34.4 Running SE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-14
34.4.1 Basic Setup Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-14
34.4.2 Advanced Setup Options for the Plausibility Check . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-18
34.4.3 Advanced Setup Options for the Observability Check. . . . . . . . . . . 34-18
34.4.4 Advanced Setup Options for Bad Data Detection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-18
34.4.5 Advanced Setup Options for Iteration Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-19
34.5 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-21
34.5.1 Output Window Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-21
34.5.2 External Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-22
34.5.3 Estimated States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-23
34.5.4 Color Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-25
Appendix

Glossary A-1

Hotkeys References B-1
B.1 Graphic Windows Hotkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
B.2 Data Manager Hotkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4
B.3 Dialogue Hotkeys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-6
B.4 Output Window Hotkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7

Elements Reference C-1
C.1 2-Winding Transformers (ElmTr2/ElmTr2n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
C.2 3-Winding Transformer (ElmTr3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-7
C.3 Asynchronous Machine (ElmAsm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-11
C.4 Booster Transformer (ElmTrb). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-13
C.5 Cable System (ElmCabsys) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-14
C.6 Common Impedance (ElmZpu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-16
C.7 DC/DC Converter (ElmDcdc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-18
C.8 Doubly Fed Induction Machine (ElmAsmsc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-18
C.9 External Network (ElmXnet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-20
C.10 Line (ElmLne) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-23
C.11 Line Sub-Section (ElmLnesec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-26
C.12 Load General (ElmLod) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-27
C.13 Load Low Voltage (ElmLodlv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-30
C.14 Load Partial (ElmLodlvp) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-31
C.15 Motor Driven Machine (ElmMdm__X ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-33
C.16 Neutral Earthing Element (ElmNec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-36
C.17 PWM AC/DC Converter - 1 DC Connection (ElmVscmono). . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-38
C.18 PWM AC/DC Converter - 2 DC Connections (ElmVsc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-40
C.19 Rectifier/Inverter 1-DC Connection (ElmRecmono) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-42
C.20 Rectifier/Inverter 2-DC Connection (ElmRec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-44
C.21 Series Capacitances (ElmScap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-46
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C.22 Series Reactance (ElmSind) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-47
C.23 Shunt/Filter Element (ElmShnt). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-49
C.24 Soft Starter (ElmVar) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-52
C.25 Static Generator (ElmGenstat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-54
C.25.1 Basic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-54
C.25.2 Load Flow Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-55
C.25.3 VDE/IEC Short-Circuit Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-56
C.25.4 Full Short-Circuit Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-56
C.25.5 Optimization Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-56
C.25.6 RMS- / EMT-Simulation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-56
C.26 Static Var System (ElmSvs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-57
C.27 Station Controller (ElmStactrl). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-59
C.28 Synchronous Machine (ElmSym) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-59
C.29 Tower Line Coupling (ElmTow) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-62
C.30 AC Voltage Source (ElmVac) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-64
C.31 DC Voltage Source (ElmVdc). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-65
C.32 Current Measurement (StaImea) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-66
C.33 Power Measurement (StaPqmea) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-66
C.34 Voltage Measurement (StaVmea) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-66
C.35 Digital Clock (ElmClock) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-66
C.36 Fast Fourier Transform (ElmFft) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-67
C.37 File Object (ElmFile). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-68
C.38 Fourier Source (ElmFsrc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-69
C.39 Phase Measurement Device (Phase Locked Loop, ElmPhi__pll). . . . . . . . . . C-71
C.40 Digital Register (ElmReg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-71
C.41 Sample and Hold Model (ElmSamp). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-72
C.42 Trigger Model (ElmTrigger). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-73

Types Reference D-1
D.1 2-Winding Transformer Type (TypTr2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D-1
D.2 3-Winding Transformer Type (TypTr3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D-4
D.3 Asynchronous Machine (TypAsmo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D-8
D.4 Booster Transformer Type (TypTrb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-11
D.5 Cable Type (TypCab). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-13
D.6 Conductor Type (TypCon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-14
D.7 General Load (TypLod) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-16
D.8 Line Type (TypLne) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-17
D.9 Rectifier Type (TypRec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-21
D.10 Synchronous Machine Type (TypSym) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-22
D.11 Tower Types (TypTow/TypGeo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-25

Reference to the use of Symbols in PowerFactory E-1
E.1 The Symbol General Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1
E.2 Geometrical Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
E.2.1 Geometrical Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
E.2.2 Showing self defined pictures in symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-4
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Interfaces with Other Programs F-1
F.1 DGS Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F-1
F.2 Converting PSS/E Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F-1
F.2.1 Importing PSS/E Steady-State Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F-1
F.2.2 Import of PSS/E file (Dynamic Data) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F-5
F.2.3 Exporting a project to a PSS/E file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F-7
F.3 StationWare Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F-9
F.3.1 About StationWare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F-9
F.3.2 Component Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-10
F.3.3 Fundamental Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-11
F.3.4 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-17
F.3.5 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-17
F.3.6 Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-25
F.3.7 Technical Reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-32

The DIgSILENT Programming Language - DPL G-1
G.1 The Principle Structure of a DPL Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1
G.2 The DPL Command Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-2
G.2.1 Creating a new DPL Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-3
G.2.2 Defining a DPL Commands Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-3
G.2.3 Executing a DPL Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4
G.2.4 DPL Advanced Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4
G.2.5 DPL Script Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5
G.3 The DPL Script Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5
G.4 The DPL Script Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-6
G.4.1 Variable Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-6
G.4.2 Constant parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-7
G.4.3 Assignments and Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-7
G.4.4 Standard Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-7
G.4.5 Program Flow Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-9
G.4.6 Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-10
G.5 Access to Other Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-11
G.5.1 Object Variables and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-12
G.6 Access to Locally Stored Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-12
G.7 Accessing the General Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-13
G.8 Accessing External Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-14
G.9 Remote Scripts and DPL Command Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-15
G.9.1 Subroutines and Calling Conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-16
G.10 DPL Functions and Subroutines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-17

DPL Reference H-1
H.1 General Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-1
H.2 Input / Output Functions and Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-5
H.2.1 Writing into the Output Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-5
H.2.2 Additional Functions related to input/output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-9
H.2.3 Writing to Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-11
H.2.4 SetDesktop Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-15
H.3 String Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-20
H.4 Project Functions and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-27
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H.5 Study Case Functions and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-29
H.5.1 General Functions and Methods related to Study Cases . . . . . . . . . . H-29
H.5.2 SetTime Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-31
H.6 General Object Functions and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-33
H.6.1 Functions related to Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-33
H.6.2 General Object Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-35
H.7 Set Functions and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-49
H.7.1 Functions related to Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-50
H.7.2 General Set Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-51
H.7.3 SetFilt Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-58
H.7.4 SetSelect Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-59
H.7.5 Feeder (SetFeeder) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-67
H.7.6 Path (SetPath) Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-68
H.8 Analysis Command Functions and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-72
H.8.1 General Analysis Command Functions and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-72
H.8.2 Load Flow Simulation (ComLdf) Functions and Methods . . . . . . . . . . H-75
H.8.3 Short-Circuit Calculation (ComShc) Functions and Methods . . . . . . . . H-76
H.8.4 Time-Domain Simulation Functions and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-77
H.8.5 Result Export (ComRes) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-78
H.8.6 Contingency Case (ComOutage) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-79
H.8.7 Contingency Analysis (ComSimoutage) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-81
H.8.8 Contingency Definition (ComNmink) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-84
H.8.9 Reliability Assessment (ComRel3) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-85
H.8.10 DPL Command (ComDpl) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-88
H.8.11 ComEcho Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-88
H.9 Specialized Methods for Elements and Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-89
H.9.1 Grid (ElmNet) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-90
H.9.2 Induction Machine Type (TypAsm) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-90
H.9.3 Induction Machine Type (TypAsmo) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-91
H.9.4 Feeder (ElmFeeder) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-91
H.9.5 Composite Model (ElmComp) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-94
H.9.6 Breaker/Switch (ElmCoup) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-95
H.9.7 Line (ElmLne) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-97
H.9.8 Line Route (ElmLneroute) Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-101
H.9.9 Line Type (TypLne) Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-102
H.9.10 Result Object (ElmRes) Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-103
H.9.11 Zone (ElmZone) Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-110
H.9.12 Switch (StaSwitch) Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-113
H.10 Methods for Virtual Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-115
H.10.1 SetVipage Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-115
H.10.2 VisPlot/VisPlot2 Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-124
H.10.3 VisFft Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-143
H.10.4 IntPlot Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-144
H.11 Methods for Additional Objects (Int*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-147
H.11.1 IntVariant Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-148
H.11.2 IntMon Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-148
H.11.3 IntMat Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-151
H.11.4 IntVec Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-155
H.11.5 IntForm Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-157
H.12 DDE Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-159
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DSL Reference I-1
I.1 DSL Standard Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1
I.2 DSL Special Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-2

Index J-1
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory
General Information


DIgSILENT PowerFactory Welcome
1 - 1
Chapter 1
Welcome
The calculation program PowerFactory, as written by DIgSILENT, is a computer aided
engineering tool for the analysis of industrial, utility, and commercial electrical power sys-
tems. It has been designed as an advanced integrated and interactive software package
dedicated to electrical power system and control analysis in order to achieve the main ob-
jectives of planning and operation optimization.
The name DIgSILENT stands for "DIgital SImuLation and Electrical NeTwork calcula-
tion program''. DIgSILENT Version 7 was the world's first power system analysis soft-
ware with an integrated graphical one-line interface. That interactive one-line diagram
included drawing functions, editing capabilities and all relevant static and dynamic calcu-
lation features.
The PowerFactory package was designed and developed by qualified engineers and
programmers with many years of experience in both electrical power system analysis and
programming fields. The accuracy and validity of the results obtained with this package
has been confirmed in a large number of implementations, by organizations involved in
planning and operation of power systems.
In order to meet today's power system analysis requirements, the DIgSILENT power
system calculation package was designed as an integrated engineering tool which pro-
vides a complete 'walk-around' technique through all available functions, rather than a
collection of different software modules. The following key-features are provided within
one single executable program:
1 PowerFactory core functions: definition, modification and organization of cases;
core numerical routines; output and documentation functions
2 Integrated interactive single line graphic and data case handling
3 Power system element and base case database
4 Integrated calculation functions (e.g. line and machine parameter calculation based
on geometrical or nameplate information)
5 Power system network configuration with interactive or on-line access to the SCADA
system
6 Generic interface for computer-based mapping systems
By using just a single database, containing all the required data for all equipment within
a power system (e.g. line data, generator data, protection data, harmonic data, controller
data), PowerFactory can easily execute any or all available functions, all within the
same program environment. Some of these functions are load-flow, short-circuit calcula-
tion, harmonic analysis, protection coordination, stability calculation and modal analysis.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory has originally been designed as a complete package for the
high-end user. Consequently, there are no special 'lightweight' versions, no cut-outs of a
'heavy' version. This does not, however, mean that non high end users will find them-
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Welcome
1 - 2
selves at sea when using PowerFactory. The program is also friendly to the basic user.
Users who are learning about power systems are able to easily and quickly perform load-
flows and short-circuit calculations, without needing to immediately master the mathe-
matical intricacies of the calculations.
The program is shipped with all of the engines and algorithms that are required for high-
end use. The functionality that has been bought by a user is configured in a matrix, where
the licensed calculation functions, together with the maximum number of busses, are list-
ed as coordinates. In addition, there are options available which will allow the configura-
tion and fine-tuning of the software according to the user's needs, for some of the
functions.
In this manner, not every PowerFactory license contains all functionality described in
this manual, but only those actually required, thereby reducing the complexity of the out-
set. As requirements dictate further functionality can be added to the license. The user
thus does not have to learn a whole new interface for new functions, but merely uses new
commands within the same environment. In addition, the original network data is used
and only extra data, as may be required by the new calculation function, needs to be add-
ed.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory DIgSILENT Contact and Support
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Chapter 2
DIgSILENT Contact and Support
For further information about the company DIgSILENT, our products and services
please visit our web page www.digsilent.de or contact us at:
DIgSILENT GmbH
Heinrich-Hertz-Straße 9
72810 Gomaringen / Germany
www.digsilent.de
General Information:
If you are looking for general information about DIgSILENT or your PowerFactory li-
cense, please contact us via:
Phone: +49-(0)7072-9168-0
Fax: +49-(0)7072-9168-88
E-mail: mail@digsilent.de
Technical Support:
If you need technical support concerning PowerFactory, DIgSILENT experts offer di-
rect assistance to users with valid maintenance agreements via:
Phone: +49-(0)7072-9168-50
E-mail: support@digsilent.de
Adding your company affiliation and the build number of your PowerFactory version to
your query will help us to answer your questions faster. The build number is in "Help ->
About PowerFactory..." on the main menu. Here you also will find an abbreviation con-
taining of three letters, which is helpful for us ("This Program is Licensed to XXX"). Addi-
tionally, if you send us an *.dz or *.pfd file concerning to your query, it is often easier for
us to reproduce your reported items.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory DIgSILENT Contact and Support
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory About this Guide
3 - 1
Chapter 3
About this Guide
This chapter will give you information about how to use this documentation, the used con-
ventions and information about additional documentations.
3.1 The PowerFactory User’s Manual
This User’s Manual is intended to be a reference for users of the DIgSILENT Power-
Factory software. In the first part, the PowerFactory interface and the basic program
settings are discussed. Then a data model approach is used to describe how to represent
power systems in PowerFactory and how to manage studies over them.
Following the discussion about the program handling, comes the presentation of the avail-
able calculation functions. Each chapter deals with a different calculation, presenting the
most relevant theoretical aspects, the PowerFactory approach and the corresponding
interface. Additional tools such as the DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL), the
reporting functions, and the communication interfaces with other programs are presented
in the final part.
The online version of this manual includes a especial section dedicated to the mathemat-
ical description of the models and their parameters. The section comprises a set of Tech-
nical Reference Papers, each one corresponding to a specific component of a power
system. To facilitate its portability, visualization, and printing, the papers are attached to
the online help as PDF documents. They are downloaded by clicking on the indicated links.
References for the functions of the DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL) and the
DIgSILENT Simulation Language (DSL), are also included as appendixes of the online
version.
This Reference User’s Manual is written for end users involved in the analysis of electrical
power systems. It is assumed that the program has been installed and the user has a ba-
sic understanding of the PowerFactory work environment.
Before starting with this guide, new users are recommended to read the information and
complete the hands-on Tutorial from the Getting Started Manual.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory About this Guide
3 - 2
3.2 Used Conventions
Mouse and keyboard handling actions are abbreviated, and a 'shorthand' is also used to
describe actions that the user should take. To assist the user these shorthand descriptions
are specifically formatted to stand out, as follows:
Key As in "Press the left mouse key''. A key is either one of the mouse keys
or a key on the keyboard. Mouse keys are sometimes called 'buttons',
as in 'the mouse button.'
Button As in "Press the OK button''. The word "button'' is used for screen areas
which perform some action when clicked using the mouse. In other
words, a 'virtual' button.
Icons Icons are usually described by the popup name that you read when you
hover the cursor over it. For example, press to open the user
settings dialogue. Icons are also shown as seen on screen, as in the
press to open the user settings dialogue.
Right/Left clicking
As in "Right click the browser''. Means pointing the cursor at the object
described (the browser) and pressing the right/left mouse key.
Double Clicking
As in "Double click the button''. Means pointing the cursor at the object
described and pressing the left mouse key twice within about half a
second (the time interval is as set in the Windows operating system).
Ctrl-B (key combination example) means that the user should press the
combination of keys described. For example, "Press Ctrl-B to toggle
between balanced/unbalanced case,'' means that the user should press
and hold down the first keyboard key (the Control key on the keyboard
in this example) and then press the second key (B) as well.
Menu sequences
When a user needs to select a command through cascaded menu
options the sequence is shown by arrows that indicate what option to
choose next, starting from the original menu button. For example,
setting the drawing format can be done by pressing the Options
button to access the options menu, then by choosing "Graphic" from
the list offered, and finally "Drawing Format..." from the last list; this
series of actions is all simply described by Options --> Graphic -->
Drawing Format...
" " and ' ' 'These' quotes are used to indicate that the description is one that can
be found within the program- one that is not user definable, for
example, the balloon help description 'Calculate Load Flow' that you
see when you hover your cursor over the Load Flow icon.
"These" are used to indicate data that a user has entered or should
enter. "These" quotes are also used to indicate a process or series of
objects that have no discernible name, but which need to be described.
For example, the "drawing tools panel", which is found on the right
hand side of the drawing canvas.
and [1] [2] [3], etc.
Show a sequence of events that should be performed. Where they are
DIgSILENT PowerFactory About this Guide
3 - 3
numbered they will be associated with a graphic in which the numbers
appear.
left-clicking, right-clicking, clicking, double-clicking, etc.
Wherever the instruction clicking or double-clicking appears it should
be taken to mean clicking and double-clicking using the left mouse
button. When the right mouse button is to be used it will be explicitly
stated.
3.3 The PowerFactory Help System
DIgSILENT PowerFactory is provided with a complete help package to support users
at all levels of expertise. Documents with the basic information on the program and its
functionality are combined with references to advanced simulation features, mathemati-
cal descriptions of the models and of course application examples.
PowerFactory offers the following help resources:
• Installation Manual: PowerFactory installation guide, describes the procedures
followed to install and set the program. It is available in the PowerFactory
installation CD and the DIgSILENT Support Area (PDF file). Licensed costumers
receive a hard copy.
• Getting Started Tutorial: Basic Information for new users and hands-on tutorial.
Access via Help menu (CHM file) of PowerFactory, and the DIgSILENT Support
Area (PDF file). Licensed users receive a Hard copy.
• User's Manual: This document. Access via Help menu (CHM file) of PowerFactory,
and the DIgSILENT Support Area (PDF file). Licensed users receive a Hard copy.
• Technical References: Description of the models implemented in PowerFactory
for the different power systems components. The technical reference documents are
attached to the online help (Appendix C: Elements Reference, and Appendix D: Types
Reference). Additionally they can be downloaded from the DIgSILENT Support Area.
• Context Sensitive Online Help: Pressing the key F1 while working with
PowerFactory will lead you directly to the related topic inside the User's Manual.
• Examples on the Demo account: The Demo account is a special user account set
with every installation of the program. It contains several application examples of
PowerFactory calculation functions.
• FAQs: Users with a valid maintenance agreement can access the DIgSILENT
Support Area and its FAQ section, which contains interesting questions and answers
regarding specific applications of PowerFactory.
• Support: Users with a valid maintenance agreement will get individual support from
DIgSILENT experts via:
Phone: +49-(0)7072-9168-50
E-mail: support@digsilent.de
DIgSILENT Support Area: http://www.digsilent.de -> Support Area
All new versions and builds of the program include Release Notes documenting the imple-
mented changes.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory About this Guide
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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Chapter 4
PowerFactory Overview
4.1 General Concept
The general concept behind the program design and application can be described by
means of the three basic integration characteristics that contribute to make PowerFactory
a unique power system analysis tool:
Functional Integration
DIgSILENT PowerFactory software is implemented as a single executable pro-
gram, and is fully compatible with Windows 2000/XP/Vista and Windows 7. The pro-
gramming method employed allows for a fast 'walk around' the execution
environment, and eliminates the need to reload modules and update or transfer re-
sults between different program applications. As an example, the power flow, fault
analysis, and harmonic load flow analysis tools can be executed sequentially without
resetting the program, enabling additional software modules and engines or reading
external data files.
Vertical Integration
A special feature of the DIgSILENT PowerFactory software is the unique verti-
cally integrated model concept. This allows models to be shared for all analysis func-
tions and more importantly, for categories of analysis, such as “Generation”,
“Transmission”, “Distribution” and “Industrial”. No longer are separate software en-
gines required to analyze separate aspects of the power system, as DIgSILENT
PowerFactory can accommodate everything within one integrated frame and one
integrated database.
Database Integration
DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides optimal organization of data and definitions
required to perform any type of calculation, memorization of settings or software op-
eration options. There is no need in tedious organization of several files for defining
the various analysis aspects. The PowerFactory database environment fully inte-
grates all data required for defining cases, operation scenarios, single-line graphics,
outputs, run conditions, calculation options, graphics, user-defined models, etc.
There is no need to keep and organize hundreds of files on hard disc, every thing
you require to model and simulate a power system is integrated in a single database!
Single Database Concepts: all data for standard and advanced functions are or-
ganized in a single, integrated database. This is applied also for graphics, study case
definitions, outputs, run conditions, calculation options, fault sequences, monitoring
messages as well as user defined models.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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Project Management: All the data that defines a power system model and allows
its calculation is stored in so called 'Project' folders within the database. Inside a
'Project', folders called 'Study Cases' are used to define different studies of the sys-
tem considering the complete network, only parts of it or variations on its current
state. This 'project and study case' approach to define and manage power system
studies is a unique application of the object-oriented software principle. Standard
software packages often require the user to create a large number of similar saved
cases, with multiple nested directories for large complex networks and studies. How-
ever, DIgSILENT PowerFactory has taken a totally new approach, and intro-
duced a structure that is both easy to use while avoiding redundancy.
Multi-User Operation: Multiple users each holding its own projects or working
with data shared from other users are supported by a 'Multi-user' database opera-
tion. In this case the definition of access rights, user accounting and groups for data
sharing are managed by a database administrator.
4.2 PowerFactory Simulation Functions
PowerFactory incorporates a comprehensive list of simulation functions including
among others:
• Load Flow Analysis, allowing meshed and mixed 1-,2-, and 3-phase AC and/or DC
networks (Chapter 22: Load Flow Analysis)
• Low Voltage Network Analysis (Section 22.1.3: Load Flow Analysis of Low Voltage
Systems)
• Short-Circuit Analysis, allowing meshed and mixed 1-,2-, and 3-phase AC networks
(Chapter 23: Short-Circuit Analysis)
• Harmonic Analysis (Chapter 24: Harmonics Analysis)
• RMS Simulation (time-domain simulation for stability analysis, Chapter 25: Stability
and EMT Simulations)
• EMT Simulation (time-domain simulation of electromagnetic transients, Chapter 25:
Stability and EMT Simulations)
• Eigenvalue Analysis (Chapter 26: Modal Analysis / Eigenvalue Calculation)
• Model Parameter Identification (Chapter 27: Model Parameter Identification)
• Contingency Analysis (Chapter 28: Contingency Analysis)
• Reliability Analysis (Chapter 29: Reliability Assessment)
• Optimal Power Flow (Chapter 30: Optimal Power Flow)
• Distribution Network Optimization (Chapter 31: Optimization Tools for Distribution
Networks)
• Protection Analysis (Chapter 32: Protection)
• Network Reduction (Chapter 33: Network Reduction)
General information about calculation commands is available in Section 8.1 (Calculation
Commands in PowerFactory).
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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4.3 General Design of PowerFactory
In order to better understand how to use a program it is useful to first get an idea of what
the designers had in mind when they designed the user interface. In the next few para-
graphs we will attempt to explain what this philosophy is.
PowerFactory is intended to be initially used and operated in a graphical environment.
That is, data entry is accomplished by drawing the network under study and then by ed-
iting the objects on the drawing canvas to assign data to them.
Figure 4.1 shows how PowerFactory looks like when a project is active. It shows the
Graphic window (up) and the Output window (below).

Fig. 4.1: Main PowerFactory windows
As users progress and become more adept with the program, data will be manipulated by
using a data viewer called the Data Manager. The two means of accessing the data are
thus via the graphics page/s and via the Data Manager.
Data is accessed from the graphics page by double-clicking on an object. An input dia-
logue pops up and the user may then edit the data for that object.
All of the data that is entered for such objects is hierarchically structured in folders to al-
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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low the user to navigate through it. To view the data and its organization, a "Data Man-
ager" is used. Figure 4.2 shows the Data Manager Window. The data manager is similar
in appearance and working to a Windows Explorer.
As mentioned, data pertaining to a study is organized into several folders. Before exam-
ining this structure we should understand the philosophy behind this arrangement.

Fig. 4.2: PowerFactory Data Manager window
4.4 Data Arrangement
Firstly, it is clear that, for the study of any system, there are two distinct sets of informa-
tion that can be defined:
• Data that pertains directly to the system under study, that is, electrical data.
• Study management data, for example, which graphics should be displayed, what
options have been chosen for a load flow, which 'areas' of the network should be
considered for calculation, etc.
The electrical data itself can also be further divided into logical sets. When we construct
a power system we make use of standardized materials or components - a roll of cable
for example. In simple terms we can describe the cable electrically by its impedance per
km length whilst it is still on the cable drum; in other words, generic information about
this cable, is called "Type" data.
When we cut a length of the cable for installation the type data is retained in a modified
way, as follows:
600m of cable that has a Type impedance of 'Y' Ohms/ km will now have an impedance
of '0.6*Y' Ohms.
We can thus see that the length of the cable, 0.6 km, can be seen as a separate set of
information. This set will contain all of that information particular to the specific installa-
tion or application of the piece of cable we are considering. Information such as the der-
ating factor of the installed cable, its local name, the nodes that it is connected to at either
end; in other words, all information that is non-generic, will fall into this information set.
In PowerFactory we call this "Element Data".
Within the element data, there is information related to the operational point of a devise
but not to the devise itself i.e. the tap position on a transformer or the active power dis-
patch of a generator. These kind of data, which is subject to frequent changes during a
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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study and may be used to simulate different operation scenarios of the same network, is
further grouped inside the element data set in a subset called "Operational Data".
This means that there are now four distinct sets that we need to arrange the data into.
In 'data base' terms this means four folders, which, in PowerFactory, we call:
• ''Network Data'' folder: Holds all the element data.
• ''Operation Scenario'' folder: Holds the operational data defining a certain
operational point.
• ''Equipment Type'' folder: Holds all the type data
• ''Study Case'' folder: Holds all the study management data.
For an optimal advantage of the flexibility offered by this data arrangement approach, the
aforementioned folders should be hierarchically organized within a higher directory. In
PowerFactory this higher directory is called ''Project''. Besides the described data sets,
a project stores all the additional database ''objects'' required to model, simulate, analyze
and visualize a particular power system.
The PowerFactory database supports multiple users (as mentioned in 4.1) and each
user can manage several projects. ''User Account'' folders with access privileges only
for their owners (and other users with shared rights) must then be used. User accounts
are of course in a higher level than projects.

Fig. 4.3: Structure of a PowerFactory project in the Data Manager
Figure 4.3 shows a snapshot from a database as seen by the user in a data manager win-
dow.The folders listed contain the following type of data:
User Folder
Three user accounts (Demo, Manual and Peter) containing different
projects are shown.
Project
In this case named Simple Power System. This folder is the frame for
all project subfolders.
Equipment Types
Holds all the type data.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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Network Model
Holds the Network Data folder containing the element data. The
Network Model folder also contains the graphical objects folders
(Diagrams), storing network diagrams and the network modifications
folders (Variations) storing expansions or topological changes to be
applied in the original networks.
Operation Scenarios
Holds sets of operational data.
Study Cases
Contains the study Management Data - the 'tools' and 'tool settings'
that are used to perform the calculations and the visualization of the
results.
All the aspects related to the use and management of the project folder, including the
subfolders listed above is given in chapters:
For information about user accounts please refer to Chapter 5 (Program Setting, Logging
on and User Accounts).
4.5 User Interface
The PowerFactory windows are the users interface to the program and the means to
enter or manipulate data and/or graphics. DIgSILENT PowerFactory uses several
kinds of windows some of which have been shown previously. To follow the explanation,
please see Figure 4.4:
• The main PowerFactory window is described in the title bar- "DIgSILENT
PowerFactory 14.0" .
• The main menu bar contains the drop down menu selections .
• The Graphical Editor  displays single line diagrams, block diagrams and/or
simulation plots of the current project. Studied networks and simulation models can
be directly modified from the graphical editor by placing and connecting elements.
• The "Data Manager"  is the direct interface with the database. It is similar in
appearance and working to a Windows Explorer. The left pane displays a symbolic
tree representation of the complete database. The right pane is a data browser that
shows the content of the currently selected folder.
• When an object is right clicked (in the graphical editor or in the data manager) a
context sensitive menu with several possible actions appears .
• When an object is double clicked its edit dialogue pops up . The edit dialogue is the
interface between an object and the user. The parameters defining the object are
accessed trough this edit dialogue. Normally an edit dialogue is composed of several
'pages' (also called tabs). Each tab groups parameters that are relevant to a certain
function. In the example of Figure 4.4 the 'Load Flow' tab of a generator is shown,
therefore only the generator parameters relevant to a load flow calculation are
available.
• At the bottom of the PowerFactory window, an output window  with its own
toolbar is shown.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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Fig. 4.4: PowerFactory initial appearance
The data manager sub-window (this window is created by pressing the icon, which
is the first icon on the left of the main toolbar) is always floating and more than one can
be active at the same time. The database manager itself has several appearances: it may
only show the database tree for selecting a database folder, or it may be the full version
with the database tree, the data browser, and all editing capabilities.
One of the major tasks for the data manager is to provide access to the power system
components. The power system components shown in the data manager can be 'gang-
edited' (or 'group-edited') within the data manager itself, where the data is presented in
a tabular format, for all the selected objects. Alternatively each object may also be indi-
vidually edited by double clicking on an object (or right click -> "Edit").
The output window, at the bottom of the screen, is always there; it cannot be closed al-
though it can be minimized.
The output window can be "docked'', that is: fixed to a location on the bottom of the main
window. The docked state is the default, as shown in the Figure 4.4.
When clicking the right mouse button, when the cursor is in the output window area, the
context sensitive menu of the output window appears. The output window can then be
undocked by deselecting the "Docking View" (by clicking the mouse onto "Docking View"
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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to 'untick' it. The undocked output window is still confined to the main window, but now
as a free floating window. This sometimes occurs 'accidentally' when the user left clicks
the tool bar for the output window and drags the mouse (keeping the mouse button
down) to somewhere outside of the output window boundaries. To rectify this simply left
click in the title bar of the undocked window and drag it down to the bottom of the screen
where it will dock once more (if you have right clicked 'unticked' "Docking View" to right
click and select "Docking View" once more.
The undocked state is not a normal situation for the output window. Because the output
messages that appear in this window are important at any stage while using the program,
the docked state is the best place because it will be visible then and easy to locate.
The edge of the output window shows a splitter bar [a] which is used to change the size
of the output window. The 'drag' cursor, as shown at [a], appears automatically when the
cursor is placed on the splitter bar. The left mouse button can be pressed when the 'drag'
cursor is visible. This will turn the splitter bar to grey and the output window can now be
resized by holding down the mouse button and moving the mouse up or down.
The icon "Maximize Output Window'' ( ) on the main toolbar will enlarge the output
window to almost full-screen. Left click the button again to switch back to the small output
window.
On the right of the title bar of any window or sub-window there are three buttons that
are used to "Minimize", "Maximize"/"Restore Down" or "Close" the window.
The button minimizes the window to a small object, somewhere on the screen
(usually in the lower left corner- this is the default position) in the case of a sub-
window, or to the task bar for your computer- at the bottom of the screen.
The button 'opens' the minimized window to full screen size.
The button reduces the window to a smaller size on the screen; initially there is a
default size for this window but the user may re-size it as desired.
The button will close the sub-window or end the program if this button is clicked
on the main window.
Sub-windows can be re-sized as follows: place the cursor over the lower right corner of
the window and left click and hold the button down- now drag the window to the size you
require. You will find that each corner can be sized like this, as well as each edge.

Re-sizing sub-windowsThe following sections provide further information about the Pow-
erFactory windows and their tool bars. Because the Graphical Editor and the Data Man-
ager are main interfaces and their use is fundamental in the definition and analysis of
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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power systems with PowerFactory, they are explained in separate chapters (11 (The Data
Manager) and 10 (The Graphics Editor)).
4.5.1 Menu Bar
The menu bar contains the main PowerFactory menus. Each menu entry has a drop
down list of menu options and each menu option performs a specific action. To open a
drop down list, either click on the menu entry with the left mouse button, or press the Alt
key together with the underlined letter in the menu. For instance, to open the Help menu,
press the Alt and the h key together. Menu options that occur in grey are not available -
these become available as the user activates projects or calculation modes, as required.

Fig. 4.5: The help menu on the Menubar
Press Alt-H to open the help menu. Use your keyboard to select the Getting Started
Tutorial. Press return to open the Tutorial. The on-line Getting Started Tutorial is
exactly the same as the printed version.
Close the Getting Started Tutorial help (Use the on the main bar). You will return
to the main PowerFactory program window.
Left click the Help menu. Left click the option Users Manual. This opens the on-line
User's Manual.
4.5.2 Main Toolbar
The main toolbar (see Figure 4.6) shows the main PowerFactory command buttons/
icons. Buttons that appear in grey only become active when appropriate.

Fig. 4.6: The main toolbar
All command icons are equipped with balloon help text which pop up when the cursor is
held still at the icon for a moment, and no key is pressed.
Find the icon for User Settings by using the balloon help. Do not use the mouse keys:
just point at the icons, hold still, and a balloon text will pop up. Scan all icons until you
find the right one.
Using a command icon couldn't be easier: just click on it with the left mouse icon. Those
icons that perform a task will automatically jump back when that task is finished. Some
command icons however will switch between two modes, for instance the one which will
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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reserve more place for the output window on the workspace ( ). This icon will stay
down to show the activated mode. Click the command icon again to switch back to the
normal view.
When PowerFactory has just been started, the toolbar shows only the general com-
mand icons. The 'toolbar select' icon ( ) can be clicked to select additional command
icons.
Main Toolbar Definitions
The main PowerFactory toolbar provides the user with quick access to the main com-
mands available in the program. This section provides a brief explanation of the purpose
of the icons found on this toolbar. More detailed explanations for each of the functions
that the icons command are provided in the other sections of the manual. The main tool-
bar is depicted in two parts in Figure 4.7 and Figure 4.8. The icons from the lower part of
figures 4.7 and 4.8 correspond to the options of the Graphic Window and are presented
in Section 10.6.1.

Fig. 4.7: Main Toolbar, left part

Fig. 4.8: Main Toolbar, right part
New Database Manager
Opens a new database manager. When the option "Use Multiple Data
Manager" (see under User Settings ÷>General) is enabled in the user
settings menu the user will be able to open as many data manager
windows as required. If "Use Multiple Data Manager" is disabled in the
user settings menu, the user will be able to open only one data
manager window. For more information please refer to Chapter 11.
Edit Relevant Objects for Calculation
Provides a list of elements (colored in green) or types (colored in red)
that are considered for calculation: e.g. transformer types, line
elements, composite models, etc. The study case determines which
objects are considered for calculation (for more information about
study cases refer to Chapter 13: Study Cases). These objects are
grouped by 'Class' (see the Chapter: Glossary for an explanation of
'Class' in the PowerFactory context). If, for instance, no relay objects
are used, then the relay-button will not be shown. All objects from the
selected class(es) will be shown in a browser. For more information
please refer to Section 8.2.
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Date/Time of Calculation Case
Displays the date and time for the calculation case. This option is useful
when parameter characteristics of specific elements (e.g. active and
reactive power of loads) are set to change according to a certain time
scale. Modifying the date/time in this dialogue adjusts those
Parameters that have time based triggers/scales accordantly.
Edit Trigger
Displays a list of all triggers that are in current use by the active study
case. These triggers can be edited in order to change the values for
which one or more characteristics are defined. These values will be
modified with reference to the new trigger value. All triggers for all
relevant characteristics are automatically listed. If required, new
triggers will be created in the study case. For more information, see 7.7
(Parameter Characteristics and Parametric Studies).
Calculate Load-Flow
Activates the load-flow command dialogue. For more information about
the specific settings, please refer to Chapter 22 (Load Flow Analysis).
Calculate Optimal Power Flow
Activates the optimal power flow command dialogue.
Calculate Short-Circuit
Activates the short-circuit calculation command dialogue. For more
information, please refer to Chapter 23 (Short-Circuit Analysis).
Edit Short-Circuits
Edits Short-Circuit events. Events are used when a calculation requires
more than one action or considers more than one object for the
calculation. Multiple fault analysis is an example of this. If, for instance,
the user multi selects two busbars (using the cursor) and then clicks
the right mouse button Calculate ÷> Multiple Faults a Short-circuit
event list will be created with these two busbars in it.
Execute DPL Scripts
Displays a list of DPL scripts that are available. For more information
about DPL scripts, please refer to Chapter G (The DIgSILENT
Programming Language - DPL).
Output Calculation Analysis
Presents calculation results in various formats. The output is printed to
the output window and can be then used in external reports, or may be
of assistance to interpret calculation results. Several different reports,
depending on the actual calculation, can be created. For more
information about the output of results please refer to Section 20.2.5
(Output of Results).
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Documentation of Device Data
Presents a listing of device data (a device is the model of any physical
object that has been entered into the project for study). This output
may be used in reports, or may be of use in checking data that has
been entered. Depending on the element chosen for report, the user
has two possibilities: to generate a short listing, or a detailed report.
For more information please refer to Section 20.2.5 (Output of Results)
Comparing of Results On/Off
Compares the differences between two or more calculation results, for
example, where certain settings or designs options of a power system
have been changed from one calculation to the next. For more
information please refer to 8.4 (Comparisons Between Calculations).
Edit Comparing of Results
Enables the user to select the cases/ calculation results that are to be
compared to one another, or to set the coloring mode for the difference
reporting. For more information please refer to 8.4 (Comparisons
Between Calculations).
Update database
Utilizes the current calculations results (i.e. the calculation 'output'
data) to change input parameters (i.e. that data that the user has
entered). An example is the transformer tap positions, where these
have been calculated by the load-flow command option "Automatic Tap
Adjust of Tap Changers." For more information please refer to Section
8.4 (Comparisons Between Calculations).
Break
Stops a transient simulation or DPL script that is running.
Reset Calculation
Resets any calculation performed previously. This icon is only enabled
after a calculation has been carried out.
User Settings
User options for many global features of PowerFactory may be set
from the dialogue accessed by this icon. For more information please
refer to Chapter 6 (User Settings).
Maximize Graphic Window
Maximizes the graphic window. Pressing this icon again will return the
graphic window to its original state.
Maximize Output Window
Maximizes the output window. Pressing this icon again will return the
output window to its original state.
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Current Study Case
This drop down window displays the name of the study case that is
currently activate. The user may also 'toggle' between study cases in
the project by selecting them from this drop down list.
Select ToolBar
Drops down when pressed to present sets of icons (to the right of it)
for various calculation commands: e.g. Stability, Reliability, Harmonics,
Optimal Capacitor Placement and Data Acquisition.
4.5.3 The Output Window
All textual output of DIgSILENT PowerFactory will be written to the output window.
This includes all error messages or warnings, command messages, device documentation,
result of calculations, generated reports, etc.
The output window, at the bottom of the screen, is always there; it cannot be closed al-
though it can be minimized. The output window can be "docked'', that is: fixed to a loca-
tion on the bottom of the main window. The docked state is the default, as shown in
Figure 4.9.

Fig. 4.9: The PowerFactory output window
When clicking the right mouse button, when the cursor is in the output window area, the
context sensitive menu of the output window appears. The output window can then be
undocked by deselecting the "Docking View'' (by clicking the mouse onto "Docking View"
to 'untick' it). The undocked output window is still confined to the main window, but now
as a free floating window.
Note This sometimes occurs 'accidentally' when the user left clicks the
tool bar for the output window and drags the mouse (keeping the
mouse button down) to somewhere outside of the output window
boundaries. To rectify this simply left click in the title bar of the un-
docked window and drag it down to the bottom of the screen,
where it will dock once more (if you have right-clicked 'unticked'
"Docking View" to right-click and select "Docking View" once more.
The undocked state is not a normal situation for the output window. Because the output
messages that appear in this window are important at any stage while using the program,
the docked state is the best place because it will be visible then and easy to locate.
The upper edge of the output window shows a splitter bar which is used to change the
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
4 - 14
size of the output window. The 'drag' cursor, appears automatically when the cursor is
placed on the splitter bar. The left mouse button can be pressed when the 'drag' cursor
is visible. This will turn the splitter bar to grey and the output window can now be resized
by holding down the mouse button and moving the mouse up or down.
The output window may be moved and resized by:
• Dragging the splitter bar as shown in Figure 4.9, when the output window is in the
'docking' mode
• Double-clicking the frame of the output window to dock/undock it from the main
window.
• Pressing the on the main toolbar, which enlarges the graphics board by hiding
the output window.
• Pressing the icons on the main toolbar, which enlarges the output window
The contents of the output window may be stored, edited, redirected, etc., using the fol-
lowing icons:
Opens an editor and pastes any selected or complete text from the
output window
Opens a different output file
Either saves the selected text to an ASCII file, or the complete contents
of the output window if no selection was made
Copies the selected text to the Windows Clipboard for use in other
programs
Clears the output window by deleting all messages
Searches the text in the output window for the occurrences of a given
text. A "?'' wild cart may be used
Changes the font used in the output window
Redirects everything to a file on disk. The output window will stop
displaying messages while this icon is down
Acts like "redirect to disk", but all messages will now be printed directly
Pre-sets the option for the print dialogue. Either chooses printing of the
selected text or all buffered text if no selection was made
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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Using the Output Window
The output window is more than just a dumb message viewer. It is an interactive tool,
which helps in preparing your data for calculations and it improves any search for errors
or bugs in your projects.
Every line in the output window with a full folder and object name can be double-clicked
with the left mouse button. This will open the appropriate edit dialogue for the shown
object. See the example in Figure 4.10.

Fig. 4.10: The interactive output window
In this example, a calculation function reported an error because a transformer element
has not been assigned a transformer type. Double-clicking the error message opens the
edit dialogue of the transformer.
Context Sensitive Menu inside the Output Window
It is also possible to press the right mouse button while pointing at the object name. The
context sensitive menu will pop-up and show entries to easily find and edit objects, if the
printed object name was found to be an existing object in the database tree.
These option are
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
4 - 16
Edit Object will open the edit dialogue of the printed object, which is i.e. the reason
for the error message
Edit and Browse Object
will open the data manager and show the element and its parameters
there.
Mark in Graphic
will mark the clicked element in the single line diagram and zoom into
the region of its place. The interactive feature of the output window is
extremely convenient when 'debugging' a new or changed power
system design. Faulty elements don't have to be searched for in order
to correct their parameters.
Output Window Legend
The output window uses colors and other formatting to distinguish between different
types of messages or for specials like bar diagrams.
Text messages formats:
DIgSI/err - ... Error messages. Format: red colored.
DIgSI/info - ....Information messages. Format: green colored.
DIgSI/wrng - ...Warning message. Format: brown colored.
DIgSI/pcl - ...' Protocol message. Format: blue colored.
Text only Output text. Format: black colored.
Reports of calculation results may contain bar graph information. The "voltage profiles''
report after a load-flow command, for instance, produces bar graphs of the per-unit volt-
ages of busbars. These bars will be colored blue, green or red if the "Verification'' option
in the load-flow command dialogue has been enabled. They will be hatch-crossed if the
bars are too large to display.
An part of a bar graph output is shown in Figure 4.11. The following formatting is visible:

Fig. 4.11: Output window bar diagram
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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Green Solid Bar
Used when the value is in the tolerated range.
Blue Solid Bar Used when the value is too low.
Red Solid Bar Used when the value is too high
Hatch-crossed Bar
Used when the value is out of reach and cannot be displayed correctly.
Copying from the output window
The contents of the output window, or parts of its contents, may be copied to the build-
in editor of PowerFactory or to any other program.
Normally, not all selected lines will be copied and the format of the copied text may un-
dergo changes. The latter is caused by the fact that the PowerFactory output window
uses special formatting 'escape sequences'. Other programs may not be capable of deal-
ing with these formatting commands.

Fig. 4.12: The output window Info Message
Which lines will be copied is determined by the output window settings. See Section 6.4
for more information. When text from the output window is about to be copied, an info
message will pop up, informing the user about the current settings. See Figure 4.12. A
button is supplied which brings the user directly to the user settings dialogue. The info
message may be disabled, in which case it will never show up again.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory PowerFactory Overview
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4.6 Getting Help
The PowerFactory software comes with a number of help facilities (see also Section 3.3:
The PowerFactory Help System):
1 The licensed version comes with a printed hard copy of the User’s Manual and the
Getting Started Tutorial.
2 An on-line version of the Users Manual and the Getting Started Tutorial, which can
be opened from the Help option on the main menu (see Figure 4.5).
3 A context sensitive help which will directly jump to the right page of the on-line
Users Manual when the F1 key is pressed.
4 Balloon help which will give the names of command icons, or input parameters, if
the cursor is positioned over these items and held still for about half a second. The
graphical elements for which balloon help is provided are:
1 Buttons/icons (available for all command icons).
2 Class-icons.
3 Parameter fields.
Command buttons/icons are sometimes referenced by their name, instead of by their im-
age. For large buttons, this is normally the case. The name of a button is either the name
on the button itself (OK, Cancel), or the name that appears in the balloon help (e. g.
= User Settings).
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts
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Chapter 5
Program Setting, Logging on and User
Accounts
This chapter provides reference information on how to configure the program, how to log
on and how to create and manage user Accounts. More Detailed descriptions of the pro-
cess introduced here can be found in the PowerFactory Installation Manual.
5.1 Program Configurations and Settings
In general there are 3 main questions to be answered before installing the software, the
answers to these questions will determine the installation settings:
• License: Where should the license key(s) reside?
• Installation: Where should PowerFactory be installed?
• Database: Where should the database reside?
Once PF has been set up in a computer, the installation setting is carried out by means
of a 'Log-on' dialogue. This dialogue pops up automatically when the program is opened
for the first time. Through the Licence, Network and Database tabs of the Log-on dia-
logue, the answers to the questions above are provided and the program installation is
configured.
A detailed description of the installation procedure and the program configuration alter-
natives is given in the PowerFactory Installation Manual. The next section provides
reference information about the Log-on dialog.
5.2 The Log-on Dialogue
The application of PowerFactory is carried out within a user session. Since an account
system is used, it is necessary to log on when starting a session. Immediately after open-
ing the program a 'Log-on' dialogue is presented, there the user must specify his/her cre-
dentials. As indicated in Section 5.1 the Log-on dialogue also serves as interface to the
program settings.
To start a session, the user must always provide the corresponding name and password
(credentials). Unless they have changed, the installations settings do not need to be up-
date every time a session starts.
In the next subsections a description of the fields presented in the log-on dialogue is giv-
en.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts
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Note: A user account is the working space of a specific user (the account
owner) within the DB. It is the object where the user stores his
projects and settings. To access a specific account the correspond-
ing user name and password must be given. Information on the ac-
count management system and how to share information with
other users is given in Chapter 21 (Data Management). The de-
scription on how data is arranged within PF is given in Chapter 7
(The PowerFactory Data Model).
5.2.1 Log On Configuration
Fig. 5.1: The Log-on Dialogue, User Credentials
Once the PF installation had been set, a name and a password must be given in order to
access an account and start to use the program. Two special accounts are created when
installing PF, the Demo and the Administrator. The Demo account is used to access and
run the examples provided with the program. The administrator (database administrator)
account is used to create and manage user's accounts in a multi-user environment (see
Section 5.3). To log on as Demo, just select the corresponding option on the users name
drop down menu (Figure 5.1), no password is required. To log on as administrator, select
the Administrator name from the menu and use the assigned password. By default the
administrator account password is Administrator.
Users other than the Administrator and the Demo, require their own name and password
to log on. If you are using a stand alone installation, you can create a new user account
by typing in a new name and a password of your choice (an empty password is also ac-
cepted). After creating the new account the 'Do you really want to create a new user ac-
count' message will pop up, click Ok to continue. In a multi-user installation (see
Section 5.3) new accounts and passwords are created by the administrator.
For further information about the roll of the database administrator please refer to
Section 5.3.2. Further information about the Demo account is given in Section 5.3.5.
Note To run the prepared examples please log on as Demo user. This
user requires no password and you have the possibility to use the
demo projects with the full functionality of PowerFactory.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts
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5.2.2 License Settings

Fig. 5.2: Log-on Dialogue License Settings
In order to run the program, users require access to a license key (also known as dongle
or hardlock). By means of the interface described below (License tab of the Log-on dia-
logue), this access is defined.
License Key
In the License Key field, the installed license key setting must be selected. PowerFacto-
ry offers four choices to install the license key:
not available (Demo)
No local key is installed, only Demo version of PowerFactory can be
run.
on local port
A valid PowerFactory license key ('hardlock') must be connected to a
USB or parallel port.
in network (file based communication)
A connection to a network computer, which has the PowerFactory
network license service running must be available. The communication
between the user and the license server is done trough shared
directories.
in network (protocol based communication)
A connection to a network computer, which has the PowerFactory
network license service running must be available. The communication
between the user and the license server is done trough a protocol.
A detailed description of the different license key settings is given in the PowerFactory
Installation Manual. Demo users (those without licence) should select 'not available
(Demo)'.
Serial Number
Your serial number must be provided in the 'Serial Number' field. It can be found on the
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts
5 - 4
page 2 of the license agreement.
License Server
If the you are using a network key with file based communication, the path to the Pow-
erFactory working directory of license server must be provided. This path is usually
mapped on the client machine.
If you are working with a protocol based communication key, you are required to specify
the computer name or the IP network address (as in Figure 5.2) of the license server.
Advanced RPC-Settings
If a network license key with protocol based communication is used, the 'Advanced RPC-
Settings' must be given. To reach these fields, press the arrow button ( ) on the first
page of the License tab.
The 'RPC' settings must be the ones specified in the license server. For detailed informa-
tion consult your network management or see Section 3.2.3 of the PowerFactory In-
stallation Manual.
NOTE: If you are not sure about your license key setting please refer to
your network administrator. File based communication is only rec-
ommended for old versions of PowerFactory that don’t support
protocol based. For further information on the license key config-
uration refer to the Installation Manual.
5.2.3 Network Settings
The PowerFactory installation directory contains the application’s binaries; the working
directory contains some temporary data, an error log file and the local database. In the
'Network' tab of the Log-on dialogue, the location of the PowerFactory installation and
working directories is defined. Depending on that location three installation types are
available:
on local machine
Locally installed on individual computers.
on file server
Only the working directory of each client resides on the local hard disk.
on an application server (e.g. Terminal Server)
The installation and working directories reside on a server.
A detailed description of the different installation methods is given in the PowerFactory
Installation Manual.
Note: If you are not sure about your installation type please refer to your
network administrator. For detailed information about the installa-
tion types see the installation manual Chapter 5.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts
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5.2.4 Database Configuration
In this tab it is specified how the database is going to be used. You can select among:
• A single-user database which resides locally on each computer.
• A multi-user database which resides on an remote server. Here all users have access
to the same data simultaneously. In this case user accounts are created and
administrated exclusively by the Administrator.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides drivers for the following multi-user database sys-
tems:
• Oracle.
• Microsoft SQL Server.
For further information about the database configuration please refer to the PowerFac-
tory Installation Manual.
5.2.5 Advanced Settings
The advanced program settings should only be changed under the guidance of the DIg-
SILENT PowerFactory support at support@digsilent.de.
5.2.6 Appearance Settings
The appearance settings influence the way in which the toolbar buttons are displayed and
the way in which dialogues will open, close or move scroll bars and other objects.
These settings may be changed to suit the users personal taste.
5.3 User Accounts and User Groups
The user account philosophy of PowerFactory basically works in the same way as is usu-
al for larger computer systems. The first objectives of the user account managing system
are:
• To protect the 'system' parts of the database from changes by normal users.
• To protect the part of the databases which belongs to user ''A'' from being changed by
user ''B''.
• To allow users to share data.
The user account managing system provides each user with his/her own ''private'' data-
base space. The user is nevertheless able to use shared data, either from the common
system database or from other users, and may enable other users to use some of his/her
'private' data.
The user account managing system manages this whilst using only one single database
in the background, which allows for simple backup and management of the overall data-
base.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts
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5.3.1 PowerFactory Database Overview
A brief introduction to the top level structure of the PowerFactory database is conve-
nient before presenting the user accounts and their functionality.
The data in PowerFactory is stored inside a set of hierarchical directories. The top level
structure is constituted by the following folders:
The Configuration folder
Contains company specific customizing for user groups, user default
settings, project templates and class templates for objects
The main Library folder
Contains all standard types and models provided with PowerFactory.
The main library folder is read only for normal users.
The System folder
Contains all objects that are used internally by PowerFactory. The
system folder is read only for all normal users. Changes are only
permitted when logged on as the Administrator, and should be
conducted under the guidance of DIgSILENT customer support.
User account folders
Contain the project folders and all other folders in which the normal
user defines her/his power systems and all accompanying objects and
settings. Project folders are the housing for the data model that allows
the definition and analysis of a power system: Chapter 7 (The
PowerFactory Data Model) is dedicated to them.
The top level structure described above can be seen in the Data Manager’s screen shot
from Figure 5.3.

Fig. 5.3: Basic database structure
5.3.2 The Database Administrator
A database administrator account is created with the PowerFactory installation. The
main functions of the administrator are:
• Creation and management of user accounts.
• System database maintenance under the guidance of the DIgSILENT customer
support.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts
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Under a multiuser database environment, the administrator is the only user with the rigth
to:
• Add and delete users.
• Define users groups.
• Set individual user rights.
• Restrict or allow calculation functions.
• Set/reset user passwords.
The administrator is also the only user that can modify the main library and the system
folders. Although the administrator has access to all the projects of all the users, it does
not have the rigth to perform any calculation.
To log on as administrator, select the 'Administrator' user from the drop down menu of
the 'Log on' page from the Log-on dialogue and write the corresponding password. By
default the administrator password is Administrator.
For further information about the administrator roll, please refer to the PowerFactory
Installation Manual (Chapter 6).
5.3.3 Creating and Managing User Accounts
In the case of an installation with a local database, the simplest way to create a new user
account is to enter an unknown account name and an arbitrary password in the Log-on
dialogue (see Section 5.2.1). In this case the program will automatically create and acti-
vate the new account, without administrator intervention.
In multi-user database installations, the administrator creates new user accounts by
means of a tool called the 'User Manager', which is found in the Configuration folder.
To create a new user:
Log on as administrator.
In the left pane of the Data Manager click on Configuration folder to display its
contents.
Double click on the User Manager icon ( , rigth pane) and press the Add User...
button.
The User edit dialogue will pop up:
In the 'General' tab, enter the new user name and password.
If a licensed version with a restricted number of functions is used (i.e. you may have
4 licences with basic functionality, but only 2 stability licences), the 'License' tab may
be used to define the functions that a user can access. The 'Multi User Database'
option (bottom of the tab) should be checked for all users that will access the multi
user database.
The administrator can edit any user account to change the user name, set new calculation
rights or change the password. To edit an existing user account:
Right-click on the desired user and select Edit from the context sensitive menu. The
User edit dialogue will pop up.
Any user can edit her/his own account by means of the User edit dialogue. In this case
only the full name and the password can be changed.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts
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Note: The administrator is the only one who may delete a user account.
Although users can delete all projects inside their account folder,
they cannot delete the account folder itself or the standard folders
that belong to it (i.e. the 'Recycle Bin' or the 'Settings' folder).
5.3.4 Creating User Groups
Any project or folder in a user account may be shared. This action can performed selec-
tively by sharing only with certain user groups. User groups are created by the adminis-
trator via the User Manager. To create a new user group:
Log on as administrator.
In the Data Manager open the Configuration folder and double click on the User
Manager icon( ).
In the User manager dialogue that pops up press Add Group.....
Enter the name of the new group, optionally a description and press Ok.
The new group is automatically created in the User Groups directory of the
Configuration folder.
The administrator can change the name of an existing group by means of the correspond-
ing edit dialogue (rigth clicking on it and selecting Edit from the context sensitive menu).
Via the context sensitive menu, groups can also be deleted.
The administrator can add users to a group by:
Copying the user in the Data Manager (right click on the user and select Copy from
the context sensitive menu).
Selecting a user group in the left pane of the Data Manager.
Pasting a shortcut of the copied user inside the group.
The last action is carried out by: Right-clicking the user group and selecting Paste Short-
cut from the context sensitive menu.
Users are taken out of a group by deleting their shortcut from the corresponding group.
For information about sharing projects please refer to Chapter 21 (Data Management).
5.3.5 The Demo Account
The demo account is special user account for demonstration or testing purposes. Like the
administrator account it is automatically created with the program installation. The demo
account folder is filled with numerous demonstration projects. These projects are accom-
panied by demonstration command scripts which can automatically activate a demo
project and perform commands such as load-flow, short-circuit or transient analysis. Ex-
ecution of these command scripts is started by selecting a demonstration from the main
menu option File ÷> Examples. This menu option has several sub-menus from which a
demonstration may be selected. Selecting a demonstration will start the appropriate com-
mand script.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts
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Note: The menu option File ÷> Examples is only available when one is
logged into the Demo account.
The ''Demo'' projects may also be activated and observed in the manner normally em-
ployed by PowerFactory. To learn how this is achieved it is best to work through the
on-line tutorial that is provided.
A demo user has read and write permissions for all demonstration projects. However, cal-
culations will only be permitted for the demonstration networks as long as they have not
been changed in a topological sense. This means that adding or deleting lines, transform-
ers, loads, machines, etc., will lead to error messages.
Licensed users may log on as demo users, change the demonstration projects in any way,
and still be able to start a calculation (as long as their hardlock is available to PowerFac-
tory). However licensed users are recommended to copy and paste into their own ac-
count the ''Demo'' projects of their interest.
As long as a user does not make any topological changes, these demonstration projects
may be used to experiment with PowerFactory. Such experimentation may include:
• Changing and executing commands such as load-flow, short-circuit or transient
analysis.
• Changing power system elements such as selecting other line types, changing
generator settings, etc.
• Creating new calculation cases
• Changing the appearance of the single line graphics except for adding or deleting
power system elements.
• Creating or changing virtual instruments panels such as defining graphs or changing
bar diagrams.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Program Setting, Logging on and User Accounts
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory User Settings
6 - 1
Chapter 6
User Settings
The User Settings dialogue, shown in Figure 6.1, offers options for many global features
of PowerFactory. This chapter is dedicated to describe this options. The User settings
dialogue may be opened either by clicking the User Settings icon ( ) on the main
tool bar, or by selecting the Options ÷> User Settings... menu item from the main menu.
6.1 General Settings
Fig. 6.1: User Settings dialogue
The general settings include (Figure 6.1):
Confirm Delete Activity
Pops up a confirmation dialogue whenever something is about to be
deleted.
Open Graphics Automatically
Causes the graphics windows to re-appear automatically when a
project is activated. When not checked, the graphics window must be
opened manually.
Beep on user errors
May be de-selected to suppress sounds.
Use Multiple Data Manager
When enabled, more than one data manager dialogue can be opened
at a time. When disabled only one data manager may be opened at a
DIgSILENT PowerFactory User Settings
6 - 2
time and pressing the New Data Manager button will pop up the
minimized data manager.
Use operating system Format for Date and Time
the operating system date and time settings are used when this is
checked.
Use Default Graphic Converter.
Edit Filter before Execute
Presents the filter edit dialogue when a filter is selected, allowing the
user to edit the filter before application. However, this is sometimes
irksome when a user is applying a filter several times. Thus one may
choose to go straight to the list of filtered objects when the filter is
applied by un-checking this option.
Always confirm Deletion of Grid Data
When this option checked a confirmation dialogue is popped up when
the user deletes grid data.
Decimal Symbol
Selects the symbol selected to be used for the decimal point.
Use Standard Database Structure
In order to simplify the operation of PowerFactory for users who do
not use the program often, or who are just starting out certain
restrictions may be introduced into the database structure, for
example, allowing only 'Type' data to be placed in Library folders (when
this option is un-checked). However, this may be irksome for advanced
users or those who are used to the standard database working where a
great deal of flexibility is permitted, so as to suit the users needs, and
thus the standard structure may be engaged by checking this option.
System Stage Profile
The ability to create system stages may be limited by this option.
Existing system stages will still be visible but the right menu options
that create new revisions or system stages will be removed. This is
once again a tool that may be used to 'simplify' PowerFactory for
users not familiar with the program by limiting the operations that they
may use.
6.2 Graphic Windows Settings
The graphic windows has the following settings.
Cursor settings
Defines the cursor shape:
Arrow
A normal, arrow shaped cursor.
Crosshair
A large, full screen cross.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory User Settings
6 - 3
Tracking cross
A small cross.
General Options
Valid for all graphs:
Show Grid only if stepsize will be least
Grid points smaller than the selected size will not be shown.
Show Text only if height will be least
Text smaller than the selected size will not be shown.
No. of columns in graphics floater
Specifies the width of the graphics toolbar when this is a floating
window.
No. of columns in graphics docker
Specifies the width of the graphics toolbar when it is docked on the
right side of the drawing space.
Line factor when printing
The width of all lines in the graphics will be multiplied by the specified
percentage when printing.
Coordinate Output at statusbar in mm
Specifies that the status bar will display the cursor position in millimeters.
Update Hidden pages always
Results in all graphical pages on a graphics board being updated, even when they are not
visible. Note that this can slow the processing speed considerably. The advantage is that
no updating is required when a different graphics page is selected.
Exclude Feeder Colors
May be used to exclude colors, by number code, which are to be used for feeder defini-
tions. This is used to prevent the use of colors which are already used for other purposes.
Ranges of color numbers are entered as '2-9'. Multiple ranges of colors must separated
by commas, as in '2-9;16-23'.
Update Graphic while Simulation is running
Use own background color for single line graphics
If the option is enabled, the user can define the background color of the single line graph-
ics by using the pop up menu and then pressing OK.
By pressing the ( )button more graphic setting options are available:
DIgSILENT PowerFactory User Settings
6 - 4
Allow Resizing of branch objects
If the option is enabled, the user can left click a branch element within the single line
graphic and then resize it.
Edit Mode Cursor Set
Allows the selection of the mouse pointer shape.
Mark Objects in Region
Defines how objects within an user defined region of the single line graphic (defined by
left clicking and then drawing a rectangle) are selected:
Complete
Only the objects, that are completely enclosed in the defined region,
are selected.
Partial
All the objects within the defined area are selected.
Show balloon Help
Enables or disables the balloon help dialogues.
For information about the Graphic Window refer to Chapter 10 (The Graphics Editor).
6.3 Data Manager Settings
The data manager tab specifies which object types will be displayed or hidden in the tree
representation, and whether confirmation prompts will appear when objects or data is
changed in the data manager itself.
Show in Treelist
Object classes that are selected will be displayed in the database tree.
Browser
Save data automatically
The data manager will not ask for confirmation every time a value is
changed in the data browser when this option is selected.
Sort Automatically
Specifies that objects are automatically sorted (by name) in the data
browser.
Operation Scenario
If the Save active Operation Scenario automatically is enabled, the period for automatic
DIgSILENT PowerFactory User Settings
6 - 5
saving must be defined.
Export/Import Data
Configures the export and import of PowerFactory 'DZ'-files, as follows:
Binary Data
Saves binary data, such as results in the result folders, to the 'DZ'
export files according to selection.
Export References to Deleted Objects
Will also export references to objects which reside in the recycle bin.
Normally, connections to these objects are deleted on export.
Enable export of activated projects
Will permit the export of an activated project.
Folders for Global Library
The default global type folder is the System\Library\Types folder. This default folder
contains many predefined object types, but objects within this folder may not be changed
by the user (read-only access). This option allows the user to specify a different ''Global
Type Folder'', possibly a company specific and defined type library.
For information about the Power Factory Database Manager refer to Chapter 11 (The
Data Manager).
6.4 Output Window Settings
The output window settings control the way in which messages selected by the user, in
the output window are to be copied for pasting into other programs.
Whichever options are checked will determine what will be copied. The text in the output
window itself will not be influenced.
Escape sequences are special hidden codes which are used for coloring the text, or other
formatting commands. Some text processing programs are not capable of using the
PowerFactory escape codes. The Text Only option should be set in such cases. The text
in the output window itself will not be influenced by the options chosen here.
The number of lines displayed in the output window may also be limited.
6.5 Functions Settings
The functions settings page provides check boxes for the function modules that are ac-
cessible from the data manager or from the object edit dialogues. The user may choose
to see only certain modules in order to ''unclutter'' dialogues.
This may also be used to protect data by allowing only certain calculation functionality to
be seen by certain users. This is particularly useful in a multi-user environment or in when
inexperienced users utilize PowerFactory.
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6.6 Directories
Compiled DSL Models
Pre-compiled DSL models may be available for use as external models.
The DSL directory should be directed to the correct folder/ directory in
order for PowerFactory to find these models.
PFM-DSM
6.7 Editor
The editor which is used to enter large pieces of text (such as DPL scripts, objects de-
scriptions, etc.) can be configured on this page.
Options
Enable Virtual Space
Allows the cursor to move into empty areas.
Enable Auto Indent
Automatically indents the next line.
Enable Backspace at Start of Line
Will not stop the backspace at the left-most position, but will continue
at the end of the previous line.
View blanks and tabs
Shows these spaces.
Show Selection Margin
Provides a column on the left side where bookmarks and other
markings are shown.
Show line Numbers
Shows line numbers.
Tab Size
Defines the width of a single tab.
Tabs
Toggles between the use of standard tabs, or to insert spaces when the tab-key is used.
Language coloring
Defines the syntax-highlighting used when the type of text is not known.
ShortCuts
Opens the short-cut definition dialogue.
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6.8 Station Ware
When working with DIgSILENT’s StationWare, connection options are stored in the
user settings.The connection options are as follows:
Service Endpoint
Denotes the StationWare server name. This name resembles a web
page URL and must have the form:
http://the.server.name/psmsws/psmsws.asmx
or
http://192.168.1.53/psmsws/psmsws.asmx
http denotes the protocol, the.server.name is the computer name (or
DNS) of the server computer and psmsws/psmsws.asmx is the name of
the StationWare application.
Username/Password
Username and Password have to be valid user account in
StationWare. A StationWare user account has nothing to do with
the StationFactory user account. The very same StationWare
account can be used by two different PowerFactory users.The
privileges of the StationWare account actually restrict the
functionality. For device import the user requires read-access rights.
For exporting additionally write-access rights are required.
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory The PowerFactory Data Model
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Chapter 7
The PowerFactory Data Model
Up to this point, information regarding the general structure of the database, the user
interfaces and the administration of users’ accounts has been given. Now it is time to
describe how the data is organized to model and analyze a power system. The set of
folders and objects hierarchically organized to model and perform calculations on a power
system will be referred to here as the data model.
7.1 Database, Objects and Classes
As explained in Chapter 4 (PowerFactory Overview), PowerFactory uses a hierarchical,
object-oriented database. All the data, which represents power system elements, single
line diagrams, study cases, system operation scenarios, calculation commands, program
settings etc., are stored as objects inside a hierarchical set of folders. The folders are
arranged in order to facilitate the definition of the studies and optimize the use of the tools
provided by the program.
The objects are grouped according to the kind of element that they represent. These
groups are known as classes within the PowerFactory environment. For example, an
object that represents a synchronous generator in a power system belongs to the class
defined for synchronous machines (called ElmSym in PowerFactory); whereas an object
storing the settings for a load flow calculation belongs to a class defined to set and
execute load flows (called ComLdf), and so on.
Analogous to Windows, classes may be seen as the file extensions of the objects. Each
object belongs to a class and each class has a specific set of parameters that defines the
objects which it represents. As explained in Section 4.5 (User Interface), the edit
dialogues are the interfaces between the user and an object; the parameters defining the
object are accessed through this dialogue. This means that there is an edit dialogue for
each class of objects.
This information may seem somewhat academic to the user at first, as PowerFactory will
assign objects automatically. However it is useful for the reader to have some under-
standing of this arrangement before the data model and its management tools are
described. The PowerFactory database philosophy can thus be summarized by one
'golden' rule:
'Everything is an object, all the objects belong to a class and are stored
according to a hierarchical arrangement in the database tree'
The following sections describe the arrangement of folders in the database and the
objects that are used to represent and analyze power systems with PowerFactory.
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7.2 PowerFactory Project Structure
Projects are used in PowerFactory to manage the studies of power systems. They
include all of the networks for analysis with their corresponding variations and graphics,
the definitions of the calculations performed, the results, etc. When defining and studying
a system, the user always works on an active project, creating/modifying networks,
performing calculations or analyzing results.
From a database point of view, a project is a directory which stores:
• All the objects that collectively define a power system and its changes over time.
• Objects that the define the graphical representations of the system.
• Objects that define the calculations performed on the system.
• Objects that contain the results of the calculations.
The objects mentioned above are stored in folders according to their functionality. These
folders are hierarchically arranged within the project in order to facilitate the definition of
the studies and optimize the use of the tools provided by the program.
To understand the structure of the 'project folder' it is useful to examine which kind of
information is represented by the data and what it is used for. This will lead us to Power-
Factory’s data model, which is organized in folders as illustrated in Figure 7.1.
In PowerFactory Version 14, all changes in the projects are tracked: the date (day and
time) of each change and the user who made the change are stored inside the database.
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Fig. 7.1: Data Arrangement Inside a Project (Default Structure of a Project Folder)
The default project structure (the data model described above) is shown in Figure 7.1.
The remaining sections of this chapter deal with the description of the objects/folders
shown above. For information on how to create and configure a new project please refer
to Section 9.1 (Defining and Configuring a Project).
7.2.1 The Library
The library contains the equipment types (as in older versions of PowerFactory), special
operational information, DPL scripts, templates and user-defined models. To make the
library simple to navigate, PowerFactory Version 14 stores equipment types in a special
subfolder called Equipment Type Library.
Equipment Type Library
It is convenient to store all manufacturer-specific data in the same
location and organize it in such a way that it can be easily accessed
when defining power system elements. Within the data model this
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information corresponds to the above mentioned type data and is
stored inside the Equipment Type Library folder.
An equipment type object holds the essential electrical information for
each class of network component. This information is usually provided
in manufacturers’ data sheets. Within the project structure, the type
objects are stored inside the Equipment Type Library. Type objects
may be sorted by class using library subfolders, i.e. a subfolder for
generator types, a subfolder for line types etc.
Operational Library
It is often desired to change the operation point of a network in order
to analyze the effects of different loading levels, changed maintenance
schedules or operational limits. An Operational Library folder, which
contains sorted operational alternatives, is part of the approach used
by PowerFactory to manage this task.
Fig. 7.2: The Operational Library
To create a new element in one of these folders, first select the folder
by clicking once on it. Then press the ‘New Object’ button ( ), and
select the desired element.
The network may need to be analyzed at different times of the day, week or year, where
changed load conditions and different component ratings are considered. As described
above, Operational Library objects and Operation Scenarios facilitate this analysis by
allowing the definition of different operational data. The Parameter Characteristics tool is
designed to extend this flexibility of analysis via the use of characteristics. Characteristics
are defined by a range of values, as opposed to a single fixed value, which are assigned
to the parameters of selected power systems elements. Within this range, the selection
of the appropriate value for the parameter is carried out according to a user-defined
trigger. For example, the active power demand of a load can be modeled by means of a
characteristic with 12 values, each one corresponding to a month of the year. If the
trigger is set to January (triggers are user-defined), then the value used by the program
to perform the calculations will be the first value of the characteristic; if the trigger is set
to December, the last value of the characteristic will be used.
Additional objects which support the calculations and the modeling of the system are also
stored inside the Library folder. These objects include: automation commands developed
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with the DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL) and user-defined templates for
composite network elements.
7.2.2 The Network Model
It would be convenient to have simultaneous access to all electrical and graphical data
relating to the network to be analyzed (i.e. all objects that define the analyzed system
and its graphical representation). This is achieved by storing all network data in the
Network Model folder. The Network Model contains the electrical and graphical infor-
mation for the grid. To further enhance manageability, this information is split into two
subfolders: Diagrams and Network Data. An additional subfolder, Variations,
contains all expansion stages for planning purposes. Together with Operation Scenarios
(see Section 7.2.3) the concept of Variations takes place of the earlier system stage
concept in PowerFactory.
Network Data
The electrical data may be sorted according to logical, organizational
and/or geographical areas; therefore within any project, one or more
Grid objects may be defined. All Grids are by default contained within
the Network Data folder.
Diagrams
When drawing a grid, all graphic information is automatically stored in
this folder.
Variations
In order to plan or assess the network under different topological
configurations, it is useful to be able to create variations of the current
network. These variations are linked to the original network data, so
that changes made to the original network are automatically
transferred to the variation. Additionally, these variations should be
placed in a time frame, in order to allow scheduled expansion plans.
PowerFactory uses objects called Expansion Stages to model these
time-dependant variations. Expansion stages are stored inside
Variation objects. Variations can be seen as expansion plans
composed of different expansion stages, which are chronologically
activated. Variations, like all other network data, are stored inside the
Network Model folder. Expansion Stages (of an active Variation) are
activated automatically by PowerFactory, if you set the date and time
of the calculation case to a value, which is equal to or higher than the
Activation Time of the expansion stage.
The concepts of Variations and Expansion Stages are complemented by
Operation Scenarios, which are stored on the same hierarchical level as
the network model, because these scenarios don't model the grid itself,
only its operation.
7.2.3 Operation Scenarios
Storing recurrent operation points and being able to activate or deactivate them when
required, accelerates the analyses of the network under different operative conditions,
e.g. different dispatch programs, low or high load periods, etc. PowerFactory can store
complete operation points in objects called operation scenarios. This kind of data, which
DIgSILENT PowerFactory The PowerFactory Data Model
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is subject to frequent changes during a study and may be used to simulate different
operation scenarios of the same network, is further grouped into subsets. Within the
project folder, operation scenarios are stored inside the Operation Scenarios folder.
Fig. 7.3: Operation Scenarios
We may need to analyze the network at different times during the day, week or year,
where changed loading conditions and different component ratings are considered. As
described above, Operational Library objects and Operation Scenarios facilitate this
feature by allowing the definition of different operation points. Scenarios facilitate this
analysis by allowing the definition of different operational data. The Parameter Charac-
teristics tool is designed to extend this flexibility of analysis via the use of characteristics.
Characteristics are defined by a range of values, as opposed to a single fixed value, which
are assigned to the parameters of selected power systems elements. Within this range,
the selection of the appropriate value for the parameter is carried out according to a user-
defined trigger. For example, the active power demand of a load can be modeled by
means of a characteristic with 12 values, each one corresponding to a month of the year.
If the trigger is set to January (triggers are user-defined), then the value used by the
program to perform the calculations will be the first value of the characteristic; if the
trigger is set to December, the last value of the characteristic will be used.
7.2.4 Study Cases
Once the network data has been entered and configured, users may wish to perform
network studies, including load-flow, various short-circuits, time-dependant simulations,
etc. It would be useful if the results of these studies could also be stored for review or
repeated later. The concept of the Study Case is the same as it was in previous versions
of PowerFactory. In PowerFactory Version 14 all study cases are stored inside a folder
called Study Cases.
7.2.5 Changed Settings
Project settings such as user-defined diagram styles for example, which differ from global
settings, are stored inside the Changed Settings folder.
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7.3 The Network Model
As introduced in Section 7.2.2, the Network Model folder contains the all graphical and
electrical data which defines the networks and the single line diagrams of the power
system under study. This set of data is referred as the network data model. The following
folders are defined inside the Network Model folder:
Network Diagrams ( )
Contains all objects pertaining to graphical information (single line
diagrams) from the networks defined in the project.
Network Data ( )
Contains all network components of the power system: generators,
busbars, transformers, lines, switches, controller models, etc. These
network components are stored in this folder, in accordance with
PowerFactory’s handling of network topologies (7.3.2 (Network
Topology Handling))
Variations ( )
This folder, as introduced in Section 7.2.2, contains the objects which
represent variations of the defined networks, such as topological
changes, installation or retirement of network components, etc. Time
stamps of these variations can be set in order to make the variations
time-dependant.
The following subsections describe how the network data model is organized in these
folders. Before any explanation of the Network Data folder is given, a subsection
explaining PowerFactory’s handling of network topology is presented. For an improved
understanding of the following subsections, the key concepts related to the modeling of
electric power systems with PowerFactory are recapped:
• Data model: The hierarchical set of objects from the database which are used to
model and analyze a power system. All objects which comprise the data model are
stored in the project folder.
• Network data model: The hierarchical subset of objects, within the data model,
which are used to represent and model the electrical networks of the power system
under analysis. Most objects from the network data model correspond to: electrical
network components; graphical representations of the electrical components and sets
of electrical components, grouped for analysis purposes. The objects comprising the
network data model are stored inside the Network Model folder, within the Project
folder.
• Network topology handling: The approach used by the data model to represent and
connect the nodes and branches of real networks. This is achieved using by single
electrical network components and sets of them.
• Electrical network components (or simply network components or
elements): Are the objects used to represent real network elements, i.e. generators,
switches, lines, etc. Each of these objects contains a model that DIgSILENT has
developed to reproduce the static and dynamic behavior of the represented element.
The theoretical information about the models and the relation among their
parameters are given in the corresponding technical reference documents, which are
attached to the sections of Appendix C and D. Like all objects in PowerFactory,
components can be identified by their class, for example ElmLod (for loads), ElmLne
(for transmission lines), etc. Each element class has a symbol that helps to distinguish
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it within the database, for example the symbol used to represent a load is ( ), and
that used to represent a transmission line is ( ).
7.3.1 Network Diagrams
Single line diagrams are defined in PowerFactory by means of graphic folders of class
IntGrfNet ( ). Each diagram corresponds to a IntGrfNet folder. They are stored in the
Network Diagrams folder ( ) of the Network Model (see database tree in Figure 7.4).
Single line diagrams are composed of graphical objects, which represent components of
the networks under study. Each graphical object is related (by means of a reference) to
the network component that it is representing; additionally it uses a reference to a symbol
object (IntSym, Appendix E), which defines its graphical appearance.
Figure 7.4 illustrates the information given above. It shows the Network Diagrams folder
of a project, containing two single line graphics: North Grid and South Grid. The content
of North Grid (graphical objects related to network components) is displayed in the right
pane of the Data Manager.
Fig. 7.4: Network Diagrams
The relation between graphical objects and network components allows the definition and
modification of the studied networks directly from the single line diagrams. In addition to
this, the network components can be represented by more than one graphical object
(manyIntGrf objects can refer to the same network component). Therefore, one
component can appear in several diagrams. Thanks to the relation described above,
several diagrams for one network can be defined. Diagrams displaying components from
different networks are also possible.
These diagrams are managed by the active Study Case, and specifically by an object
called the Graphics Board. If a reference to a network diagram is stored in a Study Case’s
Graphics Board, every time the study case is activated, the diagram is automatically
opened. As with any other object, diagrams can be added/deleted from the Graphics
Boards.
Each diagram is related to a specific grid (ElmNet). When a grid is added to an active
study case, the user is asked to select (among the diagrams pointing to that grid) the
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diagrams that s/he wants to display. References to the selected diagrams are then
automatically created in the corresponding Graphics Board.
Chapter 10 (The Graphics Editor), explains how to define and work with single line
graphics. Additional information about the relation between graphical objects and
network components is given below in Section 7.3.2 (Network Topology Handling). For
further information about symbols and the appearance of graphical objects, please refer
to Appendix E (Reference to the use of Symbols in PowerFactory).
Single Line Graphics and Data Objects
In a simple network there may be a 1:1 relationship between data objects and their
graphical representations, i.e. every load, generator, terminal and line is represented
once in the graphic. However, in this regard, PowerFactory provides additional flexibility
Data objects may be represented graphically on more than one graphic, but only once per
individual graphic. Thus a data object for a single terminal can be represented graphically
on two or more graphics. Both graphical representations contain the link to the same
network component (i.e. the terminal element).
Furthermore, graphical symbols may be moved without losing the link to the data object
(network component) that they represent. Likewise, data objects may be moved without
affecting the graphic.
The graphics themselves are saved in the database tree. This makes finding the correct
single line graphic representation of a particular grid easy, even in the case where there
are several graphical representations of one grid.
When PowerFactory’s drawing tools are used to place a new component (i.e. a line, trans-
former, bar graph, etc.) a new data object is also created in the database tree (in a target
Grid folder). A Single Line Graphic object therefore has a reference to a target Grid folder.
The new data objects are stored in the 'target' folders that the graphics page is associated
with.
Since data objects may have more than one graphical representation, the deletion of a
graphic object should not mean that the data object will also be deleted. Hence the user
may choose to delete only the graphical object (context sensitive menu --> Delete
Graphical Object Only). In this case the user is warned that the data object will not be
deleted.
This suggests that a user may delete all graphical objects related to a data object, with
the data object still residing in the database and being considered for calculation. This is
indeed what will occur, when this kind of graphical deletion is performed.
When an element is deleted completely (context sensitive menu --> Delete Element) a
warning message will request confirmation of the deletion. This warning may be switched
off - see User Settings on the main menu, General tab, and untick Always confirm deletion
of Grid Data).
Note: A graphical object represents an electrical element from the data-
base but is not the element itself. PowerFactory allows the gener-
ation of single line graphics containing any of the defined graphical
objects. Therefore single line graphics containing objects not nec-
essarily stored in the same grid or substation can be created.
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7.3.2 Network Topology Handling
Network components can be classified as node elements or branch elements. Branch
elements can be further separated single connection elements (generators, motors,
loads, etc.), two connections elements (transmission lines, transformers, etc.) and three
connections elements (three winding transformers, AC/DC converters with two DC
terminals, etc.).
Simple networks are easily modeled in PowerFactory by defining and connecting nodes
and branch elements. For larger networks, in order to achieve a more realistic represen-
tation and facilitate their analysis, basic components may need to be grouped into higher-
level hierarchical objects to represent electrical substations and composite branches (for
example). Furthermore, substations, branches and any other network component can be
grouped within Site objects to represent geographical areas of a system.
The following subsections provide further information regarding the PowerFactory
representation of network topological components.
Nodes
In circuit theory, the junction points connecting lines, generators, loads, etc. to the
network are generally termed ‘nodes’. In PowerFactory, nodes are modeled by means
of objects called 'terminals' (ElmTerm). Depending on their usage within the power
system, terminals can represent busbars, junctions or simply internal nodes (their usage
is defined by a drop down menu found in the Basic Data tab of the terminal dialogue).
According to the selected usage, different calculation functions are enabled; for example
the short-circuit calculation can be performed only for busbars or for busbars and internal
nodes, and so on.
When any branch element is directly connected to a terminal, PowerFactory uses a
'cubicle' (StaCubic) to define the connection. Cubicles may be visualized as the panels
on a switchgear board, or bays in a high voltage yard, to which the branch elements are
connected.
Normally a cubicle is created automatically when an element is connected to a node. In
this case the switch configuration of the new cubicles has been previously defined by the
user and is carried out using simple switches of class StaSwitch (for further information
about defining cubicles refer to Section 11.2: Defining Network Models with the Data
Manager).
PowerFactory also offers the possibility to create more detailed cubicle connections (in
order to model complex busbar-substation configurations) by using switches of class
ElmCoup, whose usage can be set to circuit breaker, disconnector, switch disconnector
or load switch. In this case the branch elements are connected to the terminals (busbars)
through ElmCoup objects. The connection of an ElmCoup to a terminal is carried out by
means of automatically generated cubicles without any additional switch (StaSwitch)
object.
For further information regarding how to connect nodes with branch elements using
circuit breakers (ElmCoup objects) please refer to Section 11.2 (Defining Network
Models with the Data Manager).
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Note: The use of ElmCoup objects also allows the representation of
complex busbar systems by connecting several terminals together.
Additionally they allow the application of running arrangements
(7.5.6: Running Arrangements).
Branch Elements
As explained earlier, branch elements are connected to nodes via cubicles. A connection
between two nodes is made by two-port elements like transformers, switches or lines.
Three-port elements require a connection to three different nodes.
Generally, branch elements are single components whose connection to the network is
automatically set when selecting the connected terminals. From the data model point of
view, the case of transmission lines (and cables) is interesting, because they can be
defined as a one-to-one connection between two nodes, or as folders containing line
sections that together connect two nodes.
The purpose of sectionalizing the line into parts is so that different line types may be used
for the different sections (such as when a cable connecting two nodes uses different types
in different sections, or when a line uses two or more different tower types, or when
manual transpositions should be modeled - since the Transposed option in the type object
is a perfect, balanced, transposition).
For information about how to define transmission lines (and cables) and sections please
refer to Section 10.1 (Defining Network Models with the Graphical Editor). For technical
information about the transmission line and cable model, please refer to Appendix C.10
(Line (ElmLne)).
Substations
Detailed representations of electrical substations can be achieved in PowerFactory by
connecting and storing terminals and switches together, under one 'Substation' object
(ElmSubstat ). Substations can also be used to model composite busbar systems,
by storing terminal and switch arrangements under the same object. Separate single line
diagrams of individual substations can be created. Substation objects allow the use of
running arrangements to store/set a certain status of the station circuit breakers
(ElmCoup objects) (see 7.5.6: Running Arrangements).
For information about how to define substations please refer to Section 10.1 (Defining
Network Models with the Graphical Editor) and 11.2 (Defining Network Models with the
Data Manager).
Branches
Similar to substations, PowerFactory allows nodes and branch elements to be stored
under the same object (the branch object, ElmBranch ) in order to represent
branched-off connections between two terminals or substations. Branches are 'composite'
two-port elements that may be connected at each end to a node. One typical application
is a distribution line with branched-off loads along the connection: transmission lines,
loads and the corresponding terminals can be stored together under the same branch,
and the two ends of the line correspond to the branch connections with the grid. As in the
case of substations, separate single line graphics for branches can be created with the
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graphical editor.
For information about how to define branches please refer to Section 10.1 (Defining
Network Models with the Graphical Editor) and 11.2 (Defining Network Models with the
Data Manager).
Sites
Substations, branches and any other network component can be stored together under
the same 'Site' object in order to represent and analyze a network according to its
geographical (topological) regions.
Sites are high-level hierarchical objects that can store any defined component within a
network. For information about how to define sites please refer to Section 11.2 (Defining
Network Models with the Data Manager).
7.3.3 Network Data
The Network Data folder contains all components which make up the electrical networks
of the power system being analyzed. As introduced in Section 7.2, the electrical data may
be sorted according to logical or organizational and/or geographical areas. Consequently
different networks may arise. These networks are made up of electrical components
which conform to the PowerFactory topology handling approach (explained in the
previous section).
In PowerFactory, electrical networks (as defined above) are stored in 'Grid' folders
(ElmNet ). A power system may have as many grids as defined by the user. These
grids may or may not be interconnected. As long as they are active, they are considered
by the calculations.
An example of this approach is the Tutorial project provided with the Getting Started
Manual. In this project, a distribution network and a transmission network are created
and analyzed separately. At a later stage both networks are connected and the analysis
of the complete system is carried out.
Figure 7.5 shows a network model with two grids: North and South. Both networks are
active (red-colored icons). The left pane in the Data Manager shows the hierarchical
organization of the components in the North grid (only objects containing other elements
are shown). The right pane shows the contents of highest hierarchical level of the North
Grid.
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Fig. 7.5: Network Data - Grid folders
Additionally to grids, the Network Data folder contains a set of special objects that allow
the further grouping of network components. This additional grouping of elements is
carried out in order to allow further analysis and calculations of the power system.
By default, when a new project is created, new empty folders to store these special
objects are created inside the Network Model folder. The left pane shown in Figure 7.6
illustrates the complete structure of the Network Data folder from the example shown in
Figure 7.5. Besides the two defined grids (North and South), folders to store the grouping
objects are created. The user can define any of the corresponding grouping objects inside
each of these folders. The right pane shown in Figure 7.6 shows the contents of the
'Feeders' subfolder, which contains a 'Feeder' object named F1.
Fig. 7.6: The Network Data folder
Descriptions of the above mentioned grouping objects and a component's parameter
characteristics is given in the following subsections. The user can define any of these
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additional grouping objects via the use of references to relevant network components
stored in the grid folders.
For information about defining grids please refer to Section 9.2 (Creating New Grids).
Note: A grid (and in general any object comprising the data model) is
active when it is referred to by the current study case. Only objects
referred in the current (active) study case are considered for cal-
culation. An active object can be distinguished in the data manager
because of the red color seen on its icon.
Areas
To facilitate the visualization and analysis of a power system, elements may be allocated
into areas (ElmArea ). The single line graphics can then be colored according to
these areas and special reports after load flow calculations ('Area summary report' and
'Area interchange report') can be generated. Area objects are stored inside the Areas
folder ( ) in the Network Data directory.
For information about defining an Area please refer to Chapter 12 (Grouping Objects).
For information concerning the visualization of areas within the single line Graphic please
refer to 10.6.3 (Commands and Settings for Single Line Graphics). For information about
reporting Area results please refer to Chapter 20 (Reporting Results in PowerFactory).
Virtual Power Plants
Virtual Power Plants are used to group generators in the network, in such a way that the
total dispatched active power is set to a target value. The dispatch of each generator (the
Active Power field available in the Dispatch section of the Load Flow tab in the generator
element dialogue) is scaled according to the Virtual Power Plant rules (must run, merit of
order, etc.), in order to achieve the total target value.
Virtual Power Plant objects (ElmBmu ) are stored inside the Virtual Power Plants
folder ( ) within the Network Data directory.
For information regarding how to define a Virtual Power Plant, please refer to Chapter 12
(Grouping Objects).
Boundaries
Boundaries are objects used in the definition of network reductions and in summation
reports after a load flow calculation (to report the active and reactive power flow along
the boundary). Boundary objects (ElmBoundary ) may define topological regions by
specifying a topological cut through the network.
New boundaries are created by specifying the cubicles that define the cut through the
network. An interior region, corresponding to the boundary cut, is defined by specifying
a direction for each cubicle. Interior regions and boundaries can be colored in the single
line graphic.
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New boundaries are stored in the Boundaries folder within the Network Data folder. For
information on the definition and functionality of boundaries please refer to Chapter 12
(Grouping Objects). For information on coloring options for boundaries and interior points
please refer to Section 10.6.3 (Commands and Settings for Single Line Graphics).
Circuits
Circuits are objects of class ElmCircuit ( ), and are used to group branches in order
to clarify which branches are connected galvanically. Each branch (ElmBranch) can have
a reference to any defined circuit object. This feature allows branches to be sorted
according to the circuit to which they belong.
For information regarding the definition of circuits and the assignment of branches to a
circuit, please refer to Chapter 12 (Grouping Objects).
Feeders
When analyzing a system it is often useful to know where the various elements are
receiving their power supply from. In PowerFactory this is achieved using Feeder Defini-
tions (ElmFeeder ).
A feeder is defined at a line or transformer end, and then the feeder definition algorithm
searches the system from the definition point to determine the extent of the feeder. The
feeder ends when:
• An open breaker is encountered; or
• The end of a line of supply is encountered; or
• ‘Terminate feeder at this point’ is enabled in a cubicle (optional); or
• A higher voltage is encountered (optional).
Once a feeder has been defined it may be used to scale the loads connected along it
according to a measured current or power, to create voltage profile plots or to select
particular branches and connected objects in the network. Following load flow calcula-
tions, special reports can be created for the defined feeders. To distinguish the different
feeder definitions, they can be colored uniquely in the single line graphic. All feeder
objects are stored in the Feeders folder ( ) in the Network Data folder.
For information regarding the definition of feeders and load scaling please refer to
Chapter 12 (Grouping Objects). For information about coloring the single line graphic
according to feeder definitions please refer to Section 10.6.3 (Commands and Settings for
Single Line Graphics). For information about voltage profile plots, please refer to
Chapter 20 (Reporting Results in PowerFactory).
Operators
For descriptive purposes, it is useful to sort network components according to their
operators. Additionally, system operators may find it advantageous to generate summary
reports of the losses, generation, load, etc. according to their designated region(s).
PowerFactory allows the definition of operators, the assignment of network compo-
nents to these operators, and the identification of operators on single line diagrams by
means of Operator objects.
The Operator objects (ElmOperator, ) are stored in the Operators folder ( ) in the
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Network Model directory.
Further information about the definition and functionality of Operator objects is given in
Chapter 12 (Grouping Objects).
Owners
For descriptive purposes it is useful to sort network components according to their
owners. Additionally, for network owners it may prove advantageous to generate
summary reports of the losses, generation, load, etc. for their region(s). Similar to
Operators, PowerFactory allows the definition of network owners, and the assignment
of network components to them, by means of Owner objects.
The Owner objects (ElmOwner, ) are stored in the 'Owners' folder ( ) in the
Network Model directory.
Further information regarding the definition and functionality of Owner objects is given in
Chapter 12 (Grouping Objects).
Paths
A path (SetPath, ) is a set of two or more terminals and their interconnected objects.
This is used primarily by the protection module to analyze the operation of protection
devices within a network.
The defined paths can be colored in a single line graphic using the coloring function. New
paths are stored inside the Paths folder ( ) in the Network Data directory.
For information regarding how to define a path please refer to Chapter 12 (Grouping
Objects). For information about the coloring function please refer to Section 10.6.3
(Commands and Settings for Single Line Graphics). For information about the use of the
path definitions for the analysis of the protective devices, please refer to Chapter 32
(Protection).
Routes
Routes are objects which are used to group line couplings (tower elements). Each
coupling (ElmTow) can have a reference to any defined route (ElmRoute, ). Each
route has a color that can be used to identify it in single line diagrams, when the corre-
sponding coloring function is enabled.
For information regarding line couplings please refer to the technical reference for the
transmission line model (Appendix C.10 (Line (ElmLne))); for information about the
definition of routes and the assignment of couplings to a route, please refer to Chapter 12
(Grouping Objects). For information about coloring functions in single line diagrams,
please refer to Section 10.6.3 (Commands and Settings for Single Line Graphics).
Zones
Components of a network may be allocated to a zone object (ElmZone, ) in order to
represent geographical regions of the system. Each zone has a color which can be used
to identify the elements belonging to it in the single line graphic. These elements can be
listed in a browser format for group editing; additionally all loads belonging to the zone
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can be quickly scaled from the zone edit dialogue. Reports for the defined zones can be
generated following calculations.
Upon being defined, zones are by default stored inside the Zones folder ( ) in the
Network Data folder. For information regarding the definition of a zone and its function-
ality, please refer to Chapter 12 (Grouping Objects).
7.3.4 Variations and Expansion Stages
During the planning and assessment of a power system it is necessary to analyze different
variations and expansion alternatives of the original networks. In PowerFactory these
variations are modeled by means of 'Variations', which are objects that can store and
implement the changes which are expected on a network without affecting the original
model. The use of variations allows the user to conduct studies under different network
configurations in an organized and simple way. The user only needs to define (by means
of Variations) the changes that s/he wants to implement and then activate or deactivate
them according to her/his studies.
Different variations can be independently applied (activated) at the same time to the
same network, which further facilitates the user. The changes can also be implemented
gradually according to the study time in order to allow the representation of scheduled
expansion plans.
Variations objects (IntScheme, ) are stored inside the Variations folder ( ) which
resides in the Network Model folder. As introduced in Section 7.2, variations are composed
of 'Expansion Stages' (IntStage), which store the changes made to the original
network(s). The application of these changes depends on the current study time and the
activation time of the expansion stages.
The study time is a parameter of the active study case, and is used to situate the current
study within a time frame. The activation time is a parameter given to the expansion
stages, to determine whether or not, according to the study time, the changes contained
within the expansion stages, are applied. If the activation time precedes the study time,
the changes are applied to the original network. The changes of a subsequent expansion
stage add to the changes of its predecessors.
In order that changes to the network configuration are applied and can be viewed, a
variation must be activated. These changes are contained in the expansion stage(s) of
this active variation. Once the variation is deactivated, the network returns to its original
state. The changes contained in an expansion stage can be classified as:
• Changed parameters of network components;
• Additions; i.e. objects added to the network.
• Deletions; i.e. objects removed from the network.
The example shown in Figure 7.7 illustrates the concept of variations and expansion
stages. Variation 1 is composed of expansion stages: Stage 1, Stage 2 and Stage 3.
Assume that the activation time of each of the expansion stages is t1, t2 and t3, respec-
tively. With Variation 1 active and a study time between t1 and t2, the changes stored in
Stage 1 apply to the original network. For a study time between t2 and t3, the changes
from Stage 1 and Stage 2 apply. Similarly, for a study time greater than t3, changes from
Stage 1 to Stage 3 apply. In this case, the red coloring of Variation 1 indicates that it is
activated and that the changes included in its expansion stages are considered. The dark
red color on Stage 1 means that the stored changes were already applied (the study time
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precedes t1). The red color on Stage 2 means that this is the current stage (the study
time is between t2 and t3). The changes inside it have been applied and modifications
carried out on the network will be stored inside this stage. The black color on Stage 3
means that the study time precedes t3; therefore the included changes have not yet been
applied.

Fig. 7.7: Variations and expansion stages
Within an active variation, all changes applied to the actual network (i.e original network
plus changes of preceding expansion stages) are recorded in the current expansion stage.
Therefore, it is important to note that the current expansion stage is also the "recording"
expansion stage. It may be possible to have two (or more) active variations and therefore
two (or more) current expansion stages; only one of them can be set as the recording
expansion stage (changes can only be stored in one of the actual expansion stages). In
such cases the user must set one of the current expansion stages as the recording stage.
In the example shown in Figure 7.7, if it assumed that Variation 1 is the only active
variation: the recording expansion stage for a study time between t1 and t2 is Stage 1;
for a study time between t2 and t3 it is Stage 2 (as illustrated in the figure); for a study
time greater than t3 it is Stage 3. The study time may be changed to store modifications
in a different expansion stage. It is also possible (and recommended) to directly set the
desired stage as the recording expansion stage. This last action will automatically change
the study time.
Variations and expansion stages are not only used to record time-dependant modifica-
tions to the network model. Time dependencies of operational objects can also be
modeled by means of them, in this case they are known as 'Variations'.
For information about defining, setting, activating and working with Variations and
Expansion Stages, please refer to Chapter 17 (Network Variations and Expansion Stages).
For information about Study Cases and the Study Time please refer to Section 13.3 (Study
Time).
Note: Operational parameters can only be changed if there is no active
operation scenario.
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7.4 The Equipment Type Library
A type object holds the essential electrical information for each class of network
component. This information is usually provided in manufacture's data sheets. Within the
project structure the type objects are stored inside the Equipment Type Library. Type
objects may be sorted by class using library subfolders ( ). Figure 7.8 shows the
equipment library of a project containing generator, load and transformer types, all sorted
using library subfolders.
Fig. 7.8: The Equipment Library
Unlike the Global Library (Section 5.3: User Accounts and User Groups), which is acces-
sible to all users, the local Equipment Type Library can only be used by the project owner
and those with which the project is shared. It is used to define types that are going to be
used in the specific project.
When defining a new network component, the user is asked for a type object. There s/
he can choose among a 'Global Type' (from the Global Library), a 'Project Type' (from the
project Equipment Library) or a New Project Type (Figure 7.9). If the latter option is
selected, a new type will be defined and automatically stored in the local Equipment Type
Library.
Notice: The local Equipment Type Library is generated automatically with
a project. By default the equipment libraries include the 'Scales'
folder (IntScales), which is used to store time scales (for further
information please refer to Chapter 18: Parameter Characteristics).
Fig. 7.9: Defining the type for a generator element
Inside the equipment libraries, the user can define new suitable types for her/his project
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or simply copy types from the Global Library or other folders. If the types inside the
Equipment Type Library are to be sorted according to their class, the user must create
new folders for each class.
For information regarding how to set the equipment library please refer to Chapter 14
(The Equipment Type Library). For an explanation about type data please refer to
Section 4.4 (Data Arrangement).
7.5 The Operational Library
Network components use references to type objects in order to set parameters related to
the equipment itself and avoid data redundancy. For example, two generators defined in
a network model (let’s call them G1 and G2) may refer to the same generator type (let’s
call it ‘G 190M-18kV’) to set their manufacturer equipment related data, i.e. nominal
voltage, nominal power, impedances, etc. G1 and G2 will have the same equipment data
but may be operated at different points or may be connected to ground in a different way.
That is, they may have the same type data, but different operational and element data.
As mentioned, certain parameters of network components do not depend on the
equipment itself but on the operational point. These parameters are grouped under the
operational data set of the element. In the previous example considering synchronous
generators, the active power dispatch or the reactive power limits are part of this opera-
tional data.
In order to analyze a network under different operational points, operational data may
change frequently during a study. Considering that different network components may
have identical operational parameters (for example 2 generators with the same MVAr
limits or various circuit breakers with the same ratings for short-circuit currents); refer-
ences to objects storing operational data would facilitate the definition of different
network operational points. Similar to types, the use of objects containing operational
data avoids redundancy.
The Operational Library is the folder where objects containing operational data are stored.
The description of these objects and their hierarchical organization within the Operational
Library is the subject of the following subsections. Figure 7.10 shows how the Operational
Library looks from its uppermost hierarchical level.
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Fig. 7.10: Operational Library
Note: Please note that fault conditions of network components are also
considered part of the operational data.
7.5.1 Circuit Breaker Ratings
Circuit Breaker Rating objects (IntCbrating ) contain information that defines the
rated short-circuit currents for circuit breakers (objects of class ElmCoup). They are
stored inside the CB-Rating folder ( ) in the Operational Library. Any circuit breaker
(ElmCoup) defined in the Network Model can use a reference to a Circuit Breaker Rating
object in order to change its current ratings. Originally these ratings are defined in the
type of the circuit breaker element.
The right side of Figure 7.11 shows the edit dialogue of the IntCbrating object. The left
side shows the edit dialogue of a circuit breaker where a reference to an IntCbrating
object called Rating 1 is created.
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Fig. 7.11: CB-Rating
As shown in Figure 7.11, the parameters defined by a circuit breaker rating are:
• Three phase initial peak short circuit current
• Single phase initial peak short circuit current
• Three phase peak break short circuit current
• Single phase peak break short circuit current
• Three phase RMS break short circuit current
• Single phase RMS break short circuit current
• DC time constant
For information about how to define new circuit breaker ratings please refer to
Section 15.1 (Circuit Breaker Ratings).
Note: Circuit breaker elements (ElmCoup) must be distinguished from
Switch objects (StaSwitch); the latter are automatically created in-
side cubicles when connecting a branch element (which differs to
a circuit breaker) to a terminal. StaSwitch object employ referenc-
es to Circuit Breaker Rating objects.
7.5.2 Demand Transfer
The active and reactive power demand defined for loads and feeders in the network
model can be transferred to another load (or feeder) within the same system by means
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of Load Demand Transfers (objects of the class IntOutage). This transfer only takes
place if it is applied during a validity period defined by the user (i.e. if the current study
time lies within the validity period).
Figure 7.12 shows the edit dialogue of a Load Demand Transfer. In this case the user will
transfer 13 MW from a load called Load A to a load called Load B (the active power
demand of Load of A will be reduced by 13 MW, which will be added to the demand of
Load B).
Fig. 7.12: Load Demand Transfer
The demand transfer can be defined with absolute values (MW and MVA) or with relative
(percent) values. For information regarding how to define and how to apply Load Demand
Transfers, please refer to Section 15.2 (Demand Transfers).
7.5.3 Faults
The calculation commands provided by the reliability assessment function of Power-
Factory use objects called Contingencies (ComContingency and ComOutage) to
simulate the outage (and subsequent recovery) of one or more system elements. In order
to facilitate the definition of these Contingencies and to avoid data redundancy, objects
called Fault Cases (class IntEvt) are defined in the Operational Library.
Whenever it is required, the user can create new Contingencies based on the defined fault
cases. Fault cases can be considered to be fault scenarios that determine the outage of
one or more system elements. They are comprised of a collection of events (i.e. short-
circuits, switching) that define how the elements are taken out of service.
Fault cases are stored inside the Faults folder within the Operational Library. Besides fault
cases, other objects which facilitate the management of fault scenarios and the creation
of contingencies are stored in the Faults folder.
This section focusses on the data structure of the Faults folder and the objects that
comprise it. The actual functionality of these objects will be presented in Chapter 29
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(Reliability Assessment).
The 'Faults' folder ( ) can store two kinds subfolders:
1 Fault Cases folders (IntFltcases ): stores objects that represent fault
scenarios (fault cases IntEvt )
2 Fault Groups folders (IntFltgroups, ): stores objects called Fault Groups
(IntFaultgrp ), which in-turn store references to fault cases.
The user can define as many subfolders (fault cases-IntFltcases and fault groups-
IntFltgroups) and objects (fault cases-IntEvt and fault groups-IntFaultgrp) as s/he
needs.
The uppermost window in Figure 7.13 shows the Faults folder in a project. Two Fault
Cases subfolders (Cases North and Cases South) have been defined; and a Fault Groups
subfolder, called Grouping Faults is also contained. The middle window in Figure 7.13
shows the content of Cases South, which stores three fault cases: namely Bus 1, G1 and
T1. In the bottom window of Figure 7.13, a fault group called Fault Group has been
defined inside Grouping Faults which contains references to the fault case Line2-Line5
(defined in the Cases North).
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Fig. 7.13: The Faults Folder
In the following subsections more detailed descriptions of the fault case object and the
fault group object are given. For information on how to define new objects in the Faults
folder, please refer to Section 15.3 (Fault Cases and Fault Groups).
Fault Cases
Fault cases are objects of class IntEvt (in PowerFactory terminology IntEvt objects
are called Simulation Events/Faults) which are used to model fault scenarios as explained
in the previous section. They are comprised of objects called Events, which represent the
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specific events taking place on the network and leading to the unintended outage of the
elements.
A fault case can of course represent a fault in more than one component; in this case
more than one event would be defined. The fault case Line 2-Line 5 shown in Figure 7.13,
represents a short-circuit fault in transmission lines Line2 and Line 5 of the sample
network. Line 2-Line 5 is therefore made of short-circuit events for the two corresponding
components.
There are two types of Fault Cases:
1 Fault cases without switch events (Type 1): Independent of the current
topology and only stores the fault locations. The corresponding switch events are
automatically generated by the contingency analysis tools. For further information
please refer to Chapter 29 (Reliability Assessment).
2 Fault Case with at least one switch event (Type 2): A Fault Case of Type 2
predefines the switch events that will be used to clear the fault. No automatic
generation of switch events will take place. For further information please refer to
Chapter 29 (Reliability Assessment).
Note: Event objects can generate more than short-circuits. PowerFac-
tory offers several kinds of events for contingency analysis and
time-domain simulations, a detailed description of each event class
is given in Section 13.8 (Events). In the case of fault representa-
tions in the Operational Library by means of fault cases, only short-
circuit and switching events are relevant.
For information on how to define fault cases and how the events of the defined faults are
created please refer to Section 15.3 (Fault Cases and Fault Groups).
Fault Cases and The Contingency Analysis Tool
The main purpose of defining fault cases in the Operational Library is to facilitate the
definition of reliability analyses on complex networks. From the contingency analysis
command (ComSimoutage), the user makes references to the desired fault cases and
the program automatically generates the contingencies for the corresponding compo-
nents. There is no need to redefine the same contingencies each time a contingency
analysis of the network (regardless of its operational point or current configuration) is
required.
This is demonstrated by performing a contingency analysis of the critical components T1,
G1 and Bus 1 in the network South in Figure 7.13. Once the fault cases G1, T1 and Bus 1
have been created, the user can call them from the contingency analysis command every
time s/he needs to analyze the network, considering the contingencies of these compo-
nents.
For further information regarding the use of fault cases to create outages for Power-
Factory’s contingency analysis tools please refer to Chapter 29 (Reliability Assessment).

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Note: The use of IntEvt objects extends beyond PowerFactory’s reliability
analysis functions. Time domain simulations (EMT/RMS) make ref-
erence to IntEvt objects, in order to include simulation events
which take place during runtime. In this case the execution time
sequence of the events must be defined by the user.
Fault Groups
A fault group object (IntFaultgrp) as introduced in 7.5.3 can store references to different
fault cases; therefore they may be considered as 'sets' of faults. Like fault cases, fault
groups can be referred to by the contingency analysis command (ComSimoutage); in
this case all the faults contained in the set will be considered.
For the use of fault cases to create outages for the contingency analysis tools please refer
to Chapter 29 (Reliability Assessment).
7.5.4 Capability Curves for Generators
The Capability Curve objects (IntQlim, ) allow the consideration of distinct
minimum /maximum values of the reactive power, at different levels of active power
injection. Capability curves are stored inside the Mvar Limit Curves folder ( ) in the
Operational Library. Synchronous generators (ElmSym) and static generators
(ElmGenstat) defined in the Network Model can use a pointer to a Capability Curve
object from the Load Flow tab of their edit dialogue. When a capability curve is used, the
dispatch of the generator always stays within its minimum and maximum range.
For information regarding how to define new capability curves for generators, please refer
to Section 15.4 (Capability Curves (MVAr Limit Curves) for Generators). For information
about the dispatch of synchronous generators, please refer to the corresponding technical
reference (C.28: Synchronous Machine (ElmSym)). For information about Load Flow
calculations and reactive power limits please refer to Chapter 22 (Load Flow Analysis).
7.5.5 Outages
Outages are objects which are used to check and/or apply programmed actions
(programmed outages or generator deratings) over a set of network components. An
outage object requires the definition of the outage period (start and end time), the actions
that are taken during that period (outage type), and the network components affected by
these actions.
The outages (objects of class IntOutage) are stored in the Outages folder inside the
Operational Library. According to the actions performed on the selected elements, the
outages can be of two different types: Outage of an Element or Generator Derating.
Outage of Element
Outages of elements are used to intentionally take certain network components out of
service according to programmed actions (i.e. because of maintenance). In this case,
references to network components which should be out of service during the defined
period, are stored inside the outage object. If the Check button of the outage dialogue is
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pressed, the program looks for the current state of the referred-to elements. If, according
to the current study time (and the outage period), a referred-to component is out of
service but still energized, a warning message is shown in the output window. The
fulfillment of programmed outages can also be checked using the single line graphic
coloring functions. If the Apply button is pressed, the program automatically executes
the outage (which can also be manually carried out by the user) of the referred-to
element(s), as long as the study time lies within the outage period. The outage of an
element consists of the disconnection (deenergizing) and the earthing of the target
component.
Figure 7.14 (front) shows the edit dialogue of the outage object called Planned Outage.
The Outage Type selected is ‘Outage of Element'. The outage period starts on 01.01.2007
and ends on 01.10.2007. The outage contains references to the network components G2
and Line 3 (back, right pane of Data Manager window). If the current study time lies
between the start and the end of the outage, both G2 and Line 3 must be out of service
during this period. This condition may be checked by pressing the Check button or by
setting the coloring mode of the single line graphic to ‘Outage Check’.
Fig. 7.14: Outage of an Element
For information on defining Outages please refer to Section 15.5 (Element Outages and
Generator Deratings). For information regarding the single line graphic coloring function
please refer to Section 10.6.3 (Commands and Settings for Single Line Graphics).
Generator Derating
In this case, a reference to the generator which is to be derated and the amount of MW
reduction is given. Similar to Outage of Element, the fulfillment of the derated condition,
according to the outage period and the current study time, can be known via the Check
button or by setting the coloring function of the single line graphic. The Apply button
automatically executes the derating of the generator (according to the outage period).
For information on defining Outages please refer to Section 15.5 (Element Outages and
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Generator Deratings). For information regarding the single line graphic coloring function
please refer to Section 10.6.3 (Commands and Settings for Single Line Graphics).
Load Demand Transfer
Please refer to Section 7.5.2 (Demand Transfer).
Note: If a Planned Outage object is defined in the Outages folder of the
Operational Library, only the outage types Outage of Element and
Generator Derating are enabled. Similarly if outage objects are de-
fined in the Demand transfer folder, only the outage type Demand
Transfer is enabled.
7.5.6 Running Arrangements
Running Arrangements (IntRunarrange ) are operational data objects that store
statuses of switches (open or closed) of one substation. As shown in Figure 7.15, a
running arrangement uses a reference to the substation object (ElmSubstat) whose
switch statuses are stored. An application period (start and end time) is used to discrim-
inate the use of a running arrangement, according to the study time. Running arrange-
ments are stored in the Running Arrangements folder in the Operational Library ( ).
Fig. 7.15: RA object dialogue
Different configurations of the same substation can be defined by storing the corre-
sponding switch statuses in running arrangements. During the study, the user can apply
any of the stored statuses simply by selecting the corresponding running arrangement. If
a running arrangement is selected for a substation, the status of the switches cannot be
modified (i.e. they become read-only). If there is no setting for a switch in a running
arrangement (i.e. the running arrangement is incomplete), the switch will remain
unchanged but its status will also be set to read-only. If the current running arrangement
is deselected, the switches recover the status that they had before the running
arrangement was selected (and therefore resume their write access status).
Running arrangements can be defined and selected in the substation object dialogue
(Figure 7.16). For information regarding defining, selecting and working with running
arrangements please refer to Section 15.6 (Running Arrangements).
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Fig. 7.16: Definition of a running arrangement via the station object dialogue
Note: Running arrangements store only the status of switches of class
ElmCoup. The status of switches which are automatically created
in a cubicle following the connection of a branch element
(StaSwitch objects) are not considered in a running arrangement.
7.5.7 Thermal Ratings
Thermal Ratings objects (IntThrating, ) allow the definition of post-fault operational
ratings for certain branch elements, depending on the fault duration and the loading
before the fault. IntThrating objects are stored in the Thermal Rating folder in the
Operational Library ( ). Basically they are two-dimensional matrices whose cells
contain the ''short time'' post-fault ratings (in MVA), according to the pre-fault loading
(defined in the first column) and the duration of the fault/overloading (defined in the first
row).
The components in the Network Model that can use references to thermal ratings are:
transmission lines (ElmLne), 2- and 3-winding transformers (ElmTr2 and ElmTr3),
series reactors (ElmSind) and series capacitors (ElmScap).
Please note that the rating table given on the Ratings tab of the Thermal Rating object
(when option Consider short term ratings is enabled) is used solely the contingency
analysis command in PowerFactory. In this calculation, the pre-fault loading conditions
of the network components are determined after a base load flow calculation. The contin-
gency analysis is then performed using a load flow command, where the post-contingency
duration is specified.
For information on how to define thermal rating objects, please refer to Section 15.7
(Thermal Ratings). For information about the contingency analysis command in Power-
Factory please refer to Chapter 29 (Reliability Assessment).
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7.6 The Templates Library
Templates of existing network components (or groups of components) can be defined in
PowerFactory in order to facilitate the further construction of network models. Once a
template has been defined, the user can create new components (or groups of compo-
nents) based on this template. The result is a new component (or group of components)
with the same parameters and configuration as the original one.
Components from templates are created using the graphical editor. Four kinds of
templates are supported in PowerFactory:
1 Element template for single network elements: New single network elements with
the same parameters as the original element are created.
2 Group template for non-composite graphic objects: New groups of objects (including
graphical attributes) are created.
3 Substation template (composite node): New substations with the same
configuration as the original substation (including its diagram).
4 Branch template (composite branch): New branches with the same configuration as
the original branch (including its diagram).
Templates are normally stored in the Templates folder ( ), in the Library. When a
template for a single network element is defined, a copy of the original element is
automatically created in the Templates folder. New templates of substations and
branches will copy the objects together with all of their contents (including the diagram)
to the Templates folder. New templates for groups of objects will copy the corresponding
objects, together with their graphical information to a subfolder for groups of class
IntTemplate ( ) within the Templates Library.
For further information about working with templates, please refer to Section 10.1
(Defining Network Models with the Graphical Editor).
7.7 Parameter Characteristics and Parametric Studies
In PowerFactory any parameter may be assigned a range of values that will be
selectable by date and time, or by a user-defined trigger (Section 13.11: Triggers).
Examples include ambient temperature, temporary overload limit, etc.
These kinds of ranges of values are known as characteristics. The range of values may
be in the form of a one-dimensional vector or a two-dimensional matrix. The assignment
of a characteristic may be made either individually to a parameter or to a number of
parameters. If the characteristic is to be applied to parameters across multiple objects
(i.e. active power of all loads), then a reference characteristic is used. Studies which utilize
characteristics are known as parametric studies.
The parametric techniques available in PowerFactory use the flexible, generic 'charac-
teristic vector' (ChaVec, ) or the generic 'characteristic matrix' (ChaMat, ). Both
of these characteristics use some sort of scale with which the target parameter is varied.
Four types of parameter scale are available:
1 Continuous Scale: A continuous function, such as a temperature scale from 0 to
45 degrees.
2 Discrete Scale: A discrete 'case' function, such as 'Temporary Overload' and
‘Emergency Overload'.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory The PowerFactory Data Model
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3 Continuous Time Scale: A continuous time-dependent function.
4 Discrete Frequency Scale: A continuous frequency-dependent function.
When the scale is created, a means to 'set' the scale, and thereby to set the parameter
to the corresponding value, is required. This is called a trigger (SetTrigger, ). New
scales are normally defined in the Scales folder of the Equipment Type Library. After a
new scale has been defined, a trigger is automatically created in the active study case
folder (see also Section 13.11: Triggers).
When a trigger is edited and a 'current' value is set (the triggers are accessed by pressing
the in the main toolbar) the scale is set and the parameter value is changed.
When a different study case is activated, or a new study case is created, and a load-flow
is performed, all relevant triggers are copied into the study case folder and may be used
in the new study case.
For information about the different kinds of scales and characteristics and how are they
defined, please refer to Chapter 18 (Parameter Characteristics).
7.8 DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL) Scripts
The DIgSILENT Programming Language DPL offers an interface to the user for the
automation of tasks in PowerFactory. By means of a simple programming language, the
user can define her/his own automation commands (or ‘scripts’) to perform iterative or
repetitive calculations on target networks, and post-process the results. Such user-
defined scripts can be used in all areas of power system analysis, such as:
• Network optimization
• Cable-sizing
• Protection coordination
• Stability analysis
• Parametric sweep analysis
• Contingency analysis
DPL scripts may include any/all of the following:
• Program flow commands such as 'if-else´ and 'do-while'
• PowerFactory commands (i.e. load-flow or short-circuit commands: ComLdf,
ComShc)
• Input and output routines
• Mathematical expressions
• PowerFactory object procedure calls
• Subroutine calls
DPL command objects (ComDpl, ) contain the DPL script itself (amongst other
things). DPL command objects provide an interface for the configuration, preparation and
use of DPL scripts. These objects may take input parameters, variables and/or objects,
DIgSILENT PowerFactory The PowerFactory Data Model
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pass these to functions or subroutines, and may then output results. This process takes
place following the execution of the object’s corresponding DPL script. DPL scripts are
written by the user utilizing the DPL editor which resides inside the DPL command object.
DPL commands are stored inside the Scripts folder ( ) in the project directory. For
further information about DPL commands and how to write and execute DPL scripts
please refer to Chapter G (The DIgSILENT Programming Language - DPL) and Appendix
H (DPL Reference) (only available in the online help).
DIgSILENT PowerFactory The PowerFactory Data Model
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory General Information about Analyses in PowerFactory
8 - 1
Chapter 8
General Information about Analyses in
PowerFactory
This chapter gives an introduction to the calculation commands used in PowerFactory,
additionally it presents the tools that facilitate the visualization and comparison of the cal-
culated results. Chapters, exclusively dedicated to the tools presented here, are available
in the subsequent volumes of this manual.
8.1 Calculation Commands in PowerFactory
PowerFactory offers a wide variety of calculation commands, of which the
• Load-flow calculations,
• Short-circuit calculations,
• Transient simulations,
are the most important.
Calculations are performed using data as defined by the active study case (see
Section 13.1 (Creating and Using Study Cases) for more information on study cases).
Therefore a study case, having at least one grid or system stage, should be activated prior
to starting any calculation function. See the Chapter 13 (Study Cases) for more informa-
tion.
The main menu calculation icons will be enabled as soon as a correct study case is active.
These icons will pop up the default calculation command dialogues which are used to con-
figure and execute a calculation. The default calculation command objects are stored in
the active study case.
The main toolbar shows the following calculation icons.
Calculate Load-Flow (Chapter 22: Load Flow Analysis)
Calculate Optimal Power Flow (OPF, Chapter 30: Optimal Power Flow)
Calculate Short-Circuit (Chapter 23: Short-Circuit Analysis)
Break
Reset Calculation
DIgSILENT PowerFactory General Information about Analyses in PowerFactory
8 - 2
Undo (to reverse the last changings)
Other command icons are grouped together in sub-toolbars which are selected by the
toolbar selection list. If you press the 'Select Toolbar' button ( ), the options for the
different toolbars are depicted by their icons. If you have selected a toolbar different from
the 'Stability' toolbar, the icon for the 'Select Toolbar' button changes.
Fig. 8.1: Available additional toolbars in the main icon bar
The toolbar selection icon (this icon differs in dependence of the
selected toolbar).
Stability analysis commands (Chapter 25: Stability and EMT
Simulations)
Modal analysis commands (Chapter 26: Modal Analysis / Eigenvalue
Calculation)
Contingency analysis commands (Chapter 28: Contingency Analysis)
Reliability analysis commands (Chapter 29: Reliability Assessment)
Harmonics analysis commands (Chapter 24: Harmonics Analysis)
Protection tools (Chapter 32: Protection)
Additional tools (sensitivity analysis, network reduction, cable
reinforcement optimization etc.)
Optimal capacitor placement commands (Chapter 31.1: Optimal
Capacitor Placement)
User defined tools
8.2 Edit relevant Objects for Calculation
The icon is used to gather and show all objects considered by the study case, and
which are of a certain class, in a browser in order to inspect their data or to edit them.
Pressing the icon will present a menu listing the icons of all classes of objects cur-
DIgSILENT PowerFactory General Information about Analyses in PowerFactory
8 - 3
rently used for the calculations, as depicted in Figure 8.2. Pressing a class icon will pop
up an object filter browser, filled with all the objects of the selected class, which are con-
sidered by the calculation.
Pressing the line icon, for instance, will open a filter browser which contains a list of all
lines. Pressing the transformer icon gives the list of all transformers, etc. The filter brows-
er can be used to inspect, select or edit selected objects. Normally, the filter browser is
closed after performing any of these actions. It is possible to open more filter browser at
the same time, by repeatedly pressing the icon.

Fig. 8.2: Selecting calculation relevant objects
8.3 Results
Following calculations some messages are printed to the output window. These generally
consist of errors, warnings or information that may be useful when interpreting the cal-
culated data. The load-flow calculation function, for example, will provide the following
message when the power system under analysis is has 2 separated areas:
DIgSI/wrng - 1 area(s) are unsupplied.
DIgSI/info - Grid split into 2 isolated areas
More extensive output is given in the output window, for example, by the (N-1) outage
calculation, which is an option in the load-flow command dialogue. The output given by
that calculation is a list of load-flow calculations that were performed, each with a table
in which the element on outage and all overloaded elements are provided.
The usual place, however, to visualize load-flow or short-circuit calculation results is in
the single line graphics, or the data manager and object filter (when tabulated results are
required). The results on view may configured using the highly flexible, user-definable,
variable sets. These are accessed from the results boxes or flexible data tab. See
Chapter 19 (Defining Variable Sets) for more information.
Some calculations offer additional results in the form of bar-graphs, vector diagrams or
other graphical output. All such outputs are presented by so-called virtual instruments,
which are placed on a virtual instruments page in the current graphics board.
8.4 Comparisons Between Calculations
At many stages in the development of a power system design, the differences between
certain settings or design options become of interest.
For a single calculation, the 'absolute' results are shown in the single line graphics. The
variables that are shown may be specified by the user by altering the result-box defini-
tions.
When comparing two cases, the results of the first calculation are 'frozen'. All subsequent
calculations will then show their results as deviations from the first calculation made. The
subsequent calculation results are stored together with the first result. This allows the
DIgSILENT PowerFactory General Information about Analyses in PowerFactory
8 - 4
user to re-arrange the comparisons as desired by pressing the icon (see the next Sec-
tion).
The differences between cases are colored according to the severity of the deviation,
making it possible to recognize the differences between calculation cases very easily. The
coloring and severity ranges may be set in the Edit Comparing of Results... menu option,
found by pressing (see the next section).
A comparison between cases is made as follows:
• Calculate the first case by activating a certain calculation case and, for example,
calculating a load-flow.
• Press the icon on the main toolbar. This will store the base case results and
prepares to store the results of forthcoming calculations.
• If relative results are also required for a particular calculation report, in a formatted
report, that report has to be generated for the first case by pressing the icon on
the main toolbar and selecting the required report. This step is necessary to let the
comparison manager know which parameters are to be compared.
• Change the power system or a calculation setting to create the next case. Permitted
alterations include opening/closing switches, altering load settings or any other
component parameter, changing calculation cases, adding or deleting elements, etc.
• Repeat the calculations as performed for the first case.
• The result boxes in the single line graphic will now show the percentage change as
compared to the first case. If the calculation report, as generated for the first case, is
generated again, it will also show relative results.
• Make and calculate the other cases. After each calculation, the comparison to the first
case is shown.
8.4.1 Editing a Set Of Comparison Cases
The set of calculated comparisons may be edited to select the cases which are to be com-
pared to each other or to set the coloring mode. When the icon on the main toolbar
is pressed, the Compare dialogue will open. See Figure 8.3.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory General Information about Analyses in PowerFactory
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Fig. 8.3: The Compare dialogue
With the Compare dialogue, the two cases which are to be compared can be selected.
Furthermore, a list of colors may be set which is then used to color the results displayed
in the result boxes, according to certain levels of percentage change.
8.4.2 Update Database
In PowerFactory input (data that has been entered by the user) and output (parameters
that have been calculated) data is kept separate and output data, such as the new tap
positions following an automatic tap adjustment calculation, does not overwrite the set-
tings that the user originally entered, unless the user specifically commands this, using
the icon on the main toolbar.
Note The corresponding input parameters of the database will be over-
written by the calculated values.
Updating the database may be performed for:
• Scaling factor of loads
• Transformer taps
• Capacitive Steps of Shunts/Filter
• P,Q of Loads
• P,Q of asynchronous machines
Example:
A load-flow is calculated with the options "Automatic Tap Adjust of Transformers" and
DIgSILENT PowerFactory General Information about Analyses in PowerFactory
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"Automatic Shunt Adjustment" enabled. The calculated tap and shunt positions may be
seen in the single line diagram, but it will be noticed that the input data parameter in the
element data dialogue is as originally entered. The icon is clicked, and the input pa-
rameters are now overwritten by the calculated values found on the single line diagram.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory
Handling


DIgSILENT PowerFactory Basic Project Definition
9 - 1
Chapter 9
Basic Project Definition
The basic database structure in Power Factory and the data model used to define and
study a power system are explained in chapters 4 and 9 respectively. The users are
recommended to familiarize themselves with those topics before continuing with this
chapter. In this section the information about the definition of the data model objects,
stored inside the project folder, is given. The aspects related to the definition of the
networks to be analyzed in a project are given in Chapter 12 (Grouping Objects).
9.1 Defining and Configuring a Project
There are three methods to create a new project. Two of them employ the Data Manager
window and the third the main menu. Whichever method is used, the end result will be
the same, a project object in the data base.
Method 1 - Using the Main Menu:
• On the Main Menu choose File -> New. This opens the New dialog window
(ComNew).
• Tick the option New - Project. Enter the name of the project. Make sure that the
'Target Folder' points to the folder in which you want to create the project (By default
it is set to the active user account folder).
• Press Execute.
Method 2 - Using the Element Selection Dialogue from the Data Manager:
• In the Data Manager press on the 'New Object' button ( ).
• In the field at the bottom of the New Object window type "IntPrj" (after selecting the
option 'Others' in the Elements field). Note that the names in PowerFactory are
case-sensitive.
• Press Ok. The window that opens next is the edit dialogue of the project folder. Press
Ok.
Method 3 - Direct from the Data Manager:
• Locate the active user in the left-hand portion of the Data Manager.
• Place the cursor on the icon of the active user or a folder within the active user
account and right-click.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Basic Project Definition
9 - 2
• From the context sensitive menu choose New -> Project. Press Ok. The window that
opens next is the edit dialogue of the project folder. Press Ok.
Note: The ComNew command is used to create objects of several class-
es. To create a new project it must be ensured that the 'Project'
option is selected.
In order to define and analyze a power system, a project must contain at least one grid
and one study case. After the new project is created (by any of the presented methods),
a new study case is automatically created and activated. A dialogue used to specify the
name and nominal frequency of a new automatically created grid pops up. As the button
OK is pressed in the grid edit dialog:
• The new grid folder is created in the newly created project folder.
• An empty single line diagram associated to the grid is opened.
The newly created project has the default folder structure shown in Figure 9.1. Although
a grid folder and a study case are enough to define a system and perform calculations,
the new project may be expanded by creating library folders, extra grids, variations,
operation operation scenarios, operational data objects, extra study cases, graphic
windows, etc.
Projects can be deleted by right clicking on the project name on the data manager and
selecting Delete from the context sensitive menu. Only non active projects can be deleted.
Note: The default structure of the Project folder is arranged to take ad-
vantage of the data model structure and thus the user is advised
to keep to this pre-determined data structure, at least at first until
sufficient experience in using PowerFactory is gained. As may be
inferred, the user is not limited to the pre-determined structure
and may create, within certain limits, their own project structure
for advanced or particular studies.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Basic Project Definition
9 - 3
Fig. 9.1: Default Project Structure
9.1.1 The Project Edit Dialogue
The project dialog of Figure 9.2 pops up when selecting Edit --> Project... on the main
menu or when rigth-clicking the project folder in the Data Manager and selecting Edit from
the context sensitive menu.
The 'Basic Data' page, allows the edition of basic project settings and the creation of new
study cases and grids:
• Pressing the button at the 'Project Settings' field opens a dialogue where the
validity period of the project, the input units to be used within the project (unit
system and the decimal prefixes for the adaptable element input dialogs within the
project) and the calculation settings (the base apparent power and the minimal value
of the resistances and conductances in p.u) are defined.
• Pressing the New Grid button will create a new grid and will open the grid edit
dialogue. A second dialogue will ask for the study case to which the new grid folder
will be added. For additional information about creating a new grid please refer to
Section 9.2 (Creating New Grids).
• The New Study Case button will create a new study case and will open its dialogue.
The new study case will not be activated automatically. For further information about
creating study cases please refer to Section 13.1 (Creating and Using Study Cases).
• When a project is created, its settings (i.e.the result box definitions, the reports
definitions, the flexible page selectors, etc.) are defined by the 'default settings' from
the system library. If these settings are changed, the changes are stored in the
Settings folder of the project. The settings from another project or the original
(default) ones can be taken by using the buttons Take from existing Project or
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Basic Project Definition
9 - 4
Set to default in the 'Changed Settings' field of the edit dialogue. The settings can
only be changed when a project is inactive.
• The name of the active study case is shown in the lower part of the dialog window
under the 'Active Study Case' assignment, it's edit dialog can be opened by pressing
the button.
Fig. 9.2: The project dialogue
• Pressing the Contents button on the dialog will open a new data browser displaying
all the folders included in the current project directory.
The 'Sharing' page of the dialogue allows the definition of the project sharing rules. This
function is especially suitable when working in a multiple user database environment,
further information is given in Chapter 21 (Data Management).
The 'Storage' page provides information about the stored data inside the project.
The 'Description' page, like all object's description pages is used to add user comments
and the approval status.
9.1.2 Project Settings
In the Project Settings you can set up the Validity Period of the Project, the method used
for Calculation of symmetrical components for untransposed lines, and other settings.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Basic Project Definition
9 - 5
The Validity Period of the Project
PowerFactory Version 14 extends the idea of a model into the dimension of time. The
Project may span a period of months or even years considering network expansions,
planned outages and other system events. The period of validy of a project specifies
therefore the time span the network model, which is defined in the Project, is valid for.
The Validity Period is defined by Start Time and End Time of the Project (see Figure 9.2).
The Study Case has got a Study Time, which has to be inside the Validity Period of the
Project.
To specify the Validity Period of the Project:
• Open the Data Manager and browse for the Project folder object (IntPrj).
• Right click on it and select Edit from the context sensitive menu.
• On the Basic Data tab press the 'Project Settings' Edit button (the button with the blue
right arrow). The Project Settings dialogue will open.
• On the 'Validity Period' page adjust the start and end time of the project.
• Press OK to accept the changes and close the window.
Advanced Calculation Parameters
• 'Calculation of symmetrical components for untransposed lines'
The selection of one of these methods defines how the sequence components of lines
in PowerFactory will be calculated:
- Method 1: apply the 012 transformation (irrespective of line transposition). This is
the standard method used;
- Method 2: first calculate a symmetrical transposition for untransposed lines, and
then apply the 012 transformation.
9.1.3 Activating and Deactivating Projects
To activate a project use the option File -> Open project from the main menu. This brings
up a tree with all the projects in your user account. Select the project that you want to
activate. Alternatively, you may activate a project using the context sensitive menu on the
Data Manager.
The last 5 active projects are listed at the File field of the main menu bar. The currently
active project is the first one in this list. To deactivate the currently active project, select
it in the list (left click on it). Alternatively, you may choose the option File -> Close Project
from the main menu. To activate another project, select it in the list of 5 last active
projects.
Note: Only one project can be activated at a time.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Basic Project Definition
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9.1.4 Exporting and Importing of Projects
Projects (or any folder in the data base) can be exported using the *.dz or the *.pfd
(PowerFactory Data) file format. Whenever possible it is recommended to use the new
PFD format (*.pfd). This format (*.pfd) is improved for handling even very large projects.
The performance of the import/export has been optimized and the consumption of
memory resources is much lower than with the old file format (*.dz). All new functions
available in the data base of PowerFactory, e. g. time stamps and versions, are fully
supported with the new PFD file format.
To export a project select File --> Export... --> Data... from the main menu. Alternatively
projects can be exported by selecting the option Export Project … on the project context
sensitive menu (only available for non active projects).
Projects can be imported by selecting File --> Import... --> Data... from the main menu
or by clicking on the icon of the Data Manager. The user can select the type of file to
import from the 'Files of type' menu of the Windows Open file that pops up.
Additionally a lot of Import/Export filters are available for foreign data formats.
9.2 Creating New Grids
Electrical networks can be defined in PowerFactory using the Graphical Editor or the
Data Manager. The graphical method is the simplest one, it just consist in selecting the
desired network components from the drawing toolbox and place them in the desired
location within the single line graphic. In this case the program automatically creates the
network components represented by the graphical objects in the active grids/expansion
stages. The connections and the corresponding cubicles are automatically created as the
new component is placed (and connected). The use of the data manager requires the
manual definition of the cubicles within the terminals and the selection of the specific
cubicle where a branch element is to be connected. This manual definition is more
suitable for big networks whose graphical representation becomes complicated. Advanced
users may combine both graphical and data manager methods to define and modify their
network models more efficiently.
Besides explaining the basic methods used to define and edit the network models, this
section is intended to explain practical aspects related with the creation and managing of
the network grouping objects (reference to grouping objects). The procedures used to
create and manage additional network diagrams are also presented here. Information
about defining and working with variations and variations stages will be given in a
separate section. To start with the description of the network model definition, a
description of how new grid folders are created is required.
Note: Experienced users may define networks combining the Data Man-
ager and the Graphical Editor. A good practice is to create and con-
nect the network components in the single line graphic and multi
edit them in the Data Manager.
The concept and the application context of grid folders are presented in Section 7.3.3
(Network Data). The procedure used to define new grids is given in this section.
To add a grid folder to the current network model, various methods may be employed:
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Basic Project Definition
9 - 7
1 Select Edit --> Project on the main menu. This will open the dialogue of the project
that is currently active. Press the New Grid button.
2 Right-click the project folder in a data manager and select Edit. Press the New Grid
button.
3 Right-click the Network Data folder (of the active project) in a data manager window
and select New --> Grid from the context sensitive menu.
The dialogue to create a new grid will pop up after the indicated actions are performed.
There the grid name, the nominal frequency and a grid owner (optional) may be specified.
A second dialogue will appear after the Ok button has been pressed, here the study case
that the grid will be linked to must be selected. Three options are presented:
1 add this Grid/System Stage to active Study Case: Only available when a
study case is active.
2 activate a new Study Case and add this Grid/System Stage: Creates and
activates a new study case for the new grid.
3 activate an existing Study Case and add this Grid/System Stage: Add
the new grid folder to an existing, but not yet active study case.
After the Ok button of the second dialogue is pressed, the new grid is created in the
Network Model folder and a reference in the Summary Grid object of the selected study
case is created. Normally, the second option is preferred because this creates a new study
case, dedicated to the new grid only. In that way, the new grid may be tested separately
by load-flow or other calculations. To analyze the combination of two or more grids, new
study cases may be created later on, or the existing ones may be altered.
As indicated in Chapter 13 (Study Cases), grids can be added or removed from the active
study case afterwards by right clicking and selecting Add/Remove from Active study case.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Basic Project Definition
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory The Graphics Editor
10 - 1
Chapter 10
The Graphics Editor
PowerFactory works with three different classes of graphics: Single Line Diagrams,
Block Diagrams, and Virtual Instruments (see 10.2.2 for more information). They
constitute the main tools used to design new power systems, controller block diagrams
and displays of results.
10.1 Defining Network Models with the Graphical Editor
In this section it is explained how the tools of the Graphical Editor are used to define and
work with network models.
10.1.1 Adding New Power System Elements
Drawing power system elements is a simple matter of choosing the required element
representation in the Drawing Toolbox. Input parameters of the element are edited
through the element and type dialogs. Complete information about the element and type
parameters is given in the online available Technical References.
To create a new power system element, select the corresponding button in the Drawing
Toolbox. This toolbar is only visible to the user when a project and study case is active
and the open graphic is unfrozen ( ). As the cursor is positioned over the drawing
surface, it will have a symbol of the selected tool 'attached' to it, showing that the cursor
is, for example, in 'Terminal' drawing mode (to reset the mode either press the cursor
button at the bottom of the toolbox or right-click).
Power system elements are placed and connected in the single line graphic by left clicking
on empty places on the drawing surface (places a symbol), and by left clicking nodes
(makes a connection). If wishing to stop the drawing and connecting process press the
Escape key.
There are basically three ways of positioning and connecting new power system
elements:
1 By left clicking on one or more nodes to connect and position the element directly.
Single port elements (loads, machines) will be positioned directly beneath the nodes
at a default distance (the symbol can later be moved if required). Double or triple
port objects (transformers) will be centered between the first two terminal
connections automatically. This ''single click method'' will only work if the option
'Place Branch Objects With One Connection Automatically' in the User Settings is
enabled.
2 By first left clicking on an empty place to position the symbol and then left clicking a
node to make the connections.
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3 By first left clicking on an empty place, consequently clicking on the drawing surface
to define a non-straight connection line and finally clicking on a terminal to make the
connection.
Note: To place a branch element in a single line diagram the nodes where
it is going to be connected must be already defined. No ''connec-
tion free' branch elements are allowed.
Figure 8.SLG1 shows an example of a generator placed according to the first method (left
generator), one placed according to the second method (middle generator), and one
placed according to the third method (right generator with long connection).
Fig. 10.1: Three graphical objects
If a load or machine is connected to a terminal using the first method (single left click on
busbar), but a cubicle already exists at that position on the busbar, the load or machine
symbol will be automatically positioned on the other side of the terminal, if possible.
By default all power system elements are positioned ''bottom down''. However, if the Ctrl
key is pressed when the graphic symbol is positioned onto the drawing surface, it will be
positioned either turned 90 degrees (terminals) or 180 degrees (edge elements). If the
element has already been placed and the user wishes to flip it to the other side of the
terminal, then he/she must right-click the element -> Flip At Busbar.
If wishing to first place a symbol and then rotate or mirror it then click on the graphic to
place the symbol and then press the Tab key on the keyboard. This will ''jump'' the
''rubber band'' to the next connection point (or port) of the element. Continual pressing
of the Tab key will leave the symbol placed on the graphic (and the data element in the
database, without being connected. Manipulate the symbol as required and then right-
click it -> Connect Element.
If the element has already been connected it must first be disconnected in order to rotate
or mirror it (right-click the symbol -> Disconnect Element. Figure 10.2 shows an example
of rotated and flipped power system elements.
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Fig. 10.2: Flipped and rotated power system elements
As explained in 7.3.2 (Network Topology Handling), the connection between edge
elements and terminals is carried out by means of cubicles. When working with the
graphical editor, the cubicles are automatically generated in the corresponding terminal.
The configuration of the newly created cubicles is determined by an object called 'Cubicle
Parameters'. Each network diagram has its own 'Cubicle Parameters' object, which is
automatically set by the program. You can edit these Cubicle Parameters to change the
configuration of newly created cubicles; it is done by clicking on the 'Station feeder
Options' icon ( ) of the main toolbar.
Note: When connections to terminals are defined with switch elements of
the class ElmCoup (circuit breakers), cubicles without any addition-
al switch (StaSwitch) are generated. In this case the user is free to
define the configuration that he wishes by connecting terminals
and circuit breakers.
10.1.2 Drawing Nodes
When starting to draw your system it is natural to first draw the nodes that are required.
The basic node representation in PowerFactory is done by means of terminals
(ElmTerm). There are seven different terminals symbols in the drawing toolbox that may
be used.
Terminal
This is the most common representation of a node.
Short Terminal
Looks the same as a Terminal but is shorter and the results box and
name is placed on the "Invisible Objects" layer by default. Typically
used to save space or to unclutter the graphic.
Point Terminal
Typically used to represent a junction point, say between an overhead
line and cable. The results box and name is placed on the "Invisible
Objects" layer by default.
Rectangular Terminal
Typically used for reticulation and/ or distribution networks.
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Circular Terminal
Typically used for reticulation and/ or distribution networks.
U-Terminal
Typically used for reticulation and/ or distribution networks.
Polygonal-Terminal
Typically used for reticulation and/ or distribution networks.
Terminals should be placed in position and then, once the cursor is reset, dragged,
rotated and sized as required. Re-positioning is performed by first left clicking on the
terminal to mark it, and then click once more so that the cursor changes to . Hold the
mouse button down and drag the terminal to a new position. Re-sizing is performed by
first left clicking on the terminal to mark it. Sizing handles appear at the ends
10.1.3 Drawing Branch Elements
Single port elements (loads, machines, etc.) can be positioned in two ways. The simplest
one is to select the symbol from the toolbar and then left click the busbar where the
element is going to be placed. This will draw the element at a default distance under the
busbar. In case of multi busbar systems, only one of the busbars need be left-clicked. The
switch-over connections to the other busbars will be drawn automatically.
The 'free-hand' method first places the element symbol wherever desired, that is, first
click wherever you wish to place the symbol. The cursor now has a 'rubber band'
connected to the element, when the cursor is left clicked onto a node it will be connected.
To create corners in the joining line left click on the graphic. The line will snap to grid, be
drawn orthogonally, as determined by the "Graphic Options" that have been set.
Double port elements (lines, transformers, etc.) are positioned in a similar manner to
single port symbols. By left-clicking the first busbar, the first connection is made. The
second connection line is now held by the cursor. Again, left-clicking the drawing area will
create corners. Double-clicking the drawing area will position the symbol (if not a line or
cable - e.g. a transformer). The second connection is made when a node is left clicked.
Triple port elements (three-winding transformers) are positioned in the same manner as
two port symbols. Clicking the first, and directly thereafter the second node, will place the
symbol centered between the two nodes, which may be inconvenient. Better positioning
will result from left clicking the first busbar, double-clicking the drawing space to position
the element, and then making the second and third connection.
The 'free-hand' method for two and triple port elements works the same as for one port
elements.
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Note Pressing the Tab key after connecting one side will leave the sec-
ond leg unconnected, or jump to the third leg in the case of three
port elements (press Tab again to leave the third leg unconnect-
ed). Pressing Esc will stop the drawing and remove all connec-
tions.
If the element being drawn seems as if it will be positioned incor-
rectly or untidily there is no need to escape the drawing process.
Make the required connections and then right-click the element
and use Reconnect Graphically to re-draw the element whilst re-
taining the data connections
Annotations are created by clicking one of the annotation drawing tools. Tools are
available for drawing lines, squares, circles, pies, polygons, etc. To draw some of these
symbols left click at some place and release the mouse somewhere else (e.g. circles, lines,
rectangles). Other symbols require that you first set the vertices by clicking at different
positions and finishing the input mode by double-clicking at the last position.
10.1.4 Marking and Editing Power System Elements
To mark (select) a power system element click on it with the cursor. The element is then
highlighted and becomes the ''focus'' of the next action or command. The element can be
un-marked or de-selected by clicking on another element or by clicking onto some free
space in the graphic.
a) b)
Fig. 10.3: Marking/ Selecting elements
Astute users may notice that the element is highlighted using a different pattern,
depending on whether the graphic has been frozen or not, as seen in Figure 10.3, where
(a) is the when the freeze mode is engaged and (b) when 'un-frozen.'
There are different ways to mark several objects at once:
• To mark all graphical elements, press the All-button ( ). The keyboard short cut
Ctrl+A may also be used.
• To mark a set of elements at the same time click on a free spot in the drawing area,
hold down the mouse key and move the cursor to another place where you release
the mouse button. All elements in the so defined rectangle will now be marked. A
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setting, found in the User Settings dialogue under the 'Graphic Windows' tab (on the
second page of this tab press the button), can alter the manner in which objects
are marked using this marking method, as either 'Partial' or 'Complete'. 'Complete'
means that the whole object marked must lie inside the rectangle.
• To mark more than one object, hold down the Ctrl key whilst marking the object.
• Clicking once on an element belonging to a multiple busbar system will only mark the
chosen object. When clicking on this object again all elements that belong to this
section will be marked. A third click on this object will mark the whole busbar system.
• When clicking on an element and clicking on this element a second time whilst holding
down the Alt key will also mark all the elements connected to the first element.
• If the CtrL+Alt key are pressed simultaneously whilst moving and element then
elements connected to it will also be moved.
The data of any element (its edit dialogue) may be viewed and edited by either double-
clicking the graphic symbol under consideration, or by right-clicking it and selecting Edit
Data.
When multiple objects are selected, their data can be viewed and edited trough a data
browser by right-clicking the selection and choosing Edit Data from the context sensitive
menu.
Note Finding specific elements in a large project may be difficult if one
had to look through the single line diagram alone. PowerFactory
includes the Mark in Graphic tool, to assist the user in finding ele-
ments within the graphic. The user has to first search for the de-
sired object in the Data Manager using any of the methods
presented in Chapter 11 (The Data Manager). Once a searched ob-
ject is identified, it may be right-clicked and the option Mark in
Graphic selected.
10.1.5 Interconnecting Power Subsystems
Interconnections between two different graphics is achieved using two methods:
1 Representing a node in additional different graphics by copying and pasting the
graphic only and then by connecting branch and edge elements to the graphical
object in the additional graphic.
2 By connecting an edge element between two graphics.
The first method is performed by copying the desired node (right-click ÷> Copy) and then
clicking on the other graphic in which it should be represented and right-clicking ÷> Paste
Graphic Only. Only a graphical object is pasted into the second graphic and no new data
element is created.
The second method is as follows:
• First ensure that you have node to connect to in both graphics that are to be
interconnected.
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• In this example we will use an autotransformer. Select an autotransformer drawing
tool from the toolbar and create the first connection as normal by left clicking a node
(see Figure 10.4).
• Double-click to place the symbol. Your cursor is now attached to the transformer by a
'rubber band'.
• Move the cursor to the bottom of the drawing page and click on the tab of the graphic
that the interconnection is to be made to (see Figure 10.5).
• Once in the second graphic left click to place the transformer symbol (see Figure 10.6)
and then left click on the second node.
The interconnected leg is shown by an symbol. Right-clicking on the element presents
a Jump to next page option.

Fig. 10.4: First step to interconnecting
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Fig. 10.5: Second step to interconnecting

Fig. 10.6: Third step to interconnecting
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Note The first method of interconnection, that of representing a node in
two, or more, different graphics, may lead to confusion at a later
point as the 'inflow' and 'outflow' to the node will not appear cor-
rect when just one graphic is viewed - especially if a user is not fa-
miliar with the system. The node may be right-clicked to show all
connections in what is known as the 'Station Graphic' (menu option
Show station graphic).
Thus, the second method may be preferred. To check for nodes
that have connections on other graphics the "Missing graphical
connections" coloring mode may be employed.
10.1.6 Working with Substations in the Graphical Editor
New substations are created in the Data Manager, using the procedure described in
Section 11.2.3 (Defining Substations in the Data Manager). The definition and connection
of the substation components can be carried out in the associated single line diagram,
which is automatically generated after the creation of the new substation. All the proce-
dures explained in the previous subsections to create and connect components in the
graphical editor can be used here. The connections of the substation with the grid are
carried out following any of the procedures described in10.1.5 (Interconnecting Power
Subsystems).
Existing substations can be used as ''models'' to define templates, which may be used
later to create new substations. A new substation template is created by right clicking on
the substation single line diagram and selecting Add to template library from the context
sensitive menu. This action will copy the substation together with all of its contents
(including its diagram even if it is not stored within this substation) in the Templates
folder.
Substations from previously defined templates are created using the network diagrams.
The substations are represented in these diagrams by means of composite node symbols.
To create a new substation from a template:
• Click on the symbol of the composite node ( or ) listed among the symbols on
the right-hand drawing pane.
• From the second row of the toolbar menu on the top of the graphic window click on
the 'Copy from Templates' icon ( ) to see the list of available templates (from the
Templates library) for substations. From this list choose the template that you want to
create a substation from.
• Click on the single line diagram to place the symbol.
• The substation is automatically created in the corresponding grid folder.
• Close the window of the templates and press Esc to get the cursor back.
A diagram of the newly created substation can be opened by double clicking at the
composite node symbol. In the new diagram it is possible to rearrange the substation
configuration and to connect the desired components to the grid.
For further information on templates please refer to 7.6 (The Templates Library). For infor-
mation about the substation single line diagrams please refer to 7.3.1 (Network
Diagrams).
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10.1.7 Working with Branches in the Graphical Editor
New branches are created in the Data Manager, using the procedure described in
Section 11.2.4 (Defining Branches in the Data Manager). The definition and connection
of the branch components can be carried out by in the associated single line diagram,
which is automatically generated after the creation of the new branch. All the procedures
explained in the previous subsections to create and connect components in the graphical
editor are supported here. The two connections of the branch with the grid are carried
out following any of the procedures described in10.1.5 (Interconnecting Power
Subsystems).
Existing branches can be used as ''models'' to define templates, which may be used later
to create new branches. A new branch template is created by right clicking on the branch
single line diagram and selecting Add to template library from the context sensitive menu.
This action will copy the branch together with all of its contents (including its diagram) in
the Templates folder.
Branches from previously defined templates are created using the network diagrams. The
branches are represented in these diagrams by means of the composite branch symbols
( ). To create a new branch from a template:
• Click on the symbol of the composite branch ( ) listed among the symbols on the
right-hand drawing pane.
• From the second row of the toolbar menu on the top of the graphic window click on
the 'Copy from Templates' icon ( ) to visualize the list of available templates (from
the Templates library) for branches.
• From this list choose the template that you want to create a branch from.
• If the branch is to be connected with terminals of the same single line graphic, simply
click once on each terminal.
• If the branch is to be connected with a terminal from another single line diagram, you
have to 'Paste graphically' one of the terminals on the diagram where you want to
represent the branch.
• If the branch is to be connected with terminals from a substation, click once on each
composite node to which the branch is to be connected. You will be automatically
taken inside each of those composite nodes to make the connections. In the
substation graphic click once on an empty spot near the terminal where you want to
connect the branch end, and then on the terminal itself. If the target substation/s is/
are not represented in the grid diagram (by means of a composite model), you have
to connect the branch end/s with the target terminal/s in the substation single line
graphic, using any of the procedures described in 10.1.5 (Interconnecting Power
Subsystems).
A diagram of the newly created branch can be opened by double clicking at the composite
branch symbol. In the new diagram it is possible to rearrange the branch configuration
and to change the branch connections.
For further information on templates please refer to 7.6 (The Templates Library). For infor-
mation about the branch single line diagrams please refer to 7.3.1 (Network Diagrams).
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10.1.8 Working with Templates
The general information and the applications of 'Templates' are presented in 7.6 (The
Templates Library). This section explains how to create and use these templates.
Any kind of single network component (lines, transformers, terminals,) can be used to
define an ''Element'' template; this is done by right clicking the desired element on a single
line graphic and selecting Add to Template Library from the context sensitive menu, a
dialogue where the name of the new template is to be written pops up. After the name is
given and the Ok button is pressed, a copy of the selected element is stored in the
templates folder.
To define a new ''Group'' template, select a group of elements in the single line graphic,
right on one of the selected elements to open the context sensitive menu and select Add
to Template Library. Give the name of the new template in the dialogue that pops up and
press the Ok button. A new 'template' folder ( ) storing the objects from the group
together with their graphical information is created. If a group of elements containing
substation and branches has been selected these substations and branches are not
copied.
To define a new substation template, right click on the substation single line graphic and
select Add to Template Library from the context sensitive menu. Give the name of the
new template in the dialogue that pops up and press the Ok button. A copy of the target
substation with all of its contents (including its diagram even if it is not stored within the
substation) is created in the Templates folder. The same procedure described above can
be used to define new Branch templates.
Note: In case of creating templates which contain graphical information
the default settings of the names and result boxes defining their
graphical representation (font, frame, size,...) are copied into the
template diagram so that they appear as in the source object(s).
To be able to copy objects from the template library the icon Copy from template ( )
has to be pressed. A new window pops up listing the elements of certain template types
depending on the symbol selected in the drawing toolbox (i.e. if you selected a 2 winding
transformer symbol from the toolbox and then clicked on the ( icon, only templates
for 2 winding transformers will be shown). With the drawing cursor active all elements
which can be copied from the template folder will be listed. If no template had been
created before, the list will be empty.
Adding objects from the template folder other than a group template will result in a copy
of them (together with all including objects) in the grid which is referenced in the graphic
where the object is dropped.
Dropping a group template will only make a copy of its containing data elements not of
the folder object (IntTemplate) itself. Here only the graphical objects located in the
graphic will be copied, not the graphic itself.
To apply an element template:
• Select the symbol of the target element on the drawing toolbox.
• Click on the "Copy from template" ( ) icon and select the desired template.
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• Insert the new element in the single line graphic, following the same procedures
described to draw and connect new power system elements.
• Close the window of the templates and press Esc to get the cursor back.
To apply a group template:
• Select the symbol of the 'General Templates' ( ) on the drawing toolbox.
• Click on the "Copy from template" ( ) icon and select the desired Group template.
• Left click on the canvas to show a ghost image with the shape of the object to insert.
• Drop the ghost image by another left mouse click at the desired position. If the line
ends of the ghost image are positioned on an existing terminal, an automatic
connection will be performed.
• Close the window of the templates and press Esc to get the cursor back.
To apply a substation template:
• Select the symbol of the 'Composite Node' (( or )) on the drawing toolbox.
• Click on the "Copy from template" ( ) icon and select the desired substation
template.
• The new substation will be represented in the single line diagram by means of the
selected composite node symbol. Click on the single line diagram to place the symbol.
• Close the window of the templates and press Esc to get the cursor back. ´
• A single line diagram of the substation can be open by double clicking on the
'Composite Node' symbol.
To apply a branch template:
• Select the symbol of the 'Composite Branch' ( ) on the drawing toolbox.
• Click on the "Copy from template" ( ) icon and select the desired Branch template.
• The new branch will be represented in the single line diagram by means of the
selected 'Composite Branch' symbol.
• "Close the window of the templates and press Esc to get the cursor back.
Note: The use of Substation templates is recommended for diagrams of
networks, where components are grouped in branches and substa-
tions. In this case the composite nodes can be graphically connect-
ed with the composite branch, forming an overview diagram of the
complete network.
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10.1.9 Defining and Working with Transmission Lines
Due to the specific features of the transmission lines model in PowerFactory, this special
section has been written. Here the aspects related to the handling of the data model are
explained. The technical description is given, along with all the other models of Power-
Factory, in Appendix D and C.
In PowerFactory, transmission lines and cables are treated alike, they are both
instances of the generalized 'transmission line' element ElmLne. A transmission line may
be modeled simply as a one-to-one connection between two nodes and will refer to a line
(TypLne), tower (TypTow), a tower geometry (TypGeo) type, a line coupling
(ElmTow) or a cable system coupling (ElmCabsys). Alternatively, lines may be subdi-
vided into sections referring to different types.
Note: Anywhere that 'transmission line' or simply 'line' is written in this
section, 'lines and/or cables' may be read, unless otherwise speci-
fied.
The two basic line configurations are depicted in Figure 8.TL1:
"Top line: the simplest transmission line is a single line object (ElmLne).
"Bottom line: such a single line may be subdivided into line section objects (ElmLnesec)
at any time/location. No terminals are allowed between two sections, but the sections
may have different line types.
Fig. 10.7: Basic line configurations
The purpose of separating lines into sections is to obtain different line parts, with different
types (such as when a line uses two or more different tower types, or when manual trans-
positions should be modelled - since the "Transposed" option in the type object is a
perfect, balanced, transposition).
Creating a Transmission Line
The simplest line model is a one-to-one connection between two nodes. This is normally
done in the single line graphic by selecting the ( ) icon and by left clicking the first
terminal, possibly clicking on the drawing surface to draw a corner in the line and ending
the line at the second terminal by left clicking it. This will create an ElmLne object in the
database.
When this object is edited, the following dialogue will appear.
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Fig. 10.8: Editing a transmission line
The dialogue shows the two cubicles to which the transmission line is connected ('terminal
i' and 'terminal j'). The example in Figure 10.8 shows a line which is connected between
the nodes called 'Line End Terminal' and 'Line Feeder Bus' from a grid called ' North'. The
line edit dialogue shows the name of the node (in red) in addition to the name of the
cubicle (in blue). The actual connection point to the node is the cubicle and this may be
edited by pressing the edit button ( ). The cubicle may be edited to change the name
of the cubicle, or to add/remove the breaker.
The type of the line is selected by pressing the ( ) next to the type field. Line types for
a line/ line route are:
• The straight forward TypLne object type, where electrical parameters are directly
written (the user can select if the type is defined for an overheat line or a cable).
• Tower types (TypTow and TypGeo) where the geometrical coordinates and
conductor parameters are specified and the electrical parameters are calculated from
this data.
Once the lines (or cables) had been created it is possible to define couplings between the
circuits that they are representing by means of line coupling elements ElmTow (for
overheat lines) and cable system coupling elements ElmCabsys (for cables). Further
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information about line/cable modeling is given in the corresponding the Technical
Reference.
Creating Line Sections
To divide a line into sections:
• Press the Routes/Cubicles/Sections button in the line dialogue. This will open a
data browser showing the existing line sections (if the line has not been sectioned, it
should be empty).
• Click on the new object icon ( ) and select the element Line Sub-Section
(ElmLnesec).
• The edit dialogue of the new line section will pop up. There you have to define the
type and length for the new section.
10.1.10 Working with Single Phase Elements
For a lot of element you can define the phase technology, or at least whether they shall
be three-phase or single-phase elements.
To specify, on which phase a single-phase element shall be connected:
• Open the dialogue window of the element (by doubleclicking on the element).
• Press the Figure >> button to display a little figure of the elements with its
connections on the bottom of the dialogue window.
• Doubleclick on the dark-red names for the connections inside this figure.
• Specify the phase(s).
It is possible to color the grid according to the phases (System Type AC/DC and Phases).
For more information about the coloring please refer to Section 10.6.5 (Color Represen-
tation).
10.2 Graphic Windows and Database Objects
In the PowerFactory graphic windows, graphic objects associated with the active study
case are displayed. Those graphics include single line diagrams, station diagrams, block
diagrams and Virtual Instruments. Many commands and tools are available to edit and
manipulate symbols in the graphics. The underlying data objects may also be accessed
and edited from the graphics, and calculation results may be displayed and configured.
Many of the tools and commands are found in the drop down menus or as buttons in the
toolbars, but by far the most convenient manner of accessing them is to use the right
mouse button to display a menu. This menu is known as a 'Context Sensitive Menu'; in
other words, PowerFactory evaluates where the tip of your cursor is, and then presents
a menu that is appropriate to the cursor location. Thus cursor position is important when
selecting various menu options. It is important to keep the cursor in place when right-
clicking, as the menu presented is determined from cursor position primarily, and not from
the selected or marked object.
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10.2.1 Network Diagrams and Graphical Pages
Four types of graphical pages are used in PowerFactory:
• Single Line Diagrams (network diagrams) for entering power grid definitions and for
showing calculation results
• Detailled graphics of substations or branches (a kind of network diagrams, too) for
showing busbar (nodes) topologies and calculation results
• Block Diagrams for designing logic (controller) circuits and relays
• Virtual Instrument Pages for designing (bar) graphs, e.g. for the results of a stability
calculation, bitmaps, value boxes, etc...
The symbol for graphical pages is inside the Data Manager. Grids, substations,
branches, and controller types (common and composite types in PowerFactory termi-
nology) each have a graphical page. In order to see the graphic on the screen, open a
Data Manager and locate the graphic page object you want to show, click on the icon next
to it, right-click and select Show Graphic. The "Show Graphic" option is also available
directly from each of the above objects themselves. So for example you can select a grid
in the data manager, right-click, and show the graphic. The graphic pages of grids and
substations are to be found in the subfolder "Diagrams" ( ) under the "Network Model"
folder.
Fig. 10.9: The Diagrams folder inside the Data Manager
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10.2.2 Active Graphics, Graphics Board and Study Cases
The graphics that are displayed in an active project are determined by the active study
case. The study case folder contains a folder called the 'Graphics Board' folder
(SetDesktop) in which references to the graphics to be displayed are contained. This
folder, much like the 'Summary Grid' folder, is automatically created and maintained and
should generally not be edited by the user.
Within a PowerFactory project, the Network Model folder contains a sub-folder called
Diagrams. This sub-folder should generally also not be edited by the user as it is automat-
ically created and maintained. It contains the objects that represent single line and
substation graphics (IntGrfnet objects). More than one graphic (single line or substation
diagrams) may be created in/ for a grid, either to display the different grid elements over
several pages, or to display the same grid elements in different graphical arrangements.
Consider the 'Nine Bus System' project that is shown in Figure 10.10. The active study
case is called Old Case and the active grid has two single line graphics that have been
created for it, Basic Grid and Basic Grid_Interconnection . The graphics board folder in
the study case has a reference to only the Basic Grid graphic object and thus only this
graphic for the grid will be shown when the study case is activated.
In the case of single line graphics, the references in the graphics board folder are created
when the user adds a grid to a study case. PowerFactory will ask the user which
graphics of the grid should be displayed. At any time later the user may display other
graphics by right-clicking the grid and selecting Show Graphic from the context sensitive
menu. Graphics may be removed from the active study case by right-clicking the tab at
the bottom of the corresponding graphic page and selecting Remove Page(s).
The study case and graphics board folder will also contain references to any other
graphics that have been created when the study case is active (Not only Single Line
Graphics!).
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Fig. 10.10: Relationship between the study case, graphics board and single line
diagrams
10.2.3 Single Line Graphics and Data Objects
In a simple network there may be a 1:1 relationship between data objects and their
graphical representations, i.e. every load, generator, terminal and line is represented
once in the graphics. However, PowerFactory provides additional flexibility in this
regard. Data objects may be represented graphically on more than one graphic, but only
once per graphic. Thus a data object for one terminal can be represented graphically on
two or more graphics. Both graphical representations contain the link to the same data
object.
Furthermore, graphical symbols may be moved without losing the link to the data object
they represent. Likewise, data objects may be moved without affecting the graphic
The graphics themselves are saved in the database tree, by deafult in the Diagrams folder
of the Network Model. This makes finding the correct Single Line graphic representation
of a particular grid, even in the case where there are several graphic representations for
one grid, easy.
When the drawing tools are used to place a new component (i.e. a line, transformer, bar
graph, etc.) a new data object is also created in the database tree. A Single Line Graphic
object therefore has a reference to a grid folder. The new data objects are stored into the
'target' folders that the graphics page is associated with (this information may be deter-
mined by right-clicking the graphic ÷> Graphic Options see Section 11.4 (Editing Data
Objects in the Data Manager) for more information).
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Since data objects may have more than one graphic representation the deletion of a
graphic object should not mean that the data object will also be deleted. Hence the user
may choose to delete only the graphical object (right-click menu ÷> Delete Graphical
Object only. In this case the user is warned that the data object will not be deleted.
This suggests that a user may delete all graphical objects related to a data object, with
the data object still residing in the database and being considered for calculation. This is
indeed what will occur, when such graphical deletion is done.
When an element is deleted completely (right menu option ÷> Delete Element) a warning
message will confirm the action. This warning may be switched off - see User Settings,
General, "Always confirm deletion of Grid Data").
10.2.4 Editing and Selecting Objects
Once elements have been drawn on the graphic the data for the element may be viewed
and edited by either double-clicking the graphic symbol under consideration, or by right-
clicking it and selecting Edit Data.
The option Edit and Browse Data will show the element in a data manager environment.
The object itself will be selected (highlighted) in the data manager and can be double-
clicked to open the edit dialogue. A new data manager will be opened if no data manager
is presently active. If more than one symbol was selected when the edit data option was
selected, a data browser will pop up listing the selected objects. The edit dialogues for
each element may be opened from this data browser one by one, or the selected objects
can be edited in the data browser directly, see Section 11.4 (Editing Data Objects in the
Data Manager).
Finding specific elements in a large project may be difficult if one had to look through the
single line diagram alone. PowerFactory includes the Mark in Graphic tool, to assist the
user in finding elements within the graphic. To use this tool the user has to first search
for the desired object in the Data Manager using any of the methods presented in Chapter
11 (The Data Manager). Once a searched object/element is identified, it may be right-
clicked and the option Mark in Graphic selected. This action will mark the selected object
in the single line graphic where it appears.
When performing this command ensure that the object itself is selected, as shown in
Figure 10.11. The menu will be different to that seen when selecting an individual field,
as shown in Figure 10.12.
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Fig. 10.11: Selecting an object correctly

Fig. 10.12: Selecting an object incorrectly
Note The position of an object in the database tree can be found by:
-Opening the edit dialogue. The full path is shown in the header of
the dialogue.
-Right-clicking the object and selecting Edit and Browse. This will
open a new database browser when required, and will focus on the
selected object.
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10.2.5 Creating New Graphic Windows
A new graphic window can be created using the New command dialogue. This dialogue
may be opened:
• By pressing the icon.
• By selecting the File ÷> New item on the main menu.
• By pressing the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+N.
The ComNew dialogue must be configured to create the desired new object and the new
object should be named. Ensure that the correct target folder for the new object is
selected.
Objects that may be created using this dialogue (DiaPagetyp) are:
Project
Creates a new Project folder and another dialogue pops up to define a
grid folder in the Project folder. Finally the Graphic page in which the
single line diagram may be drawn will appear.
Grid
Creates a new grid folder and a new Single Line Graphic object in that
folder. The (empty) single line graphic will pop up.
Block Diagram
Creates a new Block Diagram folder in the selected folder and a new
Block Diagram Graphic object. The (empty) block diagram graphic will
pop up.
Virtual Instrument Panel
Creates a new Virtual Instrument Page object. The (empty) Virtual
Instrument Page will pop up.
Single Line Graphic
Creates a Single Line Graphic in the target folder. Before the graphic
can be created the Current Net Data pointer must be set (that is, the
relevant grid folder must be selected).
The target folder will be set to the \User folder by default, but may be changed to any
folder in the database tree. The new grid, Block Diagram or Virtual Instruments folder will
be created in the target folder.
In all cases, a new graphics board object is also created, because graphic pages can only
be shown as a page in a graphics board. An exception is the creation of a new page, while
in a graphics board. This can be done by pressing the icon on the graphics board
toolbar. This will add the new graphics page to the existing graphics board.
More information about how to draw network components is given in the following
sections.
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10.3 Basic Functionality
Each of the four graphic window types are edited and used in much the same way. This
section gives a description of what is common to all graphic windows. Specific behavior
and functionality of the graphic windows themselves is described in separate sections.
10.3.1 The Page Tab
The page tab of the graphic window displays the name of the graphics in the graphics
board. The sequence of the graphics in the graphics board may be changed by the user.
A page tab is clicked and moved by dragging and dropping. An arrow marks the insert
position during drag and drop. Another way to change the order of the graphics is to
select the option Move/Copy Page(s) of the context sensitive menu. In addition virtual
instrument panels can be copied very easily. To do so the Ctrl key is pressed during drag
and drop. The icon copies a virtual instrument panel and inserts the copy alongside
the original panel.
The page tab menu is accessed by a right-click on the page tab of the graphic windows.
The following commands are found:
• Insert Page ÷> Create New Page creates a new page (the icon in the toolbar will
do the same).
• Insert Page ÷> Open Existing Page opens a page or graphic that has already been
created but which is not yet displayed (the icon in the toolbar will do the same).
• Rename Page presents a dialogue to change the name of the graphic.
• Move/Copy Page(s) displays a dialogue to move or copy the selected page. Copy is
available only for virtual instrument panels.
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10.3.2 The Drawing Toolboxes
Each graphics window has a specific Drawing Tool Box. This toolbox has buttons for new
network symbols and for non-network symbols. See Figure 10.13 for two examples.

Fig. 10.13: Two tool boxes, for single line diagrams (a) and for block diagrams (b)
The toolboxes have:
• Network or block diagram symbols, which are linked to a database object: busbars,
lines, transformers, switches, adders, multipliers, etc.
• Graphical add-on symbols: text, polygons, rectangles, circles, etc.
• The "Graphic Cursor'' ( ) which is mainly used to select graphical objects in order
to change their appearance.
The toolboxes are only visible when the graphics freeze mode is off. The graphics freeze
mode is turned on and off with the icon (found at the local icon bar of the graphical
window).
10.3.3 The Active Grid Folder (Target Folder)
Inside the status bar of PowerFactory, the active grid folder is displayed on the leftmost
field. Any changes you make in the network diagram refering the data of the grid are
stored inside this grid folder. To change the active grid folder (the target folder), double-
click this field, a window opens in which you can select the new active grid folder.
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Fig. 10.14: The Status Bar
10.4 Drawing Diagrams with already existing Network
Elements
This chapter provides information about how to draw network components from already
existing objects.
Designing new (extensions to) power system grids, is preferably done graphically. This
means that the new power system objects should be created in a graphical environment.
After the new components are added to the design, they are edited, either from the
graphical environment itself (by double-clicking the objects), or by opening a database
manager and using its editing facilities.
It is however possible, and sometimes even necessary, to work the other way around. In
that case, new data objects are first created and edited in the database manager, and
subsequently used in one or more single line diagrams, or imported from other programs.
PowerFactory allows for this either by drag and drop facilities to drag power system
objects from the data manager to a graphic window, or by the 'Draw Existing Net
Elements' tool. The way this is done is as follows:
1 Select from the drawing tools toolbox the kind of object that is to be drawn in the
graphic.
2 Enable the drag & drop feature in the data manager by double-clicking the drag &
drop message in the message bar.
3 Select the data object in the data manager by left clicking the object icon.
4 Hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse to the graphic drawing area
(drag it).
5 Position the graphical symbol in the same way as is done normally.
6 A new graphical symbol is created, the topological data is changed, but the
graphical symbol will refer to the dragged data object. No new data object is
created.
Dragging objects in this manner is supported, however, it is easier to use the 'Draw
Existing Net Elements' tool to perform this action, as described in the next sections.
10.4.1 Drawing Existing Terminals
Click on the button 'Drawing existing Net Elements' ( ) and a window with a list of all
the terminals in the network, that are not visualized in the active diagram appears.
Click on the symbol for terminals ( ) in the drawing toolbox. The symbol of the terminal
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is now attached to the cursor.
If the list is very large, press the button 'Adjacent Element Mode' ( ). This activates the
selecting of distance (number of elements) from elements in the active diagram. Select
the Distance of 1 in order to reduce the number of terminals shown.
The marked or selected element can now be visualised or drawn by clicking somewhere
in the active diagram. This element is drawn and disappears from the list.
Note that the number of elements in the list can increase or decreases depending on how
many elements are a distant away from the element lastly drawn. Scroll down the list, in
case only certain elements have to be visualised.
Close the window and press Esc to return the Cursor to normal. The drawn terminals can
be moved, rotated or manipulated in various ways.
10.4.2 Drawing Existing Lines, Switch Gears and Transformers
Similar to the terminals ( ), elements like lines and transformers connecting the
terminals in the substation can be drawn.
Press the button 'Drawing existing Net Elements' ( ). For lines select the symbol
from the drawing toolbox, for transformers select the symbol , and so on.
Similar to terminals a list of all the lines (or transformers, or elements which you have
chosen) in the network, that are not in the active diagram are listed. Reduced the list by
pressing the button 'Elements which can be completely connected' ( ) at the top of the
window with the list. A list of lines with both terminals in the active diagram is pre-
selected. If the list is empty, then there are no lines connecting any two unconnected
terminals in the active diagram.
For each selected line (or transformers...) a pair of terminals, to which the line is
connected is marked in the diagram. Click on the first terminal and then on the second.
The selected line is drawn und is removed from the list of lines.
Continue drawing all lines (or transformers...), until the list of lines is empty or all the lines
to be drawn have been drawn.
10.4.3 Building Single line Diagram from Imported Data
When a power system design is imported from another program, only the non-graphical
information is regarded (only some of the converters that are provided in PowerFactory
will also import graphics files). Although this includes the connection data in the form of
'from-to' data fields, the graphical single line diagrams are usually not be imported. After
the import, a new single line diagram may be built using the imported database infor-
mation (note that this does not mean that the user will not be able to perform load-flows
and other calculations immediately after import; this may be done).
This is done by first creating a new single line graphic object in the Diagrams folder of the
Network Model (right-click the Diagrams folder and select New ÷> Graphic). This opens
the single line graphic dialogue, where the 'Current Net Data' pointer should be set to the
respective grid folder. See Section 10.6 for more information.
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As soon as the correct folder has been set, and OK has been pressed, the single line
graphic object ( ) is created and a blank graphic page, appropriately named, pops up.
The Draw Existing Net Elements ( ) icon on the graphics toolbar may now be
pressed. This opens a database browser listing all elements considered by the active study
case (see Figure 10.15) and which have not yet been inserted into the new single line
graphic.
This list may be filtered to show only particular grids or all grids by using the drop down
window (Figure 10.15 b, red circle) provided. Once a drawing tool is chosen, in this case
the Terminal tool, the list is further filtered to show only terminals, as can be seen in the
example. When the user now clicks on the graphic the highlighted terminal (in the
browser, Figure 10.15 b) will be removed from the list and placed onto the graphic, and
the next terminal down will be highlighted, ready for placement. In the example three
terminals have already been placed in the graphic.
After all busbars have been inserted into the single line graphic, branch elements may be
selected in the graphic toolbox. In Figure 10.16 a, the transmission liner tool has been
selected. The database browser will now show all lines which have not been inserted into
the graphics. When one of these lines is selected in the browser (Figure 10.16 b), the
corresponding two busbars will be highlighted in the single line graphic. The insertion
point and connections for the transformer is thus clear. This is also why the nodes should
first be placed on the graphic. Branch elements are placed once the nodes are in position.
See also:
Drawing Existing Terminals
Drawing Existing Lines, Switch Gears and Transformers
a)
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b)
Fig. 10.15: Using the Draw Net Elements tool
a)
b)
Fig. 10.16: Placing a transformer
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Note Before placing elements onto the graphic users may find it useful
to configure and display a background layer. This will be a bitmap
of an existing single line diagram of the system. It may be used to
'trace' over so that the PowerFactory network looks the same as
current paper depictions; see Section 10.6.4 for more information
on layers.
10.4.4 Creating a new substation in an Overview Diagram
Overview diagrams are single line diagrams without detailed graphical information of the
substations. Substations are illustrated as "Composite Nodes", which can be coloured to
show the connectivity of the connected elements ("Beach Ball"). Substations from pre-
defined templates (or templates previously defined by the user) are created using the
network diagrams. The substations are represented in these diagrams by means of
composite node symbols.
To draw a substation from a template in an overview diagram:
• Click on the symbol of the composite node ( or ) listed among the symbols on
the right-hand drawing pane.
• Then click on the 'Copy from Templates' button ( ) in the icon bar of the graphic
window in order to see the list of available templates for substations (from the
Templates library). From this list choose the template that you want to create a
substation from.
• Click on the overview single line diagram to place the symbol. The substation is
automatically created in the active grid folder.
• Right click the substation, select Edit Substation, and rename the substation
accordingly.
• Close the window with the templates.
• Press Esc to get the cursor back.
• Resize the substation symbol in the overview diagram to the desired size.
A diagram of the newly created substation can be opened by double clicking at the
composite node symbol. In the new diagram it is possible to rearrange the substation
configuration and to connect the desired components to the grid.
Existing substations can be used as ''models'' to create user-defined templates, which
may be used later to create new substations. A new substation template is created by
right clicking on the substation single line diagram and selecting Add to template library
from the context sensitive menu. This action will copy the substation together with all of
its contents (including its diagram even if it is not stored within this substation) in the
Templates folder.
To resize a composite node:
• Click once on the composite node you want to resize.
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• When it is highlighted, place the cursor on one of the black squares at the corners and
hold down the left mouse button.
• A double-arrow symbol appears and you can resize the figure by moving the mouse.
For a rectangular composite node you can also resize the shape by placing the cursor
on one of the sides.
To show the connectivity inside a composite node:
Press the button to open the colouring dialog. Select the colouring mode. Change the
data, if required, for the selected mode. To show the station connectivity by the colouring
select 'Station Connectivity' (Figure 10.17). It is possible to colour the beach balls
according to the station connectivity in spite of selecting a different mode by enabling the
option 'Always show station connectivity colour for beach balls'.
Enabling the option "Show Colour Legend" will create a legend in the active single-line
diagram. You can move and resize the legend by using the graphics cursor.
If the option 'Always show station connectivity colour for beach balls' is active, it is not
possible to show the selected colour option. By deactivating this option and pressing the
Button OK, the selected colouring option will be showed. In this case beach balls are not
coloured any more according to "station connectivity" but according to the selected
colouring.
Fig. 10.17: Options for colouring graphics of single-line diagram
The button "apply to all graphics" will change the colouring mode not only for the active
diagram, but for all diagrams in the active graphics board.
10.4.5 Show Detailed Substation Graphic
There are two ways to open the graphic page of a substation. First is to double-click on
the corresponding composite node in the overview diagram. Second is to go to the graphic
object of the substation in the data manager, right-click on it and choose Show Graphic.
10.5 Drawing of Network Components from Templates
or Predefined Objects
This chapter provides information about how to draw network components from
templates or predefined objects.
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Creating a Composite Branch from Template
Go to the single-line (overview) diagram of the network. Click on the symbol of the
composite branch ( ) listed among the symbols on the right-hand drawing pane.
Then from the second row of the toolbar menu on the top of the graphic window click on
the 'Copy from Templates' button ( ) to see the list of available templates for branches.
From this list choose the template that you want to create a branch from. On the overview
diagram click once on each composite node to which the branch is to be connected. You
are automatically taken inside each of those composite nodes to make the connections.
In the substation graphic click once on an empty spot near the terminal where you want
to connect the branch end, and then on the terminal itself. Do the same for the other end.
10.6 Graphic Commands, Options and Settings
In this section the commands, options and settings that are available in PowerFactory
to configure and use the graphic windows are introduced. The first three subsections
present the options, commands and settings available for the different windows. The last
four are dedicated to the Graphic Layers, the Color Representation, the Title Block and
the Legend Block, which are special features that facilitate the visualization of the repre-
sented power system within the graphical windows.
10.6.1 General Commands and Settings
The following basic options are available in all graphic windows.
Zooming
Zoom In:
Zoom Out:
Zoom All:
Press the button; the cursor changes to show a magnifying glass; the area to be zoomed
into must be selected. This is done by dragging a rectangle around the area to be zoomed
÷> picture the area to be zoomed and left click in the top left hand corner of an imaginary
rectangle framing the area. Keep the mouse button held down and drag the cursor down
and to the right. A frame is drawn as you do this; when the frame encompasses the area
you wish to zoom into let the mouse button go.
To zoom ''back'' press the Zoom Out button - this will step the zoom back to the last state.
To view the entire page press the Zoom All button (100 percent zoom).
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Note You can also type a zoom percentage directly into the 'Zoom Level'
window or use the drop down list to zoom
Print Graphic
Main Menu: File ÷> Print
Keyboard: Ctrl + P
Icon:
This function will send the graphic to a printer. A printer dialogue will appear first.
Note The function, Page Setup (accessible via main menu path File ÷>
Page Setup), allow a subsize for printing to be set. This will, for ex-
ample, print an A3 graphic across two A4 pages. Special paper siz-
es or unusual printer insertion points may be entered as well by
using the margins of the print-out. These margins have to be set
with care as the print-out will be stretched to the frame. If this re-
maining page frame has a X/Y - ratio other than 0.707 (A3, A4),
the drawing will be distorted.
Rebuild
Right-Click: Drawing ÷>Rebuild
Icon:
The drawing may not be updated correctly in some circumstances. The rebuild function
updates the currently visible page by updating the drawing from the database.
Insert New Page
Page Tab Menu:Insert Page ÷> Create New Page (The page tab menu is opened by
right-clicking the page tabs).
Icon:
Inserts a new graphic object into the Graphic Board folder of the active study case and
presents a blank graphics page to the user. A dialogue to configure the new graphics
object will appear first.
Insert Existing Page
Page Tab Menu:Insert Page ÷> Open Existing Page (The page tab menu is opened by
right-clicking the page tabs).
Icon:
Inserts existing graphics, which may be one of the following:
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• Graphic folder object (IntGrfnet, single line network or substation diagrams) ÷>
opens the selected graphic.
• Terminal (ElmTerm, ) opens the station graphic of the selected terminal (this may
also be accessed by right-clicking the terminal in a Data Manager, or a terminal on the
single line graphic ÷> Show Station Graphic.
• Block Definition (BlkDef, ) ÷ The graphic of the block definition is opened. If
there is no graphic defined for the block definitions the command is not executed.
• Virtual Instrument Panels (SetVipage) ÷> A copy of the selected virtual instrument
panel is created and displayed.
Graphic folder objects (IntGrfnet) may be opened in more than one Graphics Board at
the same time, even more than once in the same Graphics Board. Changes made to a
graphic will show themselves on all pages on which the graphic object is displayed.
Remove Page
Page Tab Menu:Remove Page (The page tab menu is opened by right-clicking the
page tabs).
This function will remove the selected graphic from the Graphics Board. The graphic itself
will not be deleted and can be re-inserted to the current or any other Graphics Board at
any time.
Rename Page
Page Tab Menu:Rename Page (The page tab menu is opened by right-clicking the
page tabs).
This function will pop up a dialogue to change the name of the selected graphic.
Graphic Options
Right-Click Drawing:Graphic Options
Icon:
Each graphic window has its own settings, which may be changed using the graphic
options function. This function presents a dialogue for the following settings. See Figure
10.18.
Basic Attributes tab:
Name
The name of the graphic
Current Grid Data
The reference to the database folder in which new power system
elements created in this graphic will be stored.
Write protected
If enabled, the single line graphic can not be modified. The drawing
toolboxes are not displayed and the 'freeze' icon becomes inactive.
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Snap
Snaps the mouse onto the drawing raster.
Grid
Shows the drawing raster using small points.
Ortho-Type
Defines if and how non-orthogonal lines are permitted:
- Ortho Off: Connections will be drawn exactly as their line points were set.
- Ortho: Allow only right-angle connections between objects.
- Semi Ortho: The first segment of a connection that leads away from a busbar or
terminal will always be drawn orthogonally.
Line Style for Cables
Is used to select a line style for all cables.
Line Style for Overhead Lines
Is used to select a line style for all overhead lines.
Offset Factor for Branch Symbols
Defines the length of a connection when a branch symbol is drawn by
clicking on the busbar/terminal. This is the default distance from the
busbar/terminal in grid points.
Show Bus Couplers
Can be used to see all couplers, or to hide them.
Allow Individual Line Style
Permits the line style to be set for individual lines. The individual style
may be set for any line in the graphic by right-clicking the line ÷> Set
Individual Line Style. This may also be performed for a group of
selected lines/cables in one action, by first multi selecting the elements.
Allow Individual Line Width
As for the individual line style, but may be used in combination with the
"Line Style for Cables/Overhead Lines" option. The individual width is
defined by selecting the corresponding option in the right mouse menu
(may also be performed for a group of selected lines/cables in one
action).
Equidistant Insertion of Terminals on Lines
Is used when an existing line with line-routes is drawn. The terminals
between the line-routes can then be drawn either with distances
according to the relative length of the routes, or, when this option is
enabled, at equidistant positions along the line. This has no effect on
the electrical models, only on the graphical representation.
'Additional Attributes' and 'Coordinates' tabs: these should only be configured with the
assistance of DIgSILENT support staff.
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Fig. 10.18: Graphic options editor
Text Boxes tab:
Boxes of Object Names - Background
Specifies the transparency of object names boxes:
- Opaque:Means that objects behind the results box cannot be seen through the
results box.
- Transparent:Means that objects behind the results box can be seen through the
results box.
Result Boxes - Background
Specifies the transparency of result boxes (as boxes of object names).
Always show result boxes of detailed couplers
Self-explanatory.
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Space saving representation of result boxes on connection lines
Self-explanatory.
Show line from General Textboxes to referenced objects
may be disabled to unclutter the graphic.
Reset textboxes completely
Textboxes and result boxes have reference points (the point on the box
at which the box will 'attach' to its element) that may be changed by
the user. If this option is:
- Enabled:The default reference will be used.
- Disabled:The user defined reference will be used.
when the Reset settings option in the right-click menu for moved result
boxes is selected.
Switches tab:
Cubicle representation
Selects the switch representation (see Figure 10.19):
- Permanent Box:Shows a solid black square for a closed and an frame line for an
open switch (left picture).
- Old Style Switch:Shows the switches as the more conventional switch symbol
(right picture).

Fig. 10.19: Cubicle representations
Display Frame around Switches
Draws a frame around the switch itself (Breakers, Disconnectors, etc.).
This only applies to user-drawn breakers and disconnectors.
Create switches when connecting to terminal
Self-explanatory.
Show connected busbars as small dots in simplified substation representation
Defines how the connection points on busbars are represented in
busbar systems.
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Note: The settings for the cursor type for the graphic windows (large
crosshair or small tracking cross) may be set in the User Settings
dialogue, see Section 6.2. This is because the cursor shape is a glo-
bal setting, valid for all graphic windows, while all graphic settings
described above are specific for each graphic window.
Page Setup for Drawing and Printing
The drawing area for single line diagrams, block diagrams and virtual instruments is
selected in the "Drawing Format" dialogue ( icon on the graphics window). One of the
predefined paper formats can be selected, each of which can be edited, and new formats
can be defined. The selected paper format has 'Landscape' orientation by default and can
be rotated by 90 degrees by selecting 'Portrait'. The format definitions, which are shown
when an existing format is edited or when a new format is defined, also show the
landscape dimensions for the paper format.
It is not possible to draw outside the selected drawing area. If a drawing no longer fits to
the selected drawing size, then a larger format should be selected. The existing graphs
or diagrams are repositioned on the new format (use Ctrl+A to mark all objects and then
grab and move the entire graphic by left clicking and holding the mouse key down on one
of the marked objects; drag the graphic to a new position if desired).
If no 'Subsize for Printing' format has been selected, then, at printing time, the drawing
area will be scaled to fit the paper size of the printer. If, for instance, the drawing area is
A3 and the selected paper in the printer is A4, then the graphs/diagrams will be printed
at 70% of their original size.
By selecting a subsize for printing, the scaling of the drawing at printing time can be
controlled. The dimensions of the sub-sized printing pages are shown in the graphic page.
If, for instance, the drawing size has been selected as A3 landscape, and the printing size
as A4 portrait, then a vertical grey line will divide the drawing area in two halves. The
drawing area will be accordingly partitioned at printing time and will be printed across two
A4 pages.
Make sure that the selected subsize for used for printing is available at the printer. The
printed pages are scaled to the available physical paper if this is not the case.
For instance:
• The drawing area has been selected as A2 landscape.
• The subsize for printing has been selected as A3 portrait. The A2 drawing is thus to be
printed across two pages.
• Suppose that the selected printer only has A4 paper. The original A2 drawing is then
scaled down to 70% and printed on two A4 sheets of paper.
Mark All
Icon:
This function marks (selects) all objects in the drawing. This is helpful for moving the
whole drawing to another place or copying the whole drawing into the clipboard. In block
diagrams the surrounding block will not be marked. The keyboard short cut Ctrl+A may
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also be used to perform this action.
10.6.2 Commands and Settings for Block Diagrams and Single
Line Graphics
The following basic functions are available in block diagram and single line graphics.
Edit Data
Right-Click Selection:Edit Data
Keyboard: Alt+Return
Mouse: Double-click
Icon:
This option lets the user edit the device data of all marked objects in the drawing. If only
one object is marked, then this object's edit dialogue will pop up directly. When more than
one object is marked, a Data Manager window will show the list of marked objects. As
with a normal Data Manager, these objects can be double-clicked to open their edit
dialogues. See Chapter 11 (The Data Manager) for more information.
Note Changes made in the device data of objects are not registered by
the graphical Undo Function. Undoing these changes is therefore
not possible.
Delete
Right-Click Selection:Delete Element
Keyboard: Del
Icon:
This function deletes all marked objects in the drawing. The database objects for the
graphical object will also be deleted (a warning message will pop up first - this may be
switched off in the "User Settings" dialogue; see Section 6.2 (Graphic Windows Settings).
Delete Graphical Object only
Right-Click Selection:Delete Graphical Object only
This function deletes all marked objects in the drawing. The database objects for the
graphical object will also be deleted (a warning message will pop up first - this may be
switched off in the "User Settings" dialogue; see Section 6.2 (Graphic Windows Settings)).
Copy
Right-Click Selection:Copy
Keyboard: Ctrl+C
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Icon:
Copies all marked objects from the current drawing and puts them into the clipboard.
Paste
Right-Click Drawing:Paste
Keyboard: Ctrl+V
Icon:
Copies all objects from the clipboard and pastes them into the current drawing. The
objects are pasted at the current graphical mouse position. Objects that are copied and
so pasted create completely new graphic and data objects in the graphic that they are
pasted into.
If you wish to copy and paste just the graphic, then choose Paste Graphic Only from the
right-click menu. Similar results are obtained when using the "Draw Existing Net
Elements" tool (see Section 10.4 "Drawing Diagrams with already existing Network
Elements").
Undo
Right-Click Selection:Undo
Keyboard: Ctrl+Z
Icon:
Undoes the last graphic action. Undo will restore deleted elements or delete created
elements when necessary. Note that data that has been deleted or changed will not be
restored.
Define Graphics Attributes
Icon:
This dialogue sets the line style, line width, brush style, color and font, for annotations
(i.e. not for power system elements).
The line style includes several kinds of dashed or dotted lines and one special line style:
the TRUE DOTS style. This style will only put a dot at the actual coordinates. In a single
line graphic, this means only at the start and the end, which does not make much sense.
For result graphs, however, the TRUE DOTS style will only show the actual data points.
The brush style is used to fill solid symbols like squares and circles. These settings may
also be accessed by simply double-clicking an annotation.
10.6.3 Commands and Settings for Single Line Graphics
The following basic functions are available in single line graphics only.
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Copy from Templates
Icon:
Opens a data browser displaying the available templates. For information about the
definition and the use of templates in network models please refer to Section 10.1
(Defining Network Models with the Graphical Editor)
Draw Existing Net Elements
Icon:
This button opens a database browser which contains all objects in the Current Net Data
folder, which are not shown in the active single line graphic.
Draw Existing Net Elements is used mainly to build single line graphics from imported
data, but may also be used to create alternative graphical arrangements for existing data.
See Section 10.4 (Drawing Diagrams with already existing Network Elements) for more
information.
Set Individual Color
Right-Click Selection:Set Individual Color
Allows the user to choose a color for individual elements. Only available when the 'Color
Representation' ( 10.6.5) is set to 'Individual'.
Rotate
Right-Click Selection:Rotate
Rotates symbols 90 degrees. Only unconnected symbols can be rotated. To rotate a
connected element: disconnect it, rotate it and connect it again.
Disconnect Element
Right-Click Selection:Disconnect Element
Disconnects the selected elements.
Reconnect Element
Right-Click Selection:Reconnect Element
Icon:
Disconnects the selected elements and then presents the element for immediate re-
connection. The branch to be connected will be 'glued' to the cursor. Left clicking a bar
or terminal will connect the element.
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Connect
Right-Click Selection:Connect Element
Connects the selected unconnected elements one by one. The branch to be connected
will be 'glued' to the cursor. Left clicking a bar or terminal will connect the element.
Move Objects
Marked objects can be moved by left clicking them and holding down the mouse button.
The objects can be moved when the cursor changes to an arrowed cross ( ).
Hold down the mouse button and drag the marked objects to their new position. Connec-
tions from the moved part of the drawing to other objects will be adjusted.
Edit Line Points
Right-Click Selection:Edit Line Points
The connection lines of graphical symbols may be edited separately. Selecting the Edit
Line Points option will show the black squares ('line points') that define the shape of the
connection. Each of these squares can be moved by left clicking and dragging them to a
new position (see Figure 10.20). New squares can be inserted by left clicking the
connection in between squares.

Fig. 10.20: Editing line points
Line points are deleted by right-clicking them and selecting the Delete Vertex option from
the case sensitive menu. This menu also presents the option to stop (end) the line point
editing, which can also be done by left clicking somewhere outside the selected lines.
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Hand Tool
Icon:
Hand tool to drag the single line graphic area.
Further single line graphic functionalitiy (Graphic Layers, Color Representation, The Title
Block and The Legend Block) is described in the following sections.
10.6.4 Graphic Layers
The single line graphic and the Block diagram graphic windows use transparent layers of
drawing sheets on which the graphical symbols are placed. Each of these layers may be
set to be visible or not. The names of objects that have been drawn, for example, are on
a layer called 'Object Names' and may be made visible or invisible to the user.
Which layers are visible and exactly what is shown on a layer is defined in the 'Graphical
Layers' dialogue. This dialogue can be opened by pressing the icon on the local
toolbar, or by right-clicking on an empty spot of the graphic area ÷> Show Layer. The
layers dialogue has a "Visibility" tab to determine which layers will be visible, and a
"Configuration" tab to define various attributes for the layers. See Figure 10.21.
In Figure 10.21, the layers in the left pane (Base Level, Object Names, Results, etc.) are
visible in the graphical window. The layers in the right pane are invisible. Layers can be
made visible by multi selecting them (hold the Ctrl key down whilst selecting) and
pressing the button (alternatively, double-click a layer name and it will jump to the
other pane). A layer can be made invisible again by selecting it in the left pane and
pressing the button or by double-clicking it. It is also possible to define user-specific
layers, by pressing the New button.
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Fig. 10.21: Graphical layers dialogue (SetLevelvis)
The layers existing in PowerFactory are described in Table 10.1.
Each graphic symbol in a single line diagram or block diagram is assigned to default layer
at first. All busbar symbols, for example, are drawn on the 'Base Level' layer by default.
Graphic symbols may be shifted onto other layers by right-clicking them in the single line
graphic and selecting the option Shift to Layer from the context sensitive menu. This
option will show a second menu with all layers. Selecting a layer will move all selected
symbols to that layer. Moving symbols from one layer to another is normally only needed
when only a few symbols from a certain group should be made visible (for instance the
result boxes of one or two specific point-terminals), or when user defined layers are used.
Note Certain names and results boxes are, by default, assigned to the
'Invisible Objects' layer. An example are the names and results
boxes for point terminals. This is done to unclutter the graphic.
Should the user wish to display names and/or results boxes for cer-
tain point terminals simply make the 'Invisible Objects' layer visible
and re-assign the names and results boxes required to another lay-
er, such as the 'Object Names' or 'Results' layers - then make the
'Invisible Objects' layer invisible once more.
The 'Configuration' tab has a drop down list showing all layers that may be configured by
the user. Considering the 'Object Names' layer as shown in Figure 10.22, it may be seen
that a target (or focus) may be set. The selected target will be the focus of the performed
configuration command. Various actions or settings may be performed, such as e.g.
changing the font using the Change Font button. The configuration tab may also be used
to mark (select/ highlight) the target objects in the graphic using the Mark button.
The options available to configure a layer depend on the type of Layer. Table 10.1 shows
for each layer in which way its content can be changed in format.
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Fig. 10.22: Graphical layers configuration page
As and example, suppose that a part of the single line graphics is to be changed, for
instance, to allow for longer busbar names. To change the settings, the correct graphical
layer is first selected. In this example, it will be the 'Object Names' layer. In this layer,
only the busbar names are to be changed, and the target must therefore be set to 'All
Nodes'. When the layer and the target has been selected, the width for object names may
be set in the Settings area. The number of columns may be set using the Visibility/
Frame/Width button. Alternatively, the Adapt Width will adapt all of the object name
placeholders to the length of the name for each object.
Changing a setting for all nodes or all branches at once will overwrite the present settings.
Note Should an object disappear when it has been re-assigned to a lay-
er, that layer may be invisible. Layer visibility should be inspected
and changed if required.
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Table 10.1: Diagram Layers of PowerFactory
Layer Content Configuration
Options
Diagram Type
SL Single Line
B Block
Base Level Symbols for the elements of the
grid
(none) SL/B
Object Names Boxes with names and additional
data description, if configured
Text/Box Format SL/B
Results Boxes with calculation results Text/Box Format SL/B
Connection
Points
Dots at the connections between
edges and buses/terminals and
signal connections to blocks
(none) SL/B
Device Data Additional Text explanation given in
the device symbol
Text/Box Format SL/B
Invisible Objects Layer containing the symbols of
elements hidden by default
Text/Box Format SL/B
Background Graphic used as the background
(“wallpaper”) to allow easier
drawing of the diagram or to show
additional information (map
information)
Name of file with
graphics
(WMF,DBX,BMP)
SL/B
Numbers of
connection lines
Number of lines for each
connection
None SL
Sections and
Line Loads
Symbols at lines consisting of
sections and/or where line loads
are connected
Text/Box Format SL
Connection
Arrows
Double-Arrow at connections where
the end point is not represented in
the current diagram.
None SL
Tap Positions Positions of taps for shunts and
transformers
Text/Box Format SL
Vector Groups Vector group for rotating machines
and transformers
Text/Box Format SL
Direction Arrows Arrows that can be configured for
active and reactive power flow
representation
Active/Reactive Power
for direct/inverse/
homopolar system
SL
Phases Number of phases of a line/cable,
shown as parallel lines
None SL
Connection
Numbers
Index of each possible block
connection point
Text/Box Format B
Connection
Names
Name of each unused connection of
a block
Text/Box Format B
Signals Name of the signal transmitted Text/Box Format B
Block Definition Definition each block is based on Text/Box Format B
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10.6.5 Color Representation
The Single line graphic window has an automatic color representation mode. The icon
on the local toolbar will open the color representation dialogue. This dialogue is used to
select a certain coloring mode. This mode may be
None
This will redraw the graphic in black and white.
Individual
Each symbol may be assigned an individual color as determined by the
user.
Functional
Colors the graphic according to one of the following criteria:
Low/High voltage or loading
Voltage level
Voltage ranges
Isolated Grids
User defined filter
Grids/ Original locations
Modifications
Loading of Thermal/Peak Short-Circuit Current
Path definitions
System Type AC/DC and Phases
Relay locations
Fault Clearing Times
Feeder Definitions
Fault clearance and power restoration
External measurement locations
Missing graphical connections
Zones
State Estimation
Boundaries/Interior Region
Station Connectivity
Outage Check
Energizing Status
Recording Expansion Stage Modifications
Areas
Owners
Routes
Operators
Choose one of the options to color the graphic accordingly.
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10.6.6 The Title Block
The icon on the single line diagram toolbar will turn the title block (See Figure 10.23)
on and off. The title block is placed in the lower right corner of the drawing area by
default.
Fig. 10.23: Single line title mask
The contents and size of the title mask can be changed by right-clicking the title block and
selecting the Edit Data option from the context sensitive menu. The Select Title dialogue
that pops up is used to scale the size of the title block by setting the size of the block in
percent of the default size. The font used will be scaled accordingly. To edit the text in
the title block press the edit button ( ) for the 'Title Text' field.
Set Title dialogue
All text fields have a fixed format in the title block. The data and time fields may be chosen
as automatic or user defined. Most text fields are limited to a certain number of
characters. When opening a new graphic the title will appear by default.
10.6.7 The Legend Block
The icon on the single line diagram toolbar will turn the legend block on and off. The
legend block describes the contents of result boxes (for information about result boxes
see 10.7).
Because more than one type of result box is normally used in the Single line graphic, for
instance, one for node results and another one for branch results, the legend box normally
shows more than one column of legends. After changing the result box definitions, it may
be required to manually resize the legend box in order to show all result box legends.
The Legend Box definition dialogue is opened by right-clicking the legend block and
selecting Edit Data from the context sensitive menu. The font and format shown may be
configured. When opening a new graphic the legend will appear by default.
10.6.8 Editing and Changing Symbols of Elements
You can edit or change the symbols, which are used to represent the elements in the
single line graphic.
• Click with the right mouse button on a symbol of an element in the single line graphic.
• Select Edit Graphic Object from the context sensitive menu in order to edit the symbol
of the element.
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• Select Change Symbol from the context sensitive menu in order to use a different
symbol for the element. PowerFactory supports user-defined symbols as Windows-
Metafile (*.wmf) and Bitmap (*.bmp) files.
For additional information please refer to appendix E (Reference to the use of Symbols in
PowerFactory).
10.7 Result Boxes-Text Boxes and Labels
10.7.1 General Concept
PowerFactory uses result boxes in the Single line graphic to display calculation results.
Result boxes are generally set up so that there are a series of different formats for each
calculation function, with variables appropriate to that function. In addition, the format
differs for the objects class and/or for individual objects. For example, following a load-
flow, branch and edge elements will have different formats compared to nodes, and an
external grid will have an individual, different, format as compared to the branch and
edge elements.
The result box itself is actually a small output report, based on a form definition. This form
definition, and the PowerFactory output language that is used to define it, allows for
the display of a wide range of calculated values, object parameters, and even for coloring
or user defined text.
Although the result boxes in the single line graphic are a very versatile and powerful way
for displaying calculation results, it is often not possible to display a large (part of a) power
system without making the result boxes too small to be read. PowerFactory solves this
problem by offering balloon help on the result boxes. Positioning the mouse over a result
box will pop up a yellow text balloon with the text displayed in a fixed size font. This is
depicted in Figure 10.24. The result box balloon always states the name of the variable,
and may thus also be used as a legend.

Fig. 10.24: Result boxes balloon help
A result box is connected to the graphical object for which it displays the results by a
'reference point'. Figure 10.25 shows the default reference points for the resultbox of a
terminal. A reference point a connection between a point on the result box (which has 9
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optional points), and one of the 'docking' points of the graphical object. The terminal has
three docking points: on the left, in the middle and on the right. The reference point can
be changed by:
• Right-clicking the resultbox with the graphics cursor (freeze mode off), and selecting
Change Reference Points.
• The reference points are shown: docking points in green, reference points in red.
Select one of the reference points by left-clicking it.
• Left-click the selected reference point, and drag it to a red docking point and drop it.
• An error message will result if you drop a reference point somewhere else than on a
docking point.

Fig. 10.25: Reference points of a result Box
Result boxes can be freely moved around the diagram. They will remain attached to the
docking point, and will move along with the docking point. A result box can be positioned
back to its docking point by right-clicking it and selecting Reset Settings from the menu.
If the option "Reset textboxes completely" is set in the graphical settings, then the default
reference and docking points will be selected again, and the result box is moved back to
the default position accordingly.
10.7.2 Editing Result Boxes
PowerFactory uses separate result boxes for different groups of power system objects,
such as node objects (i.e. busbars, terminals) or edge objects (i.e. lines, loads). For each
type of result box, a different result box definition is used.
A newly installed version of PowerFactory has pre-defined result box formats for all
object groups. These default formats cannot be changed, however the user may define
other formats and save these for use. For the edge objects, for example, the default box
shows P and Q without units.
A number of these predefined formats are available for display; they may be selected by
right-clicking a results box to get the Format for Edge Elements (in this example) option,
which then presents a number of formats that may be selected. The active format is ticked
( ) and applies for all the visualized edge elements.
It is also possible to select predefined formats for an specific element class. If the edge
element is for example an asynchronous machine, in the context sensitive menu it will be
also possible to get the option Format for Asynchronous Machine, which shows the
predefined formats for the element class Asynchronous Machine (ElmAsm). The selected
format will in this case apply only to the visualized asynchronous machines.
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If the user wants to create a specific format that is different from the pre-defined ones,
the Edit Format for Edge Elements (or Node Elements) option should be used. Note that
the new format will be applied to the entire group of objects (edge or node objects).
If a created format is expected to be used for just one specific element, then the Create
Textbox option should be used. An additional results box/ textbox will be created, using
the current format for the object. This may then be edited. Information about text boxes
is given in 10.7.4.
When the Edit Format option has been selected the user is presented with the form
manager dialogue (Figure 10.26). A name for the new form may be entered in the Name
field. Various options for the results box may be set and the drop down lists of pre-defined
variables are used to configure the desired format (section Lines). Once the format has
been set and chosen the format may be saved for future use by pressing the To Library
button. The format is saved to Settings \ Project \ Changed Settings \ Formats \ Grf \
Result in the user folder and is available for use in any project in the user folder (when
right-clicking a results box for the same calculation functionality the new format will be
seen in the listing of formats).

Fig. 10.26: The form manager
If the list of pre-defined variables do not contain the required variables, the Input Mode
should be pressed. A dialogue with three possible input modes will pop up. The available
options are:
1 Predefined Variables: This first option is the one presented by default and also
shown in Figure 10.26. The user has maximum three lines available where the
calculation results to be shown in the diagram can be selected. Out of all available
calculation results a limited but useful selection is pre-defined. This facilitates the
configuration work for less advanced users.
2 User Selection:This option allows the selection of the variables to be displayed in
the single line diagram out of the full set of available magnitudes. The "User
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Selection" mode changes the appearance of the form manager slightly so that a
Select Variables appears in place of the pre-defined variables drop down
listings. Press this button to access the variable set (IntMon) dialogue. The
selection and use of variables is fully described in Chapter 19 (Defining Variable
Sets).
3 Text Editor:Unlocks the text editor page for manual configuration of the variables
and their format; this should only be used by advanced users. The text editor page
is found on the "View" tab page (Figure 10.27).
The final option is using DIgSILENT Output Language, the fully configurable format
description language of PowerFactory. As opposed to the preceding options, it offers
the following advantages:
• More than one variable per line
• Different formats for variables
• User-defined text for individual comments
To modify the text format it is necessary to change to the tab page "view". Then a
dialogue page appears similar to the one shown in Figure 10.27. A detailed overview over
the syntax of the DIgSILENT Output Language can be found in 20.2.3 (The DIgSILENT
Output Language).

Fig. 10.27: Editing result boxes using the text editor
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10.7.3 Formatting Result Boxes
By means of the context sensitive menu (right-clicking the desired result box) it is possible
to set the appearance of the result boxes. The available options include:
• Rotate the result box.
• Hide the selected box.
• Change the layer (see 10.6.4).
• Change the font type and size of the text.
• Change the width.
• Set the text alignment.
• Set the default format (Reset Settings).
10.7.4 Text Boxes
As mentioned in 10.7.2, text boxes are used to display user defined variables from a
specific referenced object within the single line graphic. To create a text box, right-click
on the desired object (one end of the object when it is a branch element) and select
Create Textbox. By default a text box with the same format of the corresponding result
box will be generated.
The created text box can be edited, to display the desired variables, following the same
procedure described in 10.7.2. In this case after right-clicking the text box, the option Edit
Format should be selected.
The text box format can be set following the same procedure from 10.7.3. By default the
text boxes are graphically connected to the referred object by means of a line. This
''connection line'' can be made invisible if the option 'show line from General Textboxes....'
from the 'Result Boxes' tab of the Graphic Option dialogue (10.6.1, Figure 10.18) is
disabled.
10.7.5 Labels
In the general case, a label showing the name of an element within the single line graphic
is automatically created with the graphical objects. The label can be visualized as a text
box showing only the variable corresponding to the name of the object. As the text boxes
format of the labels can be set using the context sensitive menu.
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory The Data Manager
11 - 1
Chapter 11
The Data Manager
To manage/ browse the data in PowerFactory, a Data Manager is provided. The objec-
tive of this chapter is to provide detailed information on how this Data Management tool.
Before starting, users should ensure that they are acquainted with Section 4.4 (Data
Arrangement) and Chapter 7 (The PowerFactory Data Model).
11.1 Using the Data Manager
The Data Manager provides the user with all the features required to manage and main-
tain all the data from the projects. It gives both an overview over the complete data base
as well as detailed information about the parameters of single power system elements or
other objects.
New case studies can be defined, new elements can be added, system stages can be
created, activated or deleted, parameters can be changed, copied, etc. All of these actions
can be instituted and controlled from a single data base window.
The data manager uses a tree representation of the whole database, in combination with
a versatile data browser.To initially open a data manager window press the icon from
the main toolbar. The settings of this window can be edited using the 'User Settings'
dialogue (Section 6.3: Data Manager Settings).
The data manager window has the following parts (see Figure 11.1):
• The title bar, which shows the name and path of the of the folder currently selected in
the database [1].
• The data manager local tool bar [2].
• In the left upper area the database window, which shows a symbolic tree
representation of the complete database [3].
• In the left lower area the input window. It may be used by more experienced users to
enter commands directly, instead of using the interactive command buttons/
dialogues. By default it is not shown. For further information see Section 11.6 (The
Input Window in the Data Manager) [4].
• Between the database window and the input line, it shows the history list, which can
be used to perform calculations in batchmode [5]. The input window and history list
are opened and closed by the command icon.
• On the right side is the database browser that shows the contents of the currently
selected folder [6].
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• Below the database browser and the input window is the message bar, which shows
the current status and settings of the database manager (for further information see
Section 11.1.5).
There are some special features of the database browser which can be accessed at any
time when the content of a folder is shown:
• Balloon text: this is not only available for the buttons in the tool bar and the active
parts of the message bar or the browser window, but also for the data fields [a].
• Active Title buttons of each column; click on any title button to sort the items in the
column; first click- items are sorted in ascending order; second click - items are sorted
in descending order [b].
• Object buttons showing the object standard icon in the first column of the database
browser: each object is represented by a button (here a line object is shown). One
click selects the object and a double-click presents the edit dialogue for the object [c].

Fig. 11.1: The data manager window
PowerFactory makes extensive use of the right mouse button. Each object or folder
may be 'right-clicked' to pop up a context sensitive menu. For the same object the menu
presented will differ depending on whether the object is selected in the left or right hand
side of the data manager (this is known as a 'context sensitive' menu). Generally, the left
hand side of the data manager will show object folders only. That is, objects that contain
other objects inside them. The right hand side of the data manager shows object folders
as well as individual objects.
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11 - 3

Fig. 11.2: Context sensitive menus in the data manager
Using the right mouse button to access menus is usually the most effective means of
accessing features or commands. Figure 11.2 shows an Illustration of a context-sensitive
right mouse button menu.
The symbolic tree representation of the complete database shown in the database
window may not show all parts of the database. The user settings offer options for
displaying hidden folders, or for displaying parts that represent complete stations. Set
these options as required (Section 6.3: Data Manager Settings).
Note It is useful to keep in mind that object folders, such as the grid
( ) folder are merely common folders ( ), that have been des-
ignated to contain particular classes of objects.
11.1.1 Moving Around in the Database Tree
There are several ways to ''walk'' up and down the database tree:
• Use the mouse: all folders that have a "+" sign next to them may be expanded by
double-clicking on the folder, or by single clicking the "+" sign.
• Use the keyboard: the arrow keys are used to walk up and down the tree and to open
or close folders (left and right arrows). The Page Up and Page Down keys jump up
and down the tree in big steps and the "-" and "+" keys may also be used to open or
close folders.
• Use the toolbar in combination with the browser window. Double-click objects (see "c"
in Figure 11.1) in the browser to open the corresponding object. This could result in
opening a folder, in the case of a common or case folder, or editing the object
dialogue for an object. Once again, the action resulting from your input depends on
where the input has occurred (left or right side of the data manager).
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• The and buttons on the data manager tool bar can be used to move up and
down the database tree.
11.1.2 Adding New Items
Generally, new network components are added to the database via the graphical user
interface (see Section 10.1: Defining Network Models with the Graphical Editor), such as
when a line is drawn between two nodes creating, not only the graphical object on the
graphics board, but also the corresponding element data in the relevant grid folder.
However, users may also create new objects ''manually'' in the database, from the data
manager.
Certain new folders and objects may be created by right-clicking on folders in the data
manager. A context sensitive menu is presented, offering a choice of objects to be created
that will ''fit'' the selected folder. For example, right-clicking a grid folder will allow the
creation (under the New menu) of a Graphic, a Branch, a Substation, a Site or a Folder
object. The new object will be created in the folder that was selected prior to the new
object button being pressed. This folder is said to have the 'focus' for the commanded
action. This means that some objects may not be possible to create since the focused
folder may not be suited to hold that object.
For instance: A synchronous machine should not go into a line folder. A line folder should
contain only line routes, line sections and cubicles. The cubicles in their turn should
contain only switches or protection elements.
To access the whole range of objects that may be created, the icon must be pressed
(new object icon). This is found the data manager toolbar and presents the dialogue
shown in Figure 11.3.
To simplify the selection of the new objects, a filter is used to sort the object list. This
filter determines what sort of list will appear in the drop-down list of the 'Element' field.
If "Branch Net Elements'' is first selected, the selection of, for instance, a 2-winding trans-
former is accomplished by then scrolling down the element list.
The Element field is a normal edit field. It is therefore possible to type the identity name
of the new element, like "ElmTr3'' for a three-winding transformer, or "TypLne" for a line
type directly into the field.
The possible list of new objects is therefore context sensitive and depends on the type or
class of the originally selected folder.
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Fig. 11.3: The element selection dialogue
After the selection for a new object has been confirmed, the "Element Selection" dialogue
will close, the new object will be inserted into the database and the edit dialogue for the
new object will pop up. If this dialogue is closed by pressing the Cancel button, the whole
action of inserting the new object will be cancelled: the newly created object will be
deleted from the active folder. The dialogue for the new object may now be edited and
the OK button pressed to save the object to the database.
As any other object, folders can be created either by using the context sensitive menu or
by using the icon. Common folders (IntFolder objects) may have an owner name
entered, for documentation or organizational purposes. In this way it should be clear who
has created the data. Descriptions may also be added. An existing folder may be edited
by using the "Edit" icon ( ) on the toolbar or by using the right mouse button.
Each folder may be set to be read-only, or to be a PowerFactory system folder. The
folder may be a "Common" or "Library" folder. These attributes can be changed in the
edit-folder dialogue. These settings have the following meaning:
• Common folders are used for storing non-type objects: electric elements, command
objects, settings, projects, etc.
• Type folders are used as 'libraries' for type objects.
• System folders, which are read only folders
The use of read-only folders is clear: they protect the data. In addition, folders containing
data that is not normally accessed may be hidden. Selecting the kind of folders that the
user/administrator wants to be hidden is done in the user settings dialogue see Chapter
6 (User Settings).
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(for complete information see refer to Chapter 7 (The PowerFactory Data Model)):
11.1.3 Deleting an Item
A folder or object which is selected may be deleted by pressing the Delete key on the
keyboard, or by clicking the icon on the toolbar of the database manager.
Because most power system objects that are stored in the database are interconnected
through a network topology or through type-element relationships, deleting objects often
causes anomalies in the database consistency. Of course, PowerFactory knows at any
moment which objects are used by which others and could prevent the user from creating
an inconsistency by refusing to delete an object that is used by others. This, however,
would create a very stubborn program.
PowerFactory solves this problem by using a 'Recycle Bin' folder. All deleted objects are
in fact moved to the recycle bin. All references to the deleted objects will therefore stay
valid (for example, the reference between element and type), but will show that the refer-
enced object has been ''deleted'' by:
• Showing the path to the recycle bin and the name of the ''recycle object'' in stead of
the original location and name.
• Coloring: a reference to a deleted object will be colored red, i.e. a reference to a type.
Type references are found in the edit dialogues of all elements which use a type like
the line or the transformer object.
An object that has been deleted by mistake can be restored to the original location by
selecting the restore menu option on the recycle object's context sensitive menu. All refer-
ences to the object will also be restored.
11.1.4 Cut, Copy, Paste and Move Objects
Cut, Copy and Paste
Cutting, copying and pasting may be achieved in four different manners:
1 By using the data manager tool bar buttons.
2 By using the normal 'MS Windows' shortcuts:
- Ctrl-X will cut a selection,
- Ctrl-C will copy it,
- Ctrl-V will paste the selection to the active folder.
Cutting a selection will color the item-icons gray. The cut objects will remain in their
current folder until they are pasted. A cut-and-paste is exactly the same as moving the
object, using the context sensitive menu. All references to objects that are being moved
will be updated.
Cancelling a cut-and-paste operation is performed by pressing the Ctrl-C key after
the Ctrl-X key has been pressed.
3 By using the context sensitive menu. This menu offers a Cut, a Copy and a Move
item. The move item will pop up a small second database tree in which the target
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folder can be selected. When the selected objects have been Cut or Copied, the
context sensitive menu will then show a Paste, Paste Shortcut and a Paste Data
item.
- Paste will paste the selection to the focused folder.
- Paste Shortcut will not paste the copied objects, but will create shortcuts to these
objects. A shortcut object acts like a normal object. Changes made to the shortcut
object will change the original object. All other shortcuts to this original object will
reflect these changes immediately.
- Paste Data is only be available when just one object is copied, and when the
selected target object is the same kind of object as the copied one. In that case,
Paste Data will paste all data from the copied object into the target object. This will
make the two objects identical, except for the name and the connections.
4 By dragging selected objects to another folder. The 'Drag & Drop' option must be
enabled first by double-clicking the 'Drag & Drop: off' message on the data
manager's message bar. When the drag & drop option is on, it is possible to copy or
move single objects by selecting them and dragging them to another folder.
Dragging is done by holding down the left mouse button after an object has been
selected and keeping it down while moving the cursor to the target/destination
folder, either in the database tree or in the database browser window.
Note When dragging and dropping a COPY of the object will be made
(instead of moving it) if the Ctrl key is held down when releasing
the mouse button at the destination folder. To enable the 'Drag &
Drop' option double click the 'Drag & Drop' message at the bottom
of the Data Manager window.
11.1.5 The Data Manager Message Bar
The message bar shows the current status and settings of the database manager. Some
of the messages are in fact buttons which may be clicked to change the settings.
The message bar contains the following messages.
• "Pause: on/off'' (only in case of an opened input window) shows the status of the
message queue in the input window. With pause on, the command interpreter is
waiting which makes it possible to create a command queue. The message is a
button: double-clicking it will toggle the setting.
• "N object(s) of M'' shows the number of elements shown in the browser window and
the total number of elements in the current folder.
• "N object(s) Selected: " shows the number of currently selected objects.
• "Drag & Drop: on/off'' shows the current drag & drop mode. Double clicking this
message will toggle the setting.
11.1.6 Additional Features
Most of the data manager functionality is available through the context sensitive menus
(right mouse button).
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The following items can also be found in the context sensitive menus:
Show Reference List (Output... ÷> Reference List)
Produces the list of objects that have links, or references (plus the
location of the linked object), to the selected object. The list is printed
to the output window. In this manner for example, a list of elements
that all use the same type can be produced. The listed object names
can be double- or right-clicked in the output window to open their edit
dialogue.
Select All
Selects all objects in the database browser.
Mark in Graphic
Marks the highlighted object(s) in the single line graphic. This feature
can be used to identify an object.
Show ÷> Station
Opens a detailed graphic (displaying all the connections and switches)
of the terminal to which the selected component is connected. If the
component, is connected to more than one terminal, as might be in the
case of lines or other objects, a list of possible terminals is shown first.
Goto Busbar
Opens the folder in the database browser that holds the busbar to
which the currently selected element is connected. If the element is
connected to more than one busbar, a list of possible busbars is shown
first.
Goto Connected Element
Opens the folder in the database browser that holds the element that is
connected to the currently selected element. In the case of more than
one connected element, which is normally the case for busbars, a list of
connected elements is shown first.
Calculate
Opens a second menu with several calculations which can be started,
based on the currently selected objects. A short-circuit calculation, for
example, will be performed with faults positioned at the selected
objects, if possible. If more than one possible fault location exists for
the currently selected object, which is normally the case for station
folders, a short-circuit calculation for all possible fault locations is
made.
Other useful features:
• Relevant objects for calculations are tagged with a sign (this will only be shown
following a calculation). Editing one of these objects will reset the calculation results.
11.2 Defining Network Models with the Data Manager
In this section it is explained how the tools of Data Manager are used to define network
models.
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11.2.1 Defining New Network Components in the Data Manager
New network components can be directly created in the Data Manager. To do this you
have to click on the target grid/expansion stage (right pane) to display its contents in the
browser (left pane). Then you have to click on the New Object icon and select the kind of
object to create. Alternatively you can directly enter the class name of the new
component.
11.2.2 Connecting Network Components in the Data Manager
To connect newly created branch elements to a node, a free cubicle must exist in the
target terminal. In the 'Terminal' field (Terminal I and Terminal j for two port elements,
etc.) of the edge element you have to click on the ( ) arrow to select (in the data
browser that pops up) the cubicle where the connection is going to take place.
To create a new cubicle in a terminal you have to open its edit dialogue (double click) and
press the Cubicles button (located at the right of the dialogue). A new browser with the
existing cubicles will pop up, press the New Object icon ( ) and in the 'Element' field
select Cubicle (StaCubic). The edit dialogue of the new cubicle will pop up; by default no
internal switches will be generated. If you want a connection between the edge element
and the terminal trough a circuit breaker, you have to press the Add Breaker button.
After pressing the Ok button the new cubicle will be available to connect new branch
elements.
Note: New users are recommended to create and connect elements di-
rectly from the single line graphics. The procedures described
above are intended for advanced users.
11.2.3 Defining Substations in the Data Manager
The concept and the application context of substations are presented in Section Substa-
tions of Chapter 7.3.2 (Network Topology Handling). A description of the procedure used
to define new substations with the data manager is given as follows. For information
about working with substations in the graphical editor please refer to Section 10.1
(Defining Network Models with the Graphical Editor).
To define a new substation from the Data Manager do the following:
• Display the content of the grid where you want to create the new substation.
• Right click on the right pane of the Data Manager and select New --> Substation from
the context sensitive menu.
• The new substation edit dialogue will pop up. There you can change the name, assign
running arrangements and visualize/edit the content of the substation (directly after
creation it is empty).
• After pressing Ok the new substation and an associated diagram (with the same name
of the substation) will be created.
The components of the new substation can be created and connected using the
associated single line diagram or using the data manager, the first option is recom-
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mended. For the second option, a data browser with the content of the substation will
pop up after pressing the Contents button; there you can use the New Object icon to
create the new components.
Components of a substation can of course be connected with components of the corre-
sponding grid or even with components of other networks. The connection in the Data
Manager is carried out following the same procedure discussed in the previous section.
For information about working with substations in the graphical editor please refer to
Section 10.1 (Defining Network Models with the Graphical Editor). For information about
the definition of Running Arrangements please refer to Section 15.6 (Running Arrange-
ments).
11.2.4 Defining Branches in the Data Manager
The concept and the application context of branches are presented in Section Branches
of Chapter 7.3.2 (Network Topology Handling). Next a description of the procedure used
to define new branches from within the Data Manager is given. A description about how
to define branches from within the diagram is given in Section 10.1 (Defining Network
Models with the Graphical Editor).
To define a new branch from the Data Manager do the following:
• Display the content of the grid where you want to create the new substation.
• Right click on the right pane of the Data Manager and select New --> Branch from the
context sensitive menu.
• The new branch edit dialogue will pop up. There you can define the name of the new
branch and a circuit to which the branch belongs. The fields 'Connection 1' and
'Connection 2' define the branch elements that are going to be connected with
external elements. Once the user has defined the internal branch elements, he/she
can access and change the connecting components (i.e the components referred in
'Connection 1' and 'Connection 2').
• After pressing Ok the new branch and an associated diagram (with the same name of
the branch) will be created.
The components of the new branch can be created and connected using the associated
single line diagram or using the data manager, the first option is recommended. For the
second option, a data browser with the content of the branch will pop up after pressing
the Contents button; there you can use the New Object icon to create the new compo-
nents.
Components of a branch can of course be connected with components of the corre-
sponding grid or even with components of other networks (remember that the maximal
number of connections for a branch is 2). The connection in the Data Manager is carried
out following the same procedure discussed in Section Connecting Network Components
in the Data Manager. Once the external connections of the branch have been established,
the user can use the Jump button on the edit dialogue to open the edit dialogue of the
grid elements connected to it.
For information about working with branches in the graphical editor, please refer to
Section 10.1 (Defining Network Models with the Graphical Editor).
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11.2.5 Defining Sites in the Data Manager
The concept and the application context of sites are presented in the Section Sites of
Chapter 7.3.2 (Network Topology Handling). Next a description of the procedure used to
define new sites is given.
To define a new site from the Data Manager do the following:
• Display the content of the grid where you want to create the new site.
• Right click on the right pane of the Data Manager and select New --> Site from the
context sensitive menu.
• The new Site edit dialogue will pop up.
• After pressing Ok the new site will be created.
Note: Advanced users would notice that it is possible to move objects
from a grid to a Substation, Branch, Site, etc. and vice versa.
11.2.6 Editing Network Components using the Data Manager
Each component can be individually edited by double clicking on it to open the corre-
sponding dialogue. The class dialogue is composed of several tabs each corresponding to
a calculation function of PowerFactory. The parameters required by a determined calcu-
lation are always available on the corresponding tab. The description of the network
component's models, explaining the relations among the input parameters is given in the
technical reference papers attached to the Chapters D and C (only in the online help).
It is possible to simultaneously edit components of the same class using the Data
Manager. To do this you have to select a component of the class that you want to edit
(left click on the component icon) and click on the Detail Mode icon ( ) at the upper
part of the Data Manager.
In 'detail' mode, the browser shows all data fields for the selected calculation function
data set, which can be selected by clicking on a page tab shown at the bottom of the table
view. If a page tab is out of reach, then the page tab scrollers will bring it within the
browser window again.
The list of objects may be sorted by any column by pressing the title field button. The
widths of the data fields can be adjusted by pointing the mouse on the separation line
between two title fields and dragging the field border by holding a mouse button down.
The data fields can be edited by double-clicking them. As with any Spread Sheet, you can
copy and paste individual or multiple cells with Crtl_C and Crtl_V or with right click ' Copy/
Paste.
It is also possible to change a parameter field for more than one object simultaneously.
The parameter fields which are going to be changed have to be multi-selected first, then
you have to right-click the selection and select the option Modify Value(s) from the
context sensitive menu. This will open the SetValue dialogue. This dialogue can be used
to:
• Increase or decrease them by multiplication with a scale factor ("Relative'').
• Increase or decrease them by multiplication with a scale factor with respect to the
sum of values selected ("Relative to Sum'').
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• Set all the selected parameter fields to a new fixed ("absolute'') value.
Note: It is not possible to simultaneously alter parameter fields from
more than one column, i.e. to change nominal currents and nomi-
nal frequencies simultaneous, even if they would happen to take
the same value or would have to be raised with the same percent-
age.
For further information please refer to 11.4 (Editing Data Objects in the Data Manager).
11.3 Searching for Objects in the Data Manager
There are three main methods of searching for objects in the data base: Sorting,
searching by name and filtering.
11.3.1 Sorting Objects
Objects can be sorted according to various criteria, such as object class, name, rated
voltage,..., etc. Sorting according to object class is done using the "Edit Relevant Objects
for Calculation" icon on the toolbar ( ). The user may select a particular class of calcu-
lation-relevant object (e.g. synchronous machine, terminal, general load, but not
graphics, user settings etc.) to be displayed in a browser.
Further sorting can be done according to the data listed in a table- either in the data
manager or in a browser obtained using the procedure described above. This is done by
clicking on the column title. For example, clicking on the column title 'Name' in a data
browser sorts the data alphanumerically (A-Z and 1-9). Pressing it again sorts the data Z-
A, and 9-1.
Tabulated data can be sorted by multiple criteria. This is done by clicking on various
column titles in a sequence. For example, terminals can be sorted alphanumerically first
by name, then by rated voltage and finally by actual voltage by pressing on the titles
corresponding to these properties in reverse-sequence (actual voltage…rated
voltage…name). A more detailed example follows:
Suppose that you have executed a load flow calculation and that, for each rated voltage
level in the network, you want to find the terminal with the highest voltage. These termi-
nals could be identified easily in a table of terminals, sorted first by rated voltage and then
by calculated voltage. Proceed as follows:
Perform the load flow calculation.
Select the 'ElmTerm' ( ) from the 'Edit Relevant Object for Calculation' dialogue
( ).
Include, in the 'Flexible Data' page tab, the terminal voltage and nominal voltage (see
11.5).
In the table ('Flexible Data' page tab), click on the title 'u, Magnitude p.u' to sort all
terminals from highest to lowest calculated voltage.
Then click on the title 'Nom.L-L Volt kV' to sort by nominal voltage level.
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Now you will have all terminals first sorted by voltage level and then by rated terminal
voltage.
11.3.2 Searching by Name
Searching for an object by name is done either in the right-hand pane of the data
manager or in a data browser. To understand the procedure below, notice that the first
column contains the symbols of the objects in the table. Clicking on such a symbol selects
all columns of that row, i.e. for that object. The procedure is as follows:
Select an object in the table by clicking on any object symbol in the table (if one
object was already selected then select a different one).
Now start typing the object name, which is case sensitive. Notice how the selection
jumps as you type, For example, typing 'T' moves the selection to the first object
whose name starts with T, etc.
Continue typing until the selection matches the object that you are looking for
11.3.3 Using Filters for Search
Advanced filtering capability is provided with the 'Find…' function ( ). A filter is
normally defined to find a group of objects, rather than individual objects (although the
latter is also possible). Advanced search criteria can be defined, e.g. transmission lines
with a length in the range 1km to 2.2km, or synchronous machines with a rating greater
than 500MW etc.
The function is available in both the data manager and a data browser. Clicking on 'Find…'
in the data manager allows the user to apply a predefined filter or to define a new filter,
called 'General filter'. If a new filter is defined, the database folder that will be searched
can be defined. Clicking on 'Find…' in a data browser allows the user to define a General
Filter for objects within the browser.
General Filters defined by the user are objects stored in the Changed Settings\ Filters
folder.
The options in the General Filter dialogue window are now explained with reference to
Figure 11.4:
Name:
Name of filter.
Object filter:
This field defines either the complete or a part of the search criteria,
and is optional. Examples are as follows:
- *.ElmSym: Include element objects of the class synchronous machines.
- *.TypSym: Include type objects of the class synchronous machines.
- Lahney.*: Include all objects with the name Lahney.
- Lahney.Elm*: Include all element objects with the name Lahney.
- D*.ElmLod: Include all load element objects whose names start with D.
- A drop down list providing various object classes can be accessed with ( ).
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Look in:
This field is available if a filter id defined within the data manager. It
allows the user to specify the folder in the database that will be
searched.
Check boxes:
- Include Subfolders will search the root folder specified as well as the subfolders in
the root folder. The search can be stopped at the matching folder.
- Relevant Objects for Calculation will include only those objects considered by the
active study case (if no study case is active the search is meaningless and no
search results will be returned).
- Area Interconnecting Branches will search for branch elements that interconnect
grids.

Fig. 11.4: General Filter dialogue
The OK button will close the search dialogue, but save the filter object to the Changed
Settings\Filters folder. This makes it available for further use. The CANCEL button will
close the dialogue without saving the changes. This button is useful if a search criterion
(filter) will only be used once.The APPLY button starts the actual search. It will scan the
relevant folders and will build a list of all objects that match the search criteria.
Once the search is complete a list of results is returned in the form of a new data browser
window. From this browser, the returned objects can be marked, changed, deleted,
copied, moved, etc...
Advanced search options allow more sophisticated expressions as search criteria. These
are specified in the "Advanced" tab of the General Filter dialogue (Figure 11.5). The filter
criterion is defined in terms of a logical expression, making use of parameter names.
Objects will be included in the data browser if, for their parameters, the logical expression
is determined to be true. An example of a logical expression is 'dline>0.7'. The variable
dline refers to the length of a transmission line, and the effect of such a filter criterion is
to limit the data in the browser to transmission lines having a length exceeding 0.7 km.
The logical expressions can be expanded to include other relations (e.g. >=), standard
functions (e.g. sin()), and logical operators (e.g. .and.).
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Note Parameter names can be object properties or results. The param-
eter names for object properties are found, for example, by letting
the mouse pointer hover over an input field in an object's dialogue
window. Parameter names for result variables are found from vari-
able sets, which are described in Chapter 19 (Defining Variable
Sets).
I
Fig. 11.5: Filter dialogue - Advanced
"Search Literally" is used to search for user defined strings 'inside' parameter fields. For
example, perhaps the comment 'damaged but serviceable' has been entered for some
elements in the network. This may be searched for as shown in Figure 11.6. All parameter
fields will be searched for this string.

Fig. 11.6: Searching literally
As stated before, the objects matching the filter criteria are displayed in a data browser.
They may also be highlighted in the graphic using the 'Color representation' function
described in 10.6.5. The color to be used in this case can be specified under the tab
'Graphic' of the General Filter dialogue window.
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Note New a filters are saved to the Project \Changed Settings \Filters
folder in the project and are available for use directly, using the
right mouse menu. If a search is to be performed in a particular
grid simply proceed as follows: right-click the grid folder ÷> Find ÷
> Local Filters ÷> Filter Name (e.g. Lines longer than 700m). Re-
member to press the "Apply" button to perform the search.
If you unchecked the "Show Filter Settings before Application" box
under "User Settings"÷>"General" then the filter will be applied as
soon as it is selected from the menu. This is useful when you have
already defined several filters for regular use.
11.4 Editing Data Objects in the Data Manager
The database manager (or Data Manager) offers several ways to edit power system
components and other objects stored in the database, regardless they appear graphically
or not.
The basic method is to double-click the object icons in the database browser. This will
open the same edit dialogue window obtained, when double clicking the graphical repre-
sentation of an element in the graphic window.

Fig. 11.7: Full size edit window appearing after double-clicking the object icon in the
data manager
An open edit dialogue will disable the data manager window from which it was opened.
The edit dialogue has to be closed first in order to open another edit dialogue.
However, it is possible to activate more than one data manager (by pressing the icon
on the main toolbar) and to open an edit dialogue from each of these data managers. This
can be useful for comparing objects and parameters.
Using the edit dialogues (Figure 11.7) has one major drawback: it separates the edited
object from the rest of the database, making it impossible to copy data from one object
to the other, or to look at other object parameter values while editing.
PowerFactory brings the big picture back in sight by offering full scale editing capabili-
ties in the data managers browser window itself. The browser window in fact acts like a
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spreadsheet, where the user can edit and browse the data at the same time. The browser
window has two modes in which objects can be edited,
• Object mode
• Detail Mode
which are described in the following sections.
11.4.1 Editing in Object Mode
In the general case the icon, the name, the type and the modification date (with its autor)
of the objects are shown in the 'object' mode (see Figure 11.8). Certain objects, for
example network components, show additional fields like the ''Out of Service'' field.

Fig. 11.8: The browser window in 'object' mode
The title buttons are used to sort the entries in the browser. The visible data fields can
be double-clicked to edit their contents, or the F2 button can be pressed. The object will
show a triangle in its icon when it is being edited.
After the data field has been changed, move to the other fields of the same object using
the arrow-keys or by clicking on these data fields, and alter them too.
The new contents of a data field are confirmed by pressing the Return key, or by moving
to another field within the same object. The triangle in the icon will change to a small star
to show that the object has been altered. The object itself however has not been updated.
Updating the changes is done by pressing Return again, or by moving to another object
in the browser. By default, PowerFactory will ask to confirm the changes. See Section
6.3 (Data Manager Settings) to disable these conformation messages.
11.4.2 Editing in "Detail'' Mode
If the icon on the browse window of the data manager is pressed, the browser
changes to 'detail' mode (see Figure 11.9). It will display only the objects from the same
class as the one which was selected when the button was pressed. In the example of
Figure 11.9, this is a load object (ElmLod). The icon or a filter (11.3.3) may also be
used to engage detail mode.
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Fig. 11.9: The browser window in 'detail' mode
In 'detail' mode, the browser shows all data fields for the selected calculation function
data set, which can be selected by clicking on a page tab shown at the bottom of the table
view.If a page tab is out of reach, then the page tab scrollers will bring it within the
browser window again.
The list of objects may be sorted by any column by pressing the title field button. The
widths of the data fields can be adjusted by pointing the mouse on the separation line
between two title fields and dragging the field border by holding a mouse button down.
As with the browser in 'object' mode, the data fields can be edited by double-clicking
them. In the example the active power settings are being edited, but from the star in the
object icon it is clear that another field of the same object has been edited too, but not
confirmed, because this star would otherwise be a triangle.
It is possible to change a parameter field for more than one object simultaneously. This
is, for instance, useful to raise a certain limit for a range of objects, in order to get a better
load-flow result i.e. by alleviating line overloads. An example is shown in Figure 11.10
where the nominal current for a range of lines is changed at once.

Fig. 11.10: Modify values dialogue
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Fig. 11.11: Modify values dialogue
The parameter fields which have to be changed have to be multi-selected first. Right-
clicking the selection will pop up a case sensitive menu from which the Modify Value(s)
option opens the SetValue dialogue, see Figure 11.11.
This dialogue can be used to:
• increase or decrease them by multiplication with a scale factor ("Relative'').
• increase or decrease them by multiplication with a scale factor with respect to the
sum of values selected ("Relative to Sum'').
• Set all the selected parameter fields to a new fixed ("absolute'') value.
It is not possible to simultaneously alter parameter fields from more than one column, i.e.
to change nominal currents and nominal frequencies simultaneous, even if they would
happen to take the same value or would have to be raised with the same percentage.
11.4.3 Copy and Paste while Editing
One of the great advantages of editing data fields in the data manager's browser window
is the possibility to copy data from one object to another. This is done by selecting one
or more objects or object fields, copying this selection to the clipboard, and pasting the
data back in another place.
To copy one or more objects,
1 Open the Data Manager and select the grid folder where you find the objects to be
copied. Please do not open the icon for the Objects relevant for the calculation ,
as this is a filter view collecting objects stored at various locations.
2 Select them (see Figure 11.12).
3 Press Ctrl-C to copy or use the icon on the data manager toolbox.
4 Press Ctrl-V to paste or use the icon on the data manager toolbox. The
objects will be copied with all the data. Their names will automatically be altered to
unique names (see Figure 11.13).
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Fig. 11.12: Copying an object in the browser

Fig. 11.13: Result of copying the object
Copying data fields from one object to another is done just like for any spreadsheet soft-
ware you may be familiar with. To copy one or more data fields,
1 Select them by clicking them once. Select more data fields by holding down the
Ctrl key.
2 Copy the fields to the clipboard by pressing Ctrl-C or the icon.
3 Select one or more target objects data fields. If more than one field was copied,
make sure that the target field is the same as the first copied data field.
4 Press Ctrl-V or the icon. The contents of the data fields will be copied to the
target objects.
11.5 The Flexible Data Page Tab in the Data Manager
The data browser (this will be seen in the data manager when the 'Detail Mode' has been
engaged) has page tabs for all calculation functions. These tabs are used to view or edit
object parameters which are categorized according to a calculation function and have a
fixed format.
The 'Flexible Data' tab, normally used to display calculation results, allows the user to
define a custom set of data to be displayed.
The default format for the calculation results displayed in the flexible page depends on
the calculation performed: Following a load-flow calculation, the default variables for
terminals are line-to-line voltage, per unit voltage and voltage angle. Following a short-
circuit calculation the default variables are initial short-circuit current, initial short-circuit
power, peak current etc. Figure 11.14 shows an example of the flexible data page tab.
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Fig. 11.14: The Flexible Data page tab
11.5.1 Customizing the Flexible Data Page
The displayed variables are organized in 'Variables Sets' that are, in turn, organized
according to the calculation functions. For example, an object class ElmTr2 (two-winding
transformer) has a variable set for symmetrical load flow calculation, a variable set for
short-circuit calculation etc. There may also be more than one variable set for any calcu-
lation function. For example, the object ElmTr2 may have two variable sets for symmet-
rical load flow calculation.
The Flexible Page Selector allows the user to specify the variable set to use, or to define
new variable sets. Furthermore, the Flexible Page Selector allows the user to access and
edit the variable sets, i.e. to specify which variables to display in the Flexible Data page.
The 'Flexible Page Selector' dialogue is shown in Figure 11.15. This dialogue is opened by
pressing the ( ) icon on the data manager toolbar. The Flexible Page Selector has tabs
for the different calculation functions. It opens with the tab corresponding to the most
recent calculation. Pressing the button next to the field 'Variables' allows the user to
select a Variable Set or to generate a new Variable Set. If a new Variable Set is generated,
the edit dialogue of Figure 19.1 pops up. The edit dialogue of the selected Variable Set
pops up if the button next to 'Variables' is pressed. The selection of variables within
Variable Sets is presented in detail in Chapter 19 (Defining Variable Sets).
Note: Variable Sets are objects of class IntMon, within PowerFactory they
have multiple uses. This section only presents their use in conjunc-
tion with Flexible Data. For further information please refer to
Chapter 19 (Defining Variable Sets).
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Fig. 11.15: The Flexible Page Selector
11.6 The Input Window in the Data Manager
The input window is for the more experienced users of DIgSILENT PowerFactory. It
is closed by default. Almost all commands that are available in PowerFactory through
the menu bars, pop-up menus, icons, buttons, etc., may also be entered directly into the
input window, using the PowerFactory commands.
The contents of the input window can be saved to file, and commands can be read back
into the window for execution.
PowerFactory also has special command objects which carry one single command line
and which are normally used to execute commands. In this way, complex commands can
be saved in the same folder as the power system for which they were configured.
11.6.1 Input Window Commands
In principle, everything that can be done in DIgSILENT PowerFactory, can be done
from the command line in the input window. This includes creating objects, setting
parameters, performing load-flow or short-circuit calculations.
Some commands that are available are typically meant for command line use or for batch
commands. These commands are rarely used in another context and are therefore listed
here as "command line commands'', although they do not principally differ from any other
command.
Cd Command
Moves around in the database tree by opening another folder at a
relative position from the currently open folder.
Example:
cd...\gridB\Load1
Cl Command
Stops the redirection of the output window to either a file or to a
printer. All following messages will again be shown only in the output
window.
cl/out stops redirection to a file
cl/prn stops redirection to a printer
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Cls Command
Clears the output or input window.
cls/out clears output window
cls/inp clears input window completely
cls/inp/done clears only previously executed commands
.../y asks for confirmation
Dir Command
Displays the contents of a folder.
Example:
dir Study Case
Ed Command
Pops up the dialogue of a default command, i.e. "ldf'', "shc'', etc.
Example:
ed ldf
Exit Command
Exits the program immediately without further confirmation.
Man Command
Queries or sets a variable.
Example:
man/set obj=Load_1.elmlod variable=plini value=0.2
Op CommandC
Redirects output to either a file or a printer.
Example:
op/out f=train3.out
Pause Command
Interrupts the execution of the command pipe until a next pause
command is executed.
Pr Command
Prints either the contents of the output window or the currently active
graphics window.
Rd Command
Opens and reads a file.
Stop Command
Stops the running calculation.
Wr Command
Writes to a file.
11.7 Save and Restore Parts of the Database
A selected part of the database can be written to a "DZ'' Import/Export file with the button
Export Data... ( ). This will bring a 'File Save' dialogue where a filename must be
specified.
Alternatively, the folder or object that is to be exported can be right-clicked in the data-
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base tree, after which the option Export... is selected.
The exported part of the database may be a complete project, a library, or a specific
object in the browser window. Exporting a folder (i.e a project, grid, library, etc.) will
export the complete content of that folder, inclusive subfolders, models, settings, single
line graphics, etc.
It is even possible to export a complete user account. However, only the administrator is
able to import an user-account. Exporting the user-account on a regular basis is a prac-
tical way to backup your data.
It is even possible to export data from another user account, or even to export another
user-account completely. However, only the shared, visible, data will be exported.
The exported data file can be imported into the database again in any desired folder by
pressing the Import Data... ( ) button. This will bring a 'File Open' dialogue where the
"DZ'' data-file can be selected.
The "DZ''-file will be analyzed and error messages will be displayed when the file is not a
genuine PowerFactory data file, or if it is corrupted. If the file format has been found
to be correct, a dialogue will appear which shows the data and version of the file. The
default target folder is shown also, which is the original folder of the saved data. If this is
not desired, another target folder can be selected by pressing the Drop Down button. This
button will bring a small version of the database tree. A new target folder can be selected
from this tree.
11.7.1 Notes
By exporting a folder from the database, only the information in that folder and all its
subfolders will be stored. If the exported objects use information (e.g. power system
types like line or transformer types) that is saved somewhere else, then that information
will not be stored. Make sure that the used power system types and all other referenced
information is exported too.
When importing a file that contains objects which use data outside the import-file, a
search for that data is started.
For instance, assume a project is exported. One of the line-models uses a type from a
library outside the project. When exporting, the path and name of this type is written in
the export-file, but the type itself is not exported, as is does not reside in the exported
project.
At importing, the stored path and name of the 'external' type is used to find the type again
and to restore the link. However, if the 'external' type is not found, then it will be created,
using the stored path and name. Of course, the created object has default data, as the
original data was not exported. Additionally, an error message is written to the output
window.
Suppose that you are working with a large library, which is stored in a special user-
account to make it read-only. The library is made accessible by sharing it to all users.
When export the projects, the objects from the external library are not exported.
However, a colleague which has access to the same library may still import your projects
without problems. The external objects used in your projects will be found in the same
location, and the links to these objects will be correctly restored.
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11.8 Spreadsheet Format Data Import/Export
The PowerFactory data browser in the data manager's window looks and acts like a
spreadsheet program as far as creating and editing power system objects is concerned.
To enable and simplify the use of power system element data which is stored in spread-
sheet programs such as the Microsoft Excel or the Lotus 123 programs, the data browser
offers 'Spreadsheet Format' import and export facilities.
11.8.1 Export to Spreadsheet Programs (e. g. MS EXCEL)
All data visible in the data browser may be exported as it is. The export format is such
that most common spreadsheet programs can read in the data directly (space separated
ASCII). Exporting data is performed as follows.
• Select a range of data in the data browser. Such a range may contain more than one
column and more than one row.
• Right-click the selected range.
• Now you have different options:
- If you want to copy the content of the marked cells only, simply select Copy from
the context-sensitive menu.
- If you want to copy the content of the marked cells together with a description
header, select the Spread Sheet Format option. This opens a second menu which
offers the choice between writing the Spreadsheet export to a file (Write to File), or
to put it on the Windows Clipboard (Copy (with column headers)). See Figure
11.16.
• The exported data can now be imported into a Spreadsheet program. When the
Clipboard was used, using the Paste option of the spreadsheet program or pressing
Ctrl-V will Paste the data into the spreadsheet.
• The imported data may now be edited, or additional calculations may be made. The
PowerFactory data is imported as numbers and descriptions. The example in Figure
11.17 calculates a mean value from a range of line loading percentages.
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Fig. 11.16: Exporting a range of data
Fig. 11.17: Imported data in a spreadsheet program
11.8.2 Import from Spreadsheet Programs (e. g. MS EXCEL)
There are two methods available for importing data from a spreadsheet program. The first
method uses a direct import of 'anonymous' numerical data, i. e. of the values stored in
the cells of the table. This method is used to change parameter of existing objects by
importing columns of parameter values.
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The second method can be used to create new objects (or replace whole objects) by
importing all the data from a spreadsheet.
Any range of parameter values can be copied from a spreadsheet program and imported
into the database manager. The import is performed by overwriting existing parameter
values by 'anonymous' values. The term 'anonymous' expresses the fact that the imported
data has no parameter description. The size of the imported value range and the required
data are tested. Importing invalid values (i.e. a power factor of 1.56) will result in an error
message.
Spreadsheet Import of Values
The import of values (anonymous variables), i. e. cells of a table, is explained by the
following example.
In Figure 11.18, a range of active and reactive power values is copied in a spreadsheet
program. In Figure 11.19, this range is pasted to the corresponding fields of 6 load objects
by right-clicking the upper left most field which is to be overwritten. The result of this
action is shown in Figure 11.20.
In contrast to the import of whole objects, the anonymous import of data does not need
a parameter description. This would complicate the import of complete objects, as the
user would have to enter all parameters in the correct order.

Fig. 11.18: Copying a range of spreadsheet data

Fig. 11.19: Pasting spreadsheet data from clipboard
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Fig. 11.20: Database browser with imported data
Spreadsheet Import of Objects and Parameters
With this kind of import, it is possible to import whole objects (in contrast to the import
of pure values, which is described above). The object import uses a header line with the
parameter names (which is necessary in addition to the cells with the pure values). This
header must have the following structure:
• The first header must be the class name of the listed objects.
• The following headers must state a correct parameter name.
This is shown in Figure 11.21.

Fig. 11.21: Excel required format
Figure 11.22 shows an example of valid spreadsheet data of some line types and some
2-winding transformer types.

Fig. 11.22: Example of valid spreadsheet data
The import of the spreadsheet data into PowerFactory is performed as follows.
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• Select the header line and one or more objects lines.
• Copy the selection. See Figure 11.23 for example.
• Right-click the folder browser in the database manager to which the objects are to be
imported. Select 'Spread Sheet Format ÷> Import Objects from Clipboard '. See
Figure 11.24 for example.

Fig. 11.23: Selecting object data in spreadsheet

Fig. 11.24: Importing objects from clipboard
The result of the object import depend on whether or not objects of the imported class
and with the imported names already exist or not in the database folder. In the example
of Figure 11.25, none of the imported objects existed in the database an all were created
new therefore. The example shows the database in detail mode.
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Fig. 11.25: Result of spreadsheet object import
Note New objects are created in the PowerFactory database
folder only when no object of the imported class and with
the imported name is found in that folder. If such an object
is found then its data will be overwritten by the imported
data
Because new objects are only created when they do not exist already, and only the
imported parameters are overwritten when the object did exists already, the import is
always a save action.
Remarks
Object Names
Object names may not contain any of the characters
* ? = " , \ ~ |
Default Data
When an imported object is created newly, the imported data is used to
overwrite the corresponding default data. All parameters that are not
imported will keep their default value.
Units
The spreadsheet values are imported without units. No conversion from
MW to kW, for example, will be possible. All spreadsheet values
therefore have to be in the same units as used by PowerFactory.
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Chapter 12
Grouping Objects
In Section 7.3.3, the concept and the application context of the objects that can be
defined in PowerFactory to group network components were introduced. In this section
the definition, management and functionality of these objects is discussed.
12.1 Areas
To define a new area:
• Multi select the components belonging to the new area (in the Data Manager or in a
single line diagram).
• Right click on the selection and select Define --> Area from the context sensitive
menu.
• After the area has been defined, terminals can be added to it by selecting Add to...-->
Area… in their context sensitive menu.
In the edit dialogue of the new area you must select a color to represent the area in the
single line diagrams. Using the Edit Elements button you can have access to all the
element belonging to that area in a data browser, then you can edit them. The Mark in
Graphic button may be used to locate the components of an Area in a single line
diagram.
Note: Areas that are created/deleted when a recording expansion stage
is active; become available/not available only if the corresponding
variation is active and the expansion stage activation time is earlier
than the current study time.
For information about the color representation in the single line graphic please refer to
10.6.5 (Color Representation).
12.2 Virtual Power Plants
As explained in Section "Virtual Power Plants" from Chapter 7 (The PowerFactory Data
Model), Virtual Power Plants are used to group generators of the defined network model
in such a way that the total dispatched active power is set to a target value. The dispatch
of each generator (variable pgini available on the 'Load Flow' tab of the generators
dialogue) is scaled according to the Virtual Power Plant rules (must run, merit of order,
etc., as described below), in order to achieve the total target value.
Virtual Power Plant objects (ElmBmu) are stored inside the 'Virtual Power Plants' folder
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within the Network Data directory.
12.2.1 Defining and Editing a New Virtual Power Plant
A new Virtual Power Plant is created by:
• Multi selecting in a single line diagram or in a data browser an initial set of generators
to be included in the Virtual Power Plant;
• Then pressing the right mouse button and selecting Define --> Virtual Power Plant
from the context sensitive menu.
Fig. 12.1: Defining a Virtual Power Plant
Alternatively you can create a new empty Virtual Power Plant by using the Data Manager:
• Open a data manager.
• Find the Virtual Power Plant folder ( ) and click on it.
• Press the icon for defining new objects ( ).
• select "Others".
• Then select "Virtual Power Plant (ElmBmu)" in the list box.
• Assign a suitable name to the Virtual Power Plant.
• Press OK.
The rules which determine the dispatch of the selected generators are set in the Virtual
Power Plant dialogue. The total active power to be dispatched is set in the field 'Active
Power'. The dispatch of the belonging generators (variable pgini from the Load Flow tab
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of the generator) is set by pressing the Apply button. If the 'Maximal active power sum'
of the included generators (sum of the maximal active power operational limit of the
generators) is smaller than the active power to be dispatched, an error message pops up.
Otherwise the dispatch is set according the user defined 'Distribution Mode':
According to merit order
Distribution of the dispatched active power is done according to the
priorities given to each generator in the Merit Order column of the
'Machines' table (this value can also be set in the Optimization tab of
the generators dialogue). Lower values have higher priority. Generators
with the option 'Must Run' checked are dispatched even if they have
low priority (high value). It is assumed that the merit of order of all
generators in the Virtual Power Plant is different. If not an error
message appears after the 'Apply' button is pressed.
According to script
The rules for the dispatch are set in user defined DPL scripts, which are
stored inside Virtual Power Plant object. To create new scripts or to edit
the existing ones you must open a data browser with the 'Scripts'
button.
Note: The Virtual Power Plant active power is part of the operation sce-
nario subsets and therefore is stored in the active operation sce-
nario (if available). The active power is stored in the active
expansion stage (if available) if no active operation scenario is ac-
tive. Virtual Power Plants that are created/deleted when a record-
ing expansion stage is active; become available/non available only
if the corresponding variation is active and the expansion stage ac-
tivation time is earlier than the current study time.
12.2.2 Applying a Virtual Power Plant
Check that the active power set for the Virtual Power Plant is less than or equal to the
maximum power. Press the Apply button.
12.2.3 Inserting a Generator into a Virtual Power Plant and
Defining its Virtual Power Plant Properties
Generators are added to an existing Virtual Power Plant by adding a reference in the
'Optimization' tab of their edit dialogue. Notice that a generator can belong to at most one
Virtual Power Plant. Define the Merit Order and must run properties as required.
You also can add a generator to a Virtual Power Plant by clicking with the right mouse
button on the element in the network graphic and choose Add to… -> Virtual Power
Plant… from the context sensitive menu.
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Fig. 12.2: Virtual Power Plant
12.3 Boundaries
As explained in the Section Boundaries of Chapter 7.3.3 (Network Data), Boundaries are
objects used to define internal regions that later may be reduced by means of the Network
Reduction function of PowerFactory. Boundaries themselves are defined by a user
selected set of cubicles, the terminals connected to them and a selected orientation.
The cubicles in the boundary element define a cut through the network, that together with
the orientations are used to define the corresponding "Interior Region". Topologically, the
interior region is found searching through the network starting at each selected cubicles
towards the given direction. The topological search continues until either an open switch
or a cubicle that is part of the boundary list is found. Any open switch that is found by
this search is considered to be part of the interior region.
To define a new Boundary:
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• Multi select a set of cubicles and terminals in the single line diagram, which will define
the boundary. For doing this: freeze (!) the network diagram and click on the
corresponding ends of lines, transformers etc., and on one busbar to define the
orientation of the boundary.
• Then click with the right mouse button on the selection.
• Choose in the context sensitive menu Define… --> Boundary…. The dialogue of the
new Boundary will pop up.
• By pressing OK the new Boundary object is created in the Boundaries folder of the
Network Model.
To add cubicles to an existing Boundary:
• In the Boundary dialogue, right click on the table (on the number of a row) that lists
the included cubicles.
• Select Insert rows, Append rows or Append n rows from the context sensitive menu.
• Double click on the Boundary Points cell of the new line.
• Select the target cubicle using the data browser that pops up.
After selecting the desired cubicle, the terminal and the branch element connected to it
are added to the 'Terminal' and 'Components' cells on the table. By default the 'Orien-
tation' (direction used to determine the interior region) is set to the branch; you can
change it in order to direct the definition of the internal region to the connected terminal.
Cubicles can be retired from a Boundary by selecting 'Delete rows' from the context
sensitive menu of the table in the element dialogue.
The selected color at the bottom of the dialogue is used to represent the boundary in the
single line diagrams ( ). Each element in the graphic is colored according to the
following criteria:
• If it uniquely belongs to one interior region of a boundary to be drawn, its color will be
assigned to that specific boundary color.
• If it belongs to exactly two of the interior regions of the boundaries to be drawn, its
will be represented with dashed lines in the specific boundary colors.
• If it belongs to exactly more than two of the interior regions of the boundaries to be
drawn, its will be represented with dashed lines in black and the color selected for
multiple intersections.
The Edit Interior Elements button can be used to list in a data browser all the
components included in the internal region. The Mark Interior Region button marks
all the components of the interior region in the selected network diagram.
Topological changes in the network that affect the defined interior regions are automati-
cally detected by the program.
Note Boundaries that are created or deleted when a recording expan-
sion stage is active; become available/not available only if the cor-
responding variation is active and the expansion stage activation
time is earlier than the current study time.
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12.4 Circuits
To create a new Circuit:
• In the Data Manager open the Circuits folder from the Network Model.
• Click on the New Object icon.
• The edit dialogue of the new Circuit pops up. Give a name to the new object and
press Ok.
Branches are added to a circuit using the pointer from the 'Circuit' field of the branch
dialogue. The button Branches in the Circuit dialogue opens a data browser listing the
branches that refer to that circuit.
Note: Circuits that are created or deleted when a recording expansion
stage is active; become available/not available only if the corre-
sponding variation is active and the expansion stage activation
time is earlier than the current study time.
12.5 Feeders
The concept and application context of feeders (ElmFeeder) was presented in Section
(Feeders) from Chapter 5. In this section the aspects related with their definition and
functionality are discussed.
A new feeder is created by right-clicking on a cubicle (that is, when the cursor is held just
above the breaker in the single line diagram) and selecting Define -> Feeder.... Once the
option Feeder has been selected, the Feeder dialog pops up. There you can define the
desired options for the new object. After pressing Ok, the new Feeder is stored in the
Feeders folder of the Network Model.
Any existing Feeder can be edited using its dialogue (double click the target Feeder on a
data browser). The Feeder dialogue presents the following fields:
Name
Cubicle
Is a reference to the cubicle where the Feeder was created. It is
automatically set by the program once the Feeder is created.
Zone
Reference to the Zone (if any) to which the feeder belongs. A Feeder is
assigned to the zone of the local busbar/terminal.
Color
Sets the color be used when the Feeder Definitions coloring mode
( ) is engaged in the single line diagram.
Terminate feeder when…
A feeder will, by default, terminate when a higher voltage level is
encountered, however, this may not always be desirous. This may be
prevented by un-checking this option. The feeder will now continue
'past' a higher voltage level and may be terminated at a user defined
cubicle if desired. To manually terminate a feeder right-click a branch
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element above the breaker (to select the desired cubicle where the
feeder is going to end) and select Edit Cubicle. The dialogue of the
cubicle dialogue will be presented, and the 'Terminate feeder at this
point' option may be checked.
Orientation
The user may select the direction towards the feeder is defined.
'Branch' means that the feeder starts at the cubicle and continues in
the direction of the connected branch element. 'Busbar' means that the
Feeder is defined in the direction of the connected Terminal.
Load Scaling
In any system some loads values may be accurately known whilst
others are estimated. It is likely that measurement points exist for
feeders in the system as well, and thus the power that is drawn
through this feeder is also known. The load scaling tool assists the user
in adjusting these estimated load values by scaling them to match a
known feeder power or current that has been measured in the real
system. More information about the use of the Load Scaling Function is
given below.
Elements
The Mark in Graphic button may be used to select all the elements
of a Feeder in the desired single line diagram. The Edit button is used
to list all the elements belonging to a Feeder in a data browser.
To use the Load Scaling tool first define which loads may be scaled by enabling the
'Adjusted by Load Scaling' option on the Load-Flow tab of the load dialogue. All of the
loads in a feeder may also be quickly viewed by editing the feeder from the feeders folder.
Load scaling is now performed by the load-flow calculation function when:
• At least one feeder is defined with load scaling according to a current or power.
• The option 'Feeder Load Scaling' is enabled in the load-flow command dialog (basic
options).
• At least one load exists in the feeder area for which
- A change in operating point affects the load-flow at the feeder position
- The option 'Adjusted by Load Scaling' has been enabled.
The load-flow calculation will then adjust the scaling of all adjustable loads in the feeder
areas in such a way that the load-flow at the feeder equals the current or power setpoint.
The feeder setpoint is influenced by the zone scaling. This means that the current or
power flow as calculated by the load-flow could differ from the setpoint in the feeder
dialog when the busbar where the feeder is defined is part of a zone.
For instance, a feeder has a setpoint of 1.22 MVA. The busbar is in a zone and the zone-
scale is set to 0.50. The flow at the feeder position will thus be 0.61 MVA.
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Note: The Load Scaling options are part of the operation scenario sub-
sets; therefore they are stored in the active operation scenario (if
available). The Load Scaling options are stored in the active expan-
sion stage (if available) if no active operation scenario is active.
feeders that are created or deleted when a recording expansion
stage is active; become available/not available only if the corre-
sponding Variation is active and the expansion stage activation
time is earlier than the current study time.
12.6 Network Operators
To create a new operator:
• In the Data Manager open the Operators folder from the Network Model.
• Click on the 'New Object' icon.
• The edit dialogue of the new operator pops up:
- Give a name to the new object.
- Select a color to represent the operator se in the corresponding coloring mode of
the single line diagram-
- Press Ok.
Network elements (class name Elm*) such as terminals, switches, lines, generators,
transformers, relays or composite models (ElmComp), Substations (ElmSubstat) and
Branches (ElmBranch) can be assigned to an operator by means of the reference
'Operator' from the Description tab of their dialogue.
Note: Operators that are created or deleted when a recording expansion
stage is active; become available/not available only if the corre-
sponding variation is active and the expansion stage activation
time is earlier than the current study time
12.7 Network Owners
Owners are created on the Owners folder of the Network Model, following the same
procedure described for operators. Network elements (class name Elm*) such as
terminals, switches, lines, generators, transformers, relays or composite models
(ElmComp), Substations (ElmSubstat) and Branches (ElmBranch) can be assigned to
an operator by means of the reference 'Operator' from the Description tab of their
dialogue.
Note: Operators that are created or deleted when a recording expansion
stage is active; become available/not available only if the corre-
sponding variation is active and the expansion stage activation
time is earlier than the current study time
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12.8 Paths
To create a new Path:
• In a single line diagram select a chain of two or more terminals and their inter-
connecting objects.
• Right click on the selection.
• Select the option Path --> New from the context sensitive menu.
• The dialogue of the new path pops up, give a name and select the desired color for
the corresponding color representation mode in the single line diagram. The
references to the objects defining the Path (First/Last Busbar First/Last Branch) are
automatically created by the program, according to the selection.
• After pressing Ok the new path is stored in the Paths folder of the Network Model.
By using the Elements button of the Path dialogue you can have access to all the element
belonging to the path in a data browser, there you can edit them. The Select button may
be used to locate the components of the path in a single line diagram. With the Toggle
button you can invert the order of the objects limiting the path (First/Last Busbar First/
Last Branch). This order is relevant when evaluating directional protective devises.
New objects can be added to a path by marking them in a single line diagram (including
one end of the target path and a busbar as the new end) right clicking and selecting Path
--> Add to from the context sensitive menu. Objects can be removed from a Path
(regarding that the end object of a Path must be always a busbar) by marking them in
the single line diagram, right clicking and selecting Path --> Remove Partly from the
context sensitive menu. The Remove option of the Path context sensitive menu will
remove the firstly found path definition of which at least one of the selected objects is a
member
As explained in Chapter 5, the functionality of this objects is related to the protection
functions of PowerFactory, for further information on the use of Paths please refer to
Chapter 32 (Protection).
Note: Paths that are created or deleted when a recording expansion
stage is active; become available/not available only if the corre-
sponding variation is active and the expansion stage activation
time is earlier than the current study time
12.9 Zones
Elements in a system may be allocated to a zone and the graphic may be colored to show
these zones. All of the loads may be quickly scaled in a zone and the elements of a zone
may be listed in a browser format for gang editing.
Zones are created by multi-selecting elements, right-clicking and choosing Define -->
Zone... from the context sensitive menu. The option Add to --> Zone... can be selected
when a zone(s) have already been defined.
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory Study Cases
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Chapter 13
Study Cases
Study Cases (IntCase, ) define the studies to be performed in the modeled system.
They store all the definitions created by the user to perform calculations, allowing the
easy reproduction of results even after the deactivation of the project. By means of the
objects stored inside them objects the program recognizes:
• The parts of the network model (grids and expansion stages) to be consider for
calculation.
• The calculations (and their settings) to be performed over the selected parts of the
network.
• The study time.
• The active variations.
• The active operation scenario.
• The calculation results to be stored for reporting.
• The graphics to be displayed during the study.
A study case with a reference to at least one grid or expansion stage has to be activated
in order to enable calculations. A project that contains more than one grid, which has
several expansion stages for design alternatives, or which uses different operation
scenarios to model the various conditions under which the system should operate,
requires multiple study cases. All the study cases of a project are stored inside the 'Study
Cases' folder ( ) in the project directory.
Note: Only one study case can be active. When activating a study case,
all the grids, variations and operation scenarios that it refers be-
come active.
Without study cases, it would be necessary to manually activate the correct grid and/or
expansion stage over and over again in order to analyze the resulting power system
configuration. Similarly, it would be necessary to define over and over again the same
calculation command setup used to analyze the behavior of the selected network.
Besides storing the objects that define a network study, study case objects set the output
units for the performed calculations and allow the definition of certain calculation options
for the solving algorithms.
The following subsections describe the main objects stored inside the study cases, as
mentioned before they are used to define the network studies. For information about
defining and working with study cases please refer to Section 13.1 (Creating and Using
Study Cases).
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13.1 Creating and Using Study Cases
The Study Cases were introduced in Section 7.2.4 (Study Cases), following are the
instructions on how to create, edit and activate them.
When a new project is created, a new empty study case is automatically generated and
activated. The new study case is assigned the default settings of PowerFactory. The
user can later edit them using the study case dialogue (Figure 13.2).
The user may define several study cases to facilitate the analysis of projects containing
more than one grid, several expansion stages, different operation scenarios or simply
different calculation options. To create a new study case:
• Open the Data Manager and go to the Study Cases folder. Right-click the folder and
select New --> Study Case from the context sensitive menu. Enter the name of the
new case in the dialogue that pos up (Figure 13.2) and edit (if required) the default
settings.
Only one study case can be active at any time. To (de)activate a study case:
• Open the Data Manager. The active study case and the folder(s) where it is stored are
highlighted. Right-click on the active study case and choose Deactivate from the
context sensitive menu. To activate a dormant study case place the cursor on its
name, right-click and choose Activate. Study cases may also be activated by simply
choosing the required study case from the drop down 'Current Study Case' window,
found on the right side of the upper tool bar (Figure 13.1).
Fig. 13.1: Activating a study case from the main toolbar
A study case can have more than one grid. Only the objects in the active grids will be
regarded in the calculations. To add an existing grid to the active study case:
• Open the data manager and go to the Network Data folder. Right-click the grid you
want to add to your calculation and select Add to Study Case from the context
sensitive menu. The grid will be activated and graphics will be opened (after a
selection by the user). To remove an active grid, select Remove from Study Case.
Variations are considered by a study case when they are activated. The expansion stages
are applied according to the study case time, which is set by the time trigger stored inside
the study case folder. More than one variation can be active for a study case. However
there will always be only one recording stage. For further information, please refer to
Chapter 17 (Network Variations and Expansion Stages). To add (activate) a variation to
the active study case:
• Right-click on it and select Activate from the context sensitive menu. The variation will
be activated and stages will be highlighted depending on the study time.
An operation scenario can be (de)activated via context menu or using the option File -->
Activate Operation Scenario/ Deactivate Operation Scenario from the main menu. On
activation, a completeness check is done (check if operational data is available for all
components). This is reported in the PowerFactory output window. If an operation
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scenario is active, all operational data attributes in property sheets or in data manager
are highlighted in a blue color. This indicates that changes of these values will not modify
the base component (or variation) but are recorded by the active operation scenario. On
deactivation, previous operational data are restored. If the operation scenario was
modified, a user confirmation is requested whether to save the changes or to discard
them. For further information about working with operation scenarios, please refer
Chapter 16 (Operation Scenarios).
Note: Only one study case can be activated at a time. Although network
components and diagrams can be edited without an active study
case, calculations can not be performed unless a study case is ac-
tivated. Variations and operation scenarios used by a study case
are automatically activated with the corresponding study case.
13.2 Summary Grid
The primary task of a Study Case is to activate and deactivate a calculation target, which
is a combination of grids and optionally expansion stages from the Network Model. The
Summary Grid object ( ) holds references to the grids which are considered in the
calculation (that is the active grids). Grids may be added to, or removed from, the study
case by right-clicking them in the database tree and selecting Add to Study Case or
Remove from Study Case from their edit dialogue. Automatically a reference to the
activated/deactivated grid is generated/deleted in the Summary Grid object.
A grid cannot be activated separately; a study case linked to the grid must be active. The
context sensitive menu will show an Activate option when a grid or system stage folder is
right-clicked if no study case folder is active. This will present a prompt dialogue which
request that either an existing study case be activated, or a new study case be created
first. The grid or system stage is then activated in conjunction with whichever choice is
made.
13.3 Study Time
PowerFactory Version 14 extends the idea of a model into the dimension of time. The
Study Case has got a Study Time. The Study Time defines the point in time you wish to
analyse.
The Study Time must be inside the Validity Period of the Project, which specifies the time
span the Project is valid for (see Section : The Validity Period of the Project). PowerFactory
will use the Study Time in conjunction with time-dependent network expansions (Varia-
tions, Expansion Stages, see Chapter 17: Network Variations and Expansion Stages) to
determine which network data is applicable to that point in time. You are able to change
the Study Time in order to analyse a different point in time. The Expansion Stages will be
activated/deactivated with the Study Time.
The status bar at the bottom of the PowerFactory program window shows the currently
set Study Time.
The most easy way to change the Study Time is:
• Double click on the Study Time shown in the status bar of PowerFactory.
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• Enter the date and time or press the button -> Date and -> Time in order to set the
Study Time to the current time of your computer.
• Press OK to accept the changes and close the window.
There are several alternative ways to edit the Study Time.
Alternative 1: Edit the Study Time like a Trigger:
• Press the button "Date/Time of Calculation Case" in the main toolbar of PowerFactory.
• Enter the date and time or press the button -> Date and -> Time in order to set the
Study Time to the current time of your computer.
• Press OK to accept the changes and close the window.
Alternative 2: Edit the Study Case from within the Study Case dialogue:
• Activate the project and browse for the Study Case in the Data Manager.
• Right click on the Study Case and select Edit from the context sensitive menu.
• On the Basic Data tab page press the button with the three dots beneath the entry for
the Study Time
• Set the Study Time according to your needs.
• Press OK to accept the changes and close the window.
13.4 The Study Case Edit Dialogue
To edit the settings of a study case, you may select Edit -->Study Case in the main menu,
or right-click the study case in the Data Manager and select Edit from the context sensitive
menu. A dialogue as shown in Figure 13.2 will appear.
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Fig. 13.2: Study Case edit dialogue
In the 'Basic Data' page, the user can define the name and an owner to the study case.
The output units of the calculated variables are defined in the 'Output Variables' field. The
grids that are linked to a study case may be viewed by pressing the Grids/System
Stages button. The study time can be edited by pressing the ( ) button; this will open
the edit dialogue of the study case time trigger (see Section 13.3: Study Time). Please
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regard that the study time can also change as a result of setting the recording expansion
stage explicitly (see Chapter 17: Network Variations and Expansion Stages).
The 'Calculation Options' tab is used to set the solving algorithm for the case calculations.
The change of the default options is only recommended under the supervision of the
DIgSILENT support experts.
The Description page, like all object's description pages is used to add user comments
Note: To edit the study time you can alternatively, press on the "Date/
Time of Calculation Case" button ( ). This will open the study
case time trigger window. Also, at the lower right corner of the
screen the time of the simulation case is displayed. By double-click-
ing on this field you are taken to the same window.
13.5 Variation Configuration
Similarly to the Summary Grid object, the Variation Configuration object (IntAcvariation
) holds references to the active variations.
13.6 Operation Scenarios
A reference to the active operation scenario (if any) is always stored in the study cases.
Similar to variation configurations and summary grids, when a study case is activated, the
operation scenario (if any) whose reference is hold, will be automatically activated. The
reference to the active operation scenario is automatically updated by the program.
13.7 Commands
In PowerFactory a calculation (i.e load flow ( ), short circuit ( ), initial conditions
of a time domain simulation ( ), etc.) is performed via 'Calculation Commands', which
are the objects that store the calculation settings defined by the user. Each study case
stores its own calculation commands, holding the most recent settings. This ensures
consistency between results and calculation commands and enables the user to easily
reproduce the same results at a later stage. When a calculation is performed in a study
case for the first time, a calculation command of the corresponding class is automatically
created inside the active study case. Different calculation commands of the same class
(i.e different load flow calculation commands: objects of the class ComLdf or
different short circuit calculation commands: objects of the class ComShc ) can be
stored in the same study case. These approach allows the user to repeat any calculation,
with all the settings (such as fault location, type, fault impedance, etc.) as last performed
in the study case. Of course the calculations are performed only over the active grids
(expansion stages).
Figure 13.3 shows a study case called Study 1 witch contains two load flow calculation
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commands ( , Ldf 1 and Ldf2), one command for an OPF calculation ( ), one
command for the calculation of initial conditions , and one transient simulation ( ).
The edit dialogue of each one of the calculation commands existing in PowerFactory is
described in the chapter corresponding to that calculation function.
Fig. 13.3: Calculation Commands in a Study Case
Actions such as generating a report of the actual calculation results or the state of the
defined network components are carried out via command objects (in this case ComSh
and ComDocu objects respectively). For information about reporting commands please
refer to Chapter 20 (Reporting Results in PowerFactory).
Note: Command objects basically consist of the data set that configures
the calculation, and the Execution function to perform the compu-
tations. Like any other object calculation commands can be copied,
pasted, renamed and edited.
13.8 Events
The time domain simulations as well as certain steady state calculations make use of
objects called Events, in order to specify the situations that lead to changes in the system
during the simulation/calculation time. PowerFactory offers several kinds of events:
• Control switch events (EvtSwitch)
• Set parameter events (EvtParam)
• Short-circuit events (EvtShc)
• Intercircuit fault events (EvtShcll)
• Events of synchronous machines (EvtSym)
• Events of loads (EvtLod)
• Outage of element (EvtOutage)
Each simulation event requires the definition of the target network components (i.e. short
circuited terminals, etc.) and an event time (when does the event occur). Within study
cases, the simulation events are stored inside an Event object (IntEvt ). The calcu-
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lation commands that require simulation events, point to the Event object containing the
set of events defined for that calculation.
The use and the definition of events are presented through the chapters explaining the
calculation function that require them. Further information about each specific simulation
event is given in the proceeding subsections.
13.8.1 Switching Events
Switching events (EvtSwitch) are used to open/close switches (StaSwitch, ElmCoup)
in the studied network. Any switch may be selected, thus enabling the switching of lines,
generators, motors, loads, etc. Here the user is free to select the switches/breakers of all
phases or only of one or two phases.
13.8.2 Set Parameter Events
With this event (EvtParam) an input parameter of any element or DSL model can be set
or changed during the simulation. A time of occurrence, an active network component and
the target parameter (input signals of the dynamic models) must be specified.
13.8.3 Short-Circuit Events
This event (EvtShc) causes a short-circuit on the selected busbar, terminal or specified
point of a transmission line. The fault type (three phase, two phase or single phase faults)
can be specified as well as the fault resistance and reactance and the phases which are
affected.
There is no possibility to define the duration of the fault. To clear the fault, another short-
circuit event can be defined, which will clear the fault in the same place.
13.8.4 Intercircuit Fault Events
This event (EvtShcll) is similar to the short-circuit event described before. Two different
elements and their phase can be chosen between which the fault occurs. Equal to the
EvtShc four different elements can be chosen:
• a busbar (StaBar)
• a terminal (ElmTerm)
• a overhead-line or cable (ElmLne)
• a line routes (ElmLnerout)
13.8.5 Events of Synchronous Machines
For synchronous machines there is a special event (EvtSym) to easily change the
mechanical torque of the machine. A point in time in the simulation and an active
synchronous machine ElmSym has to specified. Then one can define the additional
mechanical torque supplied to the generator. The torque can be positive or negative and
is entered in per unit values.
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13.8.6 Events of Loads
The value of the active/reactive? power of a load (ElmLod, ElmLodlv or ElmLodlvp)
can be altered using the load event (EvtLod). There are three different ways to carry out
the desired changes:
• Incremental Change: Adds additional power (positive or negative) to the current value
in % of the nominal power of the load.
• Absolute Change: Changes the current value of the power to the given value in % of
the nominal power of the load.
• Nominal Change: Changes current and nominal value of the power to the specified
value in % of the nominal power of the load.
13.8.7 Outage of Element
This event (EvtOutage) can only be used in steady state calculations, when an element
shall be put out of service at a certain point in time. Then the option "take element out
of service" is to be used. It is not possible to bring back the outaged elements into service
in the transient simulation. This option is active only in steady-state calculation functions,
e.g. short-circuit calculation or reliability assessment. In time-domain simulation the
following error message will occur in the output window:
DIgSI/err (t=000:000 ms) - Outage Event in Simulation not available.
Use Switch-Event instead!
13.8.8 Save Results
This event (EvtTrigger) is only used in the PowerFactory Monitor part of the
program. It can't be used during time-domain simulations
13.9 Results Objects
The Results object (ElmRes ) is used to store tables with the results obtained after
the execution of a command in PowerFactory. The typical use of a Results object is in
writing specific variables during a transient simulation, or during a data acquisition
measurement. The obtained results can later be used to generate plots, or in DPL scripts.
An example of the result object dialogue is depicted in Figure 13.4.
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Fig. 13.4: The Results Object Dialogue
The result object shows the following fields:
Name
The name of the result object
Database ID
Its database ID and the date, when it was changed the last time
Default for
Its default use
Info
Information about the currently stored data, ie.e the time interval, step
sizes, number of variables, etc.
Trigger-Times
Trigger times (in case of a Triggered default use)
The information about the stored data shows:
• The time interval.
• The average time step.
• The number of points in time.
• The number of variables.
• The size of the database result-file.
The Update button will recalculate these parameters and update the shown information
if necessary. The Clear Data will clear all result data (only available if calculation results
are stored).
Note: Clearing the data will delete the result-file and will reset the data-
base ID. This will destroy all calculated or measured data in the re-
sult file. It will not be possible to restore the data.
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When the Protocol Output button is pressed, all events that happened during the
simulation, recorded by the result object, will be written again into the output window. So
one can check what events took place during the last simulation.
The content of a result object (the variables whose results are stored) is determined by
sets of selected variables called Monitor Variable Sets (IntMon ). Each Monitor
Variable Set stores the results of the selected variables for one network component.
These monitor objects can be edited by pressing the Contents button. This will show the
list of monitor sets currently in use by the result object.
Note: Selecting a set of result variables, trough the use of monitor ob-
jects is necessary because otherwise all available variables would
have to be stored, which is practically impossible.
For information about exporting results, please refer to 20.2.1 (Result Objects).
13.10 Variable Sets
The result object combines one or more monitor variable sets (IntMon ), allowing a
very flexible and highly transparent result definition. In fact, by using monitor variable
sets, just about every parameter used in the PowerFactory program comes available as
calculation result, together with a description and a unit.
The variables selected with the IntMon dialogue in the result object become available to
the subplot objects in the virtual instrument panels. In these plots, one or more result
objects can be selected and from those result objects a power system element and one
of its variables can be chosen, if that element and that variable was selected in one of the
IntMon objects. The subplot will then show the calculated curve of that variable.
Variable sets always have a reference to a network component, whose selected variables
are going to be recorded (Figure 5.29 red circle, in this case a transformer called T1). To
facilitate the selection of the variables, monitor variable sets are organized according to
the calculation functions of PowerFactory and by the type of data. For example, if the
results of a harmonics calculation are to be recorded, the user should go to the
'Harmonics' page (Figure 5.29, green circle). If the voltage or the power of the referred
element is to be stored, the selected 'Variable Set' should be 'Currents, Voltages and
Powers' (Figure 5.29 blue circle).
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Fig. 13.5: Monitor Variable Set Dialogue
For further information about the definition of Monitor Variable Sets please refer to
Chapter 19 (Defining Variable Sets).
13.11 Triggers
As introduced in Section 7.7 (Parameter Characteristics and Parametric Studies),
parameter characteristics are used to define parameters as ranges of values instead of
fixed amounts. The parameter characteristics are set over user defined scales. The actual
value of the parameter is at the end determined by a trigger object (SetTrigger object,
), which sets an actual value on the corresponding scale. For example if the value of
certain parameter depends on the temperature, a characteristic over a temperature scale
is set. The actual value of the temperature is defined by the trigger. The actual value of
the temperature determines the actual value of the parameter, according to the defined
characteristic.
Once a parameter characteristic and its corresponding scale are set, a trigger pointing to
the scale is automatically created in the active study case. The user can access the trigger
object and change its actual value every time that he/she requires.
PowerFactory offers different types of characteristics and scales; each scale (by default
scales are stored in the Scales folder of the Equipment Library) points to a trigger from
the active study case. Information about the use and definition of characteristics, scales
and triggers is given in Section 7.7 (Parameter Characteristics and Parametric Studies).
13.12 Graphic Board
The Study Case folder contains a folder called the Graphics Board folder (SetDesktop,
) where references to the graphics to be displayed are contained. This folder, much
like the Summary Grid folder, is automatically created and maintained and should
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generally not be edited by the user.
The references in the graphics board folder are created when the user adds a grid to a
study case. PowerFactory will ask the user which graphics of the grid should be
displayed. At any time later the user may display other graphics in the grid by right-
clicking the grid and selecting Show Graphic. Graphics may be removed by right-clicking
the tab at the bottom of the page and selecting Remove Page(s).
The study case and graphics board folder will also contain references to any other
graphics that have been created when the study case is active.
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DIgSILENT PowerFactory The Equipment Type Library
14 - 1
Chapter 14
The Equipment Type Library
In Section 7.4 (The Equipment Type Library), the description of the Equipment Types
Library and the definition of types for network components was given. Here, in this
chapter it is explained how to work with the objects of the Equipment Library, in order to
define and manage the types to be used in a project.
Once a new project is created, an Equipment Types Library is automatically set by the
program. This default equipment library contains the following folders:
• Generators
• Lines
• Loads
• Transformers
• Scales
The first four folders are objects of the class IntPrjfolder (Project folder) that allow the
filtering of the types to be stored inside them. By default only synchronous generator
types (TypSyn) are allowed in the Generators folder, only line types (TypLne) in the
Lines folder, only general load types (TypLod) in the Loads folder and only two winding
transformer types (TypTr2) in the Transformers folder. New type objects are created in
these folders using the new object icon ( ) and selecting the appropriate type class; if
a class that is not allowed by the filter is selected, an error message pops up. Alternatively
types from other projects or the global library can be copied and pasted in these folders;
again if the type class does not match the folder filter, an error message is generated.
The filters in the default folders are set to facilitate organization of the Equipment Library;
of course types for components other than synchronous generators, lines, loads and two
winding transformers can be stored. To define types different than the already mentioned
the user can:
1 Create new folders for other type classes.
2 Edit the existing folders to allow the definition of other types.
3 Create new types in the main directory (Equipment Library).
To create a new project folder in the Equipment Types Library:
• Right click on the Equipment Types Library folder in the left pane of the Data
Manager.
• Select New --> Project Folder from the context sensitive menu.
• In the project folder edit dialogue that pops up:
- Write the name of the new folder.
- Select the Generic folder type.
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14 - 2
- On the Filter Class field write the name of the type class (classes) to be allowed in
the folder. If more than one class is to be allowed, write the class names (case
sensitive) separated by a coma.
- Select 'Library' in the icon field.
To edit the filter of an existing folder:
• Right click on the target folder.
• Select Edit from the context sensitive menu.
• In the 'Filter Class' field write the name of the desired classes (case sensitive)
separated by a coma. The '*' character means that all classes are allowed.
To create new types directly in the in Equipment Types Library folder:
• Open the Equipment Types Library folder.
• Click on the New Object icon ( ) and select the desired type class from the
dialogue.
Notice that any type class can be copied in the Equipment Types Library folder.
The Scale folder, which is also created by default in the Equipment Types Library is used
to store the scales used by the parameter characteristics. Information about Scales and
the Data Model is given in Section 7.7 (Parameter Characteristics and Parametric Studies).
Information about the definition of Scales is given in Chapter 18 (Parameter Character-
istics).
Note: By default new block definitions (used by dynamic models) created
from block diagrams are also stored in the Equipment Types Li-
brary. Chapter 25 (Stability and EMT Simulations) provides all the
information related with dynamic modeling and block definitions.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory The Operational Library
15 - 1
Chapter 15
The Operational Library
Network components use references to type objects in order to set equipment-related
parameters and to avoid data redundancy. For example, two generators defined in a
network model (let’s call them G1 and G2) may refer to the same generator type (let’s
call it G 190M-18kV) to set their manufacturer-related data, i.e. nominal voltage, nominal
power, impedances, etc. G1 and G2 will have the same equipment data but may be
operated at different points, or may be grounded differently. That is, they may have the
same type data, but different operational and element data.
As mentioned, certain parameters of network components do not depend on the
equipment itself but on the operational point. These parameters are grouped under the
operational data set of the element. In the previous example of the synchronous gener-
ators, the active power dispatch or the reactive power limits are part of this operational
data.
In order to analyze a network under different operating points, operational data may
change frequently during a study. Considering that different network components may
have identical operational parameters (for example 2 generators with the same MVAr
limits, or various circuit breakers with the same ratings for short circuit currents), refer-
ences to objects storing operational data facilitate the definition of different network
operational points. Similar to types, the use of objects containing operational data avoids
redundancy.
The Operational Library is the Data Model project folder, where objects containing opera-
tional data are stored. As explained in Chapter 7.5, PowerFactory allows the definition
of several objects to store operational data. Figure 7.10 shows how the operational library
looks for its higher hierarchical level.
This section describes these objects and their hierarchical organization within the Opera-
tional Library, and explains how these objects are defined and applied to network compo-
nents.
15.1 Circuit Breaker Ratings
To create a new circuit breaker rating in the operational library:
• In the data manager open the CB Ratings folder.
• Click on the New Object icon ( ).
• In the Element Selection dialogue select Circuit Breaker Rating (IntCbrating) and
press Ok.
• The new circuit breaker rating dialogue will then be displayed. Set the corresponding
parameters and press Ok.
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To assign a circuit breaker rating to a circuit breaker (ElmCoup object) from the network
model:
• Go to the Complete Short-Circuit tab of the element's dialogue.
• In the Ratings field click on the button to select the desired rating from the CB
Ratings folder.
The parameters defined in the circuit breaker ratings can be made to be time-dependant
by means of variations and expansion stages stored inside the CB Ratings folder. This
feature is better explained by the following example:
Suppose that a circuit breaker (named CB) in a substation operates with different ratings,
depending on the time of the year. From 1st January to 1st June it will operate according
to the ratings defined in a set of parameters called CBR1. From 1st June to 31st
December it will operate with the ratings defined in a set of parameters called CBR2. This
operational procedure can be modelled by defining (in the CB Ratings folder) a circuit
breaker rating (let's call it CBR), and a variation (let's call it CB_Sem_Ratings) containing
two expansion stages. The first expansion stage should activate on the 1st January and
the second on the 1st June. The first task should be the definition of the time-dependant
circuit breaker rating (CBR):
To set the parameters of CBR for the first period:
• Set a study time before the 1st June to activate the first expansion stage (the
Variation CB_Sem_Ratings must be active);
• Edit the parameters of CBR (previously defined) according to the values defined in
CBR1. The new parameters will be stored in the active expansion stage.
To set the parameters of CBR for the second period:
• Set a study time after the 1st June, to activate the second expansion stage;
• Edit CBR according to the values of CBR2. The new parameters will be stored in the
active expansion stage.
Once the ratings for the two expansion stages have been set, and the circuit breaker
rating CBR has been assigned to the circuit breaker CB; the study time can be changed
from one period to the other to obtain different ratings for CB (note that the variation
must be active).
For information regarding short-circuit calculations, please refer to Chapter 23. For further
information regarding circuit-breaker ratings, please see Section 7.5.1. For further infor-
mation about variations and expansion stages, please refer to 7.3.4.
Note: The variations act 'locally'. The variations from the CB Rating folder
will only affect the circuit breaker ratings stored inside it. The vari-
ations of the Network Model will only affect the network compo-
nents from the grids.
15.2 Demand Transfers
To create a new load demand transfer:
• In the data manager, open the Demand Transfer folder.
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• Click on the New Object icon ( ).
• In the Element Selection dialogue select Planned Outage (IntOutage) and press Ok.
• Set the validity time, the source and target loads/feeders and the expected amount of
power.
Note: If there is a demand transfer, which transfers load between two
loads (ElmLod) belonging to different feeders (ElmFeeder), then
the same MW and Mvar value is transferred from one feeder to the
other.
A demand transfer is only possible if an active operation scenario (to record the changes)
is available. The Apply all button will automatically apply all transfers that are stored
in the current folder and which fit into the current study time. Before execution, the user
is asked if the current network state should be saved in a new operation scenario.
The same demand transfers can be applied as many times as desired during the validity
period. If a power transfer has been executed (with an amount <> 0) and the source's
power is less than 0, a warning is printed to the output window indicating that the power
limit was exceeded. The applied transfers can be reverted by using the Reset all
button.
As can be inferred from the information above, when the current operation scenario is
deactivated, all load transfers executed (while the operation scenario was active) will be
reverted.
For information about operation scenarios please refer to Chapter 16. Further information
about demand transfer is given in Section 7.5.2.
15.3 Fault Cases and Fault Groups
To create new Fault Cases or new Fault Groups folders, open the Faults project folder
from the Operational Library and use the New Object icon (select Fault Cases (IntFltcases)
or Fault Groups (IntFltgroups) respectively).
To create new fault case (object of class IntEvt):
• Multi-select the target components on a single line diagram;
• Right-click and select Define --> Fault Cases from the context-sensitive menu;
• A submenu with the following entries pops up:
- Single Fault Case: This creates a single simultaneous fault case including all
selected elements. A dialog box containing the created fault case is opened to allow
the user to specify a name for the fault case. If the user presses Cancel, the fault
case will not be created in the database. Ok closes the dialog and saves the new
fault case.
- Multi fault Cases, n-1: This creates an n-1 fault case for each selected
component. Therefore the number of fault cases created is equal to the number of
components selected. This menu entry is only active if more than one component is
selected. The fault case is automatically created in the database after selection.
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- Multi fault Cases, n-2: This creates an n-2 fault case for each unique pair among
the selected components. Therefore the number of fault cases is ( )
where b is equal to the number of selected components. This menu entry is only
active if more than one component is selected. If only one component was clicked,
then no fault case will be created. The fault case is automatically created in the
database after selection.
• Select the desired outage level.
• Select the target Fault Cases folder from the data browser that pops up and press Ok.
The fault cases created will consist of short-circuit events applied to the selected compo-
nents. All breakers (except for circuit breakers, which are used to model a circuit breaker
failure) will be ignored.
• If only breakers are included in the selection, an error message will be issued.
• If a simple switch (not a circuit breaker) is included in the selection, a warning
message will be issued that this switch will be ignored.
• If a circuit breaker is contained in the selection, then an Info message will be issued,
that the CB will be used for modelling a CB failure and will not be handled as a fault
location.
Note: In the case that a branch is selected, the short-circuit event is gen-
erated for a (non-switch device with more than one connection)
component of the branch. The component used in the event is:
"Connection 1" if suitable, otherwise "Connection 2" if suitable,
otherwise a suitable random component of the branch (line, trans-
former….).
New Fault Groups (IntFltgroups) are created in the data manager by opening the target
Fault Groups folder and using the New Object icon ( ). The edit dialogue of the new
Fault Group pops up. In this dialogue a name can be specified, and cases (IntEvt objects)
can be added using the Add Cases button. The Cases button opens a data browser
displaying the fault cases which are referred by the group.
For information regarding the functionality of fault cases and fault groups in contingency
analysis tools please refer to Chapter 28. For further information about the concepts and
applications of fault cases and groups please refer to 7.5.3.
15.4 Capability Curves (MVAr Limit Curves) for
Generators
For further information about the concepts and applications of Capability Curves (MVAr
Limit Curves) please refer to Section 7.5.4.
15.4.1 Creating a New Capability Curve Object
To create a new generator capability curve (object of class IntQlim):
• Open the folder Mvar Limit Curves ( ) from the Operational Library.
b b 1 – ( ) 2 ·
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• Click on the New Object icon ( ) and select Capability Curve (IntQlim). The new
capability curve dialogue pops up.
• Define the generation limits as described in Section 15.4.3.
• Press OK.
Alternatively, press the button on the Load Flow tab of the synchronous machine's
element dialogue. Then select User defined Capability Curve and enter the curve as a
series of points in the table. Right-click on the rows to append, delete or insert new rows.
15.4.2 Applying a Capability Curve from the Operational Library
To apply an existing generator capability curve to a generator:
• Locate the Reactive Power Limit section on the Load Flow tab of the synchronous
machine's or static generator's dialogue.
• Press next to Capability Curve.
• Choose Select to look for a suitable curve in the Mvar Limit Curves folder in the
Operational Library folder.
• Select a capability curve.
• Press OK.
15.4.3 Defining an MVAr Limits Curve
In the capability curve dialogue, right-click on the empty rows and choose Append rows
or Append n rows, in order to add the required number of rows to the table. Construct
the curve as a series of points. Insert data as required to define the shape of the curve.
15.4.4 Editing a Capability Curve
The values of a capability curve can be changed at any time by double-clicking on it to
open the corresponding dialogue. Similar to circuit breaker ratings, capability curves can
become time-dependant by means of variations and expansion stages stored inside the
Mvar Limit Curves folder (refer to Section 15.1 for an explanation on how to define time-
dependant operational objects).
Capability curves are assigned using the reference contained on the Load Flow tab of a
synchronous generators dialogue. They are included in operation scenario subsets;
meaning that if a capability curve is selected/reset from a generator when an operation
scenario is active, the change will be stored in the operation scenario. Once the operation
scenario is deactivated, the assignment/reset of the curve is reverted. For information on
working with operation scenarios, please refer to Chapter 16.
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15.4.5 Defining a Variation of an MVAr Limits Curve
Find the MVAr Limits Curves folder in the left pane of a data manager window. Right-click
on it and select New -> Variation. Provide a suitable name and select OK. Now right-click
on the new variation and select New -> Expansion Stage. Edit the expansion stage and
press OK. For general information about variations and expansion stages please refer to
Chapter 17.
15.4.6 Activating a Variation of an MVAr Limits Curve
Open a data manager. Locate the Variation object in the Mvar Limits Curves folder
inthe Operational Library. Right-click on this object and select Activate.
15.5 Element Outages and Generator Deratings
To create a new outage of the type Element Outage or Generator Derating:
• In the data manager, open the Outages folder.
• Click on the New Object icon ( ).
• In the Element Selection dialogue select Planned Outage (IntOutage) and press Ok.
• The IntOutage dialogue will pop up. In the Outage Type section, the options Outage
of an Element and Generator Derating will be enabled. Set the validity time, select the
desired type, and define the outage accordingly (further information is given below).
The definition of an Outage of an Element requires references to the network compo-
nents to be taken out of service. These references can be created by pressing the
Contents button of the outage object, and in the data browser that pops up, creating a
reference to the target element with the New Object icon:
• After clicking on the New Object icon, the dialogue of the reference object (IntRef)
pops up. Give a name to the new reference.
• Press the ( ) button in the Reference field to select the target element in the
browser that pops up.
• After pressing Ok in the data browser, the selected element is added to the reference.
Press Ok.
The definition of a Generator Derating requires a reference to the target generator (note
that only one generator per IntOutage object is allowed), using the button from the
Derated Generator section of the dialogue. The derated power in MW (which will be
subtracted to the maximal active power of the generator) is entered in the MW reductions
field.
The actions defined in the outages can be automatically applied using the Apply button.
In order to carry out these actions an active operation scenario, to record the changes, is
required.
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• For the Outage of Element type, the program automatically isolates the contained
components. The switches connecting the target elements with the other network
components are open and the terminals connected to the elements are earthed (the
Earthed option in the terminal (ElmTerm) dialogue is checked). Notice that the target
element can only be earthed if it is directly connected (without switches in the
cubicle) to terminals, which are then connected through switches to the network
terminals.
• For the Generator Derating the maximal active power that can be dispatched (defined
on the Load Flow tab of the generator element dialogue, in the section Active Power
Operational Limits) is recalculated as the difference between the maximal active
power (section Active Power: Ratings) and the MW reductions.
Note that the Apply button is only available if the study time lies within the outage period.
Applied outages and generator deratings can be reset using the Reset button. Note that
the programmed actions can also be manually carried out.
The Check All button in the outage object is used to verify if the actions (outage or
derating) defined for the target elements have been performed. Only the outages within
a valid period are considered. Outages market as Out of Service are not regarded (even
if the study time lies within the outage period).
• In the case of Outage of Element, the program looks for the current state of the
referred elements. If, according to the current study time (and the outage period), a
referred component should be out of service, but it is still connected to the network
(energized) or not earthed, a warning message is printed to the output window.
• In the case of a Generator Derating, if the maximal operational active power is not the
difference between the maximal rated active power and the MW reductions (values
defined on the Load Flow tab of the generator element dialogue), a warning message
is generated.
In the outages’ respective Check functions, the energizing state is always determined by
a connectivity analysis. Any component that is connected to a reference external net or a
reference generator is considered to be energized. All others are considered to be deener-
gized (if circuit breakers are open). A deenergized component is earthed if a topological
connection to a grounding switch or an earthed terminal exists (terminal with the Earthed
option checked).
Note: If the outaged element is a branch element (ElmBranch), all con-
tained elements are checked. If any of these elements is not cor-
rectly outaged, the whole branch is reported as not correctly
outaged.
The fulfillment of programmed outages can also be checked via the use of the color repre-
sentation function available within the single line graphic. To do this, set the Colouring
option to Outage Check from the color representation dialogue ( ). The following states
are colored, according to user preferences:
• Components that are energized, but should be outaged.
• Components that are deenergized and not earthed, but should be outaged.
• Components that are deenergized and earthed, but should NOT be outaged.
• Components that are deenergized, not earthed and should be outaged.
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• Generators that are not derated, but should be outaged.
• Generators that are derated, but should NOT be outaged.
15.6 Running Arrangements
The basic concept and application of the Running Arrangement (RA, objects of class
IntRunarrange) were introduced in 7.5.6. In this section, information concerning the
definition, management and functionality of these objects is given.
15.6.1 Creating a Running Arrangement
To store the current status of the switches in a substation, a Running Arrangement object
must be created. To create and save a new Running Arrangement (RA):
• Click on an empty place in the substation graphic, and from the context-sensitive
menu choose Edit Substation. Open the substation dialogue.
• Press the Save as button (shown in Figure 15.1). This action stores the switch
settings of the substation as a new RA. This button is only available if there is
currently no Running Arrangement selection active.
• The new RA dialogue pops up, where a name and a period can be specified. Press Ok.
• The new RA is automatically stored in the Running Arrangements folder in the
Operational Library.
An Overwrite button is available in the substation dialogue (if no RA is selected), to store
current switch statuses to an existing RA.
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Fig. 15.1: Running Arrangement in a Substation Dialogue
15.6.2 Selecting a Running Arrangement
A Running Arrangement (RA) can be selected in the Basic Data tab of a substation
dialogue (ElmSubstat, see Figure 15.2):
• Open the substation dialogue.
• Press the Select button ( ) in the Running Arrangement section. A list of all RAs
for the current substation is displayed.
• Select the desired RA. This selection is immediately reflected in the graphic (preview).
While an RA is selected, the switch statuses of a substation are determined by this RA and
cannot be changed by the user (i.e. they are read-only).
If there is no setting for a switch in an RA (i.e. the RA is incomplete), such a switch will
remain unchanged but its status is also set to read-only.
Furthermore, there is a button Select by Study Time (also available via the context-
sensitive menu when right-clicking on the data manager), which selects a valid RA
automatically according to the study time. If there are multiple RAs valid for the current
study time, or if there is no valid one, a warning is printed to PowerFactory's output
window (nothing is selected in this case).
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15.6.3 Applying and Resetting a Running Arrangement
An active Running Arrangement (RA) can be applied to the corresponding substation by
pressing the Apply and Reset button from within the substation dialogue. This action
copies the statuses stored in the RA directly in the substation switches. It is only available
only if an RA is selected. The RA will be deselected afterwards. An RA can be directly set
as the substation’s selected RA, using the Assign button (from within the RA dialogue).
Fig. 15.2: Apply & Reset a Running Arrangement
The following functional aspects must be regarded when working with running arrange-
ments:
• An RA can be selected for each substation. If an operation scenario is active, the
selection of an RA in a substation is recorded in the operation scenario (i.e. the RA
selection is part of the operational data included in the operation scenario subset).
• If a variation is active (and there is no active operation scenario), the selection of the
RA is stored in the recording expansion stage.
• While an RA is selected, the switch statuses of the corresponding substation are
determined by the RA and can not be modified. Any attempt to change such a switch
status will be rejected and a warning message will be printed to the output window.
The switch statuses preceding the activation of an RA remain unchanged and are
restored when deselecting the RA.
• The switch statuses stored in the RA could be incomplete due to the activation of a
variation or a modification made to the network model. For example, if an RA was
defined and then deactivated, and then later new switches were added to a
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substation. In this case if the RA is re-activated, a warning would be printed to the
output window and the current switch statuses, which depend on the base network,
active variations and active operation scenario, remain unchanged. Missing switch
statuses will be added only when performing the Save as or Overwrite functions
(available in the substation dialogue).
• Switch statuses stored in the RA, and which are currently not required (depending on
expansion stages) are ignored and remain unchanged. In this case a summary
warning is printed during the RA activation.
• It is not possible to add a new switch to a substation while a running arrangement is
selected. Additionally, it is not possible to delete an existing switch from this
substation. In both cases the action is blocked and an error message is issued.
For information regarding substations please refer to Section "Substations" of
Chapter 7.3.2. For information regarding operation scenarios and their application please
refer to Section 16.
15.6.4 Assigning a Running Arrangement
The Assign button contained in the running arrangement (RA) dialogue makes it possible
to set this RA as the one currently selected for the corresponding substation. This action
is also available in the context-sensitive menu in the data manager (when right-clicking
on an RA inside the data manager). It should be noted that assignment is executed
immediately and cannot be undone by pressing the cancel button of the dialogue.
Fig. 15.3: Running Arrangement Dialogue
15.7 Thermal Ratings
To create a new Thermal Rating (IntThrating) object, open the folder Thermal Ratings
from the Operational Library, click on the New Object icon and select Thermal
Ratings. The new object dialogue pops up.
To configure the table for the short-term ratings (only visible if the option Consider short
term ratings is checked), go to the Configuration tab and:
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• Introduce the increasing values for the pre-fault loading axis (Prefault %). By default,
values between 0% and 80%, with increments of 5%, up to 84% are set.
• Introduce the fault duration in minutes. Default values are: 360min, 20min, 10min,
5min, 3 min).
The pre-fault continuous rating (used as the base to calculate the loading before the fault)
and the post-fault continuous rating (assumed as the branch element pos-fault rating if
the fault duration is larger than the largest duration time defined in the table) are defined
on the Ratings tab.
The values of a thermal rating object can be edited at any time by double-clicking on it
to open the corresponding IntThrating dialogue. Similar to circuit breaker ratings and
capability curves, thermal rating objects can be made to be time-dependant by means of
variations and expansion stages stored inside the Thermal Ratings folder (please refer to
the Circuit Breaker Ratings section for an explanation on how to define time-dependant
operational objects).
The branch elements that can use thermal ratings are:
• Transmission lines (ElmLne);
• 2 and 3 winding transformers (ElmTr2 and ElmTr3);
• Series reactors (ElmSind);
• Series capacitors (ElmScap).
The reference to the thermal ratings is defined on the Basic Data tab of the dialogue of
the target branch elements.
When a contingency analysis (ComSimoutage) is configured, the user can define a post-
contingency time. According to the pre-fault loading found by the load flow used to
calculate the base case, and the post-contingency time (if specified), the ratings to be
used in the contingency load flow are determined (based on the referred Thermal Rating
object). The loading of the branch elements after the contingency load flow are calculated
with respect to the new ratings.
For further information about thermal ratings, please refer to Section 7.5.7. For infor-
mation about contingency analysis please refer to Chapter 28.
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Chapter 16
Operation Scenarios
As introduced in Section 7.2 (PowerFactory Project Structure), the operational data of
network components defines the operational point of a system. Storing recurrent
operation points of a network and being able to activate or deactivate them when required
accelerates the analyses of the network under different operating conditions, i.e. different
dispatch programs, low or high load periods, etc. PowerFactory can store complete
operational points in objects called Operation Scenarios (IntScenario, ).
Operation scenarios are formed by data subsets, which group the operational data of the
active network components according to their type. Examples of operation scenario
subsets include: demand data; storing the active and reactive power of all loads or
running arrangement (RA) selections; and storing references to the RA selected in the
network substations.
Operation scenarios are stored inside the Operation Scenarios folder ( ) in the project
directory. The user can define as many operation scenarios as required; each operation
scenario should represent a different operational point. Figure 16.1 shows a project
containing two operation scenarios (Operation Scenario 1 and Operation Scenario 2, in
the left pane of the data manager window); the content of Operation Scenario 2 (i.e. its
subsets) is shown in the right pane of the data manager.
Fig. 16.1: Operation Scenarios and Operation Scenarios Subsets
A new operation scenario is defined by saving the current operational data of the active
network components. Once they have been created, operation scenarios can be activated
in order to load the corresponding operational data. If an operation scenario is active and
certain operational data is changed, these changes are stored in the corresponding
operation scenario subsets (if the user decides to store the changes). If the current
operation scenario is deactivated, the active network components reassume the opera-
tional data that they had before activating the operation scenario (this is the 'default'
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operational data). Clearly, changes made to the 'default' operational data do not affect
operation scenarios.
When working with active operation scenarios and active expansion stages, modifications
on the operational data are stored in the operation scenario subsets. The expansion stage
keeps the default operational data. If no operation scenarios are active and new compo-
nents are added by the current expansion stage, the operational data of the new compo-
nents will be added to the corresponding operation scenario subsets, when activated.
The following section explain how these objects are defined, managed and applied in
network models.
Note: When an operation scenario is active, the operational data is dis-
tinguished in the network component dialogs because it is written
using a blue font colour.
16.1 Operation Scenario Subsets
As mentioned in the previous section, the operational data stored in an operation scenario
is organized into subsets according to the type of the data (i.e. virtual power plant data,
load data, generation pattern data, etc.). Table 16.1 and onwards summarize the
operation scenario subsets and the data that they contain for the corresponding network
components. Note that the names of the internal variables that represent the listed data
are written in italics. It is important to note that the operation scenario subsets are
automatically created after the definition of a new operation scenario, according to the
operational data that is stored; i.e. if no running arrangements are selected for the
network substations, no running arrangement selection subset is created. Similarly when
saving an active operation scenario, the operational data is automatically organized in the
corresponding subsets.
Table 16.1:Subset: Virtual Power Plant Data
Network Component Stored operational data
Virtual Power Plant
(ElmVirtual Power Plant)
Total Power (Ptot)
Table 16.2:Subset: Demand Data
Network Component Stored operational data
Load (ElmLod) Active Power in MW (plini)
Reactive Power in Mvar (qlini)
Scaling Factor (scale0)
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LV-Load (ElmLodlv) Apparent Power (slini)
Active Power (plini)
Current (ilini)
Power Factor (coslini)
Reactive/capacitive (pf_recap)
Scaling factor (scale0)
Night Storage Heater (pnight)
DC Machine (ElmDcm) (if
motor)
Active Power (pini)
Table 16.3:Subset: Generation Pattern
Network Component Stored operational data
Synchronous Generator
(ElmSym)
Active power in MW (pgini)
Reactive power in Mvar (qgini)
Voltage setpoint in p.u. (usetp)
Angle in deg (phiini)
Primary Frequency Bias (Kpf)
Mvar capability limit (Qmin/Qmax or reference to curve) (q_min,
q_max, pQlimType)
MW-limit (operational limit only) (Pmax_uc, Pmin_uc,
pmaxucratf)
Control mode (iv_mode)
Reference-Machine-Flag (ip_ctrl)
Operator Comment (sOpComment)
Asynchronous Generator
(ElmAsm)
Bus Type (bustp)
Active Power (pgini)
Reactive Power (qgini)
Remote Control (i_rem)
Controlled Branch (p_cub)
Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (ElmAsmsc):
Active Power (pgini)
Reactive Power (qgini)
Controlled Flow (p_pctrl)
Slip (slip_set)
DC Machine (ElmDcm) (if
generator)
Active Power (pini)
Table 16.2:Subset: Demand Data
Network Component Stored operational data
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External Network
(ElmXnet)
Bus Type (bustp)
Active Power (pgini)
Reactive Power (qgini)
Voltage (usetp)
Angle (phisetp)
Reference busbar (p_uctrl)
Primary Frequency Bias (Kpf)
Secondary Frequency Bias (K)
Operator Comment (sOpComment)
Table 16.4:Subset: Local Switch Statuses
Network Component Stored operational data
Circuir Breakers, Switches
(ElmCoup and StaSwitch)
Switch state (on_off)
Fuse (RelFuse),
ElmGndSwt
Switch state (on_off)
Bus Bar/Terminal
(ElmTerm)
Earthing flag
Table 16.5:Subset: RA Selection
Network Component Stored operational data
Sub-station (ElmSubstat) Reference to running arrangement
Table 16.3:Subset: Generation Pattern
Network Component Stored operational data
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Table 16.6:Subset: Tap Settings
Network Component Stored operational data
2-Winding Transformer
(ElmTr2)
Actual tap position (nntap)
Automatic tap changing (ntrcn)
Controlled node (t2ldc)
Control mode (imldc)
Remote control (i_rem)
Controlled node (p_rem)
Phase (ilcph)
Controlled branch (p_cub)
Voltage setpoint (usetp)
Lower voltage bound (usp_low)
Upper voltage bound (usp_up)
Controller time constant (Tctrl)
Active Power setpoint (psetp)
Lower active power bound (psp_low)
Upper active power bound (psp_up)
Controller Sensitivity (Kpctrl)
Reactive power setpoint (qsetp)
Lower reactive power bound (qsp_low)
Upper reactive power bound (qsp_up)
Constroller sensitivity dv/dQ (Kqctrl)
Line drop compensation (ildc)
CT Rating (ldcct)
VT Rating (ldcpt)
Rset (ldcrs)
Xset (ldcxs)
External LDC (pldc)
Operator Comment (sOpComment)
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3-Winding Transformer
(ElmTr3)
Actual Tap Position (n3tap_h)
Actual Tap Position (n3tap_m)
Actual Tap Position (n3tap_l)
Tap control for side (ictrlside)
Automatic tap changing (ntrcn)
Controlled node (t3ldc)
Control Mode (imldc)
Remote Control (i_rem)
Controlled node (p_rem)
Voltage setpoint (usetp)
Lower voltage bound (usp_low)
Upper voltage bound (usp_up)
Controller time constant (Tctrl)
Controlled branch (p_cub)
Active power setpoint (psetp)
Lower active power bound (psp_low)
Upper active power bound (psp_up)
Controller time constant (Tctrl)
Controller sensitivity dv/dP (Kpctrl)
Reactive power setpoint (qsetp)
Lower reactive power bound (qsp_low)
Upper reactive power bound (qsp_up)
Controller sensitivity dv/dQ (Kqctrl)
Line drop compensation (ildc)
External LDC (pldc)
Operator Comment (sOpComment)
Table 16.7:Subset: Reactive Power Compensation
Network Component Stored operational data
Shunt (ElmShnt) Actual number of steps (ncapa)
Flag "Switchable" (iswitch)
Control mode (imldc)
Upper voltage limit (usetp_mx)
Lower voltage limit (usetp_mn)
Orientation (iQorient)
Upper reactive power limit (qsetp_mx)
Lower reactive power limit (qsetp_mn)
Upper power factor setpoint limit (pfsetp_mx)
Inductive/capacitive (pf_recap_mx)
Lower power factor setpoint limit (pfsetp_mn)
Inductive/capacitive (pf_recap_mn)
Flag Remote Control (i_rem)
Controlled Branch (Cubicle) (p_cub)
Operator Comment (sOpComment)
Table 16.6:Subset: Tap Settings
Network Component Stored operational data
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SVS (ElmSvs) Load Flow Control (i_ctr)l
Remote Control (i_rem)
Controlled Node (p_rem)
Voltage Setpoint (usetp)
Enable droop (i_droop)
Qdroop
Controlled phase (ivcop)
Controlled Branch (p_cub)
Q Setpoint (Qsetp)
Act. Value of TCR (tcrqact)
Act number of capacitors (nncap)
Operator Comment (sOpComment)
Shunt Controller
(ElmShntctrl)
Control Mode (imldc)
Phase (ilcph)
Controlled Node (rembar)
Upper voltage limit (usetp_mx)
Lower voltage limit (usetp_mn)
Controller Time constant (Tctrl)
Controller Sensitivity (Kctrl)
Operator Comment (sOpComment)
Table 16.8:Subset: Voltage Profile
Network Component Stored operational data
Bus Bar/Terminal
(ElmTerm)
Target voltage (vtarget)
Min voltage (dvmin)
Max voltage (dvmax)
Station Controller
(ElmStactrl):
Load Flow Control (i_ctrl)
Controlled Bar (rembar)
Voltage Setpoint (usetp)
Controlled Phases (i_phase)
Control Mode (imode)
Operator Comment (sOpComment)
Table 16.7:Subset: Reactive Power Compensation
Network Component Stored operational data
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16.2 Storage of Operational Data
As explained above, operation scenarios are used to store sets of operational data
according to the defined operation scenario subsets. Depending on the availability of an
active operation scenario, operational data is stored in an operation scenario, or in the
recording expansion stage, or directly in the network model:
• If no operation scenario is active, modifications made to operational data lead to
changes to the "default" operational data values. Depending on whether a variation is
active or not, the data modifications are recorded by the 'recording' expansion stage.
• If an operation scenario is active and the modified object is in an active grid folder or
active expansion stage, the modifications made to operational parameters are
recorded by the operation scenario. The modifications apply to the corresponding
operation scenario subset.
A changed operation scenario is marked by a "*" next to the operation scenario name in
the status bar. In the data manager the modified operation scenario and operation
scenario subset are also marked ( ). The modified operation scenario is not immedi-
ately stored in the database. The changes are made in RAM, with no database transac-
tions, and are stored after the operation scenario is saved.
16.3 Creating a New Operation Scenario
In order to create a new (empty) operation scenario:
• In the data manager, right-click on the Operation Scenarios folder in the active
project.
Table 16.9:Subset: Feeder Scaling Factor
Network Component Stored operational data
Feeder (ElmFeeder) Magnitude (i_scale)
Active Power (Pset)
Apparent Power (Sset)
Current (Iset)
Scaling factor (scale0)
Reactive power scaling (i_scalepf)
Reactive Power Setpoint (Qset)
Power Factor (cosphiset)
Ind/cap (pf_recapset)
Table 16.10:Subset: Zone Scaling Factor
Network Component Stored operational data
Zone (ElmZone) Load Scaling Factor (curscale)
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• Select New --> Operation Scenario from the context-sensitive menu as shown in
Figure 16.2.
• The dialogue of the new operation scenario pops up, where the name can be entered.
Press Ok.
Alternatively, an operation scenario can be created by saving the operational data of the
current active network components. This is done by going to the PowerFactory main menu
File --> Save Operation Scenario as... (see Figure 16.3). In this case the new operation
scenario is automatically activated.
Fig. 16.2: Creating a New Operation Scenario Object using the Data Manager
Fig. 16.3: Using the Main Menu to Save as a New Operation Scenario
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16 - 10
16.4 Activating Operation Scenarios
An operation scenario is activated by right-clicking on it (in the data manager) and
selecting Activate from the context-sensitive menu. Alternatively, the option Activate
Operation Scenario from the main menu can be used. If another operation scenario is
active, the active operation scenario is first deactivated; the user is asked if she/he wants
to save the changes (if any) and the new operation scenario is activated. When an
operation scenario is activated, a reference is created in the current study case.
Upon activation, a completeness check is done, to check the following:
• If operational data is available for all components.
• If all defined operational data from the new operation scenario subsets can be applied
to the network model.
The results of the check are reported as messages in the output window. When an
operation scenario is incomplete at activation, the 'default' operational data is set for the
'incomplete' elements, modifying the operation scenario.
If an operation scenario is active, all operational data attributes in property sheets or in
data manager are highlighted in a blue color. This indicates that changes of these values
will not modify the base component (or variation) but are recorded by the active operation
scenario.
Note: The active operation scenario is displayed in the status bar
Fig. 16.4: Blue Highlighted Operational Data in an Element Dialogue
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Fig. 16.5: Blue Highlighted Operational Data in a Browser Window
16.5 Saving Operation Scenarios
A new operation scenario may be created by selecting from the main menu File -> Save
Operation Scenario as… .
If any operational data (of a network component) is changed while an operation scenario
is active, that scenario is considered to be modified. The modifications are not saved; this
unsaved status is indicated by an asterisk (*) next to the icon for the operation scenario.
Further, an incomplete operation scenario is also considered modified (because data will
be completed on saving).
Fig. 16.6: An Asterisk Indicates Unsaved Changes in Operation Scenarios
A modified operation scenario can be saved to database by:
• The menu entry Save Operation Scenario in PowerFactory's main menu (see
Figure 16.3).
• The button Save in the dialogue window of the operation scenario (see Figure 16.10).
• The button Save Operation Scenario ( ) in the main icon bar (see Figure 16.7).
• The context-sensitive menu (right mouse button) entry Action -> Save of the
Operation Scenario (see Figure 16.8).
The button Save as from the operation scenario dialogue (only available for active
operation scenarios) can be used to save the current operational data as a new operation
scenario. The new operation scenario is automatically activated upon being created.
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Fig. 16.7: The Save Operation Scenario Button in the Main Icon Bar
Fig. 16.8: Saving an Operation Scenario Using the Context-Sensitive Menu
Additionally, an auto-save for operation scenario data is available which will always save
a modified operation scenario automatically. This option can be enabled in the Power-
Factory User Settings ( icon on the main toolbar; Data Manager tab). This is done by
setting the Save Interval is set to '0 minutes', meaning that each modification will immedi-
ately be saved to database.
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Fig. 16.9: The Auto-Save Option for Operation Scenarios in the User Settings
Dialogue
16.6 Deactivating Operation Scenarios
An operation scenario can be deactivated via the main menu File -> Deactivate Operation
Scenario or via the context-sensitive menu of the active operation scenario. On deacti-
vation, previous operational data (i.e. the 'default' operational data) is restored. If the
operation scenario was modified, a user confirmation is requested as to whether to save
the changes or to discard them.
16.7 Performing Actions on Operation Scenarios
In the operation scenario dialogue, the following buttons are available, as shown in Figure
16.10:
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Save Saves modified scenario to database (only active if scenario was
modified).
Save as Saves current operational data of network components as a new
scenario. The new scenario will be activated automatically afterwards.
Reporting Checks if operational data stored in the scenario is complete (available
for all currently active components) and whether it refers to valid
components. Inconsistencies are reported to the PowerFactory
output window.
Apply Copies all operational data stored in the scenario to the network
components without activating the scenario. If another scenario or a
variation is active, it will record these values. Otherwise, the base
model is changed.
Compare Compares two scenarios and prints a comparison report to the output
window. (Only inactive scenarios can be compared).
Reporting RA Non-default running arrangement selections will be reported (only
enabled if scenario is active).
Most of these actions are also available in the context-sensitive menu when right-clicking
on an operation scenario.
Fig. 16.10: Operation Scenario Dialogue
16.8 Applying Operational Data from Operation
Scenarios
The operational data from a non-active operation scenario can be applied to the operation
scenario subsets of the active operation scenario or directly to the components of the
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16 - 15
Network Data folder:
• If no active operation scenario is available, the source operational data is copied
directly to the components of the active networks, altering the 'default' operational
data.
• If an operation scenario is activated, the data is copied to the corresponding subsets.
It is possible to apply all operational data from the ''source'' operation scenario, or just
the selected subsets. This can be done via either the context-sensitive menu, or by
clicking on the Apply button in the operation scenario dialogue (only to apply the
complete operation scenario).
16.9 Reporting Information about Operation Scenarios
In operation scenario dialogue, the following reporting options are available:
• Reporting: Checks if operational data stored in the operation scenario is complete
(available for all currently active components) and whether it refers to valid
components. Inconsistencies are reported to the PowerFactory output window.
• Compare: Compares two operation scenarios and prints a comparison report to the
output window. (Only inactive operation scenarios can be compared).
• Reporting RA: Non-default running arrangement selections will be reported (only
enabled if operation scenario is active).
To generate any of these reports, the corresponding button must be pressed in the
operation scenario dialogue (as shown in Figure 16.10). In the case of a comparison, the
user must select the operation scenario to compare, from a data browser that pops up
immediately after the Compare button is pressed. Once the Ok button in the data browser
is pressed, the report is generated in the output window.
Note: Most of these actions are also available in context-sensitive menu
when right-clicking on an operation scenario (Action -> …).
16.10 Copying a Subset of an Operation Scenario to
Another Operation Scenario
The operational data is recorded in several subsets inside an operation scenario. The data
of each subset can be transferred from one operation scenario to another. As an example,
suppose that the "Running Arrangement Selections" from "Operation Scenario Low Load"
must be applied to "Operation Scenario High Load". First, activate the target operation
scenario (in this case, "Operation Scenario High Load"). Then, display the subsets of the
source operation scenario (in this case, "Operation Scenario Low Load") in the right-hand
pane of a data manager window. Right-click on the subset to be applied (in this case, "RA
Selections"), and choose Apply (see Figure 16.11).
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Fig. 16.11: Applying Subsets from One Operation Scenario to Another
16.11 Comparing Two Operation Scenarios
If one of the operation scenarios to be compared is currently activate, deactivate it. Right-
click on one of the operation scenarios and select "compare" from the context-sensitive
menu. A window opens, from which we can select the other operation scenario to which
we want to compare (see Figure 16.12). PowerFactory prints the differences between
both operation scenarios in the output window.
Fig. 16.12: Selecting Operation Scenarios for Comparison
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Chapter 17
Network Variations and Expansion Stages
It is often necessary to make topological changes to a network model for a study. Use of
Variations in PowerFactory ensures that these changes are recorded separately, and
that the original network remains intact. A variation object is created in the Variations
folder within the Network Model folder, as shown in Figure 17.1. The concept and the
applications of variations and expansion stages were presented in Section 7.3.4 (Varia-
tions and Expansion Stages). This section explains how these objects are defined,
managed and applied within network models.
Fig. 17.1: Variations Folder with Expansion Stages
17.1 Basic Functionality
As introduced in Section 7.3.4 (Variations and Expansion Stages), expansion stages store
changes made to the Network Data and its subfolders. Four kinds of changes are
recorded:
• System parameter changes
• Operational data changes
• Adding a new object
• Deleting an object
The changes (except operational data if an operation scenario is activated) are recorded
and stored in the corresponding latest active expansion stage (the 'recording' expansion
stage). If an operation scenario is active, the operational data changes are stored inside
the corresponding operation scenario subsets. Objects cannot be renamed while a
variation is active, except for objects added in the active 'recording' expansion stage.
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Note: When stored inside Operational Library folders, variations (Varia-
tions) only affect the objects at the same hierarchical level or be-
low.
17.2 Creating New Variations and Expansion Stages
To create a new variation, right-click on the Variations folder ( ) in the data manager
and select New -> Variation from the context-sensitive menu. Alternatively, select the
Variations folder and click on the New Object button ( ) on the data manager’s icon
bar. Make sure that the Element field is set to Variation (IntScheme), and press Ok. The
new variation dialogue will then open.
In the variation dialogue, the name of the object can be edited, and a color set to
represent (in the single line diagrams) the modifications introduced by this variation. The
activation time of the variation is automatically set according to the expansion stages
stored inside (the 'starting' time is the activation time of the earliest expansion stage; the
'complete' time is the activation time of the latest expansion stage). If no expansion
stages are defined, the activation time is set by default to 01.01.1970. The Contents
button can be used to list the expansion stages stored inside the variation, in a data
browser. A variation can be copied within the current active project or in other projects;
it can only be deleted when it is inactive.
To create a new expansion stage, right-click on the target variation and select New -->
Expansion Stage. Alternatively, select the target variation and click on the New Object
button ( ) in the data manager’s icon bar. Set the 'Element' field to Expansion Stage
(IntStage). Press Ok. The dialogue of the new expansion stage is opened. In this dialogue
the name of the new expansion stage can be defined, and the activation time set. The
option Exclude from activation can be enabled in order to put the expansion stage ''out
of service''. If the parent variation is active, the user is asked (after pressing Ok in the new
expansion stage dialogue) if the new expansion stage should be set as the recording
expansion stage. An affirmative answer automatically adapts the study time to the
activation time of the expansion stage. As many expansion stages as are required for the
study can be created. The expansion stages are by default sorted according to their
activation time, in ascending order.
Once an expansion stage has been created, its activation time and the Exclude from
activation option can only be edited if the parent variation is not active. If the Contents
button of the expansion stage dialogue is pressed, a data browser listing the changes
introduced on the network model pops up. The Split button can be used to assign
changes from the recording expansion stage to a target (for more information, please
refer to Section 17.14 (Splitting Expansion Stages)). The Apply button (only available if
the parent variation is inactive) is used to apply the changes of an expansion stage.
Changes are applied to the Network Model or to the recording expansion stage (for further
information, please refer to 17.15 (Applying Expansion Stages Changes)).
Expansion stages can be copied and added/pasted into other variations. The copying and
pasting of expansion stages to the same variation is not allowed. An expansion stage can
only be deleted if it is inactive.
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Note: The user is free to create as many variations and expansion stages
as required for the study. The expansion stages are by default sort-
ed according to their activation time in ascending order. It should
be noted that a variation cannot be renamed or deleted when ac-
tivated.
17.3 Activating Variations and Expansion Stages
A study case can have as many active variations as required. To activate a variation: right-
click on it and select Activate from the context-sensitive menu. The variation and its
expansion stages will be activated based on their activation times and the current study
case time. The expansion stages will be highlighted depending on the study time,
indicating their activation status.
Figure 17.2 is an example which shows how expansion stages are colored according to
the specified times. The study time of "Study Case A" is set to a time between the
activation time of "Expansion stage 2" and "Expansion stage 3". Consequently, "Expansion
stage 1" is colored dark red, indicating that the changes introduced into the network in
that stage are effective. "Expansion stage 2" is colored light red indicating that the
changes introduced in this stage are effective, and additionally, that any other changes
made to the network will be recorded in this expansion stage. In other words, it is the
'Recording' Expansion Stage. "Expansion stage 3" is not colored meaning that for this
study case it is unused.
Note: More than one variation can be active for a study case. However,
there will always be only one recording stage.
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Fig. 17.2: Example Showing the Coloring of Expansion Stages According to the
Activation Time
Single or multiple variations can be deactivated by selecting them and choosing
Deactivate from the context sensitive menu (after right-clicking the selection). The corre-
sponding expansion stages are automatically deactivated and the changes that were
made to the network model are reverted.
Note: The 'Variation Configuration' object of the Study Cases, stores ref-
erences to active variations. When a variation is activated/deacti-
vated, the corresponding reference is created/deleted in the
Variation Configuration of the active Study Case. When a Study
Case is activated, the variations referred to in the Variation Config-
uration are automatically activated.
17.4 Conflicts During Activation of Variations
Active expansion stages with the same activation time must be independent. This means
that the same object can not be changed (modified, deleted or added) in active expansion
stages with the same activation time. If PowerFactory detects dependent expansion
stages during the activation of a variation, an error message is displayed in the output
window and the activation process is cancelled.
Other conflicts that may arise during the activation of a variation:
• The same object is added by more than one expansion stage. In this case the latest
addition is applied and a warning message is displayed in the output window.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Network Variations and Expansion Stages
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• An already deleted object is deleted. In this case the deletion is ignored and a warning
message is displayed in the output window.
• An object is changed or deleted in a expansion stage but it does not exist. In this case
the change is ignored and a warning message is displayed in the output window.
• A deleted object is changed in a expansion stage. In this case the change is applied to
the deleted target object and a warning message is displayed in the output window.
17.5 Deleting an Expansion Stage
To delete an expansion stage, first deactivate the variation. Right-click the expansion
stage and select Delete. Note that the elements are deleted to the PowerFactory
Recycle Bin. They are not completely deleted until the Recycle Bin is emptied. In the case
that the expansion stage was used to create data using a DPL script, then re-running this
script might require the deleting of the corresponding expansion stage elements in the
Recycle Bin.
17.6 Displaying the Activation Times of Expansion
Stages
To check the activation time of an expansion stage, go to the corresponding variation in
the data manager. If the variation is selected in the left window of the data manager, a
list of expansion stages is displayed in the right panel and the corresponding activation
time for each stage is listed there.
17.7 Editing the Activation Times of Expansion Stages
To edit the activation time of an expansion stage, go to the corresponding variation in the
data manager. First the complete variation must be deactivated. If the variation is selected
in the left window of the data manager, the list of expansion stages can be seen in the
right panel.
Double-click a desired stage for editing to open the corresponding dialog. The button
can be used to alter the activation time for the stage. It is also possible to exclude the
stage from activation.
17.8 The Recording Expansion Stage
The recording expansion stage is the stage in which the latest changes by the user are
saved. Only one recording expansion stage is allowed per study case. When a variation is
activated, the activation times of the expansion stages are compared to the time of the
study case, and the stage with the most recent activation time (but earlier than or equal
to the study time) is automatically selected as the recording stage.
If the activation times of various expansion stages are the same and they correspond to
the time of the recording expansion stage, the user must select only one of the stages for
recording. The changes included in the remaining expansion stages become effective and
are colored in dark red.
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The user has the possibility to explicitly set the recording stage by right-clicking on the
target expansion stage and selecting Set 'recording' expansion stage. In this case the
study time will be changed to the activation time of the corresponding stage.
If variations are active and the study time is changed, the recording expansion stage is
automatically set according to the conditions described above.
The recording expansion stage is displayed in the 'Status Bar' (bottom of the screen,
below the output window), to inform the user.
17.9 Setting a Expansion Stage as the Recording Stage
The recording expansion stage is the stage in which the latest changes made by the user
are saved. When a variation is activated for a study case, the activation times of the
expansion stages are compared with the time of the study case, and the stage with the
most recent activation time (but which is earlier than or equal to the study time) is
automatically selected as the recording stage. The user can set the recording stage
explicitly by right-clicking on the expansion stage and selecting Set 'recording' Expansion
stage, in which case the study time will be changed to the activation time of the corre-
sponding stage.
17.10 Displaying the Recording Expansion Stage in the
Status Bar
The status bar is at the very bottom of the screen below the output window. To display
the recording expansion stage in the status bar, right-click on the status bar’s right-most
field, and choose Display Options -> 'Recording' Expansion stage.
17.11 Checking/Editing the Study Time (Date/Time of
the Calculation Case)
Double-click the study case or open the Edit dialog by right-clicking. Use the button
to change the activation time for the study case. Alternatively, press on the "Date/Time
of Calculation Case" button, . This will open the same window where the time can be
set. Lastly, at the lower right corner of the screen, the time of the simulation case is
displayed. By double-clicking on this field you are taken to the same window. The study
time can change the recording expansion stage explicitly.
17.12 The Variation Scheduler
The default activation of expansion stages is carried out according to their study time, as
described at the beginning of Chapter 17. The Variation Scheduler can be used as an
alternative method to manage this activation order. The variation scheduler (objects of
class IntSscheduler) stores references to the existing stages in a variation and manages
different activation times and “out of service” (Exclude from activation) options. The
variation scheduler is an object inside the variation that, when activated, is able to modify
the activation time of expansion stages so that the order in which they take effect in the
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model is changed. The activation times of the stages return to their original values when
the variation scheduler is deactivated.
The user can define a variation scheduler which includes all the stages in the variation,
setting different activation times and not considering certain stages. If the scheduler is
activated, the activation order of the stages will be determined by the study time and the
activation times set in the scheduler, regarding the out of service options from the
Scheduler. In this case the settings from the expansion stages objects (IntStage) are
ignored.
The user can define as many variation schedulers as required in a variation, but only one
can be activated at a time.
In order to create a variation scheduler, open a data manager to display in the left-hand
pane the variation in which the scheduler must be inserted. Right-click on the variation
and select New -> Variation Scheduler. Alternatively, click on the New Object button ( )
and select Variation Scheduler (IntScheduler). The dialogue of the new Scheduler will
pop up. The stages from the variation will be automatically referred to by the new
scheduler. Press the Contents button to open a data browser listing the included stages
with their activation times and their out of service options.
The activation time and the 'out of service' option of the stages within a scheduler can
only be changed in non-active schedulers, by pressing the Contents button and writing
the desired values in the data browser. These changes of course do not affect expansion
stage objects and only are effective when the scheduler is active. Variation schedulers are
activated or deactivated via the context-sensitive menu on the data manager.
Note: The references to the existing expansion stage are automatically
updated in a scheduler.
Figure 17.3 shows the state in which the activation times of the stages can be edited
inside the scheduler. The variation must be active and the scheduler inactive. Display the
contents (references to expansion stages) of the scheduler in the right-hand pane of the
data manager. The activation time of a stage can be edited by double-clicking on the
reference to it in the right-hand window.
Fig. 17.3: The Variation Scheduler inside a Variation
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17.13 Comparing Variations and Expansion Stages
Variations and expansion stages can be compared, as can any other kind of object in
PowerFactory, by means of the Merge Tool. To carry out the comparison, a 'base object'
and an 'object to compare' must be selected using the context-sensitive menu. Once the
objects to be compared are selected, the comparison is performed by the Merge Tool. The
comparison results are presented in a data browser window (the Merge Tool window, as
illustrated in Figure 17.4). This browser window contains a special toolbar to facilitate the
visualization, sorting, and possible merging of the compared objects.
Fig. 17.4: Merge Tool Window
In the data browser window containing the comparison results, a list of the objects stored
inside the 'base object' and the 'object to compare' is presented. A comparison result
symbol, indicating the differences found on each object from the list, is displayed in the
column labelled 'Mod 1' (Figure 17.4). The symbols are defined as follows:
• The object exists in the 'base object' but not in the 'object to compare';
• The object exists in the 'object to compare' but not in the 'base object';
• The object exists in both sets but the parameters’ values differ;
• The object exists in both sets and has identical parameter values.
It is important to note that only objects from non-active projects can be compared. To
compare two variations or expansion stages, proceed as follows:
• Right-click on a variation or expansion stage from a non-active project and select
Select as Base to Compare in the context-sensitive menu.
• Right-click on the variation or expansion stage to compare and select Compare to
'Name of the base object' in the context-sensitive menu.
• The Merge Tool dialogue command (ComMerge) pops up. By default, all of the
contained elements are compared; the 'Compare' field can be configured however, to
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Network Variations and Expansion Stages
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compare only the objects or selected subfolders (for further information please refer
to The Merge Tool Manual).
• Once the 'Compare' option is set, press the Execute button to perform the
comparison.
• The Merge Tool window with the corresponding results, as explained above, opens.
Note: In the case of expansion stages (or variations with the 'Compare'
option set to 'All Contained Elements') objects representing chang-
es in the Network Data are compared.
For further information on the Merge Tool and its applications please refer to The Merge
Tool Manual.
17.14 Splitting Expansion Stages
The changes stored in the recording expansion stage can be split within the same
variation, using a special Merge Tool function. In this case all the changes introduced in
the recording stage are listed in the Merge Tool window (not as changes but as the
modified objects with a icon if the object was added; if the object was deleted;
and if a parameter was changed). The user selects which changes she/he wants to
move to the 'target stage' and performs the split.
Note: The list generated in the Merge Tool window also displays the par-
ents of the modified objects (when the Show all Elements icon
( ) is clicked). Usually they are shown by the icon, indicating
that the objects themselves have not changed.
To split an expansion stage, proceed as follows:
• Open the dialogue of the expansion stage to be split (the recording expansion stage)
and press the Split button. Alternatively, use the right-mouse context-sensitive
menu.
• A data browser listing the remaining stages from the parent variation pops up.
Double-click on the target expansion stage.
• The Merge Tool window, listing all changes from the compared expansion stages,
pops up.
• Select the changes to be moved to the 'target stage' by double-clicking on the
Assignment cell of each row and selecting Move or Ignore. Alternatively use the icons
on the Merge Tool toolbar (see The Merge Tool Manual) to facilitate the selection.
• Press the Split button. All the changes marked as Move will be moved to the target
expansion stage; the changes market as Ignore will remain in their original stage.
• After pressing Split the variation will be deactivated.
Note: It is possible to merge two expansion stages by moving all the
changes from one stage to a target stage.
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17.15 Applying Expansion Stages Changes
The changes stored in a non-active expansion stage (modifications, deletions or
additions) can be applied to the Network Data folder or to the recording expansion stage.
To apply the changes, press the Apply button in the stage dialogue or right-click on it (in
the data manager) and select Apply from the context-sensitive menu. If a recording
expansion stage is activated, the changes are applied to it. If there is no active variation
available, the changes are directly applied to the Network Data folder. Before the changes
are applied, the user is asked for confirmation.
17.16 Consolidation of Variations
The changes recorded in all the active variations (expansion stages) can be permanently
applied to the Network Data folder by means of the Consolidation function. After the
consolidation process is carried out, the active (consolidated) expansion stages are
deleted, and empty active variations are deleted also.
To consolidate the active variations:
• Right-click on the active study case and select Consolidate Network Variation (option
only enabled if active variations are available) from the context-sensitive menu.
• A confirmation message listing the variations that are going to be consolidated pops
up. Press Yes to implement the changes.
Once the consolidation process has ended, an ASCII report listing the consolidated varia-
tions and expansion stages is printed to the output window.
Note: For Operational Library objects, active variations have to be con-
solidated in separate actions via the context-sensitive menu.
17.17 Coloring Variations and their Changes from within
the Single Line Graphic
The single-line graphic coloring function ( ) offers three modes which may be used to
identify changes from variations and expansion stages:
1 Coloring according to Grids/Original Locations: The object is shown in the
color of the grid or the variation in which the object is added.
2 Coloring according to Modifications: The object is shown in the color of the
variation in which the object is last added or modified.
3 Coloring according to Recording expansion stage: Three colors are
supported:
- Default color: for all objects not modified or added in the active recording
expansion stage;
- Modified color: for objects modified in the active recording expansion stage;
- Add color: for objects added in the active recording expansion stage.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Parameter Characteristics
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Chapter 18
Parameter Characteristics
The basic concept and the application of parameter characteristics and scales were
explined in Section 7.7 (Parameter Characteristics and Parametric Studies). Now, in this
chapter the information about the definition and the use of the different scales and
characteristics is given.
18.1 Defining Scalar Characteristics
Scalar characteristics are used when a parameter should vary according to a mathe-
matical relationship, with reference to a scale value. In Figure 18.1 the relationship "2x +
3" has been defined, and a scale (only the *.TriVal scale object may be used here) has
been chosen, where "x" refers to the scale variables. Thus, if the 'Global Temperature'
scale has been set to 15 deg by the trigger then the parameter that this characteristic is
applied to will thus be multiplied by 2*15+3=33.
Fig. 18.1: The scalar characteristic dialogue
To define a scalar characteristic for a parameter:
• In the edit dialogue of the target network component right click on the desired
parameter.
• Select New Characteristic ' Scalar Value… (Figure 18.2)
• The edit dialogue of Figure Fig. 18.1 pops up, select the corresponding scale (scales
to be used in the new characteristics must be previously defined), define the
characteristic and press Ok.
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Fig. 18.2: Creating a characteristic for a parameter
As seen in Figure 18.2 characteristics can be edited and reset.
To define a new scale for a scalar characteristic:
• Open the Scales folder from the Equipment Library.
• Click on the 'New Object' button and select Scalar and Trigger (TriVal).
• Set the desired units of the scale, the associated trigger is automatically created in the
current study case.
Note: You can also use the "New Object'' icon (in the data browser) to
create a new scale when selecting a scale for a characteristic.
18.2 Defining Discrete Time Characteristics
The discrete time characteristic uses an internally defined series of time scales that are
convenient to use in order to define the characteristic. The user simply selects a scale and
enters the corresponding values.
The "Usage" field at the bottom of the characteristic dialogue specifies how the values
entered in the "Values" column will be applied to the parameter that the characteristic is
associated to:
• Relative in % will multiply the parameter by the percentage value
• Relative will multiply the parameter by the value
• Absolute will replace the current parameter value by the absolute value provided
A graph showing the values plotted against the scale can be seen on the "Diagram" tab.
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To define a new discrete time characteristic for a parameter:
• In the edit dialogue of the target network component right click on the desired
parameter.
• Select New Characteristic ' Discrete Time Characteristic … (Figure 18.2)
• The edit dialogue of the Discrete Time Characteristic pops up. Select the
corresponding scale (predefined by the program), define the 'Usage' (see paragraph
above), enter the characteristic values and press Ok.
18.3 Defining Discrete Parameter Characteristics
A discrete parameter characteristic is used to set the value of a parameter according to
discrete cases set by the trigger of a discrete scale. Again the 'Usage' field at the bottom
of the characteristic dialogue specifies how the values entered in the 'Values' column will
be applied:
• Relative in % will multiply the parameter by the percentage value
• Relative will multiply the parameter by the value
• Absolute will replace the current parameter value by the absolute value provided
The approximation field and accompanying polynomial degree field will be disabled
because interpolation cannot be performed for discrete scales. The current percent value
is shown, according to the case that is currently active. The diagram page for the discrete
characteristic shows a bar graph for the available cases. See Figure 18.3 for an example.
The bar for the case that is currently active (set by the trigger) is colored black
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Fig. 18.3: Discrete parameter characteristic diagram
To define a new discrete parameter characteristic:
• In the edit dialogue of the target network component right click on the desired
parameter.
• Select New Characteristic --> One Dimension Vector…
• The edit dialogue of the one dimension vector characteristic (generic class for one
dimensional characteristics) pops up.
• After selecting the corresponding discrete scale (scales to be used in the new
characteristics must be previously defined), the cases defined by the scale are
automatically show in the list, define the 'Usage' and enter the characteristic values.
• Press Ok.
A discrete scale is a list of cases. These cases are each defined by a short text description.
The scale dialogue offers a text window in which each line defines a new case. See Figure
Fig. 18.4 As soon as at least one case has been defined, the trigger field will be enabled.
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Fig. 18.4: Example of a Discrete Scale
To create a new discrete scale:
• Open the Scales folder from the Equipment Library.
• Click on the 'New Object' button and select Discrete Scale and Trigger (TriDisc).
• Write the name of the scale cases (one case per line). As soon as at least one is
defined, the trigger field is enabled.
Note: You can also use the "New Object'' icon (in the data browser) to
create a new scale when selecting a scale for a characteristic.
18.4 Defining Continuous Parameter Characteristics
A continuous parameter characteristic is used to set the value of a parameter ('Y' values)
according to the 'X' values set in the continuous scale. The Usage" field at the bottom of
the characteristic dialogue specifies how the values entered in the "Values" column will
be applied:
• Relative in% will multiply the parameter by the percentage value
• Relative will multiply the parameter by the value
• Absolute will replace the current parameter value by the absolute value provided
The scale 'X-Y' points will define a curve which is used to approximate 'Y' values for trigger
values in between, or even outside, the 'X' values. Various approximation functions are
available:
• Constant: holds the Y-value in between X-values
• Linear: uses a linear interpolation.
• Polynomial: uses a polynomial function with user defined degree.
• Spline: uses spline function
• Hermite: uses a Hermite interpolation
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The approximation curve will be shown in the diagram page. Examples of these approxi-
mation curves are shown in Figure 18.5.
Fig. 18.5: Approximated characteristics
The interpolated Y-value may vary considerably between approximation functions. This is
shown in Figure 18.5 where the linear and constant approximations are drawn on top of
each other. The black crosses, which have been encircled in the figure for clarity, show
the trigger setting and the resulting different Y-values.
To define a new continuous parameter characteristic:
• In the edit dialogue of the target network component right click on the desired
parameter.
• Select New Characteristic --> One Dimension Vector…
• The edit dialogue of the one dimension vector characteristic (generic class for one
dimensional characteristics) pops up.
• After selecting the corresponding continuous scale (scales to be used in the new
characteristics must be previously defined), the 'X' values defined by the scale are
automatically show in the list together with their unit. Define the 'Usage', enter the
characteristic 'Y' values and define the 'Approximation' function.
• Press Ok.
To create a new continuous scale:
• Open the Scales folder from the Equipment Library.
• Click on the New Object button and select Continuous Scale and Trigger (TriCont).
• Enter the unit of the 'X' values.
• Append the required number of rows (right click on the first row of the Scale table and
select Append n rows) and enter the 'X' values.
• Press Ok.
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Note: You can also use the "New Object'' icon (in the data browser) to
create a new scale when selecting a scale for a characteristic.
An example of a continuous scale is shown in Figure 18.6 where six temperature values
are defined.
Fig. 18.6: Example of a continuous scale
18.5 Defining Frequency Parameter Characteristics
A frequency characteristic may be viewed as a continuous characteristic whose scale is
defined by frequency values in Hz. The definition procedure is similar to that of the
continuous characteristics, here you have to select a Frequency Scale (TriFreq), which is
defined in the same way as a continuous scale (except for the units, which are automat-
ically set to Hz).
18.6 Defining Time Parameter Characteristics
Time parameter characteristics are basically continuous characteristics using time scales.
A time scale is a special kind of continuous scale that uses the global time trigger of the
active study case (a limited version of this scale is automatically created when a "Discrete
Time Characteristic is created reference). The unit of the time trigger is always a unit of
time but may range from seconds to years. This means that changing the unit from
minutes to hours, for instance, will stretch the scale 60-fold. The units 's', 'm', and 'h' are
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respectively, the second, minute and hour of normal daytime.
Figure 18.7 shows an example where four equidistant moments in a year have been
created.
Fig. 18.7: Example of a time scale
For information about the global time trigger please refer to Data Model Time Trigger.
18.7 Defining Two-dimensional Parameter
Characteristics
When using a characteristic such as this one the user must also define two scales that will
be used to plot the values against. The dialogue for the characteristic is shown in Figure
18.8.
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Fig. 18.8: Matrix characteristic dialogue
The nature of the characteristic depends on the kinds of scale that are selected. The first
scale, that for columns, must be a discrete scale. The scale for rows may be a discrete or
continuous scale. These scales may have already have been created or will need to be
created (tip: use the New Object' icon when selecting a scale to create a new scale and
read more about scales in the sections following).
The 'Usage' field at the bottom of the characteristic dialogue specifies how the values
entered in the "Values" column will be applied to the parameter that the characteristic is
associated to.
• Relative in % will multiply the parameter by the percentage value
• Relative will multiply the parameter by the value
• Absolute will replace the current parameter value by the absolute value provided
Interpolations between the values are determined by the setting in the 'Approximation'
field (similar to the continuous characteristics). A graph showing the values plotted
against the scale can be seen on the "Diagram" tab.
A column calculator can be used to calculate the column values, as a function of other
columns. This is done by pressing the Calculate... button. In the example of Figure
18.9, the first column is calculated as the average of the other columns. The result is
shown in Figure 18.10.
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Fig. 18.9: Calculating column values
Fig. 18.10: Result of a column calculation
Once the values have been entered and the triggers have been set, the 'Current Value'
field will show what the value that will be used to multiply the parameter is.
18.8 Importing Parameter Characteristics from Files
When a series of data is available in an external file, such as an Excel file, or tab or space
separated file this data may be utilized as a characteristic if the "Parameter Characteristic
from File" (ChaVecfile object) is used.
The external file must have the scale column for the data series in column 1.
Once the input data dialogue has been generated (see Figure 18.11) a scale and trigger
must be set [1] and the link to the existing data file is created [2].
The column field [3] is used for specialized purposes and should generally be left at the
default figure of '1'.
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The factor fields, [4] and [5], may be used to adjust or convert the input data. The data
contained in column 2 of the external file will be adjusted by y=ax+b where "x" is the
data in the external file and "y" is what will be loaded into the characteristic.
The "Usage" field at the bottom of the characteristic dialogue [6] specifies how the values
entered in the "Values" column will be applied to the parameter that the characteristic is
associated to.
• Relative in % will multiply the parameter by the percentage value
• Relative will multiply the parameter by the value
• Absolute will replace the current parameter value by the absolute value provided.
Interpolations between the values are determined by the setting in the 'Approximation'
field [7]. A graph showing the values plotted against the scale can be seen on the
'Diagram' tab [8].
Once the file link has been set press the Update button [9] to upload the data from the
external file to the characteristic.
Fig. 18.11: The Parameter Characteristic from File dialogue
18.9 Handling Scales and Characteristics
If only a few characteristics for some parameters are to be defined, the characteristic may
be directly defined using the menu options that are presented when right-clicking a
parameter field. Characteristics that are defined in this manner are stored in that object.
This characteristic is normally hidden in the database browser.
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If the same characteristic is to be applied to several parameters then it is better to define
the characteristic explicitly beforehand. Parameters may then be ''referred'' to the charac-
teristic. This is what is meant by the New Characteristic -> Reference... option when right-
clicking a parameter.
All ''direct'' characteristics, and all references to characteristics are normally hidden in the
database browser to prevent accidental direct manipulation. A special display mode is
available in the database browser to check and edit the characteristics for whole classes
of objects. This 'Scales' mode must be enabled in the User Settings, on the 'Functions'
tab. An example of a browser showing the 'Scales' tab is shown in Figure 18.12
(remember that the browser must be in 'detail' mode to see these tabs).
Fig. 18.12: Browser in 'scales' mode
The browser in 'Scales' mode shows all characteristics defined for the displayed objects,
together with the original value and the current value as determined by the characteristic.
In the example, a one-dimensional characteristic for the active power (parameter 'plini'),
using the scale called 'Loading' has been used for the load 'Load C(1)'. The trigger has set
the scale to a value of 200% and thus the "Current Value" is 100 MW which is 200% of
the input value of 50 MW. The current values will be used in all calculations.
The browser 'Scales' mode is not only used to quickly inspect all defined characteristics,
but may also be helpful in defining new characteristics, or in selecting references. Figure
18.13 shows the context sensitive menu that appears when a characteristic field is right-
clicked.
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Fig. 18.13: Managing characteristics
The option Select Characteristic..., shown in the figures 18.13 and 18.14, is used to define
references to a characteristic and may also be used to create a range of characteristics.
This is shown in Figure 18.14 where a reference is defined for three loads at once.
Fig. 18.14: Selecting a range of characteristics
The 'Scales' tab of the browser will only show the 'Characteristic' column when at least
one of the objects has a characteristic defined for a parameter. It is thus necessary to
define a characteristic for one object prior to using the browser, when the user would like
to assign characteristics, for the same parameter, for a range of other objects. To define
a ''High-Low'' loading characteristic for all loads, for instance, can thus be done by
performing the following steps.
• Create a discrete scale in the grid folder.
• Create a vector characteristic using this scale in the grid folder.
• Edit one of the loads, right-click the active power field and assign the vector
characteristic to the relevant parameter.
• Open a browser with all loads, activate the 'detail' mode and select the 'Scales' tab.
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• Select the characteristic column (right-click -> Select Column) and then right-click the
selected column.
• Use the Select Characteristic... option and select the vector characteristic.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Defining Variable Sets
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Chapter 19
Defining Variable Sets
Variable Sets (IntMon objects) are used to select and monitor variables associated with
objects of the data model in order to store results. The selection of a variable set, deter-
mines the variables to be recorded during a simulation run, the variables to be displayed
by a "Flexible Page Selector" or a result/text box (results box and Flexible page selector
with link).
Before a calculation is performed or after initial conditions of a time domain simulation
have been calculated, the user can define variable set monitors from the single line
graphic by:
• Right clicking on the target network component.
• Selecting Define -->Variable Set (SIM) from the context sensitive menu.
• This will pop up a data browser listing all the results objects defined in the active
study case. The user must select a target result object by double clicking on it. If no
results object have been defined, PowerFactory will generate a default one, called
'AllCalculations'.
Variable Set Monitors can also be created directly in the target results object using the
Contents button (of the Results object). This will pop up a browser with all the variable
sets that have already been defined. To define a new variable set, the icon in the
browser can be pressed.
19.1 The Variable Set Monitor Dialogue
An example of the variable set object is shown in Figure 19.1. Here the variable set for
the load called 'Load C', which is found in a grid called 'North' of the active project is
shown (red circle). In this case a RMS simulation (green circle) is to be performed and
the total active and the reactive power flowing to the load are going to be monitored (blue
circle).
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Fig. 19.1: Example of a variable set dialogue
In the variable set monitor dialogue the following fields can be seen:
Object
Is the selected object (normally a network component), whose
variables are going to be monitored.
Class Name
If no object has been selected the "Class Name" field becomes active.
This is normally used for more advanced studies and need not be
explained further here.
Display Values during simulation in output window (...)
By checking this box and selecting the option 'Display results variables
in output window' in the simulation command, the values calculated for
the selected variables during a simulation will be displayed in the out
put window.
Filter for
As mentioned previously, there is a large number of variables that may
be observed in PowerFactory. To be able to find and select these
they are sorted into sets. A series of filters allows the user to sort
through the sets. Further information about the selection of variable is
given in the subsection Searching the Variables to Monitor.
Page Tab
The first sorting of the variables is by calculation function (load-flow,
short-circuit, etc.). In the example of Figure 19.1, the RMS tab has
been automatically selected, as a prior RMS calculation was performed.
Available Variables
All of the variables that are available for display are listed here (as
sorted by the filter).
Selected Variables
The selected variables are shown here. Variables are placed here by
highlighting (selecting) them on the "Available Variables" side and then
pressing the ( ) button. Individual variables can also simply be
double-clicked to transfer them from one column to the other.
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Display as
If this box is checked then all of the selected variables are shown in the
'Selected Variables' area. If it is not checked then the filter will also
apply to the "Selected Variables" area and only those selected variables
in the filtered set will be shown.
The following buttons are available on the right of the dialogue:
• Balanced/Unbalanced: Depending on the type of calculation to be monitored
(balanced or unbalanced), the user can toggle between balanced and unbalanced
variable sets.
• goes to the manual input page for variables- for advanced use.
• Print Values: Prints the current values for all the selected variables to the output
window.
• Variable List: Prints a list of all available variables to the output window.
• Variable List (Page): Prints a list of available variables for the current tab (e.g.
Basic Data) to the output window.
19.2 Searching the Variables to Monitor
The first sorting of the variables is by calculation function (load-flow, short-circuit, etc.).
Within these sets variables are sorted into sub-sets. The user can select the desired
subset by means of the drop down menu on the Variable Set field. Following a description
of the available subsets:
Currents, Voltages and Powers
Almost self explanatory- these are the outputs as calculated by a
calculation function. The variable is preceded by "m:" (representing
'monitored' or 'measured') as in "m:P:bus1" for the active power drawn
by the load. The user may select one set for branches and one set for
the nodes, which then is used for each node the edge is connected to.
Bus Results
Variables for the bus/s that the element is connected to (usually
preceded by "n:" for 'node'). A branch element (having only one
connection to a bus) will obviously only have results for "Bus1." An
edge element (two connections, as in a line for example) will have
"Bus1" or "Bus2". This means that the results of objects connected to
the object whose variable list is compiled can be accessed. An example
of this variable is the open end voltage at a line end. See the
subsection Selecting the Bus to be Monitored for further information.
Signals
Variables that can be used as interface between user defined and/or
PowerFactory models (inputs and outputs). They are preceded by "s:".
These should be used when creating a controller or in a DPL script.
These variables are accessible whilst an iteration is being calculated,
whereas the other variables sets are calculated following an iteration.
Calculation Parameter
Variables that are derived from the primary calculations (i.e. currents,
voltages, power), from input data (i.e. the absolute impedance of a
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Defining Variable Sets
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line, derived from impedance/ km * line length), or that have been
transformed from input data to a format useful for calculation (actual to
per unit), or that are required for such transformation (e.g. nominal
power). The parameters that actually are available depend on the
object type. Calculation parameters are preceded by a "c:".
Element Parameter
Variables that belong directly to the object selected (preceded by "e:").
Type Parameter
Type variables that are linked to the element object under
consideration; for example, the current rating of a line type that a line
element is using.
Reference Parameter
These are variables from objects that are linked or connected to the
object under consideration (preceded by "r:"). For example, a line
element may be part of a line coupling and the reference parameter
will allow us to display the name of the coupling element. The use of
reference parameters is explained following examples.
For general use it is sufficient to simply select the variables required and transfer them to
the selected variables column. To find a particular variable requires some knowledge of
where the variables are stored in the object under consideration.
19.3 Examples of Variable Selection
In this subsection an examples for the use of the above described sets are given. The
procedures described below always apply, regardless of which is the final use of the
variable set monitor, i.e. Flexible Data Page, Results Box, Plots, etc.
Suppose that a two winding transformer called TX1 is to be monitored. The following
variables are going to be selected:
• Type name,
• Tap setting,
• Nominal and calculated voltages at the HV node.
The name of the transformer type is entered in the type data so we select the type param-
eters (as the Variable Set) in the filter- the name is also entered on the basic data tab so
we should select the Basic Data Tab, and the type name parameter is "loc_name" (Figure
19.2). Notice that the focus object for the variable set object is a transformer.
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Fig. 19.2: Finding the type name
The tap setting will be found in the element data and the parameter is located on the
load-flow tab (this information is gained as the user becomes more familiar with Power-
Factory and recalls where the data was entered; such recollection directs the user to the
correct variable sub-set). The variables seen in the selected Variables column should now
be:
• t:loc_name
• e:nntap
To be able to see the variables for the HV bus we use the reference parameters. The
reference parameters work like a 'refer to' command. In Figure 19.3 this is illustrated
schematically. We have started by creating a variable set for the object 'TX1' which is an
element object. Using the reference parameter we will refer to the object that the LV side
of the transformer is connected to, which is the cubicle 'Cub_1'. Since the nominal and
calculated voltages of the node are located in the node object itself we will next need to
refer to this node object 'LV'.
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Fig. 19.3: 'Referring to' with reference parameters
Step by step, the process will be as follows: We first need to refer to or 'jump to' the
cubicle. If we picture the input dialogue for the transformer element we recall that the
connections for the HV and LV sides are listed on the basic data tab, so this is where we
will logically find the 'link' to the connected object (the cubicle). In Figure 19.4 we can see
that this selection has been made (page tab Basic Data). We also notice that the object
that is presently the focus is the transformer element as the object. To affect the jump to
the cubicle we choose the reference parameter set, and then select the object that we
want to jump to, the cubicle connected to the HV side in the Available Variables list.
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Fig. 19.4: Selecting the parameter to be displayed
Double-clicking on this jumps us to another variable set object whose focus object is the
cubicle that the LV side of the transformer is connected to. It is not immediately obvious
that the jump has occurred as the new variable set object appears directly on top of the
original one. If grabbing the one that appears before you and drag it to one side it will
become more obvious (you can also see this by noting that the name in the "Object" field
has changed), and will look as shown in Figure 19.5.
The second jump must now be affected - to the node that the cubicle is connected to. In
a logical fashion this 'connectivity' is also found on the basic data tab. Figure 19.6 shows
the result of these jumps in PowerFactory. Lastly, the parameter required must be
selected.
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Fig. 19.5: Jumping to the cubicle using the reference parameter
The parameter we wish to display is the nominal voltage of the connected node. This will
be found on the Basic data tab and we must choose the element parameter set to find
the parameter, as shown in Figure 19.6. The parameter is called:
• uknom kV Nominal Voltage: Line-line
At this point we could also add the calculated voltage for the node. This will be found
under "Currents, Voltages and Powers" on the load-flow tab.
After having clicked Ok until you are back at the original variable set object you will see
that these referenced variables have been added as:
• r:buslv:r:cBusBar:e:uknom
• r:buslv:r:cBusBar:m:U
Which can be read as --> 'jump to the LV bus'- -> 'jump to the connected node' -->
'display the selected variables.'
Once the user is more familiar with this nomenclature this jump may be typed in directly
to the variable set object.
Note: In this particular example we have used a 'long' method to show
to the node variables for illustration purposes. Typically, however,
a user wishes to display calculated variables such as the voltage at
the end of a line where the breaker at that end is open. In this case
PowerFactory has a special 'shortcut' set - the "Bus Results".
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19 - 9
Fig. 19.6: Jumping to the node and selecting the parameter
These bus results can only be seen in the calculation function tabs and they are drawn
from an internal node that is not displayed on the single line graphic. An illustration of this
node and its relationship to the cubicle is shown in Figure 19.7.
Fig. 19.7: Internal node
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19.4 Selecting the Bus to be Monitored
When selecting variables from the 'Currents, Voltages and Powers' set, the user will notice
that there is a filter called 'Bus Name'. This is used to determine which side of an edge
element is to be considered.
To maintain standard nomenclature the objects at the ends of a line element are named
'Terminal i' or 'Terminal j' and 'HVside' or 'LVside' in the case of a transformer.
The ends of an edge element are named 'bus1' or 'bus2' and 'bushv' or 'buslv' respectively
(a three winding transformer will also have 'busmv'). These ends are matched to the 'i'
and 'j' sides so that i -> bus1 or bushv and j -> bus2 or buslv. Thus, when choosing
variables from the flexible page manager the user should specify which side of the edge
element the variables are to be taken from. Note that 'bus1, bus2, bushv, buslv' are not
references to the connected node, they are in fact the ends of the edge element.
When a variable is selected for display from the single line graphic the user will notice a
further classification, that of '_LOCALBUS.' This classification merely indicates the end of
the edge element and describes internally which side of the edge element the result box
should access its variables from. That is the 'bus' local to that end.
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Chapter 20
Reporting Results in PowerFactory
This chapter presents the tools and options included in PowerFactory to view the results
of the preformed calculations. Key concepts in this topic are Virtual Instruments (VIs), Re-
sults Objects and Variable Sets.
20.1 Virtual Instruments
A virtual instrument is basically a tool for displaying calculated results. The most common
use of a VI is to look at the results of a time-domain simulation like an EMT or RMS sim-
ulation, by defining one or more plotted curves showing the variables changing with time.
But there are various applications of the virtual instruments, for example to graphically
display voltage profiles, FFT plots or the results of a harmonic analysis. This could be in
the form of a bar graph, a plotted curves, single displayed variables, tables of values, etc.
To visualize results from a calculation, two different parts are important:
The Virtual Instrument Panel
The Panel is basically a page in the active graphics board, where different plots or
graphs are stored and displayed. Also the basic information about the included
virtual instruments is stored here.
The Virtual Instruments
The virtual instruments are shown on the VI panel. They display the results of one
or more variables or parameters in various ways. Every VI on a panel can be set up
individually to the need of the variable(s) which is to be displayed.
So all signals, parameters, variables or other magnitudes can be chosen to show in a vir-
tual instrument. These are normally floating point numbers, but there is also the possibil-
ity to show discrete variables as well as binary numbers, like e.g. a binary variable, a "out
of service" flag or the switching operation of a circuit-breaker.
To show these magnitudes there are various designs of virtual instruments available.
These can be divided into several groups, which are described in the sections of this chap-
ter:
Plots
are the 'basic' diagrams to show all sorts of time-domain variables or magnitudes
depending on other variables. The plots can be used in the following ways:
• Subplot (VisPlot)
• Subplot with two y-axis (VisPlot2)
• X-Y plot (VisXyplot)
• FFT plots (VisFft)
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Bar Diagrams
are similar to the plots. The results are then not shown as a line, but as single bars
for every data point.
Vector Diagrams
easily show different variables - like voltage, current or power - in a vector diagram
using polar or cartesian coordinates.
Meter Panels
can display variables or parameters using different panels like:
• digital display
• horizontal scale of a meter
• vertical scale of a meter
• measurement VI
• interactive button/switch
Curve Inputs
are used to conveniently convert graphical information (graphs or curves) into a set
of data by scanning and sampling the data points.
Bitmaps
can be inserted as a remark or to provide further information.
Additionally to these options there are further types of diagrams for a specific usage are
e.g. the time-overcurrent plot or the time distance diagram used for protection studies.
These plots are not described in this chapter but directly in the part of the manual dealing
with the individual calculation method.
The usage of the plots and the available tools like labels, constants, etc. for the virtual
instruments can be used in either one of the diagrams described above or below. In the
following list these virtual instruments are described shortly:
VIs for Protection Studies
Time-Overcurrent Plot
When studying overcurrent relays their characteristic is often displayed depending
on the magnitude of the current and the specified tripping time. Here also the
characteristic curves of power system elements which are to be protected can be
inserted into the diagram. See also Section 32.6 (Time-Overcurrent Plot).
R-X Plot
This plot is used specially for showing the characteristics of distance relays. The
tripping characteristic of one or more relays can be visualized in a R-X diagram.
Also the impedance of adjacent elements can be shown graphically inside the
diagram.See also Section 32.8 (Relay Plot).
Time-Distance Diagram
For studying the selectivity of distance protection the time-distance protection is
often used. So PowerFactory provides a convenient method to automatically
show all distance relays in a specified protection path in one specified diagram. See
also Section 32.7 (The Time-Distance Diagram).
Feeder Definitions
Voltage Profile
shows voltage profile of a complete subsystem belonging to a defined feeder in the
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power system depending on the distance or the node number. See also Chapter 12
(Grouping Objects).
Schematic Path
With this plot a meshed or a radial network can easily be shown in a brief
schematic way without result boxes but with optical information like colors for
overloading, etc.
Harmonics
Waveform Plot
Using this plot a waveform is generated from the magnitude and the phase angle
of the harmonic frequencies. With this diagram a variable like the voltage or
current, which is defined in a harmonic source e.g. a power electronic device or a
load, can easily be shown as a time dependent variable. So the real shape of the
voltage can be seen and analysed.A more detailed description see 20.1.6 (The
Waveform Plot).
Modal Analysis
Eigenvalue Plot
The Eigenvalue Plot (Viseigen) displays the eigenvalues calculated in the modal
analysis (Chapter 26). Double-clicking any of the displayed eigenvalues, pops-up an
informative dialogue, where the oscillation parameters and the coordinates in
complex and polar representation are given. For a full description of the eigenvalue
plot is see 26.3.2 (Modal Analysis Plots).
Mode Bar Plot
The Mode Bar Plot (VisModbar) displays the participation factors of the system
generators in a selected mode. Full description of the Mode bar Plot is given in
26.3.2 (Modal Analysis Plots).
Mode Phasor Plot
The Mode Phasor Plot (VisModephasor) displays the same information of the
Mode Bar Plot but in a phasor diagram. For further information see 26.3.2 (Modal
Analysis Plots).
20.1.1 Virtual Instrument Panels
Virtual instruments are created and edited on a Virtual Instruments Panel (SetViPage)
which is one of the possible types of pages on a Graphics Board. Other page types are
single line graphics and block diagram or frame graphics.
A new virtual instrument panel can be created by
• selecting the File ÷> New option on the main menu and subsequently selecting a
"Virtual Instrument Page" in the ComNew. This will create a new page in the
"Graphics Board" of the currently active study case.
• selecting the "Insert New Graphic" icon on the graphics board's toolbar and
selecting "Virtual Instrument Panel". This will also create a new VI panel in the current
graphics board.
All virtual instrument panels are stored in graphics boards. A graphic board holds default
settings for plots and other diagrams. The icon is clicked or the Edit Actual Virtual
Instrument Panel option is selected from the context sensitive menu to edit the dialogue.
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Note If a a new virtual instrument panel is created, while there is no
Graphics Board opened already, a new Graphics Board in will be
added to the current study case.
The dialogue is build of several pages. These are
x-Axis holds the default x-Axis for plots without local axis stored in pages
without local axis.
Advanced holds the advanced settings like the arrangements of the plots or their
specific style.
Results stores a reference to the default results object used by the plots.
Once a VI panel has been created, the "Append new VI(s)" icon ( ) can be clicked or
the option Create VI ÷>... from the context menu of the SetVipage can be selected to
add new virtual instruments to the VI panel.
Virtual instrument panels usually set the size and position of new virtual instruments like
plots automatically. But it is possible to turn on user defined moving and resizing of the
plots. In this modes the plots can be moved or resized by the user. Also the and
icons are used to tile the Virtual Instruments horizontal or to arrange the VIs automati-
cally.
A ViPage uses a predefined style which set line-styles, line-width, fonts and other graph-
ical settings. Own styles can be created and selected. A different style can be selected on
each VI panel of a Graphics Boards.
These different options are described in the following sections.
Editing the Virtual Instrument Panel dialogue
There are several ways to access the graphics board dialogue from PowerFactory
• When the panel is empty one can access the dialogue by simply double-clicking the
empty VI panel or an empty area on the panel.
• Right-click the background of the VI panel besides the shown plots and choose Edit
actual Virtual Instrument Panel from the context menu.
• The simplest way to edit the dialogue is to click the icon.
The icon is clicked or the "Edit Actual Virtual Instrument Panel'' option is selected
from the context sensitive menu to edit the dialogue. The dialogue is split into three dif-
ferent pages named:
• x-Axis holds the settings for x-Axis of plots and Waveform Plots.
• Advanced holds graphical settings like Style and Background.
• Results contains the reference to the default results object for plots.
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Automatic Scale Buttons
The buttons or are clicked to scale the x-axis respectively the y-axis of all plots
on the virtual instrument panel automatically. Plots on other panels in the same graphics
board are unchanged if their axes are local.
The buttons are inactive, if there are no plots shown at all or if the x or y axes can not be
scaled automatically. That applies e.g. for bar-diagrams showing the distortion after a
harmonics load-flow calculation, where the x-axis is given by the harmonic frequencies.
Different types of plots, like the subplot and the waveform plot, can be scaled simulta-
neously.
With the button "Zoom X-Axis" a certain range of the x-axis or of several x-axes can
be zoomed easily. Click on the icon to activate the function, then click on a plot, hold the
right mouse button and 'drag' the mouse to the right or to the left to mark the desired
range on the x-axis. If the mouse button is released, PowerFactory will then show the
marked x ranged zoomed.
Automatic Arrangement of VIs
Virtual instrument panels usually set the size and position of new virtual instruments like
plots automatically. Then the VIs can not be resized or moved. So the position of these
VIs is set automatically and their size remains unchanged.
There are two different modes for automatically arranging the VIs. The user can choose
to arrange the VIs using either
• "Arrange Subplots on Top of Each Other'' with the icon or
• "Arrange Subplots automatically'' with the icon .
The modes can easily be changed by pressing the one or the other button. In addition the
position of VIs can easily be exchanged. Thereto mark the VI by clicking it. Then 'drag'
the VI onto another plot. Thus the position of the VIs will be exchanged.
Note This option of exchanging the plots by dragging is only possible,
when one of the arrangement buttons are active. If you deactivate
both buttons by unselecting them in the toolbar, the plots can free-
ly be moved by dragging them on the panel. See also "Moving and
Resizing".
Another way to rearrange the VIs is to open the dialogue of the VI panel by pressing the
icon and then use the Arrangement options on the "Advanced" page. Here the option
User defined can be activated. So the VIs will no longer be arranged automatically but
can be resized and moved inside the panel. So the user is free to arrange the VIs 'ad li-
bitum'. This mode is also activated by disabling the selected icon or .
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Moving and Resizing
Moving and resizing of VIs in the standard virtual instrument panels is turned off. Both
can be activated by deactivating the 'auto-arrangement' modes by disabling then current-
ly active icon or . Also the option User defined can be activated on the "Advanced"
page of the "edit" dialogue of the VI panel.
A VI is clicked to mark it. The VI is 'dragged' inside the panel by clicking it with the mouse
button pressed. Then the VI can be move across the panel. The mouse is released to set
the new position. A VI is clicked on the border to resize it. A VI is clicked on the border
to resize it.
Note Please note that some VIs can not be resized at all because their
size is set automatically. This applies e.g. for the bitmap VI with
the option "Adapt Size of VI to Size of Bitmap" enabled.
Page Format
The page format is modified using the in the toolbar of the graphics board. VI panels
use the page format set in the graphics board. In addition a local page format can be cre-
ated for each VI panel. The option "Create local Page Format'' is selected in the context
sensitive menu to create a local page format. The VI panel now uses a local page format
independent of the page format set in the graphics board.
"Set default Page Format'' is selected in the context sensitive menu to reset the local page
format. The VI panel now uses the default format of the graphics board again.
Editing Variables of Plots
The icon is clicked to open the "Edit Plots on Page'' dialogue for defining curves of
several plots. If the variables of only one subplot are to be changed, it is suggested to
edit the dialogue of the plot itself by double-clicking it. This procedure is more convenient.
This dialogue gives a very good overview over the diagrams on the VI panel and the vari-
ables, axis and curve styles. Figure 20.1 shows an example of the dialogue.
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Fig. 20.1: Editing all plots on the page
Each line of the table named Curves defines a variable shown on the panel. The variables
definition applies to the plot shown in the first column. When the dialogue is opened the
plots are sorted from left to right and from top to bottom and are numbered accordingly.
All data and settings of each variable is displayed in the table, and the columns are used
exactly like the columns in the table of a plot. To move a variable from one plot to another,
simply change the Plot Nr. of the variable to move.
In this table not only subplots (VisPlot) are shown but also plots with two y-axis
(VisPlot2) can be modified. Here additionally in the column y the y-axis can be defined
to which the variable is related. In Figure 20.1 this can be seen in the to last rows of the
table. Here both variables are shown in one plot number 4 with two different axis. If the
number in this row is grey, only one y-axis is available in this plot.
Like in most tables new rows can be add. Default File for Page is a reference to the results
element of the virtual instrument panel. The Filter... button opens the filter dialogue. The
selected filter will be applied to all plots on the current virtual instrument panel.
Default File for Page is a reference to the default results element of the virtual instrument
panel. This is exactly the same setting like the one displayed on the Results page of the
dialogue box of the virtual instrument panel.
Title Block
All virtual instrument panels in a Graphics Board show the same title by default. The only
difference of the title blocks on the VI-Panels are the panel name and the page number
which are unique for each panel. To create a local title for a VI-Panel simply right-click on
the title and select Create local Title from the context sensitive menu.
Like in the single line graphics the icon in the toolbar is clicked to show or hide the
title block. The title can ba defined or changed by double-clicking on them or use the icon
to modify the title text. For details about the settings of the title object refer to Sec-
tion 10.6.6.
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Results
Some VIs like the most frequently used class "subplot" show curves stored in one ore
more result objects (ElmRes). The curves are selected in a table where the result ele-
ment, the element and a variable have to be selected.
The result column of VIs needs not to be set for most calculations. The VI itself will look
for the results element to display automatically. The default results element is either:
1 Results reference on page Results of the VI Panel accessed by pressing the
icon.
2 If 1. is empty the Results reference on the Results page of the Graphics Board will
be used by pressing the icon.
3 If both (1. and 2.) are not empty, the results element used for the last calculation
will be applied. If there is no calculation the appropriate results element in the study
case will be used (if any).
Background
The default background of virtual instrument panels is empty. The background settings
for the panel can be found in the frame Background on the "Advanced'' page of the virtual
instrument panel dialogue.
The Filename defines the background file, which can be either a Windows Metafile
(*.wmf), a Bitmap (*.bmp) or a AutoCad DXF file. If the selected file does not exist, or if
the filename is not set the background remains empty. VIs can be transparent or opaque.
Graphics are transparent must be activated to make all graphics transparent. If an opaque
graphic fills the complete panel area the background will be invisible.
The Context Sensitive Menu
The options in the context sensitive menu of the VI panel may vary depending on the cur-
sor and the settings of the panel. The options are listed below:
• Edit Actual Virtual Instrument Panel opens the virtual instrument panel dialogue.
• Create local Page Format creates a page format for the current panel.
• Paste Text inserts text from the from the clipboard into the panel.
• A VI can be selected from the list shown in the Create VI ÷>... option to create a new
VI on the panel.
• Style ÷> Select Style is clicked to select a style for the panel.
• Style ÷> Create new Style is selected to create a new style for the panel.
• Style ÷> Edit Style of clicked Element is selected to modify the style of the selected
element only.
• Select All is selected to mark all VIs.
• Export Results... exports the shown result into e.g. the output window, a ASCII file, a
Comtrade file or the clipboard.
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Creating Virtual Instruments
New VIs can easily be created with the "Append New VI(s)" icon . A small dialogue
will pop up, where the class of VI can be selected from the available Object and the num-
ber of VIs to be added to the current VI panel.
Another way to create VIs is to select the option Create VI ÷>... from the context menu
of the SetVipage. Then a class of virtual instrument can be selected to be added to the
current VI panel.
The Default Styles
Each virtual instrument panel uses a style where line-widths, fonts, brushes and other
graphical settings are defined. There are six predefined styles available in DIgSILENT
PowerFactory, which are:
• Default - Standard English Text and Symbols
• Gr Default - Greek Symbols
• Tr Default - Turkish Symbols
• Paper
• Gr Paper
• Tr Paper
The "Default" styles uses smaller line-widths and smaller fonts than the "Paper" styles. It
was designed to get nice printouts. The paper style was designed for reports and papers
where meta-files are included in text-programs. In addition to the layout the styles hold
predefined VIs.
There are several ways to select a predefined or user-defined style for the current virtual
instrument panel. The easiest way to change the style is using the toolbar.
• The list-box in the toolbar is clicked and an available style is selected.
• A style is selected from the Style ÷> Select Style ÷>... in the context sensitive menu of
the VI panel.
• A style is selected in the VI-Style list-box on the "Advanced'' page of the SetVipage
dialogue.
The user-defined styles are described in detail in Section 20.1.10 later in this chapter.
20.1.2 Plots
Plots are the most used diagrams to show all sorts of parameters, states, signals or vari-
ables depending on the time or on another variable. To show these time-domain variables
or to visualize a magnitude depending on other variables, there are the following plots
available:
• SubPlot (VisPlot)
• SubPlot (2y) with two y-axes (VisPlot2)
• X-Y plot (VisXyplot)
• FFT plots (VisFft)
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The Subplot
SubPlots are the 'basic' diagrams and are typically used to display one or more plotted
curves from the results of a EMT or RMS simulation. But also bar diagrams used e.g. to
visualize the results of a harmonics calculation are a special type of SubPlots.
A new subplot is created on the current VI panel by pressing the icon and selecting
a Subplot (VisPlot) from the pull down list. More than one subplot may be created at
once by setting the Number of VI(s). The new empty subplots appear with standard set-
tings, as is shown in Figure 20.2.

Fig. 20.2: Creating a new SubPlot (VisPlot)
To edit the subplot either
• right-click it, and select the Edit option from the context sensitive menu
• double-click it.
Editing Subplots
The edit dialogue of a subplot, as shown in Figure 20.3 has pages for the y-axis and x-
axis of the individual subplot as well as an additional Advanced page for auxiliary settings.
The y-axis page is normally used to set the curves in the subplot, while the x-axis normal-
ly, and by default, shows time.
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Fig. 20.3: The SubPlot edit dialogue
The subplot edit dialogue has the following features:
Scale The y-axis may be defined for more than one subplot at the same time,
or, and by default, may be defined as a "local Axis'' format. When the
option Use local Axis is disabled, a reference to the used 'global' axis
type is shown and can be edited by pressing the .
Automatic The color, line style, and line width of all new curves in the subplot will
be set automatically when the corresponding option is enabled. The
Set now button will apply automatic line formats all existing curves
again.
Shown ResultsThis is a reference to the currently active result file (ElmRes). This
object will be used, if no result file is specified in the Curves definition
table.
Curves The definition table for the curves is used to specify the result file
(optional), object and parameter for each of the curves as well as their
representation.
These available options are described in more detail below.
Setting the X-Axis
The x-axes often have to be synchronized for all subplots or for all subplots on one VI
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panel, for instance to show the same time-scale in all plots. In order to synchronize the
x-axes without losing the freedom to manually set each subplot, a hierarchy of x-axes is
used in the Graphics Board:
• The Graphics Board contains the basic x-axis definition. This definition is used by
default by each new subplot.
• A VI panel, however, may define a local x-axis definition, which will then be the
default for each new subplot created on that panel.
• The subplot thus uses the Graphics Board or the panel SetViPage definition by
default, but may also use a local x-axis definition.
Note If you change the settings of the x-axis, which uses the definition
stored in the graphics board, all x-axis are changed using the same
definition in the whole project. These are also affected, if the x-axis
is automatically scaled or zoomed.
The following list describes how to edit the definition of the different x-axes:
• For editing the graphics board definition, select the option Graphics Board and go to
the x-Axis page of the edit dialogue of the plot. Using the button the dialogue for
changing the x-axis definition for the complete graphics board can be accessed.
Another way is to click the icon for the graphics board dialogue and then go to
the x-Axis page.
• Similar to the graphics board definition, the x-axis definition of the VI panel is
changed by selecting the option Page. This will open the dialogue of the of the VI
panel (SetVipage).
Another way is to go to the panel dialogue by clicking the icon or selecting Edit
actual Virtual Instrument Panel from the context menu and then go to the x-Axis
page.
• The local x-axis definition is simply accessed by selecting the option Local. Then the
options for specifying the x-axis is shown in this dialogue.
The options available for the x-axis are similar to the one for the y-axis. They are de-
scribed in the following section. The only difference is in selecting the variable of the axis.
For the x-axis there is a list to choose the x-Axis Variable shown in Figure 20.4. The Default
value is depending on the type of simulation and the result object created during the pre-
vious simulation. Then for time-domain simulations different representations of the time
scale are available. For the FFT plot e.g. the x-axis can be scale using the frequency re-
spectively the harmonic order.
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Fig. 20.4: The variable list available for the x-Axis
The option User defined enables the user to choose any variable for the x-axis, which is
selected to be stored in the result object. As shown in Figure 20.4 an element and a vari-
able can be selected for the x-axis. In this way a x-y plot can be created. There is also an
own plot type for a more convenient way to create x-y plot: the VisXyplot is described
in more detail in section .
Setting the Y-Axis
The y-axes are normally not synchronized like the x-axis, because they all show different
parameter values and thus need parameter-specific settings. By default, the Graphics
Board's default plot type is used, but more plot types may be created and used, i.e. plot
types for voltages, power, factors, slip factors, etc. By using the same plot type, different
plots can be compared more easily, without the risk of mis-interpreting a difference in
curve amplitude.
Although the x- and y-scale definitions thus use somewhat other synchronizing variations,
the way a particular axis is set is quite similar. Both the y-axis and the x-axis page in the
subplot edit dialogue have the option to Use local Axis or simply Local.
• If this option is disabled, a reference is shown which points to the used axis definition
as described in the last section.
• If the option is enabled, the axis is defined locally and the edit dialogue changes in
order to do so. See Figure 20.4.
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The local definitions of an axis has three parts:
• the axis limits (minimum and maximum)
• the kind of axis (linear, logarithmic)
• the auto scale options
• the settings to adapt the scale to a setpoint.
The axis limits can be given manually, or can be auto scaled by pressing the Scale button.
With this button the limits are defined automatically from the curve shape once.
The options to Auto Scale the plot are
Off Turns any auto scaling function off and will display the results in the
range between the given limits.
On This option will automatically scale the plot at the end of a simulation.
Online This option will automatically scale the plot during the simulation.
The x-axis additionally features a Chart option. If ticked a range and a start value can be
set. This will set the x-axis to the specified range. During the simulation only a x-range,
set in the options, is shown and will 'wander' along with the calculation time.
The Adapt Scale settings are used to force a tick mark on the axis at a particular value.
This is the Offset value. Other tick marks will be drawn at 'nice' distances from this offset.
The default value for both x- and y-axis is an active adapt scale with Trigger equal to zero.
So the main ticks of the axes start at zero.
To see the deviations from the offset, the Show Deviations from Offset option will draw
a second axis on the right, which has its zero baseline at the offset value. The Show De-
viations from Offset option is available for the y-axis only.
An example of two subplots is given in Figure 20.5 where a voltage sag is shown with
both an instantaneous and a RMS value curve. The top curve has the Adapt option dis-
abled, and both axes autoscaled.

Fig. 20.5: Two subplots with different axis definitions
The bottom subplot has a smaller x-axis, to show only the interesting part, and has the
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Adapt option set on both axes.
The y-axis has its offset set to the nominal voltage level (11kV) and also shows the devi-
ations from that level in the right vertical axis. From this deviation, it is directly clear that
the RMS voltage initially drops more than 5kV. The x-axis has its offset set to the event
time, which in this case is 100ms when a short-circuit was simulated. From the x-axis, it
is now directly clear that this short-circuit was cleared after 200ms, at t=300ms.
Specifying Curves for Plots
The curves in a subplot must be taken from a result object (ElmRes), which is created
by a power system calculation function like the RMS or EMT simulation. How to create
such a result object is explained in 20.2.1.
The selection of the variables to be plotted in the current plot is done in the y-axis page
of the edit dialogue. This is easily accessed by double-clicking the background of the plot.
The dialogue is shown in Figure 20.6 and Figure 20.7 in detail.

Fig. 20.6: Defining a new curve
Each line in the shown matrix has the definition of a curve.
• The first column states the result object from which the data to plot the curve will be
read. If it is empty, the standard result file will be used defined in the reference
Shown Results in the same dialogue.
• The second column states the power system element (here: the generator "G1d''),
which is selected from the available elements in the result object.
• The third column states the actual variable for the curve ("xspeed''), selected from the
variables in the result object, belonging to the selected element.
• The next columns specify the style of the individual curve.
• With the last two columns the user can norm the values of the variable to a nominal
value given.
A new result object, element or parameter is selected by double-clicking the field or by
right-clicking it and selecting Select Element/Type or Edit from the context sensitive
menu. A list of possible result objects resp. elements or parameters will pop up from which
a new entry can be selected.
The color, line style and line width settings are edited in the same way: double-clicking
or right-clicking and selecting Edit.
New curve definition lines can be created by right-clicking on the column number (on the
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far left) (see cursor arrow in Figure 20.6) and selecting Insert Rows or Append (n) Rows.
Marked curve definitions can similarly be deleted from the list by selecting Delete Rows.
Note If you want to see changes between to consecutive simulations,
you can run the first simulation. These results will be stored inside
the result object Results.ElmRes, which can be found in the ac-
tive study case. Copy this object, paste it and rename it to e.g. "old
Results". Then you can add the same variable to a plot twice and
select the "old Results" result object for one of them (as shown in
Figure 20.6). This will show the old and the new results in one plot.
If more than one curve is to be specified for the same result file and element, this may
be done in one action by selecting more than one variable from the variable list. This will
automatically create new entries in the curve definition table for all additionally selected
variables. The entered Result File and Element are copied automatically. This very conve-
nient procedure is shown in Figure 20.7 and Figure 20.8.

Fig. 20.7: Defining subplots with minimum effort, step 1

Fig. 20.8: Defining subplots with minimum effort, step 2
Similarly several elements can be selected. Then PowerFactory will automatically insert
the according number of rows. The variables are then set automatically to the one select-
ed in the first row.
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The Subplot with two Y-Axes
A plot with two y-axes can be seen in Figure 20.9. To create this plot the icon has to
be pressed and a Subplot (2y) (VisPlot2) to be selected from the pull down list. This
will add a subplot with two y-axes to the current VI panel.
The second axis can then be defined and curves for this axis can be specified similar to
the 'basic' subplot VisPlot. In the edit dialogue of this plot, as shown in Figure 20.9, there
will now appear a page for y1-Axis and for y2-Axis.

Fig. 20.9: The definition of the second y-axis
On the page for the second y-axis, this additional axis can be deactivated by unticking the
option Use second y-Axis.
The X-Y Plot
A further type of plot is the x-y plot. This plot will show one variable depending on a sec-
ond variable in one diagram. The two variables can be completely independent from each
other and do not have to belong to one element.
To create a x-y plot press the icon and then select a X-Y Plot (VisXYPlot) from the
pull down list. This will add a new x-a plot to the current VI panel.
Figure 20.10 shows the edit dialogue of the plot.
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Fig. 20.10: Defining variables for a X-Y plot
On the variables page the variables for the x- and y-axis are specified. Both variables have
to be stored in one result file of a simulation. To select variables of two different elements
the option Show x-Element in Table has to be activated. The options and the tools for the
curves are similar to the ones described in section (The Subplot).
On the second page Scales of the dialogue the scales of the two axis can be set automat-
ically or global definitions can be used for them.
The plot is drawn for a certain time range. On page Time Range this range can be set to
the whole simulation time. Another way is to select only a specified range to show these
results.
The FFT Plot
The FFT plot (VisFft) is similar to the normal subplot (VisPlot) from the handling point
of view. This plot will not show variables depending on the simulations time but on the
frequency. A time range of signal can be selected and then be transformed from the time
domain into the frequency domain using the Fast-Fourier Transformation (FFT). This then
will shown the harmonic contents of this signal depending on the nominal frequency of
the system.
Like other plots it can be created by using the "Append VI(s)" icon . An much easier
way is to click on a plotted curve and then selecting Create FFT Plot from the context sen-
sitive menu. Then the mouse pointer can be 'dragged' from the selected point on the
curve to the left or right. When holding the mouse still, a quick-help box shows the range,
beginning and end of the curve to be transformed.
By clicking the diagram again, a range for the FFT is set and the FFT is calculated and
shown in a newly created plot.
When entering the "edit" dialogue by double-clicking the plot, the x- and y-axis can be
defined on the different pages similar to the VisPlot. Additional options are:
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Calculate This additional option on the page y-Axis modifies the fast-fourier
transformation and the time range of the signal the FFT is applied to.
The button Synchronize will synchronize the time range with the
given frequency.Furthermore the different parts of the variable and the
number of samples for the FFT can be selected.
Unit The unit of the x-axis can be set to Frequency or Harmonic Order. For
the Harmonic Order the nominal frequency can be set different to the
network frequency.
Display On the Advanced page the display of the FFT results can be toggled
between the Spectral Line and a solid Curve.
20.1.3 The Vector Diagram
Using a vector diagram complex values such as voltages, currents and apparent power
can be visualized as vectors in one or more diagrams. A complex variable can be defined
and then shown in two different representations:
• Polar coordinates, i.e. magnitude and phase of the current
• Cartesian coordinates, i.e. active-and reactive power
There are predefined vector diagrams for calculation results. The predefined vector dia-
grams can easily be created using the context menu of a branch:
• right-click a branch in the single line graphic or in the data manager.
• select the option Show ÷> Vector Diagram ÷>... from the menu
• select one of the predefined variable, i.e. Voltage/Currents
The example in Figure 20.11 shows the voltage and current on one terminal of a line.
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Fig. 20.11: Vector diagram of voltage and current on a line
Note A vector diagram can only be shown when branch elements like
lines, load, transformers, etc. are selected. Then the vectors of the
voltage, current or power across the elements or at the nodes con-
nected to the elements are shown in diagrams.
The vector can be shown after a load-flow calculation or before
and after a transient RMS simulation.
Another way of creating a vector diagram VecVis to the current VI panel is - equal to
adding a subplot - by pressing the icon and selecting a Vector Diagram (VecVis)
from the pull down list. In the edit dialogue the variables can then be shown as described
in Section (The Subplot).
The objects and variables of the vector diagram can be changed manually by editing the
dialogue, which is opened by double-clicking the vector diagram. The more convenient
method is to right-click the diagram and selecting
• Default Vectors ÷>... to select a predefined vector from the list.
• Label of Vectors changes the label of the displayed elements shown in the diagram.
• Jump to Element to select one of the elements that is connected to the currently
displayed element.
• Set Origin set the origin of the diagram to the position selected with a mouse-click.
• Center Origin set the origin of the diagram in the middle of the plot.
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The X And Y Axes
In most plots, the x and y scale are given by the minimum and maximum value of each
scale. A vector diagram can't be defined using minimum and maximum for each scale be-
cause the x- and the y-ratio must be equal. The ratio for each unit is therefore set as the
parameter units per axis tick. In addition the location of the origin can be defined.
If all shown variables have the same unit, the axis are labelled with values and unit. If
there is more than one unit, the labels show ticks. A legend showing the ratio of the units
is add at the right bottom of the plot. The balloon help of the scale labels always the ab-
solute values for each unit.
Editing the Unit/Tick
To modify the scale of an axis the table Scales in the edit dialogue can be changed. The
column "Unit'' shows the unit, the column "Scale'' shows the ratio in unit per tick. A higher
ratio then shortens the vector.
If the "Auto Scale'' option in the dialogue is turned on, the scales are adapted whenever
a new calculation is ready. Turn off "Auto Scale'' to keep the scale limits.
Setting the Origin
The origin position of the vector plot can be changed either graphically or with the dia-
logue:
• Right-click the vector plot and select Set Origin. This will move the origin to the right-
clicked position.
• Modify the "x-Min.'' and "y-Min.'' values in the plot dialogue to the starting value of
the x-and y scale.
Changing Coordinates
The plot displays the vectors in cartesian or in polar representation. The grid of a polar
plot is shown as circles and can be altered as described in Section (The Subplot). The
representation setting is also used for the mouse position display in the status bar.
The option Polar in the context menu toggles between representation in polar and carte-
sian coordinates. On the Advanced page in the edit dialogue this representation can also
ba changed.
Label of Vectors
In the edit dialogue as well as from the context menu of the plot the label of the vector
can be displayed in the different coordinate representation, so the real and imaginary val-
ue or the magnitude and phase angle can be shown.
Changing the Object
There are two different ways to change the objects for which the vector plot is made by:
• Right-clicking one of the vector plots and select Jump To. This shows a list of all
connected elements from which one can be selected. Here the side of a branch
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element is automatically checked. The Jump To option is not available if there is more
than one element shown in the same plot or if there are no calculation results
available.
• The "Element'' column in the variables table in the plot dialogue, as depicted in Figure
20.12, is double-clicked to select a new object.

Fig. 20.12: Variable list of a vector diagram
Changing the Variables
There are two different ways to change the displayed variables:
• Right-click the vector plot and select the Default Variables option. This will show a list
of predefined variables. This option is not available if there is more than one element
shown in the same plot or if there are no calculation results available.
• The "Var. x-Axis'' column in the variables table in the plot dialogue, as depicted in
Figure 20.12 is double-clicked to select a new variable from a list. The variables shown
in the list are either the magnitude or the real-part of the vector. The angle or the
imaginary part are set automatically. The selection list is empty when no calculation
result are available.
20.1.4 The Voltage Profile Plot
This plot VisPath shows the voltage profile of a radial network based on the load-flow
results. It is directly connected to a defined feeder in the network, so it can only be cre-
ated for the part of the system a feeder is assigned to.
The voltage profile plot needs a successful load-flow calculation. It can not be created if
there is no load-flow calculated. The most easy way of creating a voltage path plot is to
define such a plot in the single line graphic.
To create a voltage profile:
• First a feeder for the radial network has to be define, for which a voltage profile is to
be created, by right-clicking on a switch and then select Define ÷> Feeder.... A new
feeder object is created.
• A branch of an already defined feeder is right-clicked. The context sensitive menu will
show the option Show ÷> Voltage Profile. PowerFactory will then create a new
object VisPath showing the voltage profile for the defined feeder.
• In the 'calculation relevant objects' or in the data manager select the feeder object
which is just created or which is to be shown the voltage profile of. Right-click on it
and select Show ÷> Voltage Profile from the context sensitive menu.
Note The option Show ÷> Voltage Profile is only available when a load-
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flow calculation is performed or the results of the last calculation
are valid.
The voltage profile plot shows the voltage of terminals or busbars along a feeder. The
variable(s) shown by the plot can be changed. If there is no valid load-flow calculation
the plot remains empty. A voltage profile is shown in Figure 20.13.

Fig. 20.13: Example of a voltage profile plot
The curve shown can be clicked and marked at the busbar positions (points). Like most
plots available in DIgSILENT PowerFactory the voltage profile plot can be labelled. See
the context sensitive menu or the description of the result graphs for details.
The plot in the example shows the voltage m:u with the unit "p.u.''. The position of the
busbars (x axis) is shown as the distance from the beginning of the feeder. The unit is
"km''. The variables shown for the busbars can be changed by the user through the edit
dialogue of the plot.
The x-Variable of the voltage profile can be changed by editing the dialogue of the plot.
On the Scales page of the Edit dialogue a list box defines the x-axis variable. There are
two predefined x axis.
Distance shows the distance of the busbar away from the feeder in "km''.
Bus Index numbers the busbars so the distance on the plot between the busses is
constant.
Other prompts for random variable input. Each variable available at all
busbars in the feeder can be input there.
The y-Variable(s) can be user-defined. The predefined variable for the plot is the voltage
m:u with the unit "p.u.''. Any other variable available at all busbars in the feeder can be
set. To change the shown variable, edit the voltage profile dialogue and change the vari-
able name in the table. Resize the table to append variables.
The Branch Coloring settings define a different coloring of the plot. For example the over-
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loading of a branch element can be defined and shown in the plot. In Figure 20.13 to line
elements are loaded over 80%, so they are displayed in red. Also either the maximum or
the minimum values of parallel branches can be shown.
On the Advanced page the Coloring of the busnames shown in the plot can be defined
additionally.
Off does not display any bus names.
Black simply shows all names in black font style.
Colored acc. to Feeder
Colors the bus names according to the color of the different feeders.
The context sensitive menu shows now additional functions regarding the voltage profile
plot, when right-clicking on the plot or on the profile:
Edit Feeder
opens the "edit" dialogue of the feeder related to the plot.
Edit Data
opens the "edit" dialogue of the selected line, transformer or other
element.
Edit and Browse
shows the selected element in the data manager.
Mark in Graphic
marks selected element in the single line graphic(s).
20.1.5 Schematic Visualization
Schematic Diagram
Besides the voltage profile the object VisPath can also be used to show the schematic
diagram of a radial network. The usage and the different options available for this plot
are similar to the voltage profile plot in Section 20.1.4.
The diagram shows a schematics of a radial network. It is also directly connected to a
defined feeder in the network, so it can only be created for the part of the system a feeder
is assigned to. It can only be shown or created, if a load-flow is calculated for the system
To create a schematic diagram,
• a feeder has to be defined for the radial network by right-clicking on a switch in the
single line graphic or in the data manager and then select Define ÷> Feeder....
• The context sensitive menu of a branch with a defined feeder will now show the
option Show ÷> Schematic Visualization ÷> Plot. PowerFactory will create a new
VisPath and the schematic diagram showing the profile for radial network.
• In the 'calculation relevant objects' or in the data manager select the feeder object
and select Show ÷> Schematic Visualization ÷> Plot from the context sensitive menu.
In the plot the terminals and busbars are displayed as well as the electrical elements be-
longing to the feeder depending on the real distance of the network or on the bus index,
where the distance between every node is constant.
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Schematic Single Line Diagram
There are further functions to show the schematics of radial networks. These functions
are applied especially when no single line graphics of a network exists and one wants to
let PowerFactory draw the schematic of a radial network automatically in a very conve-
nient way.
These functions can be activated from the context sensitive menu of the branch element
with a defined feeder similar to the voltage plot or the schematic plot described above.
Using the option Show ÷> Schematic Visualization ÷>... two slightly different operations
can be used:
Distance PowerFactory will draw automatically from the database a single line
diagram for the radial network defined by the feeder. The distances
between the terminals/busbars in "km'' are set automatically according
to the distances specified in the lines.
Bus Index Similar to the schematic diagram the distances between the terminals/
busbars will be neglected and a standard value will be used for all
terminals.
Note Remember to run a load-flow prior to activating these functions.
Otherwise you will not have access to the options.
20.1.6 The Waveform Plot
The waveform plot VisHrm is used to display the waveform of a voltage or current after
a harmonics load-flow calculation. These harmonics are typically emitted by an harmonic
voltage or current source described in 24.4. The waveform is calculated according to the
following formula:
where
i Index of frequency
n Number of frequencies
t Time
f(i) Frequency at index i
u(i) Magnitude at frequency i
phi(i)Angle at frequency i
For the If a successful harmonic load-flow calculation with the option All Frequencies is
performed, the waveform plot will show the results of any distorted or pure sinusoidal
variable, e.g. voltages or currents, from any element in the network. It can also be cre-
ated if there is no load-flow calculated.
To create a waveform plot on the current VI panel, press the icon and select a Wave-
form Plot (VisHrm) from the pull down list. More than one subplot may be created at
u t ( ) u i ( ) 2tf i ( ) t · m i ( ) + ( ) cos ·
i 1 =
n
¯
=
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once by setting the Number of VI(s). The new empty subplots appear with standard set-
tings.
Usage, settings and tools of this plot are similar to the subplot. A detailed description can
be found in (The Subplot). Although the definition of the variables is slightly different.
Besides the result object and the element, there can be defined the magnitude of the vari-
able, which is to be shown in the plot, and additionally the angle related to the magnitude
can be inserted when this information is needed.
The appropriate angle is automatically matched to the selected magnitude, if such angle
is available in the results and if the variable is a voltage or a current. When no appropriate
angle is found, one may be selected manually. Nevertheless it is not obligable to insert
an angle to shown the waveform plot.
Figure 20.14 shows an example for defining a variable in the VisHrm.

Fig. 20.14: Defining variables in a waveform plot (VisHrm)
The Waveform Plot Settings
Most other settings/options of the waveform plot act exactly like the settings of the Sub-
plot (VisPlot). See Section (The Subplot) for more information. Additionally to the stan-
dard settings of the plots there are specified settings of the waveform plot. Step size and
range for time t are specified at the waveform plot settings object stored in the "Changed
Settings'' of the active project.
To change the waveform plot settings either press the Calculation button in the dialogue
of the plot or select Calculation in the context menu on the plot. The Settings Waveform
Plot object SetWave holds the Step Size and the Range for the calculation of waveforms
in the Waveform Plots (see Figure 20.15).

Fig. 20.15: The waveform plot settings dialogue
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Step Size
The waveforms seen in the plot are calculated by the waveform plot itself. To avoid errors
the Step Size must be smaller than half the period of the highest frequency calculated by
the harmonics load-flow. To guarantee that this criteria is always fulfilled, independent of
the harmonics calculation, the Step Size is entered in Number of Samples in Highest Fre-
quency. The Highest Frequency and the resulting Step Size are shown just for informa-
tion.
Range
To be independent of the basic frequency the time range of the waveform is entered in
Number of cycles of Basic Frequency. Basic Frequency and the resulting Range are shown
just for information.
20.1.7 The Curve-Input Command
The curve input command is used for measuring printed curves. The original curves must
be available in windows metafile (*.wmf) or in bitmap (*.bmp) format. The graphics file
is displayed as background in a curve input plot. This plot then allows for defining plot
points by successive mouse clicks.
The curve input plot (VisDefcrv) allows for measuring and editing single curves of group
of curves at once. The measured curve points are stored in a Matrix object. The positions
of the axis in the curve input plot can be set by the user.
Special functions for groups of curves allow for x-value synchronization and many other
facilities to make their input easier and faster.
Creating a Curve-Input Plot
The special 'Curve Input' virtual instrument plot VisDefcrv is needed for measuring
curves. Such a plot, like al other virtual instruments, is displayed on a Virtual Instrument
Panel. A new virtual instrument panel is created with the new command in the file menu
or the new icon of the graphics window.
A new Curve Input plot is created by right-clicking the empty panel, or by pressing
on the panel button bar and subsequently selecting the Curve-Input (VisDefcrv). The
curve input option dialogue as shown in Figure 20.16 is opened by double-clicking the
curve input plot.
The Input Options
The input options are used to select the graphics file which is to be measured. Only win-
dows metafile (*.wmf) or bitmap (*.bmp) formats are allowed. The x-scale and y-scale
settings are used to set the range and type of the axes of the curves as they are in the
graphics file.
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Fig. 20.16: Editing the curve input plot
Two different types of curves can be input:
Single
Each matrix input defines a single curve. The first column in the matrix holds the x-
values, the second one the y values. Other columns are ignored.
Set of Curves
Only the first matrix is used for input. The first column in the matrix holds the x-
values, the other columns hold the y-values of each curve in the group of curves.
The measured curve is drawn between the measured points by interpolation. This is im-
portant when the measured curve is later used with a specific interpolation. Setting the
correct interpolation mode when measuring the curve causes a better fit while avoiding
excess curve point definitions. Available modes of interpolation:
• Linear
• Cub. Spline
• Polygon
• Hermite
The Context Sensitive Menu
The case sensitive menu is opened by right-clicking the curve input plot. The menu is used
to select the curve for which points are to be measured or edited, to select the measure-
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ment mode, to synchronize x-values by interpolation, etc.
Grid Opens the grid layout dialogue
Curves Used to switch from 'single' to 'set of curves' mode.
Interpolation
Selects the interpolation mode
Interpolate All
interpolates undefined y values for all curves for all defined x-values
Interpolate N
interpolates undefined y values of curve N for all defined x-values
Delete Curve N
Removes curve N from the matrix
Add Curve appends a new curve
Set Axis With this option the origin of the axes and the length of the axes can
be adjusted according to the figure imported.
Origin sets the origin of the graph to be inserted.
x-Axis sets the x-axis independent on the y-axis.
x-Axis (y=Origin)
sets the x-axis dependent on the y-axis origin.
y-Axis sets the y-axis independent on the x-axis.
y-Axis (x=Origin)
sets the y-axis dependent on the x-axis origin.
Origin sets the origin of the graph to be inserted.
Input specifies the input mode:
Off switches off the measurement mode
x/y-Pairs each left mouse click adds a point to the curve.
Drag & Drop
turns on the 'edit' mode: all points can be dragged and dropped to
change their y-position or left clicked and deleted with the 'Del' key.
Active Curve sets the curve to modify
How to Scan curve(s) using the curve-input plot:
• Create a virtual instrument panel with a curve input plot
• Open the curve-input dialogue with a double-click and set the following options
- Select the background file
- Select "Single'' or "Set of Curves'' in the "Curves Listbox''
- Select the interpolation mode
- Select on or more Matrix objects in the table named "Curves''. At least two columns
must be already present in the matrix object.
• Close the dialogue.
• Define the axis position to adapt the curve input to the background plot:
- Select the graphic cursor
- Right-click the plot and select Set Axis - Origin. Left click the origin of the plot
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- Right-click the plot and select Select Set Axis - x-Axis. Left click the end of the x-
axis of the background plot.
- Right-click the plot and select Select Set Axis - y-Axis. Left click the end of the y-
axis of the background plot.
• Open the curve-input dialogue and adapt the scale of the curve input plot to the scale
of background plot
• Right-click the plot and select the Active Curve option and activate the first curve. The
option is not available when
- There is no Matrix object selected in the 'Curves' table of the dialogue
- One of the matrix object(s) has less than two columns
• Right-click the plot and select the Input option. Select the input mode. With the first
curve, select the with x/y-Pairs option.
• Left click the curve to set x/y values.
• Right-click the plot and select the Input - Off option to finish the definition of the
curve
20.1.8 Embedded Graphic Windows
Some dialogues contain embedded graphic windows to visualize input settings. An exam-
ple is shown in Figure 20.17 for the parameter characteristic dialogue. Many other dia-
logues have also such embedded graphs. An embedded graph shares much of its
functionality and features with the 'normal' graphs in the Virtual Instruments, like the sub-
plot in section .

Fig. 20.17: Example of an embedded graphs
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Similar to the plots on a VI page the mouse position in the embedded graphic is shown
in the status bar. The context sensitive menu of the embedded graphs offers commands
for printing and zooming.
Print Picture
This option opens the print dialogue. The default print format for embedded graphs
is A4. The printer orientation is set to the orientation of the embedded graph. The
print dialogue offers to preview the printed area.
Zoom In
This option changes the cursor to a magnifying glass. Drawing a rectangle with the
cursor will enlarge that area.
Zoom Back
This option restores the previous zoom area.
Zoom All
This option zooms out to the complete window.
Change Viewpoint
This option changes the arrow to the move arrow . Press the left mouse button,
hold it down and move the mouse outside the window. This will move the zoomed
area in that direction. Press the right mouse button or Esc to change the cursor
back again.
Additionally there may be a Limits available in the dialogue. Pressing this button will open
a small dialogue where the minimum and maximum of the x-axis can be changed, or the
Scale button will reset the settings and scale the axis automatically.
20.1.9 Tools for Virtual Instruments
Different kinds of plots are used to display calculation results or device data. There are a
lot of tools, which will help the user interpreting and analyzing these data or results of
calculations. Most of them are accessible directly through the "status bar" of PowerFac-
tory or through the context sensitive menu. This is activated by right-clicking on the
curve or an the plot background depending on the function one wants to choose.
Edit Dialogues
The "Edit" dialogue of the plots can be accessed through double-clicking on the back-
ground of each plot or by selecting Edit in the context sensitive menu. A faster way to
access special information of the plot is to double-click directly on the element which is
to be change. This can be the:
Legend
the legend text and representation can be edited directly.
X-Axis
to edit the x-axis limits, scales and variable representation and auto scaling options
of the current graphics board or panel.
Y-Axis
to edit the y-axis limits, scales and variable representation and auto scaling options
as well as the variable to be shown.
A double-click on other positions will open the plot dialogue.
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The Status Bar
In the status bar of PowerFactory on the bottom of the program window useful infor-
mation of the data shown in the curves can be obtained.
• First the value of the mouse position in the diagram is displayed in the status bar,
similar to the information shown with an open single line diagram.
• When a curves is clicked and marked with a cross, the cross value is also displayed in
the status bar and remains unchanged until the cross is set to a different position. If
there is no cross on the active page the status bar value is reset and no longer
displayed. Some plots have different scales on one axis, therefore these plots can not
display a value in the status bar.
• The option Curve-Tracking can be found in the status bar, normally in a grey font
style. When double-clicking this option the "Curve-Tracking" mode will be activated.
Then a cross will appear if the mouse arrow will be near a curve. If the mouse is hold
still for one second, the x- and y-value will be shown in a balloon window.
Labelling Plots
There are different styles of labels available for labelling curves and graphics. Setting la-
bels is possible in most of the different plots, although some of the labels are not available
in all kinds of plots. The labels are created the same way.
The label option is available from the context sensitive menu whenever a curve or graphic
was clicked and marked with a cross. The option Label ÷> Insert... Label can be selected
for the different labels. In addition there are two icons and in the toolbar, which
can be used to create labels.
After selecting the appropriate label from the sub-option of label, a rubber band from the
cross to the mouse is shown. A click with the left mouse button sets the label, the right
mouse button cancels. The following different labels are available.
The Text and Value Label
The text-label displays an user defined text above and below a line connected to
the curve with a rubber band. Edit the label to change the text shown.
The value-label displays the x/y coordinates of the cross. The label is a text-label
filled with the coordinates. Edit the label to change the text.
The Format Label
The form-label uses a form to print the displayed text. The form is local for each
label or common to all plots of the same type in the active project.
The Text and Value Label
The text and the value label (VisValue) is used to label curves or graphics displayed in
plots. The text of the label is written above and below a horizontal line. The line is con-
nected to the curve/graphic with a 'rubber band'.
After creating the labels, they can freely be dragged across the plot while staying con-
nected to the data point on the curve. The text can also be changed by double-clicking
the label or the rubber band. The edit dialogue of these two labels is depicted in Figure
20.18.
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Fig. 20.18: X/Y value dialogue
Value Value displays the connected curve position of the label. For labels
created as value this position is displayed as label text. "x-Axis''
displays the x axis value, "y-Axis'' the y axis value. "Time'' is visible only
for plots showing a trajectory.
Text on Top Text written above the horizontal line.
Text on BottomText written below the horizontal line.
Delete Label when a new Simulation is started
Some plots show the simulation results. Labels in plots showing
simulation results are deleted when the simulation is started again. To
keep labels in such plots, e.g. to compare curves with the last run, turn
off this option. The default of this option is "on''.
The Format Label
Like the "text/value label'', the format label (VisLabel) is set in plots to label curves or
graphics. This label displays text printed using a form. The form is different for each type
of diagram. It is either defined local at the label or defined for all diagrams of the same
type in the activated project. Its dialogue is shown in Figure 20.19.
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Fig. 20.19: The form-label dialogue
The different information and parameters for this label are described below:
Value Value displays the connected curve position of the label. "x-Axis''
displays the x axis value, "y-Axis'' the y axis value.
Data Object "Data Object'' is a reference to the shown object. If "Data Objectless
not set the label itself is taken as shown object.
Shown Object The object output by the form, see "Data Object'' described above.
Edit Used Format
Shows the used "Form Manager''. The used format is either the local
format or the one defined for all plots of the same type in the active
project.
Create Local Format
Creates a new "Form Manager'' valid for the current label only. The
forms can be edit without influencing other labels in the same plot or in
the active project. The "Create Local Format'' button is replaced by the
"Set Default Format'' when a local format was defined.
Set Default Format
Removes the local format. The format used is the one used for all plots
of the same type in the active project. The "Set Default Format'' button
is replaced by the "Create Local Format'' when the local format was
reset.
Delete Label when a new Simulation is started
Some plots show simulation results. Labels in plots showing simulation
results are deleted when the simulation is started again. To keep labels
in such plots, e.g. to compare curves with the last run, turn off this
option.
From the context sensitive menu of the format labels more options can be selected
Border A simple border of the selected label can be turned on or off.
Form The format options can be directly accessed by Edit used Format and
Create Local Format for the marked format label.
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Reconnect with...
Reconnects the format label to another curve or data point.
The Constant Value
The constant label (VisXvalue) is used to display y-values for a constant x-quantity or x-
values for a constant y. In some plots like the overcurrent plot, constant labels are created
and deleted automatically e.g. to visualize the short-circuit current for relays.
The look of constant labels may vary because of different settings like the label location,
the intersection values and other options. The dialogue of the constant label is depicted
in Figure 20.20.

Fig. 20.20: The constant label dialogue
To insert a constant label into a diagram or plot, the option Set constant ÷> x-Value or
Set constant ÷> y-Value places a constant x- or a constant y-value into the current plot.
Thus the dialogue for constant the VisXvalue object will pop up (shown in Figure 20.20)
and a horizontal respectively vertical line will then be displayed at the value specified in
the dialogue. Also the constant value and (if exist) the value of intersections with the
curves will be shown.
There are different options and styles for the constant label:
Name defines the name of the constant line and will be displayed in the plot.
Style changes the representation of the constant label:
Line Only displays only the solid line and the related label.
Line with Intersections
shows a solid line including label and indicates the values when
intersections with the curves of the plot.
Short Line Only (Left/Right)
indicates the constant value at the bottom/top respectively at the right/
left side of the plot.
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Short Line/Intersection (Left/Right)
indicates the constant value at the bottom/top respectively at the right/
left side of the plot and the intersections with curves.
Intersection Only
shows only the intersection points with the curves.
Label defines the position of the constant value label:
None displays no label at all.
Outside of Diagram
creates the label between the border of the VI and the diagram area.
Labels of constant x values are created above the diagram area, labels
of constant y values are created right of the diagram area.
Above Line (right)
shows a label above the line if y is constant, the label will be on the
right hand side.
Below Line (left)
shows the label below the line on the left hand side.
Left of Line (top)
shows a label on the left side of the line if x is constant, the label will be
on the top end.
Right of Line (bottom)
shows the label right of the line on the bottom end.
Value defines the constant value, either X or Y. The dialogue shows if either a
X or Y is set. Also the actual position of the cross will be shown as a x-
respectively y-value. It is not possible to change a constant X into a
constant Y label other than by removing the old and creating the new
one.
Color specifies the color of the line and the labels/intersections.
Linestyle and Width
specifies the line style and line width for the line shown. Invisible if
"Show Values'' is set to "Intersections Only''.
For constant x-values in time-overcurrent diagrams there exist additional options:
x-Value is Displays the type of current displayed. Visible only for constant x values
in time overcurrent diagrams.
Show Values The constant value can be displayed as a line, as intersections with the
curves/graphics or both. "Line Only'' shows a vertical or horizontal line
without labels for the intersections with the curves. "Line with
Intersection'' creates crosses at the intersection of the line with the
curves. For constant x values the y value is displayed at the crossing
ant the other way round. The values and their unit are colored like the
curve crossed.
Intersections Constant x values created automatically in the overcurrent plot are
displaying the short-circuit current. To get the tripping times
"Intersections'' can be set to SHC Currents. "All'' would display the
intersection of the relay curve ignoring the type of current. Visible only
for automatic constant x values showing currents in the time
overcurrent diagrams.
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Set User Defined
The button "Set user defined'' is visible for constant values created by
the short-circuit in overcurrent plots. Labels showing this button display
the short-circuit current. The labels are deleted whenever a new short-
circuit was calculated. If one wants to modify and keep the label even if
a new short-circuit was calculated the label must be changed to user
defined.
The Straight Line
There are various ways of inserting lines into a plot. With the option Straight Line ÷>...
there can be used a
Set Secant to add a line directly through the selected data point.
Through Point
defines a graphic line through the selected data point with a defined
gradient and gives back the function of the line.
User Defined
defines a line independent from the curves shown with a defined
gradient and y-offset. The function of the inserted line can also be
seen, when holding the mouse arrow over the line for 1 second. The
options of the line dialogue or similar to the options for the constant
value in section .
Curve Filter
Curves shown in the plots and diagram can be filtered using the "Curve Filter". The option
Filter... from the context sensitive menu displays the filters available to be applied to the
data read from the result object. Another way to access this function is from the "edit"
dialogue of the plot. Here the Filter... button can be pressed. The Figure 20.21 shows
the dialogue of the function.

Fig. 20.21: Defining a curve filter
The "Curve Filter'' specifies the type of filter applied to the data read from the result ob-
ject. This object is a filter applied to curves in plots. There are different filter types avail-
able. The following filter settings are available. (N=number of points in the original curve,
K=number of points in the filtered curve)
Disabled No filtering will be performed. K=N.
Average The filtered curve is the running average of the last n points. The first
n-1 points are omitted. K=N-n+1.
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Balanced Average
The filtered curve is the running average of the last (n-1)/2 points, the
current point and the next (n-1)/2 points. This filter thus looks ahead of
time. The first and last (n-1)/2 values are omitted, n must be an odd
number. K=N-n+1.
Purge Points by averaging
The filtered curve contains the averages of each block of n values.
K=N/n. This filter may be used to speed up the display of large curves.
Purge Points The filtered curve only contains every n-th value. All other values are
omitted. K=N/n. This filter may be used to speed up the display of
large curves.
Note A curve filter can only be applied at the end of the simulation or
measurement, points added during a simulation or measurement
are not filtered. The option Filter... is not available in all plots.
Border
The option Border in the context sensitive menu will insert or change the border of the
selected plot or diagram. The options available are
• Off
• Simple
• 3D
• 3D with label
The border with 3-dimensional effect and label will insert an additional label on the bot-
tom of the selected plot. This label can now be defined by double-clicking on it. Further-
more the text style can be altered by choosing the option Select Font for Border.
Export of Curve Graphic
The whole diagram or plot can also be exported for further usage in reports. Thereto first
mark the plot which is to be exported to a graphic file. Then select the option File ÷> Ex-
port...÷>... from the main menu.
There is the selection between the export into a Windows MetaFile (*.wmf) or into a Bit-
map File (*.bmp).
Export of Curve Data
The export of curve data is available for a single VI or for the variables of the entire VI
panel. Hence there are different ways to access the "ASCII Results Export" command
ComRes of curve data, described in the following paragraph. The export directly from
the result file gives the opportunity to directly export several variables at once and is de-
scribed in more detail in Section (Exporting Results).
Exporting curves of a single VI:
• Press the Export... button in the right side of the dialogue box of a virtual
instrument.
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• Right-click on the VI and select Export... from the context sensitive menu.
Exporting curves of the entire VI panel:
• Press the Export Results... button on the "Results" page of the VI panel.
• Right-click on an empty area of the VI panel and select Export Results... from the
context sensitive menu.
Note If in one plot or on one VI panel variables are shown from several
result objects, a dialogue will appear before the export command,
where you have to select one result file from the list.
This function will export the data from the displayed curve with the given time range as
ASCII text to the following programs/files:
• Output Window
• Windows Clipboard
• Measurement File (ElmFile)
• ComTrade
• Textfile
In this dialogue the individual step size can be set, the columns of the result file and the
header for the export as can be seen from Figure 20.22.
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Fig. 20.22: Command dialogue of the ASCII result export
Various VI Tools
Grid This option in the context sensitive menu displays a dialogue to turn
on/off the available grid lines. For both x- and y-axis a main grid and a
help grid can be displayed in the plots. Furthermore - depending on the
type of plot - the representation of the different ticks on the axes can
also be specified.
Autoscale X, Autoscale Y
Changes the autoscale settings of the plot. Off turns off the auto-scale
mode. On performs an auto-scale at the end of the simulation or
calculation. Online is available in simulation plots only and tests the plot
limits after each new simulation point.These settings can also be
defined in the "edit" dialogue of the x- and y-axes.
x-Scale(s), y-Scale(s)
There are two options in the x-scale or y-scale entry. Edit displays a
dialogue to modify the scale settings like minimum, maximum and
other settings. Scale Automatic calculates the minimum and maximum
of the curve and adapts the scale limits.These settings can also be
defined in the "edit" dialogue of the x- and y-axes or by double-clicking
on the corresponding axis.
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Show dx/dy Right-click on data point on a curve and select Show dx/dy from the
menu. The two lines will appear, which are connected to the tip of the
mouse pointer. A balloon window will show the x- and y-difference
between the selected data point and the point where the tip of the
mouse pointer is in the diagram. Additionally the gradient is displayed.
20.1.10 User-Defined Styles
Each VI panel, each virtual instrument and every single plot uses a style where line-
widths, fonts, brushes and other graphical settings are defined. These objects normally
use predefined styles. In PowerFactory there are six predefined styles available:
• Default - Standard English Text and Symbols
• Gr Default - Greek Symbols
• Tr Default - Turkish Symbols
• Paper
• Gr Paper
• Tr Paper
These styles can be modified for all VIs or only for single plots. For this user-defined styles
can easily be created and specified. The base for an user defined style is always the pre-
vious default style.
There are several ways to select a predefined or user-defined style or change between
the available styles.
• The easiest way is using the list-box in the toolbar by clicking and selecting one of the
available styles.
• A style can be selected from the Style ÷> Select Style ÷>... in the context sensitive
menu of the VI.
• A style is selected in the VI-Style list-box on the "Advanced'' page of the VI dialogue.
The user-defined styles are stored in the changed settings element of the active project.
Therefore each project has its own \ Changed Settings\ Styles\ UserStyle\... path and user
defined styles. Only the changed elements are stored in the project, the unchanged ones
are the ones predefined in the default style.
The "changed settings" elements can be seen in the database in Figure 20.23.

Fig. 20.23: The changed settings in the database
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Defining Styles for the VI Panel
The Style ÷> Create new Style option in the context sensitive menu of the VI panel Set-
Vipage or every plot on the panel is selected to create a new style for the actual virtual
instrument panel. Insert a name for the style to be created in the input dialogue. Then
the new style is added to the predefined styles and is automatically selected for the cur-
rent VI panel. The created style is not set automatically in other VI panels of the project.
If a user-defined style is selected for the current VI panel, the Style ÷> Edit Style option
of the context sensitive menu of the panel may be selected to open the dialogue of the
new panel style. Figure 20.24 shows the dialogue for editing the layout of the panel.

Fig. 20.24: Editing the panel style
With the settings shown in Figure 20.24, mainly the layout of the title block of the VI panel
is edited. Here the user can define
• the different font styles for the various entries of the block by clicking on the buttons
• the height and the width of the columns of the title block (see Section 10.6.6)
• the line width of the title block and of the page frame
Defining Styles for the Virtual Instruments
There is the possibility to define the x- and y-axis of the plots inside on one page. These
settings then are valid every plot on panels using this style
To change the styles, right-click on a virtual instrument on the panel and select the option
Style ÷> Edit Style in the context menu. Then a dialogue will pop up containing the set-
tings for
• all x-axis of VIs using this style
• all y-axis
• the selected object VIsplot
Double-click on the object which is to be changed. As shown in figures 20.25, the dialogue
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of the selected axis will be opened and can then be modified.

Fig. 20.25: Editing the styles of X-axis
In the dialogue the following settings of the axes can be specified for the selected style:
Axis Here the style and width of the axis itself can be changed. Also the
number of small ticks shown between the divisions can be chosen.
Text The number of characters and the digits behind the decimal point as
well as the font type and size can be specified.
Distance between Axis and Text
Arrow The representation can be altered between the normal style and a style
with an arrow at the end of the axis with a certain width and length of
its tip.
Defining Styles for Single Plots
In addition to the axes the presentation of the plot itself can be chosen by the user. These
settings can be accessed through the dialogue shown in 20.26 and then double-clicking
on the settings of the VisPlot object.
Another and simpler way to change the settings of the style is to directly select the option
Style ÷> Edit Style of clicked Element from the context sensitive menu. These are the
same dialogues shown in Figure 20.26 and can directly be accessed by right-clicking on
the
• x-axis in the plot to access the settings of the x-axis
• y-axis in the plot to access the settings of the y-axis
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• on the plot itself to access the settings plot style, i.e. the grid, legend, etc.

Fig. 20.26: Editing the settings of the plot
Figure 20.26 shows all different settings available for the plots on a VI panel. Thus one can
Grid Options to alter the width, line style and color of the main grid and the
help grid.
Legend Edit the distances from the legend to axis and between the different
legends.
Margins Set spaces between the diagram and the surroundings.
Saving Predefined Styles for Plots
If the settings of the x- and y-axis, of the plot itself as well as the size of a particular plot
shall be saved and then reused for further plots, there is the option Style ÷> Save as pre-
defined VI form the context menu of every plot or VI.
This option saves the setting of the plot and stores a new VI in the list of all VIs. Hence
if adding a plot the newly created VI can now be selected from the list by pressing the
icon and selecting the e.g. NewName (VisPlot) from the pull down list or by using
the option Create VI ÷>... from the context menu of the SetVipage to add new virtual
instruments to the VI panel. The new empty subplots appear with new defined settings
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20.2 Results, Graphs and Documentation
This section presents the set of objects, commands and tools, dedicated to the handling
and presentation of results in PowerFactory.
20.2.1 Result Objects
The result object (ElmRes, ) is used by the PowerFactory program to store tables
of results. The typical use of a result object is in writing specific variables during a tran-
sient simulation, or during a data acquisition measurement. Result objects are also used
in DPL scripts, in reliability calculations, for harmonic analysis, etc.
An example of the result object dialogue is depicted in Figure 20.27.

Fig. 20.27: The result object
The result object shows the following fields:
Name the name of the result object
Database ID its database ID and the date, when it was changed the last time
Default for its default use
Info information about the currently stored data, ie.e the time interval, step
sizes, number of variables, etc.
Trigger-Times trigger times (in case of a Triggered default use)
The information about the stored data shows
• the time interval
• the average time step
• the number of points in time
• the number of variables
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• the size of the database result-file
The Update button will recalculate these parameters and update the shown information
if necessary. The Clear Data will clear all result data.
Note Clearing the data will delete the result-file and will reset the data-
base ID. This will destroy all calculated or measured data in the re-
sult file. It will not be possible to restore the data.
The default type settings are used for two purposes:
1 Creating a new result object and setting the default type to Harmonics, for instance,
will cause the harmonics command dialogue to use this result object by default.
2 Setting the Default type to Triggered will cause the calculation module to copy and
temporarily store signals in that copied result object, every time a Trigger Event
becomes active. The Triggered default type enables the trigger time fields.
When the Protocol Output is pressed, all events that happened during the simulation,
recorded by the result object, will be written again into the output window. So one can
check what events took place during the last simulation.
The contents of a result object are determined by one or more monitor variable set (Int-
Mon) objects. These monitor objects can be edited by pressing the Contents button.
This will show the list of monitor sets currently in use by the result object.
Selecting a set of result variables, trough the use of monitor objects is necessary because
otherwise all available variables would have to be stored, which is practically impossible.
Exporting Results
The stored results for the monitored result variables can be exported by pressing the Ex-
port button in the result object. This will activate the "ASCII Results Export'' command
ComRes and will pop up the ASCII-results export dialogue, which allows for exporting to
the output window, to the windows clipboard, to a file or to other export formats.
This command is the same command for exporting curve data form a VI plot. This is de-
scribed further in Section (Export of Curve Data).
In this dialogue the individual step size can also be set, the columns of the result file and
the header for the export as can be seen from Figure 20.28.
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Fig. 20.28: Command dialogue of the ASCII result export
This function will export the data from the displayed curve with the given time range as
ASCII text to the following programs/files:
• Output Window
• Windows Clipboard
• Measurement File (ElmFile)
• ComTrade
• Textfile
The export command allows for exporting an interval of results only and to export every
n-th result. So the user may define an additional step size n for the export. Additionally a
User defined interval for the time/x-scale can be set as the minimum and maximum value
of the first recorded variable (in time domain simulations this is of course the time).
By default, all the results for all monitored variables are exported. But also a selection of
variables can be made by entering column numbers under the section Columns (Vari-
ables). The header of the exported result table can include either the variable name or its
long or short description.
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20.2.2 The Form Editor
The form editor within DIgSILENT PowerFactory is used to define text reports, from
very small result boxes, to more complex and comprehensive reports.
For a detailed technical description of the report generating language, see 20.2.3 (The
DIgSILENT Output Language).
The form editor (IntForm) will be used in most cases to change the contents of the result
boxes in the single line graphic. PowerFactory offers three ways in which to change a
result box definition:
• selecting three variables out of three predefined lists
• selecting one or more variables out of all available variables
• writing a new user defined format, using the PowerFactory output format.
Because of all these, the result boxes are used as example to introduce the nature and
use of the form editors.
As explained in Section 10.7, the result boxes may be right-clicked to select a particular
format. When this format is selected, the "Form Select'' edit dialogue pops up which
shows a reference to a form for each calculation function (load-flow, short-circuit, etc.).
Editing the reference will show the Form Editor of the current result box definition. See
Figure 20.29.

Fig. 20.29: The Form editor
This form editor has a page to change the format by selecting variables, and a page to
manually define a format. What is displayed on which page depends on the input mode
of the Form Editor, which can be change using the button Input Mode.
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Fig. 20.30: The Form editor - Selection Moder
As shown in Figure 20.30 the three modes are:
Predefined Variables
This mode lets the user select three variables from three predefined
lists of variables. This is visible in Figure 20.29 as the three listboxes at
the bottom ('Line 1,2,3').
User Selection
This mode lets the user select any amount of parameters out of all
available parameters for the selected object or class of objects. This
includes model parameters as well as calculated values.
Text editor This is the most flexible, but also the most difficult mode. In this mode,
any text and any available variable, in any color, can be entered in the
Form. The highly flexible DIgSILENT output language allows for
highly complex automatic reports. This mode also offers a fast append
of predefined lines. The From List button is used to select a variable
from the list shown in "Predefined Variables'' mode. A standard line
with that variable is appended to the form. The User defined button
acts like the input mode "User Selection'' with one important difference.
Where the "User Selection'' mode is used to redefine the complete form
text, the User defined button appends a line for each selected
variables to the existing form text.
Note To use the "Predefined Variables'' is the easiest way to select vari-
ables, if they are accessible from the pull-down list.
If not only the standard variables should be shown, but also addi-
tional ones shall be defined, the best way is to use the option "User
Selection''.
In Figure 20.29, the editor is in the default 'Predefined Variables' mode. The three listbox-
es show the names of the variables, their units and their description.
The three listboxes used for the 'Predefined Variables' mode are replaced by a Select
Variables button in the 'User Selection' mode. Pressing this button will pop up a 'Monitor
Variable Set' dialogue (IntMon) which is used to define a set of variables. The IntMon
dialogue is explained in the next section.
The example in Figure 20.29 shows that the active and reactive power at the element
Xnet have been selected as well as the loading percentage. This selection will produce
three lines of DIgSILENT output language code. This code can be viewed by selecting
the View page. The text editor in this page will be disabled, because a format is selected
in stead of typing in the codes ourselves. However, it still shows the format of our selec-
tion as:
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#.## $N,@:m:P:_LOCALBUS
#.## $N,@:m:Q:_LOCALBUS
#.## $N,@:c:loading
This example shows the basic syntax of the DIgSILENT output language:
• The '#' sign is a placeholder for generated text. In the example, each line has a
placeholder for a number with two digits after the decimal point ('#.##'). The first
'#'-sign stands for any whole number, not necessary smaller than 10.
• The '$N' marks the end of a line. A line normally contains one or more placeholders,
separated by non-'#' signs, but may also contain normal text or macro commands.
• After the '$N', the list of variable names that are used to fill in the placeholders have
to be added. Variable names must be separated with commas. Special formatting
characters, like the '@:'-sign, are used to select what is printed (i.e. the name of the
variable or its value) and how.
The mentioned example will produce an result box like
12.34
4.84
103.56
The form editor offers options for the unit or name of the selected variable. If the Unit-
show option is enabled, a second placeholder for the unit is added:
#.## # $N,@:m:P:_LOCALBUS,@:[m:P:_LOCALBUS
#.## # $N,@:m:Q:_LOCALBUS,@:[m:Q:_LOCALBUS
#.## # $N,@:c:loading,@:[c:loading
The '['-sign encodes for the unit of the variables, in stead of the value.
The same goes for the variable name, which is added as
# #.## $N,@:~m:P:_LOCALBUS,@:m:P:_LOCALBUS
# #.## $N,@:~m:Q:_LOCALBUS,@:m:Q:_LOCALBUS
# #.## $N,@:~c:loading,@:c:loading
Where the `~'-sign encodes for the variable name.With both options on, the produced
format line
# #.## # $N,@:~m:P:_LOCALBUS,@:m:P:_LOCALBUS,@:[m:P:_LOCALBUS
Will lead to the following text in the result box:
P 12.34 MW
Other often used format characters are '%', which encodes for the full variable descrip-
tion, and '&', which decodes for the short description, if available.
20.2.3 The DIgSILENT Output Language
When more than just the variable name, value and unit has to be displayed, if the use
colors is preferred, or other special formats, the DIgSILENT Output Language can be
used.
By selecting the Text Editor input mode, all entries on first page of the Form Editor dis-
appear, except for the form name, and the editor on the second page is activated (see
Figure 20.31).
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Fig. 20.31: The Form text editor
Almost all textual output that is produced in PowerFactory, is defined by a report form.
The use of report forms range from the simple and small result forms that specify the
contents of the single line result boxes to large and complex forms that are used to print
out complete system reports.
In all cases, the text in the editor field of a IntForm object specifies the report that is to
be generated. For result boxes, that text is normally created automatically in the IntForm
dialogue by selecting "Predefined Variables'', or any other set of variables, and some ex-
tra's such as the number of decimals and if an unit or name should be shown. These op-
tions will automatically create a report form. That automatic form is normally used as it
is, but it may be altered manually. This is shown in Figure 20.31, where report format is
changed such that the variable name of the loading factor is deleted and replaced by the
fixed text 'ld', because the variable name "loading'' is felt too long compared with the
names of the other two variables ("P'' and "Q''). The shown format will produce result box-
es like
P 12.34 MW
Q 4.84 Mvar
ld 103.56 %
Defining single line result boxes only asks for a basic understanding of the DIgSILENT
output language. For more complex reports, many different variables from all kinds of ob-
jects have to be printed as listings or tables. Such a report would require macro handling,
container loops, selection of parameters, headers, footers, titles, colors, etc. The DIgSI-
LENT output language offers all this, and more.
The basic syntax, which is primary used for defining result boxes is given in the following
overview.
Format string, Variable names and text Lines
A standard line consists of three parts (see Figure 20.32):
1 A format string, containing placeholders, macros and/or user defined text.
2 An 'end of line' character like '$N', '$E' or '$F'
3 Variable names, separated by commas, which are used to fill in the placeholders.
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Fig. 20.32: Basic parts of the report format
The format string is normally much longer.
Placeholders
A placeholder for strings like variable names or whole numbers is a single '#'-sign. For
real numbers, the placeholder consists of
• a single '#' for the integer part
• a point or comma
• one or more '#'-signs for the fractional part
The number of '#'-signs after the decimal point/comma defines the number of decimals.
The '#'-sign itself can be included in user-defined text by typing '\#'.
Variables, Units and Names
The variable name can be used to display the name of the variable, its value or its unit.
The possible formats are ('xxx' = name of variable):
xxx returns the value
%xxx returns the long variable name, as used in the edit dialogues
&xxx returns the short variable name, as used in the database browser
[xxx returns the unit
xxx the object dependent name of the variable (default name)
"%width.precision,xxx''
uses special formatting.
The special formatting %width.precision is explained by the following examples:
• "%.60,TITLE:sub1z'' outputs TITLE:sub1z 60 column width, left aligned.
• "@:"%1.0,s:nt'' inserts s:nt as an integer at the placeholder's position
• ""%1.3,s:nt'' writes s:nt with 3 digits precision at the placeholder's position
The centering code | may be used in front of the formatting code for centering at the
placeholder, for example "|%.60,TITLE:sub1z''.
The insertion code @ is used to switch to insert mode, for example,
|#|$N,@:loc_name
will output
|aElmSym|.
The cformat string may be used to alternatively reserve place for a value or text. A cfor-
mat of ’%10.3' will reserve 10 characters for a number with 3 decimals. The first number
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can be omitted for text: ’%.6' will reserve 6 characters for the text field. The cformat syn-
tax allows for centering text by adding the ’|'-sign to the `%'-sign:
’|%.10' will reserve 10 characters and will center the text.
Free, language dependent text can be defined by use of the format
{E|a text;G|ein Text}. This will produce 'a text' when the user has selected the English
language (see the user settings dialogue), and 'ein Text' when the language has been
chosen to be German.
Special commands for access of Elements
OBJECT(cls)
Gets Element of class cls. Used to access a variable name or unit without actually
accessing such an object. Used in header lines.
argument
cls (obligatory): The name of the class
example:
[OBJECT(StaBar):m:Skss
writes the unit of the busbar variable Skss
EDGE
Gets an arbitrary object with at least one connection, i.e. a Load, a Line, etc. Used
to access a variable name or unit without actually accessing such an object.
example:
%EDGE:m:U1:bus1
writes description of the variable U1
CUBIC(idx)
Returns the cubicle (StaCubic) at bus index idx of branch
argument:
idx: index of branch, the currently set bus index is used when idx<0
example:
CUBIC(0):e:loc_name
returns name of cubicle at busindex 0
TITLE
Gets the title that is set in the output command (ComSh or ComDocu)
example:
TITLE:e:annex
writes annex of title
VARIANT
Gets the active variant in which the current object is stored
example:
VARIANT:e:loc_name
writes the name of the variant
NET
Gets the grid in which the current object is stored
example:
NET:e:loc_name
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writes the name of the grid
CMD
Returns the last calculation command, i.e. a Short-Circuit (ComShc), Load-flow
(ComLdf),...
example:
CMD:pabs
writes the short-circuit position on the line after calculation of a short-circuit.
CASE
Returns the currently active calculation case
example:
CASE:e:loc_name
writes the name of the active calculation case
DEF
Returns the default object. The default object depends on the currently processed
output.
example:
DEF:e:loc_name
writes the name of the default object
STALNE
Returns the station if the current object is a busbar. Returns a line if the current
object is a terminal between line routes. Otherwise, nothing is returned, and the
entry will be ignored.
example:
STALNE:e:locname
writes the name of the line or station.
RES
Returns the currently active results object (ElmRes) used by simulation, harmonics
or other calculation modules
example:
RES:e:desc
writes the first line of the description of the results object
Color
A line can be set to another color by adding a '_LCOL(c)' command directly after the '$N,'
marker. This will color the whole line according to the color number c.
a black i gray
b black j light gray
c red k bordeaux
d green l dark red
e blue m dark green
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Table 20.1: Color Codes
iA single item can be colored by using the '_COLOR(Variable name; color code)'.
Advanced Syntax Elements
The advanced syntax is mainly used for writing forms for larger and more complex re-
ports. An example is a short-circuit result form, which lists all the short-circuit parameters
for all busbars and for each busbar for all connected elements.
Line Types and Page Breaks
The character '$' ends a format line. A line without this ending will be interpreted as a
normal '$N' line type. The following line type are available:
'$N' Normal line
'$H' Header on the top of each page
'$F' Footer on the bottom of each page
'$T' Title line, only appears on top of the first page
'$C' Comment line (not used for output)
'$R' Marker that make that the line will only be used when the specified
results are valid
The line type '$H', '$F' and '$T' will be treated as normal ('$N') line types when used inside
a loop command. Line type codes may be made language dependent by adding a 'E', for
English lines or a 'G' for German lines, i.e. '$HG' specifies a German header line.
A report format must at least contain one normal ($N) line.
The following commands are used for page and line controls. They can only be used di-
rectly behind the line type codes '$N', '$F' or '$H'.
_PAGEBREAK
Forces a page break after the current line
_AVAILBREAK
Enables page breaking after the current line (default)
_NOBREAK
Disables page breaking directly after the current line
_LCOL(c) Changes the color of the current line, c is the color code.
_OBJ(ClsNam)
The current line will only be used for objects from the class "ClsNam''.
_BUS(inum) The current line will only be used for objects which connect to exactly
inum nodes
_FIRST The current line will only be used when the loop index is 0 (first
passage)
f brown n light green
g cyan o marine
h magenta p dark blue
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_NFIRST The current line will only be used when the loop index is not 0 (all but
the first passages)
_IF(boolean expression)
The current line will only be written when the expression is true.
Example: _IF(m:u:bus1>0.95)
_IFNOT(boolean expression)
The current line will only be written when the expression is false.
Example: \IF(m:u:bus1<0.95)
Example:
| #.## # #.## # #.## |$R,_NOBREAK, ..
Predefined Text Macros
The following macros will produce specific names or other texts.
_DATE(c) present date: c='e' give the English format, c='g' the German one.
_TIME present time
_VERSION version number of the DIgSILENT PowerFactory software.
_BUILD build number of the DIgSILENT PowerFactory software.
_VERBUILD combines _VERSION and _BUILD
_ORDER order title, if a title has been defined previously
_CLASS class name of the object
_LINE current line number in page
_ALLLINE current line number in report
_PAGE current page number
_LOCALBUS name of the local busbar
_CALC(c) name of last performed calculation. c=1 returns a long description.
_SHORT short object name
_FSHORT short name of parent object
_CLS class name without the 'Elm', 'Sta', 'Typ', etc. part.
_ANNEX the annex number
_NGB neighborhood depth
_TEXT(E | text;G | Text)
language dependent text (E=English, G=German)
Object Iterations, Loops, Filters and Includes
To create a report that creates a table with the voltages for all busbars, command are
needed to filter the busbar objects and to create a loop that outputs a line of text for each
busbar. A loop or filter command consists of the following parts:
• the keyword "$LOOP'' or "$CLOOP''
• the filter or loop name
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• the format text
• the keyword "$END''
Example:
$LOOP,_LROUTES()
| # |,$N,loc_name
$END
This example uses the filter "_LROUTES()'', which filters line route objects (ElmLner-
oute). The format text has one line, which prints the object name.
20.2.4 The Output of Device Data
The ComDocu command ("Output of Device Data'') is used to produce an output of de-
vice data. The output can be used in reports or may help to check the entered data. Re-
ports of calculated results can be made with the ComSh command. See Chapter 20.2.5
(Output of Results) for more information.
There are two types of reports. These are either the "Short Listing'' or the detailed report.
The "Short Listing'' is not defined for all elements.
The Short Listing
The "Short Listing'' reports only the most important device data, using one line for each
single object. This allows a small but clear documentation. Like the "Output of Results''
the "Short Listing'' report uses a form to generate the output. This form can be modified
by the user. When the report form is changed, it is stored in the "Changed Settings'' object
of the active project. This does not influence the reports of other projects. The output of
objects without a defined short listing will produce warnings like:
DIgSI/wrng - Short Listing report for StoCommon is not defined.
The Detailed Report
The detailed report outputs all device data of the elements selected for output. In addi-
tion, type data can be included ("Print Type Data in Element''). Device Data is split into
the different calculation functions like "Load-Flow'' or "Short-Circuit''. The "Basic Data'' is
needed in all the different calculations. "Selected Functions'' shows a list of the functions
whose data will be output. If one wants to report the device data for all functions move
all functions from left to right. If "Selected Functions'' is empty no device data will be out-
put.
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Device Data

Fig. 20.33: Device data page
Use Selection
The set of reported elements depends on the "Use Selection'' setting. If "Use
Selection'' is checked one element or a "Set'' object must be chosen for output. If
"Use Selection'' is not checked the "Filter/Annex'' page specifies the set of elements
for the report. This page is described further down. Another way to select object
for the report is to select the objects in the "Data Manager'' or the "Single Line''
graphics and select "Documentation'' in the "Output'' entry of the context menu.
The "Output of Device Data'' command will pop up.
Annex
Each class uses it's own annex. There is either the default annex or the individual
annex. To use the default annex check "Use default Annex''. Changes of the annex
are stored in the "Changed Settings'' of the active project. The local annex is stored
in the "Output of Device Data'' command. To modify the local annex press the
"Change Annex'' button. See Section (The Annex for Documentation) for details.
Title
Most reports display a title on top of each page. The reference "Title'' defines the
contents of the header.
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Filter/Annex

Fig. 20.34: Filter/Annex page
If one wants to report elements without defining a set of objects "Use Selection'' on the
"Device Data'' page must not be checked. The objects in the list "Selected Objects'' will
be filtered out of the active projects/grids and reported. "Available Objects'' shows a list
of elements which can be add to the "Selected Objects'' list. The list in "Available Objects''
depends on the "Elements'' radio button. Elements in the left list are moved to the right
by double-clicking them. The text in the "Annex'' input field will be set as default annex
for the selected class.
The Annex for Documentation
The "Annex for Documentation'' stores the annex for the documentation of results. The
annex number and the page number for the first page are unique for each class.
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Fig. 20.35: The annex dialogue
Objects This column shows the different classes with their title.
Annex This column stores the annex number shown in the Annex field of the
report.
First Page This column defines the start page for the class in the report. The first
page number depends on the class of the first element output in your
report. The page number of its class is the page number of the first
page.
20.2.5 Output of Results
The command ComSh ("Output of Results'') is used to produce an output of calculation
results. The output can be used in reports or may help in interpreting the results, as
shown in Figure 20.36. To generate a report with input data use the ComDocu command,
see Section 20.2.4 (The Output of Device Data).
Several different reports, depending on the actual calculation, can be created. The radio
button on the upper left displays the different reports possible for the active calculation
(Figure 20.36 shows a load-flow). Some reports may be inactive, depending on the ob-
ject(s) chosen for output. In Figure 20.36, a station was selected for output. "Used For-
mat'' displays the format(s) used for the report. Some reports are a set of different
outputs. For these reports more than one form is shown. If the form is modified it will be
stored automatically in the "Changed Settings'' folder of the active project. The changed
form does not influence the reports of other projects. If "Use Selection'' is active a set of
objects (selection) or a single object must be chosen. The report is generated only for
these elements. All relevant objects are used if "Use Selection'' is not selected. The rele-
vant objects depend on the chosen report. Most reports display a title on top of each
page. The reference "Title'' defines the contents of the header.
For some reports additional settings are required. These settings depend on the chosen
report, the selected objects for output and the calculation processed before. The calcula-
tion (left top) and the used format(s) (right top) are always shown.
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Fig. 20.36: Output of results
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Chapter 21
Data Management
The basic elements of project management within the PowerFactory environment were
introduced in Chapter 4 (PowerFactory Overview). They allow the user to generate
network designs and administrate all input information and settings related to Power-
Factory calculations and analyses. The project object is much more than a simple folder
which stores all objects which comprise a power system model; it allows the user to
perform advanced management tasks such as: versioning, deriving, comparing, merging
and sharing. These advanced features simplify the work in multi-user environments while
minimizing the amount of data.
21.1 Project Versions
A Version is a snapshot of a project taken at a certain point in time. By means of versions,
the historic development of a project can be controlled (and even reverted, if required).
A version is used to save a specific state of the project. From the PowerFactory
database point of view, a version is a read-only copy of the original project (at the
moment of version creation), which is stored inside a version object (IntVersion, ).
Version objects are stored inside the original project in a folder called Versions.
The concept of versions is illustrated in Figure 21.1 (Project Versions). At time t0, the
project SIN is created, and after a time t1, certain changes have been implemented and
the owner decides to make a copy of the project in its current state by means of the
version 'V1'. After a time, t2, the project has changed with respect to 'V1', and a new
version 'V2' is created. The version control continues with time, generating versions with
a periodicity of t.
Fig. 21.1: Project Versions
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21.1.1 Creating a New Version
To create a new version of the active project:
• Right click on the active project.
• Select New --> Version from the context sensitive menu. Alternatively use the option
File --> New Version… from the main menu.
The dialogue of the new version pops up. At this point of defining a new version, the
object dialogue offers the following options:
Point in Time
Time of the version definition, to control the historic development of
the project.
Notify users of derived projects
At activation of a project, that has derived from the active project, the
user is informed that this new version is available. Afterwards updates
of the derived project can be carried out (for further information please
refer to 21.2 (Derived Projects)).
• Complete project approval for versioning required
If this option is enabled, the program checks if all the objects in the active project
have been approved ('Description' tab of each object's dialogue). If not approved
objects are found, an error message is printed and the version is not created.
• Set the desired options and press Ok.
Fig. 21.2: Creating a New Project Version
The new version is automatically stored in the Versions folder (which is automatically
created if it doesn’t yet exist).
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21.1.2 Rollback Function
The state of a project at a certain version can be recovered by means a function called
'Rollback'. If a 'Rollback' is performed, the project returns to the state it had at the
creation of a selected version (let's called it 'v'). With Rollback, all changes implemented
after 'v' (at v’s point in time) are deleted. It should be noted that all subsequent versions
(i.e. versions newer than 'v') are also removed.
To perform a 'Rollback':
• Deactivate the target project.
• Right click on the 'v' version and select Rollback to this version from the context
sensitive menu.
• "Press Ok on the confirmation message.
Note that a 'Rollback' is not allowed (not enabled in the context sensitive menu) if a
version to be deleted is the base of a derived project. A Rollback cannot be undone!
Note: A Version can only be deleted if it does not have derived projects.
21.1.3 Checking Dependencies of a Version
To check dependencies of a Version:
• Activate the project.
• Go to the Version folder inside your project.
• Right-click on the version that you want to edit/delete.
• Select the option Action -> Output derived projects
• A list of derived projects will be shown in PowerFactory’s output window.
21.1.4 Deleting a Version
To delete a Version:
• Activate the project.
• Go to the Version folder inside your project.
• Right-click on the version that you want to edit/delete.
• Select the option Action -> Delete Versions
or
• Open the edit dialog of the version.
• Use the button Delete Version to delete the version.
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21.2 Derived Projects
At certain stages of a system study, several users may wish to work on the same project.
To avoid the large amount of data duplication required to create a project copy for each
user, DIgSILENT has developed a 'virtual copy' approach called Derived Projects. From
a user’s point of view a derived project behaves like a normal copy of a project version;
however, only the differences between the original project version ('Base Project') and
the virtual copy ('Derived Project') are stored. Because the derived project is based on a
version, changes made to the base project do not affect it. Like ''normal'' projects, derived
projects can be controlled in time by means of versions, however it should be noted that
these 'derived' versions cannot be used to create further derived projects.
Note A Derived Project is a local “virtual” copy of a Version of a (base)
project (master project):

- It behaves like a "real copy" from the user's point of view.

- Internally only the data differences between the "Base Project"
and the "Derived Project" are stored in the database.

- This approach avoids the data overhead.
In a multi-user database, the data administrator may publish a "base" project in a public
area of the database. Each user can subsequently create her/his own Derived Project and
work on it like working on the original base project. Changes made by the user are stored
in the Derived Project, so that the base project remains the same for all users.
The purpose of a Derived Project is that all users work with an identical power system
model. The Derived Project always remains connected to the base project.
The concept of derived projects is illustrated in Figure 21.3; here version “Version3” of the
base project (“MasterProject”) was used to create “DerivedProject”. After “DerivedProject”
was created, two versions of it were created.
Fig. 21.3: Principle of Derived Projects
A new derived project is created using the Data Manager as follows:
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• Right-click the desired project folder in the right pane of the Data Manager where the
Derived Project is to be created.
• Select New --> Derived Project from the context-sensitive menu.
• Select the source version of the base project from the data browser that pops up. This
will likely be the last available version of a project in a public area, created by the data
administrator.
• Press OK.
Note: The base or master project has to have at least one version before
other projects can be derived from it.

You cannot derive a project from a derived project.

You can check whether a project is derived or not by opening the
Edit dialogue of the project itself.

To create a Virtual Project from a Base Project stored in another
user's account, you require at least read access (see Sharing
Projects).
Once the derived project is created, it can be used like a normal project. At a later stage,
it may be desired to update the derived project using new versions of the base, or to
update the base with your derived project. All of these features are possible, by means
of the Merge Tool, explained in Chapter 21.3 (Comparing and Merging Projects).
Fig. 21.4: Derived Projects in a multi-user database
In the Data Manager a virtual project looks like a normal project. The 'Derived Project' tab
of its dialogue has a reference to the base project and the version used.
Users are notified of changes in base project, if there is a new version of the base project
(newer than the 'used' version) which has the option Notify users of derived projects
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enabled, and the option Disable notification at activation disabled. The possibility of
updating the derived project is presented to the user upon activation of the derived
project. The newest version that can be used to update a derived project is referred to (if
available) in the Most recent version field of the dialogue. The users can compare this new
version with their own derived project and decide which changes should be included in
the derived project. For comparing and accepting or refusing individual changes, the
Merge Tool is used. For information about the Merge Tool please refer to Chapter 21.3
(Comparing and Merging Projects).
Fig. 21.5: New version of the base project in a multi-user database
Fig. 21.6: Merging the new version of the base project into the Derived Projects
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21.3 Comparing and Merging Projects
Projects can be compared and later merged by means of the Merge Tool. The Merge Tool
compares objects and parameters from a ''modified'' project (internally called Mod1) with
respect to a ''base'' project (internally called Base) and generates a report of the differ-
ences. For this two-way comparison, the changes found in Mod1 can be implemented in
the Base, provided that the user selects Mod1 as the source (Base is by default the
target). Furthermore, a comparison of three projects (one of them can be a copy of Mod1)
can be carried out in order to implement all changes in the third project (Mod2) and create
a merged version of Base and Mod1.
The ''comparing-merging'' process starts with the selection of the Base and the Mod 1
projects by means of the context sensitive menu:
• Right-click an inactive project and choose Select as Base to Compare.
• Right-click a second (also inactive) project and select Compare to "[Name of Base
Project]".
Once the projects have been selected, the dialogue of the Merge Tool command pops up
(Figure 21.7). The Base and the modified project are referred to by the Base Element and
the Modified Element 1 references. If a third project is to be included in the comparison,
the box next to Modified Element 2 must be ticked. Search for the desired Modified
Element 2 project using the icon.
In the Compare field of the command dialogue you can set the desired level of comparison
from a drop-down list. The possible settings are:
Only Chosen Object
Only the selected project objects (IntPrj) are compared, ignoring all
objects contained within the project.
Chosen and contained Objects
The selected project objects (IntPrj) are compared, as are all objects
contained within the project objects. This is normally the most
appropriate option for tracking changes and merging projects.
If the purpose of the comparison is merely the tracking of changes, the option Merge
should be disabled. If the purpose is to compare and further implement changes made in
one project into the other (i.e. to merge), this option should be enabled. If Merge is
enabled and only two projects are compared, the changes are implemented in the Base
project (the base is automatically assumed to be the 'target' for the merging process). In
the case of a 3-way comparison, a 'target' project between the 'Modified Element 1' and
the 'Modified Element 2' must be selected.
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Fig. 21.7: Merge Tool Command
Once the Merge Tool command’s options are set, the button Execute is used to start the
comparison. The comparison results are presented in a data browser window (the Merge
Tool window, Figure 21.8), which has a special toolbar to facilitate the visualization,
sorting and further merging of the compared objects.
Fig. 21.8: Merge Tool Window
In the Merge Tool window, a list of the compared objects (according to the selected
comparison level) is presented. A comparison result symbol, indicating the differences
found on each object from the list, is displayed in the columns Mod 1 (and Mod 2 in the
case of a 3-way comparison) as shown in Figure 21.8. These symbols are defined as
follows:
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• If the object exists in the 'base object' but not in the 'object to compare'.
• If the object exists in the 'object to compare' but not in the 'base object'
• If the object exists in both sets but the value of the parameters differs.
• If the object exists in both sets and has the same value for the parameters.
If the projects are to be merged (i.e. the Merge option was enabled in the command
dialogue), then the column labelled 'Assignment' is enabled in the results browser. In this
column the source of the changes which are to be implemented in the target project is
defined. All listed objects must have an 'Assignment'. If a certain change is not to be
implemented in the target; then the ''target'' project itself must be selected as the source.
In a comparison of two projects, the only available sources are the Base (which is also
the target) and Mod1. In a 3-way comparison (i.e. where a Mod2 was selected), the
possible sources are 'Base', 'Mod1' and 'Mod2'. The assignment can be made manually by
double-clicking on the corresponding cell and selecting the desired source, however this
task may be tedious in large projects. The toolbar icons can be used to automate this
process.
Once the assignment of all the objects has been performed, the projects can be merged
by pressing the Merge button. The changes are then automatically implemented in the
target project.
As previously mentioned, the objects displayed in the Merge Tool window can be sorted
and organized via the toolbar. In the attached Merge Tool Manual the functionality of each
toolbar icon and the context-sensitive menus available from the toolbar are explained.
Note: The Merge Tool can be used to compare any kind of object in
PowerFactory. The functionality and procedure to follow is simi-
lar to that explained in this section for project comparison and
merging.
21.4 Project Baselining
Baselining is a process which is based on the compare-and-merge functionality, used to
update derived projects according to newer versions of their base, or to update base
projects from derived ones.
If the option Disable notification at activation is disabled in the Derived Project tab of the
project dialogue, and newer versions of the base project have been created (with the
option Notify users of derived projects enabled), at activation of the derived project, the
user is notified of the newer version. The options offered in the notification dialogue are:
Merge new version with my modifications and
The program automatically generates a temporary copy of the derived
project and executes a 3-way comparison with the new version (as the
Base), the derived project (as Mod1) and the temporary copy (as Mod2
and target). In the case of a conflict, one of the following actions will
be taken:
favor none: The Merge Tool browser is displayed, and the user can
then resolve the conflict(s) by defining how the changes should be
assigned.
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favor mine: Conflicts are resolved automatically by favoring the user’s
modifications, thereby discarding modifications in the Base.
favor version: Conflicts are resolved automatically by favoring the
Base’s modifications, thereby discarding the user’s modifications.
Get new version and discard my modifications
The derived project is automatically replaced by the new version. All
user modifications will be lost.
Merge manually
Use the Merge Tool to merge the modifications manually. The results of
the comparison are displayed in a Merge Tool browser, where the user
defines how the changes should be assigned. After these assignments
have been defined, the new version and the derived project are merged
to the temporary copy, when the user clicks on the 'Merge' button. The
derived project is then automatically replaced by the temporary copy
(now containing information from the new version), which is deleted.
Notify me again in...
The user enters the desired time for re-notification, and the derived
project is activated according to how it was left in the previous session.
The notification is deactivated for the indicated number of days.
If the Cancel button is used, the project is activated as it was left the previous session.
The notification will appear following the next activation.
Derived projects can be merged directly from their base (without considering new
versions) using the option Merge from base which is available in the project context-
sensitive menu. The merging principle is similar to that described above, with the Merge
Tool configured accordingly. This feature is only possible with deactivated projects.
Changes implemented in derived projects can also be merged to the base project. In this
case, the option Merge to base project must be selected from the context-sensitive menu
available by right-clicking on the derived project. As in the previous cases, the Merge Tool
is started accordingly.
Note: The button 'Info' from the Merge Tool browser can be used to dis-
play the name and path of the current Base project, Mod1, Mod2
and target.
21.5 Sharing Projects
In PowerFactory, any project may be shared with other users according to the rules
defined by its owner. Projects are shared to groups of users and not directly to individuals;
therefore users must be part of a group (created and managed by the database Admin-
istrator) in order to access shared projects.
Depending on the access level that the owner assigns to a group, other users can:
• Have read-only access to the shared project, which allows the copying of objects and
the creation of derived projects;
• Have read-write access;
• Full access.
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21 - 11
To share a project:
• Open the project dialogue and go to the Sharing tab;
• Right-click on the right side of the Sharing information table to insert (or append) a
row;
• Double-click the Groups cell of the new line and select the group with whom the
project is shared, using the data browser;
• Double-click on the Sharing access level to select the desired access level.
A shared project is marked with the symbol in the Data Manager.
For information regarding users groups and the database administrator, please refer to
Section 5.3 (User Accounts and User Groups).
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21 - 12
DIgSILENT PowerFactory
Power System Analysis Functions


DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 1
Chapter 22
Load Flow Analysis
Load flow calculations are used to analyze power systems under steady-state and non-
faulted (short-circuit-free) conditions. The load flow calculates the active and reactive
power flows for all branches, and the voltage magnitude and phase for all nodes.
The main areas for the application of load flow calculations are:
• Calculation of branch loadings, system losses and voltage profiles for system planning
and operation (normal and abnormal conditions).
• Contingency analysis, network security assessment (abnormal conditions).
• Optimization tasks, i.e. minimizing system losses, minimizing generation costs, open
tie optimization in distributed networks, etc. (normal or abnormal conditions).
• Verification of system conditions during reliability calculations.
• Automatic determination of optimal system resupplying strategies.
• Optimization of load-shedding (abnormal conditions).
• Calculation of steady-state initial conditions for stability simulations or short-circuit
calculations using the complete superposition method (usually normal conditions).
A distinction should be made regarding the simulation of ''normal'' and ''abnormal'' system
conditions. This distinction affects the modelling of the system. Under normal operating
conditions the generator dispatches as well as the loads are known, and it is therefore
sufficient for the load flow calculation to represent these generator dispatches and to
provide the active and reactive power of all loads. The results of the load flow calculation
should represent a system condition in which none of the branch or generator limits are
exceeded.
The representation of abnormal conditions requires a higher degree of accuracy from the
models. Here it can no longer be assumed that the entire system is operating within limits.
The models must be able to correctly simulate conditions which deviate from the normal
operating point. Hence the reactive power limits of generators or the voltage dependency
of loads must be modelled. Additionally, in many applications, the active power balance
cannot be established with a single slack bus (or machine). Instead, a more realistic
representation of the active and reactive power control mechanisms have to be
considered to determine the correct sharing of the active and reactive power generation.
Besides the considerations regarding abnormal conditions presented above, the
assumption of balanced systems may be inappropriate for certain distribution networks.
State of the art computational tools for power systems analysis must be able to represent
unbalanced networks for load flow calculations.
The calculation methods and the options provided by PowerFactory’s load flow analysis
function allow the accurate representation of any combination of meshed 1-, 2-, and 3-
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22 - 2
phase AC and/or DC systems. The load flow tool accurately represents unbalanced loads,
generation, grids with variable neutral potentials, HVDC systems, DC loads, adjustable
speed drives, SVSs, and FACTS devices, etc., for all AC and DC voltage levels. With a more
realistic representation of the active and reactive power balance mechanisms, the tradi-
tional requirement of a slack generator is left optional to the user.
For very fast and reliable analysis of complex transmission networks, where only the flow
of active power through the branches is considered, PowerFactory offers an additional
load flow method, namely DC load flow, which determines the active power flows and the
voltage angles within the network.
The following sections introduce the calculation methods and the options provided with
PowerFactory’s load flow tool. This information is a guide to the configuration of the
PowerFactory load flow analysis command ( ).
22.1 Technical Background
This section presents the general aspects of the implementation of PowerFactory’s load
flow calculation tool. An understanding of the concepts introduced here should be suffi-
cient background to manage the options presented in the load flow analysis command
dialogue. Further technical details about the models implemented in PowerFactory for
load flow calculations are provided in the Technical References of the corresponding
network components.
22.1.1 Network Representation and Calculation Methods
A load flow calculation determines the voltage magnitude (V) and the voltage angle (0)
of the nodes, and the active (P) and reactive (Q) power flow on branches. Usually, the
network nodes are represented by specifying two of these four quantities. Depending on
the quantities specified, nodes can be classified as:
• PV nodes: constant active power and voltage magnitude are specified. This type of
node is used to represent generators whose active power and voltage magnitude are
controlled, and synchronous condensers. In order to consider equipment limits under
abnormal conditions (as mentioned in the previous section), reactive power limits for
the corresponding network components are also used as input information.
• PQ nodes: active and reactive power are specified. This type of node is used to
represent loads and generators with fixed dispatch. Loads can also be set to change
(from their original Po and Qo values at nominal voltage) as a function of the voltage
of the node to which the load itself is connected.
• Slack bus: voltage magnitude and angle are fixed. In traditional load flow
calculations the slack node (associated with a synchronous generator or an external
network) carries out the balancing of power in the system.
• Device nodes: special nodes used to represent devices such as HVDC converters,
SVSs, etc., with specific control conditions (for example the control of active power
flow at a certain MW threshold in a HVDC converter, or the control of the voltage of a
busbar by an SVS).
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22 - 3
Note: In traditional load flow calculations, asynchronous machines are
represented by PQ nodes, assuming that the machine operates at
a certain power factor, independent of the busbar voltage. Besides
this traditional representation, PowerFactory offers a more accu-
rate "slip iteration" (AS) representation based on the model equiv-
alent circuit diagrams. For further information please refer to the
corresponding Technical Reference.
In contrast to other power system calculation programs, PowerFactory does not directly
define the node characteristic of each busbar. Instead, more realistic control conditions
for the network elements connected to these nodes are defined (see the Load Flow tab
of each element’s dialogue). For example, synchronous machines are modelled by
defining one of the following control characteristics:
• Controlled power factor (cos(0)), constant active and reactive power (PQ);
• Constant voltage, constant active power (PV) on the connected bus;
• Secondary (frequency) controller ('slack', SL).
It is also important to note that in PowerFactory the active and reactive power balance
of the analyzed networks is not only possible through a slack generator (or external
network). The load flow calculation tool allows the definition of more realistic mechanisms
to control both active and reactive power. For further information please refer to Section
22.1.2.
AC Load Flow
In PowerFactory the nodal equations used to represent the analyzed networks are
implemented using two different formulations:
• Newton-Raphson (Current Equations)
• Newton-Raphson (Power Equations, classical)
In both formulations, the resulting non-linear equation systems must be solved by an
iterative method. PowerFactory uses the Newton-Raphson method as its non-linear
equation solver. The selection of the method used to formulate the nodal equations is
user-defined, and should be selected based on the type of network to be calculated. For
large transmission systems, especially when heavily loaded, the standard Newton-
Raphson algorithm using the “Power Equations” formulation usually converges best.
Distribution systems, especially unbalanced distribution systems, usually converge better
using the "Current Equations" formulation.
In addition to the Newton-Raphson iterations, which solve the network nodal equations,
PowerFactory applies an outer loop when the control characteristic of automatic trans-
former tap changers and/or switchable shunts is considered. Once the Newton-Raphson
iterations converge to a solution within the defined tolerance (without considering the
setpoint values of load flow quantities defined in the control characteristic of the tap
changers/switchable shunts (see Figure 22.1)), the outer loop is applied in order to reach
these target values. The actions taken by the outer iterative loop are:
• Increasing/decreasing discrete taps;
• Increasing/decreasing switchable shunts; and
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 4
• Limiting/releasing synchronous machines to/from max/min reactive power limits.
Once the above-listed actions are taken, a new Newton-Raphson load flow iteration takes
place in order to determine the new network operating point.
Fig. 22.1: Setting of the Control Mode for an Automatic Tap Changer
In the classical load flow calculation approach, the unbalances between phases are
neglected. For the analysis of transmission networks this assumption is generally admis-
sible. In distribution networks this assumption may be inappropriate depending on the
characteristics of the network. PowerFactory allows for the calculation of both balanced
(AC Load Flow, balanced positive sequence) and unbalanced (AC Load Flow Unbalanced,
3-phase (ABC)) load flows according to the descriptions above.
DC Load Flow
In addition to the ''AC'' load flow calculations presented in this section, PowerFactory
offers a so-called ''DC'' load flow calculation method (applied to AC systems), for fast
analyses of complex transmission networks where only the flow of active power through
branches is considered. In this case the non-linear system resulting from the nodal
equations is simplified due to the dominant relation that exists between voltage angle and
active power flow in high voltage networks. A set of linear equations is thereby obtained,
where the voltage angles of the buses are directly related to the active power flow
through the reactances of the individual components. The DC load flow does not require
an iterative process and the calculation speed is therefore considerably increased. Only
active power flow without losses is considered.
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22 - 5
22.1.2 Active and Reactive Power Control
Besides the traditional approach of using a slack generator to establish the power balance
within the system, PowerFactory’s load flow calculation tool provides other active power
balancing mechanisms which more closely represent the reality of transmission networks
(see selection in the Active Power Control tab of the load flow command). These mecha-
nisms are implemented in the steady-state according to the control processes that follow
the loss of large power stations:
• According to Secondary Control: If an unbalance occurs between the scheduled
active power values of each generation unit and the loads plus losses, primary control
will adapt (increase/decrease) the active power production of each unit, leading to an
over- or under-frequency situation. The secondary frequency control will then bring
the frequency back to its nominal value, re-establishing cost-efficient generation
delivered by each unit. Secondary control is represented in PowerFactory’s load flow
calculations by network components called 'Power Frequency Controllers'
(ElmSecctrl). If the Active Power Control option According to Secondary Control is
selected, the generators considered by the Power Frequency Controllers establish the
active power balance according to their assigned participation factors (for further
information, please refer to the corresponding Technical Reference).
• According to Primary Control: Shortly following a disturbance, the governors of
the units participating in primary control will increase/decrease their turbine power
and drive the frequency close to its nominal value. The change in the generator power
is proportional to the frequency deviation and is divided among participating units
according to the gain (Kpf) of their primary controllers. If the Active Power Control
option According to Primary Control is selected in PowerFactory’s load flow
command, the power balance is established by all generators having a primary
controller gain (parameter Prim. Frequency Bias from the Load Flow tab of the
synchronous generator), according to the corresponding frequency droop.
• According to Inertias: Immediately following a disturbance, the missing/excess
power is delivered from the kinetic energy stored in the rotating mass of the turbines.
This leads to a deceleration/acceleration and thus to a decrease/increase in the
system frequency. The contribution of each individual generator towards the total
additional power required is proportional to its inertia. If the Active Power Control
option According to Inertias is selected in PowerFactory’s load flow command, the
power balance is established by all generators. Individual contributions to the balance
are proportional to the inertia/acceleration time constant of each generator (defined
on the RMS-Simulation tab of the synchronous generator type’s dialogue).
The reactive power reserves of synchronous generators in transmission networks are used
to control the voltages at specific nodes in the system and/or to control the reactive power
exchange with neighboring network zones. In PowerFactory’s load flow calculation, the
voltage regulator of the generators has a voltage setpoint which can be set manually
(defining a PV characteristic as introduced in Section 22.1.1), or from an Automatic
Station Controller (ElmStactrl). This Automatic Station Controller combines several
sources of reactive power to control the voltage at a given bus. In this case the relative
contribution of each reactive power source (i.e. generators, SVSs) is defined in the Station
Controller dialogue. For further details about the use and definition of Automatic Station
Controllers please refer to Appendix C.27 (Station Controller (ElmStactrl)).
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22 - 6
22.1.3 Load Flow Analysis of Low Voltage Systems
In a low voltage system every load may consist of a fixed component with a deterministic
amount of power demand plus a variable component comprising many different, small
loads, such as lights, refrigerators, televisions, etc., whose power varies stochastically
between zero and a maximum value. Under such conditions, PowerFactory uses a
probabilistic load flow calculation, which is able to calculate both maximum and average
currents as well as the average losses and maximum voltage drops. The probabilistic load
flow calculation used by PowerFactory can be applied to any system topology, including
meshed low-voltage systems.
PowerFactory’s probabilistic load flow calculation uses low voltage loads comprised of
several customers with fixed and variable (stochastic) demand components. The
maximum value of the variable component (which is dependent upon the number of
customers, n) is described by the following formula:
Where Smax is the maximum variable load per connection (customer) and the function
g(n) describes the maximum coincidence of loads, dependent upon the number of
connections, n. If a Gaussian distribution is assumed, the coincidence function is:
The average value of the variable component is:

Note: Low voltage loads can be represented in PowerFactory by Low
Voltage Load (ElmLodlv) elements which can be directly connect-
ed to terminals or by Partial Low Voltage Loads (ElmLodlvp)
which are defined along transmission lines/cables (see the Defini-
tion of Line Loads section on the Load Flow tab of transmission
line/cable elements - ElmLne).
22.2 Executing Load Flow Calculations
A load flow calculation may be initiated by:
• Pressing the icon on the main toolbar;
• Selecting the Calculation ÷> Load Flow ... option from the main menu.
An example of the load flow command dialogue is shown in Figure 22.2.
S
max
n ( ) n g n ( ) S
max
× × =
g n ( ) g
·
1 g
·

n
--------------- + =
S
av
g
·
S
max
× =
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 7

Fig. 22.2: Load Flow Command (ComLdf) Dialogue
The following pages explain the load flow command options. Following this, some hints
are given regarding what to do if your load flow cannot be solved.
22.3 Load Flow Calculation Options
This section describes PowerFactory’s load flow calculation command (ComLdf).
Further technical background regarding the options presented here is given in Section
22.1.
22.3.1 Basic Options
Calculation Method
AC Load Flow, balanced, positive sequence
Performs load flow calculations for a single-phase, positive sequence
network representation, valid for balanced symmetrical networks. A
balanced representation of unbalanced objects is used (for further
details please refer to Section 22.1.1).
AC Load Flow, unbalanced, 3 Phase (ABC)
Performs load flow calculations for a multi-phase network
representation. It can be used for analyzing unbalances of 3-phase
systems, e.g. introduced by unbalanced loads or non-transposed lines,
or for analyzing all kinds of unbalanced system technologies, such as
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22 - 8
single-phase- or two-phase systems (with or without neutral return).
For further details please refer to Section 22.1.1.
DC Load Flow (linear)
Performs a DC load flow based on a set of linear equations, where the
voltage angles of the buses are strongly related to the active power
flow through the reactances of the individual components (for further
details please refer to Section 22.1.1).
Reactive Power Control
This option is available only for AC load flow calculations.
Automatic Tap Adjust of Transformers
Adjusts the taps of all transformers which have the option Automatic
Tap Changing enabled on the Load Flow tab of their element dialogues.
The tap adjustment is carried out according to the control settings
defined in the transformer element's dialogue (for further information
please refer to the corresponding Technical Reference).
Automatic Shunt Adjustment
Adjusts the steps of all switchable shunts that have the option
Switchable enabled on the Load Flow tab of the shunt’s element
dialogue (for further information please refer to corresponding
Technical Reference).
Consider Reactive Power Limits
Considers the reactive power limits defined by generators and SVSs. If
the load flow cannot be solved without exceeding the specified limits, a
convergence error is generated. If this option is not enabled,
PowerFactory will print a warning message if any of the specified
limits are exceeded.
Consider Reactive Power Limits Scaling Factor
This option is only available if Consider Reactive Power Limits is
enabled. If selected, the reactive power limits of generators are scaled
by the relaxation factors: Scaling factor (min) and Scaling factor (max)
which are set on the Load Flow tab of the generator element's
dialogue. Note that the reactive power limits of generators are also
defined on the Load Flow tab of the generator element's dialogue by
one of the following: maximum/minimum values, 7.5.4, or according to
the generator’s assigned type.
Load Options
Consider Voltage Dependency of Loads
The voltage dependency of loads with defined voltage dependency
factors (Load Flow tab of the general- and complex load types) will be
considered.
Feeder Load Scaling
Scales loads with the option Adjusted by Feeder Load Scaling enabled
on the Load Flow tab of their element dialogue by the Scaling Factor
specified in the Load Scaling section of the feeder element (for
information about feeder elements please refer to Section 7.3.3
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(Network Data)). In this case, the Scaling Factor specified on the Load
Flow tab of load element dialogue is disregarded.
Consider Coincidence of Low-Voltage Loads
Calculates a 'low voltage load flow' as described in Sections 22.1.3 and
22.3.6, where load coincidence factors are considered (for C.13 and
C.14 objects), so as to produce maximum branch currents and
maximum voltage drops. Since coincidence factors are used, the result
of low voltage analysis will not obey Kirchhoff's current law.
After the load flow has been successfully executed, maximum currents
(Imax), maximum voltage drops (dumax) and minimum voltages
(umin, Umin) are displayed in every branch element and at every
busbar. The usual currents and voltages represent here average values
of voltages and currents. Losses are calculated based on average
values, and maximum circuit loading is calculated using maximum
currents.
Scaling Factor for Night Storage Heaters
This is the factor by which the night storage heater power (as found in
Low Voltage Load elements) is multiplied for all low voltage loads.
22.3.2 Active Power Control
Active Power Control
As explained in Section 22.1.2, PowerFactory’s load flow calculation offers several
options for maintaining power balance within the system under analysis. These options
are:
as Dispatched:
If this option is selected and no busbar is assigned to the Reference
Busbar (Reference Bus and Balancing section of the Active Power
Control tab), the total power balance is established by one reference
generator/external grid ("slack"-generator). The slack generator can be
directly defined by the user on the Load Flow tab of the target element.
The program automatically sets a slack if one has not been already
defined by the user.
according to Secondary Control:
Power balance is established by all generators which are considered by
a "Secondary Controller" as explained in Section 22.1.2. Active power
contribution is according to the secondary controller participation
factors.
according to Primary Control:
Power balance is established by all generators having a Kpf-setting
defined (on the Load Flow tab of a synchronous machine element
dialogue), as explained in Section 22.1.2. Active power contribution is
according to the droop of every generator.
according to Inertias:
Power balance is established by all generators, and the contribution of
each is according to the inertia (acceleration time constant) as
explained in Section 22.3.2.
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Consider Active Power Limits:
Active power limits for generators (as defined on the element’s Load
Flow tab) participating in active power balance, will be applied. If this
option is disabled, the active power output limits may be violated, in
which case a warning is issued. This option is not available when the
Active Power Control option is set to either as Dispatched or according
to Inertias.
Reference Bus and Balancing
If as Dispatched is selected in the Active Power Control section of the tab, further options
regarding the location of the reference busbar and the power balancing method are
available:
Reference Busbar:
A different busbar to the one connecting the slack machine (or
network) can be selected as a reference for the voltage angle. In this
case the user must specify the value of the voltage angle at this
selected reference bus, which will be remotely controlled by the
assigned slack machine (or network).
Angle:
User-defined voltage angle for the selected reference busbar. The value
will be remotely controlled by the slack machine (external network).
Only available if a Reference Busbar has been selected.
P-balancing:
If a Reference Busbar is specified, the load (ElmLod), generator or
static generator (ElmGenstat) connected to the reference busbar will
be selected for balancing active power. Otherwise the "Reference
Machine" will be used.
22.3.3 Advanced Options
Load Flow Method
As explained in Section 22.1.1, the nodal equations used to represent the analyzed
networks are implemented using two different formulations:
• Newton-Raphson (Current Equations)
• Newton-Raphson (Power Equations, classical)
In both formulations, the resulting non-linear equation systems must be solved using an
iterative method. PowerFactory uses the Newton-Raphson method as its non-linear
equation solver. The selection of the method used to formulate the nodal equations is
user-defined, and should be selected based on the type of network to be calculated. For
large transmission systems, especially when heavily loaded, the classical Newton-
Raphson algorithm using the Power Equations formulation usually converges best. Distri-
bution systems, especially unbalanced distribution systems, usually converge better using
the Current Equations formulation.
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Load Flow Initialisation
No Topology Rebuild
Will speed up large sets of consecutive load flow calculations. Enabling
this option means that the topology of the system will not be rebuilt
when calculating the next load flow. If no topological changes will be
made to the system between these consecutive load flow calculations,
then this option may be enabled.
No Initialisation (no flat-start)
Initializes a load flow from a previously convergent solution (no flat-
start).
Consideration of transformer winding ratio
Sets the manner in which voltage initialisation takes place at nodes.
Reducing the relaxation factor results in an increased number of
iterations, but yields greater numerical robustness.
Tap Adjustment
Method
The direct method will include the tap controller models in the load flow
calculation (i.e. in the internal loop involving the Newton-Raphson
iterations). The new tap positions will then be calculated directly as a
variable and are therefore known following a single load flow
calculation.
The stepped method will calculate a load flow with fixed tap positions,
after which the required tap changes are calculated from the observed
voltage deviations and the tap controller time constants. The load flow
calculation is then repeated with the new tap positions, until no further
changes are required. These tap adjustments take place in the outer
loop of the calculation.
Min. Controller Relaxation Factor
The tap controller time constants are used in the automatic tap
changer calculations to determine the relative speed of the various tap
controllers during the load flow iterations. The relaxation factor can be
used to slow down the overall controller speeds (in case of
convergence problems, set a factor of less than 1.0), or to speed them
up (for a faster load flow, set a factor of greater than 1.0).
Station Controller
Available on the second page ( ) of the Advanced Options tab. The options presented
in this field determine the reactive power flow from generators participating in station
controllers (ElmStactrl). Please refer to Appendix C.27 (Station Controller (ElmStactrl))
for information on station controllers and their control modes.
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Modeling Method of Towers
with in/output signals
The equations of the lines are modelled in the tower. It should be noted
that selecting this option will result in slower performance.
ignore couplings
Inter-circuit couplings are ignored.
equations in lines
The constant impedance and admittance matrices are calculated by the
tower and used to develop the equations of the lines. The equations
involving coupling are modeled in the lines; consequently, using this
option results in faster performance than using option with in/output
signals.
Use this load flow for initialization of OPF
The results of this load flow calculation are used to initialize the OPF calculation.
22.3.4 Iteration Control
The options on this tab relate to the non-linear equation solver and are therefore only
available for PowerFactory’s AC load flow calculation methods.
Max. Number of Iterations for
The load flow calculation comprises an inner loop involving the Newton-Raphson method
(see Section 22.1.1), and an outer loop to determine changes to tap settings and to
consider generator reactive power limits. Default values for the maximum number of
iterations for these two loops are 25 iterations for the inner loop, and 20 iterations for the
outer loop.
Newton-Raphson Iteration - itrlx
The inner loop of the load flow involves the Newton-Raphson iterations.
This parameter defines the maximum number of iterations (typically
25).
Outer Loop - ictrlx
The outer loop of the load flow calculation will determine changes to
the tap changer (depending on the tap adjustment method selected),
and considers reactive power limits of generators, etc. These are
adjusted in the outer loop and then a new iteration of the inner loop is
started again (see Section 22.1.1). The maximum number of outer loop
iterations (typically 20) is set by this parameter.
Number of Steps - nsteps
Problematic load flows with slow convergence may be improved by
starting a load flow calculation for a low load level, and then increasing
the load level in a number of steps. This is achieved by setting the
Number of Stairs to a value greater than one. For example, nsteps =3
begins a load flow at a load/generation level of 1/3 and the increases
the power to 100% over two further steps.
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Max. Acceptable Load Flow Error for
A higher precision or a faster calculation can be obtained by changing the maximum
allowable error (i.e. tolerance). The values of the calculated absolute error for nodes, or
the calculated relative errors in the model equations, e.g. voltage error of voltage
controlled generators, are specified here.
Nodes - errlf Maximum Iteration Error of Nodal Equations (typical value: 1 kVA).
Model Equations - erreq Maximum Error of Model Equations (typical value: 0.1%).
Convergence Options
Relaxation Factor
A Newton-Raphson relaxation factor smaller than 1.0 will slow down
the convergence speed of the load flow calculation, but may result in
an increased likelihood of convergence for systems which are otherwise
difficult to solve.
Automatic Model Adaptation for Convergency
The PowerFactory load flow calculation will always first try to find a
solution using non-linear mathematical power system models. If a
solution cannot be found, and this option is enabled, an adaptive
algorithm will change these models slightly to make them more linear,
until a solution is found. Any model adaptations are reported in the
output window.
22.3.5 Outputs
Show Verification Report
Produces a table in the output window with a list of overloaded power
system elements and voltage violations, according to the values
specified in the Check Devices section of the Outputs tab.
Show Convergence Progress Report
Will print detailed reports throughout the load flow calculation, which
may be used to solve convergence problems.
Show 'Outer Loop' messages
Will print reports concerning the outer loop iterations, which may be
used to solve convergence problems.
Calculate Power at Risk
Calculates the SPAR (System Power At Risk) parameter, which is shown
in the 'Total System Summary Report'. The SPAR equals the minimum
amount of power that will be shed in order to make the highest branch
loading equal to the Max. Loading of Edge Element (Check Devices
section). The SPAR calculation uses a linear optimization technique to
calculate the least power that may be shed in order to alleviate all
overloading. This minimum power that will be shed is called the "Power
At Risk".
Output
Displays the report format definition that will be used. The arrow
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22 - 14
button ( ) can be pressed to edit or inspect the report settings. This
option is only available if Show Verification Report is selected.
Check Devices
Max. Loading of Edge Element
Reference value of the maximum loading used by the 'Verification
Report' and by the 'SPAR' function (only available if Show Verification
Report and/or Calculate Power at Risk are selected).
Lower Limit of Allowed Voltage
Reference value for the minimum allowed voltage used by the
'Verification Report' (only available if Show Verification Report is
selected).
Higher Limit of Allowed Voltage
Reference value for the maximum allowed voltage used by the
'Verification Report' (only available if Show Verification Report is
selected).
22.3.6 Low Voltage Analysis
As explained in Sections 22.1.3 and 22.3.1, low voltage loads (ElmLodlv and ElmLodvp)
are modelled in PowerFactory with fixed and variable (stochastic) components. The
parameters which define these fixed and variable components are set in both the load
flow command dialogue (i.e. globally), and in the load types’ dialogues (i.e. locally)
according to the settings defined below.
Definition of Fixed Load per Customer
The fixed load is the non-stochastic component of the load, which is not subject to coinci-
dence factors. The active and reactive power defined in this field, multiplied by the
number of customers (defined in the load element itself), are added to the fixed load
component defined for each low voltage load (ElmLodlv and ElmLodvp). For further
information about LV loads please refer to the corresponding technical references: C.13
and C.14.
Definition of Variable Load per Customer
The variable component of low voltage loads can be globally defined using the parameters
in this section or by specifically defining LV load types for the target loads.
The Max. Power per Customer is the independent maximum kVA per customer. This value,
multiplied by the Coincidence Factor (ginf) (see Section 22.1.3), gives the "Average
Power" per customer, which is used in load flow calculations.
The 'total' maximum variable power per load is calculated using the Max. Power per
Customer, the Coincidence Factor (ginf), and the number of customers (defined in the
load element itself) as described in Section 22.1.3.
For further information about LV loads please refer to the corresponding technical refer-
ences: C.13 and C.14.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 15
Note The factors defined in the section 'Definition of Variable Load
per Customer' are used as global data for the load flow calcula-
tion. If specific LV load types are defined, the locally-defined data
in the type is used by the corresponding loads. For all other LV
loads with no type assigned, the global data from the load flow
command is used.
Voltage Drop Analysis
For the consideration of the stochastic nature of loads, PowerFactory offers two calcu-
lation methods:
• Stochastic Evaluation
• Maximum Current Estimation
The Stochastic Evaluation method is the more theoretical approach, and can also be
applied to meshed network topologies. The Maximum Current Estimation method applies
stochastic rules only for the estimation of maximum branch flows. Based on the maximum
current flow in each branch element, maximum voltage drops are calculated and added
along the feeder. Obviously, this method has its limitations in case of meshed LV networks.
22.3.7 Advanced Simulation Options
This page, as shown in Figure 22.3, is not only important for load flow but also for other
calculation functions such as transient simulation. Utilizing the options on this page can
result in improved performance; i.e. the speed of a transient simulation may improved
when protection devices are neglected in the calculation.

Fig. 22.3: Advanced Simulation Options in the ComLdf command dialogue
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 16
Consider Protection Devices
Calculates the tripping times for all modeled relays and fuses. This will
also show the load currents in the overcurrent plots and/or the
measured impedance in the R-X diagrams. Disabling this option will
speed up the calculations.
Ignore Composite Elements
Disables all controller models. The panes Models Considered and
Models Ignored are used to disable specific groups of controller
models. Model names can be moved between these panes by either
double-clicking on them or by selecting them and using the arrow
buttons. Enabling this option may result in faster convergence, or an
increased likelihood of convergence for systems which are otherwise
difficult to solve.
22.4 Troubleshooting Load Flow Calculations
In general, if a solution can be found (in other words, the network is mathematically
solvable), PowerFactory will find a solution. In some cases the user may have made an
error which will not allow a solution to be found; i.e. a large load causing a voltage drop
so large that a voltage collapse results. In a real-world power system the same problem
would be found.
When creating a network for the first time it is best to enter the data for only a small part
or 'path' of the network and solve the network by calculating a load flow. PowerFactory
has a data verification process in which certain checks are performed, such as whether a
line is connected between nodes of the same voltage; and the correct voltage orientation
of transformers, etc. Error messages regarding these issues are printed to the output
window, listing the element and its associated error. These messages are interactive and
the user may:
• Right-click ÷> Mark in Graphic to show the element on the single line graphic; or
• double-click on the description of the element (i.e. 'South Grid\MV-K6.ElmLne' in
the example below) to view the element dialogue.
In the following example the messages in the output window state that the line element
called 'MV-K6', which is found in the 'South Grid' folder, is missing type data.
DIgSI/wrng - Protection Devices are not considered.
DIgSI/err - 'South Grid\MV-K6.ElmLne':
DIgSI/err - missing type !
DIgSI/err - last command leads to error(s), see output window !
DIgSI/err - Error in load-flow data!
DIgSI/info - Load-flow calculation not executed
Once these errors have been corrected and the load flow still cannot be solved, use the
Show Verification Report and Show Convergence Progress Report options found in the
Outputs tab of the load flow dialogue (for further information on these options, see
Section 22.3.5). These will print messages to the output window and provide clues as to
where any problems may lie.
The graphic can also be colored to show low and high voltages and overloading. This will
also provide a good indication of possible problems. Look at the undervoltage nodes and
overloaded elements and investigate why they are overloaded; look at load setpoints, line
lengths and line type data (the impedances may be too high, for example).
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 17
Note There are 3 different types of messages that are printed to the out-
put window: warning, error and information messages. Only error
messages must be corrected for a load flow to solve. Take note of
the warning messages and evaluate them in terms of your system,
however these do not need to be corrected for the load flow to
solve. "Unsupplied Areas" mean that a node or branch element has
no supply (i.e. a breaker is open).
If there is still no convergence then set the option Out of Service for most of the elements
(see each elements Basic Data tab). Following this, bring these elements back into
service, one at a time, from the source element 'downwards', performing a load flow
calculation each time.
When experiencing large unbalances, such as when there are a number of single or dual
phase elements, or when using power electronics elements, select the Newton-Raphson
(Current Iteration) option on the Advanced tab of the load flow dialogue.
22.5 Load Flow Sensitivities
PowerFactory’s Load Flow Sensitivities (ComVstab) command is shown in Figure 22.4.
This command performs a voltage sensitivity analysis based on the linearization of the
system around the operational point resulting from a load flow calculation (as explained
in Section 22.5.3).
The ComVstab command is accessible by the following means:
• selecting the 'Additional Tools' icon ( ) for the toolbar (in PowerFactory’s main
icon bar) and then clicking on the ComVstab icon ( ); or
• right-clicking on a busbar/terminal or transformer and selecting Calculate --> Load
Flow Sensitivities... . In this case the command will be automatically set to calculate
the sensitivity to power injections/tap changes on the selected busbar/transformer.
The selected terminal/transformer will be automatically set in the Busbar (or
Transformer) reference.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 18
Fig. 22.4: Load Flow Sensitivities Command (ComVstab) Dialogue
22.5.1 Load Flow Sensitivities Options
The options available for the Load Flow Sensitivities command (Figure 22.4) are:
Initialization
Load Flow:
Displays which load flow command will be used to initialize the
sensitivity analysis. If no load flow calculation has been executed
before opening the Load Flow Sensitivities (ComVstab) command, or
if the calculation has been reset, the Load Flow displays the most
recently executed load flow command in the active study case.
Sensitivities
Diagonal Elements Only:
The effect of the injections of AP and AQ at each busbar are evaluated
for the busbar itself (effect on voltage magnitude ,
, and on voltage angle , for each
busbar) and the corresponding adjacent branches. In this mode, the
calculated sensitivities , , , and
in the branches (index n) always refer to derivations
cv
i
( ) cP
i
( )
cv
i
( ) cQ
i
( ) cm
i
( ) cP
i
( ) cm
i
( ) cP
i
( )
cP
n
( ) cP
i
( ) cQ
n
( ) cP
i
( ) cP
n
( ) cQ
i
( )
cQ
n
( ) cQ
i
( )
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 19
and of the adjacent buses (index i). This means that
the sensitivities are calculated for all busbars and for all branches,
according to variations in power (AP and AQ) at the directly connected
busbars.
Sensitivity to a Single Busbar:
The effect of the injections of AP and AQ at the selected busbar are
calculated for the whole network (i.e. for all buses and branches). The
target busbar can be selected using the Busbar button ( ) located at
the bottom of the dialogue. Alternatively, the target bus can be
selected in the single line graphic by right-clicking on it and selecting
Calculate --> Load Flow Sensitivities from the context-sensitive menu.
The sensitivities of all busbars and branches are calculated according to
variations in power (AP and AQ) at the selected busbar.
Sensitivity to a Single Transformer Tap Position:
This option evaluates the effect of changing the tap position of a
selected transformer in the network. The sensitivities dP/dtap [MW/tap
step], dQ/dtap [Mvar/tap step] for branches, and dphi/dtap [deg/tap
step], dv/dtap [p.u./tap step] for buses are calculated. The target
transformer can be selected using the Transformer button ( )
located at the bottom of the dialogue. Alternatively, the target
transformer can be selected in the single line graphic by right-clicking
on it and selecting Calculate -> Load Flow Sensitivities from the
context-sensitive menu.
Modal Analysis:
This option performs an eigenvalue calculation on the sensitivity matrix
as explained in Section 22.5.3. The number of eigenvalues to be
calculated is defined in the Number of Eigenvalues field at the bottom
of the dialogue. The eigenvalues are always calculated in order of their
largest magnitude, so selecting n eigenvalues will display the n
eigenvalues in descending order according to magnitude (note that the
larger the number of desired eigenvalues, the longer the calculation will
take).
In the Display Results for Mode field, the user can specify the number
of a specific eigenvalue, for which the stability behavior (i.e. the
eigenvectors and participation factors) is to be analyzed. The algorithm
then additionally calculates the , (branch
sensitivities) and the , (bus sensitivities)
which correspond to the mode specified (see Section 22.5.3 for further
technical background).
22.5.2 Load Flow Sensitivities Execution and Results
When the ComVstab command has been configured and the Execute button has been
pressed, the program calculates several sensitivity factors such as ,
, , etc., according to the selected options, for buses
and branch elements.
c cP
i
c cQ
i

cP ( ) cQ ( ) cQ ( ) cQ ( )
cv ( ) cQ ( ) c0 ( ) cQ ( )
cv
i
( ) cP
i
( )
cv
i
( ) cQ
i
( ) cm
i
( ) cP
i
( ) cm
i
( ) cQ
i
( )
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 20
Upon completion of the sensitivity factor calculation, the following message appears in
the output window:
DIgSI/info - Load Flow Sensitivities calculated!
The calculated results can be displayed via the 'Flexible Data Page' (see Section 11.5) by
selecting the sensitivities from the load flow variables (Variable Set: 'Current, Voltages and
Powers'). The names of the variables correspond to the calculated derivations, i. e. the
result of the expression is stored in the variable named dvdP; and likewise
the result of the expression is stored in the variable dphidQ.
When the Modal Analysis option is selected, the calculated eigenvalues are displayed (in
descending order according to magnitude) in the output window. The eigenvectors and
participation factors can be displayed using the 'Flexible Data Page'.
22.5.3 Technical Background
PowerFactory’s Load Flow Sensitivities function (ComVstab) performs a static voltage
stability calculation as described below.
Linearizing the load flow equations around the actual operating point leads to the
following equation system:
(22.1)
The equation system in (22.1) shows that changes in the voltage magnitude and angle
due to small changes in the active and reactive power can be directly calculated from the
load flow Jacobian matrix. For example if AP is set to 0, the sensitivities of the type dv/
dQ are calculated from (22.1) according to:
(22.2)
where:
(22.3)
As can be seen from (22.2), the variation of voltage magnitude at each busbar can be
described by a linear combination of small reactive power variations according to:
(22.4)
In this case the diagonal elements S
i1
of S represent the voltage variation at bus i due to
a variation of reactive power at the same point. The non-diagonal elements S
ij
describe
the voltage variation at busbar i due to the variation in reactive power at a different point
on the network.
Positive dv/dQ sensitivity indicates stable operation. High sensitivity means that even
small changes in reactive power cause large changes in the voltage magnitude; therefore
the more stable the system, the lower the sensitivity (high voltage sensitivities are indic-
cv
i
( ) cP
i
( )
cm
i
( ) cQ
i
( )
J
P0
J
Pv
J
Q0
J
Pv
0 c
v c
P c
Q c
=
cv J
˜
Qv
1 –
cQ S
vQ
cQ = =
J
˜
Qv
J
Q0
J
P0
1 –
J
Pv
– J
Qv
+ =
cv
i
S
i1
cQ
1
. S
in
cQ
n
+ + =
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 21
ative of weak areas of the network).
Note: Recall that in HV networks branches are predominantly reactive.
Voltage magnitudes depend primarily on reactive power flows and
voltage angles depend on active power bus injections.
The sensitivity analysis can be extended in order to determine the active and reactive
power variations on branches (in the PowerFactory network model all components
carrying a flow, i.e. lines, transformers, generators are regarded as branches) due to
variations in active and reactive power busbar injections. In this case the sensitivities are
calculated using the branch-node Jacobian matrix.
By applying a modal transformation to (22.2) the dV/dQ sensitivity can be expressed as
an uncoupled system of the form:
(22.5)
where:
(22.6)
In (22.5), is a diagonal matrix whose elements correspond to the eigenvalues of the
sensitivity matrix, SvQ, from (22.2). Therefore, the voltage variation at each mode
depends only on the reactive power variation at the same mode:
(22.7)
The eigenvalues ì
i
, which are real, provide the necessary information about the voltage
stability of the system. If ì
i
is positive, the modal voltage increase and the modal reactive
power variations are in the same direction and the system is therefore stable. The
magnitude of the eigenvalue indicates how far/close one voltage mode is to instability.
In (22.5), T= [u
1
...u
n
] corresponds to the matrix of right eigenvectors of S
vQ
, while T
-1
corresponds to the left eigenvectors matrix:
(22.8)
The participation factor of bus k to mode i is defined by the product of the k
th
component
of the left and right eigenvector of mode i:
(22.9)
The sum of the participation factors of all nodes corresponds to the scalar product of the
left and right eigenvector, and is therefore equal to one. In this sense, the participation
factor gives an indication of the extent of the influence the variation of active power on a
cv
˜
T
1 –
S
vQ
TcQ
˜
S
˜
vQ
cQ
˜
= =
v Tv
˜
and Q TQ
˜
= =
S
˜
vQ
cv
˜
i
ì
i
cQ
˜
i
=
T
1 –
e
1
T
.
.
e
n
T
=
p
ik
e
ik
u
ik
=
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Load Flow Analysis
22 - 22
node has on a voltage mode.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 1
Chapter 23
Short-Circuit Analysis
The short-circuit calculation in PowerFactory is able to simulate single faults as well as
multiple faults of almost unlimited complexity. As short-circuit calculations can be used for
a variety of purposes, PowerFactory supports different representations and calculation
methods for the analysis of short-circuit currents.
One application of short-circuit calculations is to check the ratings of network equipment
during the planning stage. In this case, the planner is interested in knowing the expected
maximum currents (for the correct sizing of components) and the minimum currents (to
design the protection scheme). Short-circuit calculations performed at the planning stage
commonly use calculation methods that require less detailed network modelling (i.e.
methods which do not require load information) and which will apply extreme-case esti-
mations. Examples of these methods include the IEC 60909/VDE 0102 method and the
ANSI method. A different field of application is the precise evaluation of the fault current
in a specific situation, i.e. to find out whether the malfunction of a protection device was
a relay failure or was the consequence of improper settings (i.e. operational error). These
are the typical applications of exact methods such as the superposition method (also
known as the ‘complete’ method), which is based on a specific network operating point.
This chapter presents the handling of the short-circuit calculation methods as implement-
ed in PowerFactory. Further background on this topic can be found in Section 23.1.
23.1 Technical Background
Apart from load-flow analysis, short-circuit analysis is the most frequently used calculation
function when dealing with electrical networks. It is used in system planning as well as
system operations (see Figure 23.1, in special cases Methods 2.1 and 2.2 are also used
for network planning). Calculation quantities which have been newly-introduced in
PowerFactory Version 14 are shown in Figure 23.1, and a graphical representation of
the short-circuit current time function is given in Figure 23.2.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 2

Fig. 23.1: Areas of Application of Short-Circuit Calculations
Fig. 23.2: Short-Circuit Current Time Function
Example applications of short-circuit analysis in system planning include:
• Ensuring that the defined short-circuit capacity of equipment is not exceeded with
system expansion and system strengthening.
• Co-ordination of protective equipment (fuses, over-current and distance relays).
• Dimensioning of earth grounding systems.
• Verification of sufficient fault level capacities at load points (e.g. uneven loads such as
arc furnaces, thyristor-driven variable speed drives or dispersed generation).
• Verification of admissible thermal limits of cables and transmission lines.
Example applications of short-circuit analysis in system operations include:
• Ensuring that short-circuit limits are not exceeded with system reconfiguration.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 3
• Determining protective relay settings as well as fuse sizing.
• Calculation of fault location for protective relays, which store fault disturbance
recordings.
• Analysis of system faults, e.g. misoperation of protection equipment.
• Analysis of possible mutual interference of parallel lines during system faults.
The fundamental difference between the assumptions used by the calculation methods is
that for system planning studies the system operating conditions are not yet known, and
therefore estimations are necessary. To this end, the method which uses an equivalent
voltage source at the fault location has become generally accepted in Western Europe ac-
cording to IEC 909 (VDE 0102). A revised version of this was published as IEC 60909 in
July 2001. This method works independently of the load flow (operating point) of a sys-
tem. It is based on the nominal and/or calculated dimensions of the operating point of a
system and uses correction factors for voltages and impedances, to give conservative re-
sults. For the calculation of minimum and maximum short-circuit currents, different cor-
rection factors are applied. However, it should be mentioned that both IEC 60909 and
VDE 0102 do not deal with single phase elements (expect single phase elements in the
neutral conductor).
For short-circuit calculations in a system operation environment, the exact network oper-
ating conditions are well-known. If the accuracy of the calculation according to IEC 60909
is not sufficient - or to verify the results of this method - the superposition method can be
used. The superposition method calculates the expected short-circuit currents in the net-
work based on the existing network operating condition. If the system models are correct,
the results from this method are always more exact than the results of the IEC 60909
method. The system analyst is, however, responsible that she/he has chosen the most
unfavorable conditions with respect to the sizing of plant. In some cases, this might result
in extensive studies required.
23.1.1 The Complete Method
The complete method (sometimes also known as the superposition method) is, in terms
of system modeling, an accurate calculation method. The fault currents of the short-circuit
are determined by overlaying a healthy load-flow condition before short-circuit inception
with a condition where all voltage supplies are set to zero and the negative operating volt-
age is connected at the fault location. The procedure is shown in Figure 23.3.
The initial point is the operating condition of the system before short-circuit inception (see
Figure 23.3a). This condition represents the excitation conditions of the generators, the
tap positions of regulated transformers and the breaker/switching status reflecting the op-
erational variation.
From these pre-fault conditions the pre-fault voltage of the faulted busbar can be calcu-
lated. For the pure fault condition the system condition is calculated for the situation
where, the negative pre-fault busbar voltage for the faulted bus is connected at the fault
location and all other sources/generators are set to zero (see Figure 23.3b).
Since network impedances are assumed to be linear, the system condition after fault in-
ception can be determined by overlaying (complex adding) both the pre-fault and pure
fault conditions (see Figure 23.3c).
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 4

Fig. 23.3: Illustration of the Complete Method
The Complete Method for calculating short-circuits has been improved in PowerFactory
Version 14 as described below. Additionally, the quantities described below are shown in
Figure 23.1.
• A more precise Peak Short-Circuit Current i
p
is calculated based on the accurate
subtransient short-circuit current (which is calculated using the complete method) and
the R/X ratio (which is based on the IEC 60909 standard);
• The Short-Circuit Breaking Current I
b
(RMS value) is calculated based on the
subtransient short-circuit current and the transient short-circuit current (both of which
are calculated by the complete method);
• The Peak Short-Circuit Breaking Current i
b
is calculated from the RMS short-circuit
breaking current I
b
and the decaying d.c. component;
• The Thermal Equivalent Short-Circuit Current I
th
is calculated based on the IEC
standard, using the m and n factors (see Figure 23.1). The n-factor calculation uses
the transient current instead of the steady-state current;
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 5
• Additionally, loads can have a contribution to the short-circuit current, which can be
defined in the load element (Fault Contribution section of Complete Short-Circuit tab).
23.1.2 The IEC 60909/VDE 0102 Method
The IEC 60909/VDE 0102 method uses an equivalent voltage source at the faulted bus
and is a simplification of the superposition method. It is illustrated in Figure 23.4.
The goal of this method is to accomplish a close-to-reality short-circuit calculation without
the need for the preceding load-flow calculation and the associated definition of actual
operating conditions. Figure 23.4 illustrates how the equivalent voltage source method
can be derived from the superposition method. The main simplifications in comparison to
the superposition method are as follows:
• Nominal conditions are assumed for the whole network, i.e. U
i
= U
n,i
.
• Load currents are neglected, i.e. I
Op
= 0.
• A simplified simulation network is used, i.e. loads are not considered in the positive
and negative sequence network.
• To ensure that the results are conservatively estimated, a correction factor, c, is
applied to the voltage at the faulted busbar. This factor differs for the calculation of
the maximum and the minimum short-circuit currents of a network.
The short-circuit calculation based on these simplifications may be insufficient for some
practical applications. Therefore, additional impedance correction factors are applied to
the physical impedances of the network elements. This method is described in detail in
the following section.
Please note in addition that both IEC 60909 and VDE 0102 do not deal with single phase
elements (expect single phase elements in the neutral conductor).
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 6

Fig. 23.4: Illustration of the IEC 60909/VDE 0102 Method
The IEC Impedance Correction Factors
The IEC method uses only the rated parameters of network elements. This is advanta-
geous in that only little information is necessary to perform a short-circuit calculation.
However, considering that, for example, the short-circuit contribution of a synchronous
generator depends heavily on the excitation voltage and on the unit transformer tap
changer position, the worst-case value of this impedance is considered by applying a cor-
rection factor (< 1).
This idea is illustrated in Figure 23.5. The correction factor c should be determined so that
I”k = I”k,IEC. The IEC standard defines an equation for the correction factor for each el-
ement type.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 7

Fig. 23.5: Principle of Impedance Correction (IEC/VDE Method)
As the IEC standard includes a worst-case estimation for minimum and maximum short-
circuit currents, some PowerFactory elements require additional data. These elements
are:
Lines
In their type, the maximum admissible conductor temperature (for
minimum short-circuit currents) must be stated. Line capacitances are
not considered in the positive/negative sequence systems, but must be
used in the zero-sequence system.
Transformers
Require a flag indicating whether they are unit or network
transformers. Network transformers may be assigned additional
information about operational limits which are used for a more precise
calculation of the impedance correction factor. Unit transformers are
treated differently depending on whether they have an on-load or a no-
load tap changer.
Synchronous Machines
Subtransient impedances are used. Additionally, information regarding
the voltage range must be given.
Asynchronous Machines
The ratio of starting current to rated current is used to determine the
short-circuit impedance.
Please refer to the IEC 60909 standard to find detailed information regarding specific
equipment models and correction factors for each element.
23.2 Executing Short-Circuit Calculations
There are different methods of initiating the short-circuit calculation command (ComShc)
in PowerFactory, which may result in a different configuration of the command. These
methods are described in Sections 23.2.1 and 23.2.2.
23.2.1 Toolbar/Main Menu Execution
The short-circuit command may be executed from the toolbar or main menu in Power-
Factory as follows:
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 8
• By pressing the icon on the main toolbar; or
• By selecting the Calculation -> Short-Circuit ... option from the main menu.
In both of these cases, the short-circuit command will be configured in an identical man-
ner. If no short-circuit command already exists in the active study case, the command will
by default execute a short-circuit calculation on all busbars/terminals in the network. If a
short-circuit calculation does already exist in the active study case, the above mentioned
means of executing the calculation will cause the calculation to execute using its most re-
cent configuration.
23.2.2 Context-Sensitive Menu Execution
The short-circuit command may be executed from the context-sensitive menu in Power-
Factory by selecting an element(s) in the single-line diagram, right-clicking and selecting
one of the following options:
• Calculate... Short-Circuit: performs a short-circuit calculation for each element
selected by the user. It should be noted that the short-circuit calculation for each
element is carried out completely independently of the short-circuit calculation for
each other element. For this calculation, only the following combinations of elements
may be selected:
- Single or multiple terminals/busbars; or
- A single line; or
- A single branch.
If several terminals/busbars are selected for analysis, the results of each individual short-
circuit calculation will be displayed together on the single-line graphic.
• Calculate... Multiple Faults: performs a short-circuit calculation according to the
complete method, for the ‘simultaneous’ short-circuit of all elements selected by the
user. Any combination of busbars, terminals, lines and branches can be selected for
this calculation. Additionally, switch/circuit breaker open/close operations can also be
included in the calculation. When this calculation is selected, the option Multiple Faults
in the (ComShc) dialogue will be automatically ticked.
23.2.3 Faults on Busbars/Terminals
The short-circuit command should first be called using one of the methods described in
Sections 23.2.1 and 23.2.2. The simplest way to calculate several busbar/terminal short-
circuits individually and to then combine the results into one diagram is to select the op-
tion All Busbars (or alternatively, Busbars and Junction/Internal Nodes) in the Fault Loca-
tion section of the Short-Circuit Calculation (ComShc) dialogue, as displayed in Figure
23.6. Note that to access this option, Multiple Faults in the dialogue must be unticked.
Fig. 23.6: Short-Circuit Calculation Command (ComShc) Dialogue: Faults at All
Busbars
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 9
If the user would instead like to select from the single-line diagram a single busbar/ter-
minal, or multi-select several busbars/terminals for calculation, the dialogue will be con-
figured as follows:
• When only a single busbar/terminal is selected, and Calculate ÷> Short-Circuit is
chosen from the context-sensitive menu, the Fault Location reference (bottom of
dialogue) is set to the selected element.
• When two or more busbars/terminals are selected and Calculate ÷> Short-Circuit is
chosen from the context-sensitive menu, the Fault Location reference (bottom of
dialogue) is set to a so-called "Selection Set'' (SetSelect) object, which contains a list
of references to the selected busbars/terminals.
In either case, various options for the calculation can be modified. Please refer to Section
23.3 for a detailed description of the options available. It should be noted that selecting
or deselecting the option Multiple Faults may change the selection of fault locations and
may therefore lead to a calculation for locations other than the busbars/terminals selected
in the single line graphic. After pressing the Execute button, the calculation is executed
and, if successful, the results are displayed in the single line graphic. In addition, a result
report is available and may be printed out.
Once a selection of fault locations is made and the short-circuit calculation is performed,
it is simple to execute further calculations based on the same selection of elements. This
can be done by the following alternative means of executing the short-circuit calculation
command:
• By pressing the icon on the main toolbar; or
• By selecting the Calculation -> Short-Circuit ... option from the main menu.
The short-circuit setup dialogue then shows the previously selected busbars/terminals in
the Fault Location section under User Selection.
23.2.4 Faults on Lines and Branches
It is not only possible to calculate short-circuits on busbars and terminals, but also on lines
and branches. It should be noted, however, that only a single line or a single branch can
be selected at a time, for each short-circuit calculation. It is not possible to select multiple
lines and/or branches for calculation. To calculate a short-circuit on one of these types of
elements, proceed as follows:
• In the single-line diagram, select a single line or a single branch where the fault
should be modeled.
• Right-click on the element and select Calculation -> Short-Circuit ... . The short-circuit
command (ComShc) dialogue opens and the user can then define the location of the
fault relative to the element’s length (see Figure 23.7), including which terminal the
fault distance should be calculated from. It should be noted that the Short-Circuit at
Branch/Line section of this tab is only available when a line or branch has been
selected for calculation.
• Clicking the button located in the Short-Circuit at Branch/Line section of the tab
will enable the user to select whether the fault location is defined as a percentage or
as an absolute value.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 10

Fig. 23.7: Configuration of Line/Branch Faults in ComShc Dialogue
When a fault on a line/branch is calculated, a box containing the calculation results is dis-
played next to the selected element.
23.2.5 Multiple Faults Calculation
Multiple faults involve the simultaneous occurrence of more than one fault condition in a
network. To calculate simultaneous multiple faults, proceed as follows:
• Select two or more elements (i.e. busbars/terminals, lines, ...) and right-click.
• Select the option Calculate -> Multiple Faults. The Short-Circuits dialogue pops up,
displaying the short-circuit event list. A 3-phase fault is assumed at all locations in the
event list. Click OK. The Short-Circuit command dialogue then pops up. In this
dialogue, the Multiple Faults option is ticked in combination with the complete short-
circuit method.
• Next, the event list has to be adapted to reflect the intended fault conditions. This is
described in detail below.
• Finally, press Execute to start the calculation.
The short-circuit event list is a special case of the general event list, which contains the
event definitions for dynamic simulations. To edit the list of events (short-circuits at se-
lected locations), please proceed as follows:
• Open the short-circuit events object using one of the following methods:
- In the Fault Location section of the short-circuit (ComShc) dialogue, press the
button next to Short-Circuits. To access the events stored within this object,
press Contents (see Figure 23.8); or
- Press the icon on the main toolbar; or
- In a Data Manager window open the IntEvshc object from the current study case,
also denoted by the icon.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 11

Fig. 23.8: Accessing the Short-Circuit Events List
• A window opens up which shows the list of events (i.e. short-circuits at the selected
locations). When double-clicking on one entry in this list (i.e. its entire row), a window
with a description of the event is opened.
• The short-circuit event settings can now be modified. The list of fault locations
consists of a "Short-Circuit Event List'' (IntEvtshc) object, which holds one or more
short-circuit events (EvtShc). Each of these events has a reference to a fault location
(a busbar/terminal, line, etc) and displays a short description of the fault type. An
example is shown in Figure 23.9.

Fig. 23.9: A Short-Circuit Event (EvtShc)
Note To re-use the event list (IntEvtshc) later, this object can be copied
to a user-defined folder in the Data Manager. This will prevent it
from being modified during future calculations. When repeating
the calculation with the same configuration, the reference in Cal-
culate -> Multiple Faults can be set to this object.
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23 - 12
23.3 Short-Circuit Calculation Options
The following sections describe the options available in PowerFactory’s short-circuit cal-
culation command. Some of these options are dependent upon the selected calculation
method, therefore separate sections dedicated to each method are presented.
23.3.1 Basic Options (All Methods)
The options presented in this section are common to all implemented calculation methods
and are used to define the general settings of the short-circuit calculation. The specific
options for each method are presented below in separate sections.

Fig. 23.10: IEC Calculation - Basic Options
An example of the short-circuit command dialogue is shown in Figure 23.10 (IEC calcula-
tion in this case). The sections of the dialogue which are common to all calculation meth-
ods are:
Method
PowerFactory provides the following calculation methods for short-circuit calculation:
• according to VDE 0102/0103 (the German VDE standard);
• according to IEC 60909 (the International IEC standard);
• according to ANSI (the American ANSI/IEEE C37 standard);
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 13
• complete (superposition method which considers the pre-fault load-flow results (see
Section 23.1.1));
• according to IEC 61363.
The specific options for each of these methods are available on the Advanced Options tab
of the short-circuit command (ComShc) dialogue.
Fault Type
The following fault types are available:
• 3-Phase Short-Circuit
• 2-Phase Short-Circuit
• Single Phase to Ground
• 2-Phase to Ground
• 1-Phase to Neutral
• 1-Phase Neutral to Ground
• 2-Phase to Neutral
• 2-Phase Neutral to Ground
• 3-Phase to Neutral
• 3-Phase Neutral to Ground
• 3-Phase Short-Circuit (unbal.)
The fault types with a neutral conductor should only be used for lines which are modeled
using neutral conductors.
Fault Impedance
The fault impedance corresponds to the reactance and the resistance of the fault itself
(i.e. the impedance of the arc or of the shortening path). This can be defined by means
of an enhanced model, where line to line (Xf(L-L), Rf(L-L)) and line to earth (Xf(L-E), Rf(L-
E)) impedances are regarded (note: requires option Enhanced Fault Impedance to be en-
abled). If the option Enhanced Fault Impedance is not enabled, fault impedances are de-
fined by their equivalent values, Xf and Rf.
Figures 23.11 to 23.13 illustrate the differences between the enhanced and the simplified
representation of fault impedances for the following fault types: (i) 3-phase short-circuits;
(ii) 2-phase faults to ground; and (iii) 2-phase faults.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 14
Fig. 23.11: Fault Impedance Definition: 3-Phase Short-Circuit
Fig. 23.12: Fault Impedance Definition: 2-Phase to Ground Fault
Fig. 23.13: Fault Impedance Definition: 2-Phase Fault
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 15
Output
A textual report is automatically written to PowerFactory’s output window when the On
option in the Output section of the dialogue is enabled. The command which generates
this report is displayed in blue text next to the Command button . The user can click
on this button to select which type of report will be printed out. Immediately below the
Command button, blue text informs the user of the currently-selected report type.
Fault Location
The fault location selection options are:
At User Selection:
In this case a reference to a single terminal/busbar/line/branch or to a
selection of busbars/terminals (SetSelect), as explained in Sections
23.2.3 and 23.2.4 must be given.
At Busbars and Junctions/Internal Nodes:
For every terminal (ElmTerm) in the network, a short-circuit
calculation is carried out, independently (i.e. one after the other).
At All Busbars:
For every terminal (ElmTerm) in the network whose Usage is set to
Busbar (see Section 7.3.2), a short-circuit calculation is carried out,
independently (i.e. one after the other).
If the option Multiple Faults has been ticked when the Complete Method is being used, a
reference to a set of fault objects (IntEvtshc), as explained in Section 23.2.5, must be
set. This is done in the Fault Location section of the dialogue; using the Short Circuits ref-
erence.
Note: Multiple faults will only be calculated for the 'Complete Method',
when the option 'Multiple Faults' is enabled. When this option is en-
abled, a short-circuit calculation is carried out for each individual
fault location, simultaneously. When this option is disabled, cases
where more than one fault location have been selected (i.e. several
busbars/terminals), a sequence of short-circuit calculations is per-
formed (i.e. each short-circuit calculation is carried out indepen-
dently of each other short-circuit calculation).
23.3.2 Verification
When enabled, the Verification option will write a loading report to the output window.
This report shows the various maximum and calculated currents for rated devices. Rated
devices include, for instance:
• Lines which have a rated short-time current in their line type which is greater than
zero; and
• Breakers or coupling switches which have a type with a valid rated current.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 16
23.3.3 Basic Options (IEC 60909/VDE 0102 Method)
The Basic Options tab of the Short-Circuit Calculation dialogue is shown in the previous
section in Figure 23.10.
In general, please note that the calculation according to IEC 60909 and VDE 0102 does
not take into account line capacitances, parallel admittances (except those of the zero-
sequence system) and non-rotating loads (e. g. ElmLod). Single phase elements are con-
sidered only if they are located in the neutral conductor.
Published
This option offers a sub-selection for the selected Method, where the version of the stan-
dard to be used can be selected according to the year in which it was issued. The most
recent standard is 2001, however 1990 is still available for the verification of documented
results.
Calculate
The drop-down list offers the choice between the minimal or maximal short-circuit cur-
rent.
Max. Voltage tolerance for LV systems
In accordance with the IEC/VDE standard, this voltage tolerance is used to define the re-
spective voltage correction factor, c. The voltage tolerance is not used when a user-de-
fined correction factor is defined.
Short-Circuit Duration
The value for the Breaker Time is used to calculate the breaking current of a circuit break-
er. The value for the Fault Clearing Time (Ith) is required for the equivalent thermal cur-
rent.
Note: The fields 'Method', 'Fault Type', 'Fault Impedance', 'Output' and
'Fault Location' are described in Section 23.3.1.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 17
23.3.4 Advanced Options (IEC 60909/VDE 0102 Method)

Fig. 23.14: IEC calculation - Advanced Options
Generally, the Advanced Options tab (shown in Figure 23.14) is used for settings to tune
the various short-circuit calculation methods. Familiarization with the IEC/VDE standard
before modifying these options is strongly recommended.
Grid Identification
The calculation of the factor kappa is different in the cases of meshed or radial feeding of
the short-circuit. Normally PowerFactory will automatically find the appropriate setting.
The option Always meshed will force a meshed grid approach.
c-Voltage Factor
The standard defines the c-voltage factor to be used for the different voltage levels. In
special cases the user may want to define the correction factor. In this case, activate the
box User-Defined, then a specific c-factor can be entered.
Asynchronous Motors
Whether the calculation considers the influence of asynchronous motors on short-circuit
currents depends on this setting, which may be Always Considered, Automatic Neglection,
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 18
or Confirmation of Neglection.
Conductor Temperature
When activating the User-Defined option, the initial (pre-fault) conductor temperature can
be set manually. This will influence the calculated maximum temperature of the conduc-
tors, as caused by the short-circuit currents.
Decaying Aperiodic Component
Allows for the calculation of the DC current component, for which the decay time must be
given. According to the IEC/IEC standard, methods B, C and C' can be selected.
The following nomenclature is used:
T
b
Breaker Time (see Short-Circuit command)
f
n
Nominal frequency
I
k
" Initial short-circuit current
Method B: Uses the complex calculated equivalent impedance of the network
with a security factor of 1.15:
Method C: Uses the R/X ratio calculated with the equivalent frequency method.
The equivalent frequency is dependent on the breaking time (see Table
23.1). This method is recommended for maximum accuracy.
Table 23.1: Breaking Times

The ratio Rc/Xc is the equivalent impedance calculated at the frequency
given by:
f
n
* T
b
< 1 < 2.5 <5 < 12.5
f
c
/ f
n
0.27 0.15 0.092 0.055
i
DC
2 Iª
k
e
e – T
b
R
X
---- · ·
· · =
i
DC
2 Iª
k
e
e – T
b
R
f
X
f
----- · ·
· · =
R
f
X
f
------
R
c
X
c
------
f
c
f
nom
----------- · =
f
c
f
c
f
nom
----------- f
nom
· =
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 19
Method C': Uses the R/X ratio as for the peak short-circuit current, thus selecting
the ratio f
c
/f
n
= 0.4. This option speeds up the calculation, as no
additional equivalent impedance needs to be calculated.
Peak Short-Circuit Current (Meshed network)
In accordance with the IEC/VDE standard, the following methods for calculating kappa
can be selected:
Method B': Uses the ratio R/X at the short-circuit location.
Method C(1):
Uses the ratio R/X calculated at a virtual frequency of 40% of nominal
frequency (20 Hz for fn = 50 Hz, or 24 Hz for fn=60 Hz), based on the
short-circuit impedance in the positive sequence system.
Method (012):
Like C(1), but uses the correct short-circuit impedance based on the
positive-, negative- and zero-sequence system.
Calculate Ik
The steady-state short-circuit currents can be calculated using different means to consider
asynchronous machines:
Without Motors
Will disconnect all asynchronous motors before calculating the current
I
k
.
DIgSILENT Method
Considers all asynchronous motors according to their breaker current.
The breaker opens after the maximum possible time.
Ignore Motor Contributions
Considers asynchronous motor impedances during the calculation, but
will reduce the calculated results for motor contributions.
Consider Protection Devices
This option will calculate measured currents for all protection devices and will evaluate
tripping times. To increase the speed of the calculation, this option can be disabled when
protection devices do not need to be analyzed.
Calculate max. Branch Currents = Busbar Currents
This option is used to check the rating of the circuit breakers against the system breaker
currents. Normally the breaker currents are calculated as max{Ibus-Ibranch, Ibranch}. If
this option is activated, the busbar short-circuit current is used as the breaker current,
which is actually an over-estimation of the currents.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 20
Automatic Power Station Unit detection
The IEC/VDE standard forces a different impedance correction factor to be applied to sep-
arate generators and transformers than that applied to a unit/block (power station) con-
sisting of a generator including its step-up transformer. PowerFactory tries to detect
power stations. When this option is disabled, block transformers must be marked accord-
ingly by setting the Unit Transformer option available in the VDE/IEC Short-Circuit tab of
the transformer element dialogue.
23.3.5 Basic Options (ANSI C37 Method)

Fig. 23.15: ANSI calculation - Basic Options
Prefault Voltage
Value of the pre-fault voltage (required by the ANSI standard).
Consider Transformer Taps
The ANSI standard optionally allows the current tap positions of the transformers to be
considered. This can be selected here.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 21
NACD Mode
The NACD factor is the ratio of remote current contribution to the total fault current: NACD
= I
remote
/I
fault
. This NACD factor is used to calculate the breaker currents, including the
DC component of the current. The remote current contribution required to evaluate the
NACD factor is the sum of all remote generator contributions (induction generators, syn-
chronous machines, and external grids).
The calculation of the NACD factor can be very time consuming, as the contribution of
each generator is calculated individually. Therefore, different approximation methods can
be selected, which represent the most common interpretations of the ANSI standard:
Interpolated The NACD factor is calculated, and the correction factor for the
asymmetrical fault current is interpolated between the "dc decay only"
and "AC/DC decay" curves with the following equation:
MF = AC/DC factor + (DC factor - AC/DC factor)*NACD
If (NACD = 1) then only the DC factor is used; if (NACD = 0) then only
the AC/DC factor is used.
Predominant The the NACD factor is calculated. If the resulting factor is greater than
or equal to 0.5, then the "dc decay only'' curve is used, which means
that the remote generation is higher than the local generation.
All Remote All contributions are set to ‘remote’; the NACD factor is not calculated,
but assumed equal to 1 and only the "dc decay only'' curve is used.
All Local All contributions are set to ‘local’; the NACD factor is not calculated, but
assumed equal to 0 and only the "AC/DC decay" curve is used.
Current/Voltages for
The calculation mode for the currents and voltages to be evaluated:
LV/Momentary
Evaluates the subtransient short-circuit currents.
LV/Interrupting
Evaluates the breaker currents.
30 Cycle Evaluates the 30-cycle (steady-state) current.
Note: The fields 'Method', 'Fault Type', 'Fault Impedance', 'Output' and
'Fault Location' are described in Section 23.3.1.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 22
23.3.6 Advanced Options (ANSI C37 Method)

Fig. 23.16: ANSI Calculation - Advanced Options
Calculate
This option is used to select the various currents (according to the ANSI standard) which
are to be calculated. The options are as follows:
• Momentary Current
• Interrupting Current
• 30 Cycle Current
• Low-Voltage Current
Bypass Series Capacitance
Series capacitances may be optionally bypassed for the ANSI short-circuit calculation. Al-
ternatively, they may be not bypassed, always bypassed/neglected or this option may be
set depending on the type of short-circuit being calculated.
The options are as follows:
• No Bypassing
• All Currents
• LV & Interrupting & 30 Cycle Current
• 30 Cycle Currents
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 23
X/R Calculation
The user may select between a complex number R/X ratio calculation, or a calculation
which considers R and X separately.
Consider Protection Devices
This option will calculate measured currents for the selected protection devices and will
evaluate tripping times. To increase the speed of the calculation, this option can be dis-
abled when protection devices do not need to be analyzed.
Calculate max. Branch Currents = Busbar Currents
This option is used to check the rating of the circuit breakers against the system breaker
currents. Normally the breaker currents are calculated as max{Ibus-Ibranch, Ibranch}. If
this option is activated, the busbar short-circuit current is used as the breaker current,
which is actually an over-estimation of the currents.
23.3.7 Basic Options (Complete Method)

Fig. 23.17: Complete Method - Basic Options
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 24
As opposed to the calculation methods according to IEC/VDE and ANSI, which represent
short-circuit currents by approximations, the complete method evaluates currents without
using approximations. This accurate evaluation of the currents takes into account the sys-
tem conditions immediately prior to the onset of the fault.
Load Flow
The pre-fault system condition used by the complete method can be determined either
by the evaluation of a load flow, or by means of a simplified method, which initializes the
internal voltages of all components that contribute to the short-circuit current with their
nominal values, multiplied by a scalar factor, c.
The load flow command used to initialize the short-circuit calculation (when Load Flow
Initialization on the Advanced Options tab is selected, see Section 23.3.8) is displayed
next to the button labelled Load Flow ( ). The load flow command can be accessed and
modified by pressing this button . The load flow command displayed here is initially
taken from the currently active study case.
Short-Circuit Duration
The value for the Break Time (Global) is used to calculate the breaking current of circuit
breakers. Depending on the user selection, the value used for the break time within the
calculation is:
global
The Break Time (Global) defined in the short-circuit command.
min. of local
The shortest Break Time of all circuit breakers (defined in the Complete
Short-Circuit tab of ElmCoup objects) connected to the busbars being
studied.
local
For each connected circuit-breaker, its own Break Time (defined in the
Complete Short-Circuit tab of ElmCoup objects) is used for the
calculation of the breaking current, however for busbar results, the
fastest of these Break Times is used.
Note: The fields 'Method', 'Fault Type', 'Fault Impedance', 'Output' and
'Fault Location' are described in Section 23.3.1.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 25
23.3.8 Advanced Options (Complete Method)

Fig. 23.18: Complete Method - Advanced Options
Initialisation
The user may select to initialize the complete method by one of the following options:
• the load flow calculation referred to in the Load Flow field of the Basic Options tab; or
• the nominal voltages with a user-defined correction factor (c-Factor). It should be
noted that this option is only available in the dialogue when Load Flow Initialisation is
unticked.
Peak, DC Currents, R/X ratio (ip,ib,idc)
This option allows the definition of the method used to determine the factor kappa (k)
and the R/X_b ratio, required for the calculation of the peak and the DC component of
the short-circuit current. The methods available correspond to those given in the IEC/VDE
standard.
B
Uses the ratio R/X at the short-circuit location. In this case both ratios
(R/X_p for the calculation of k, and R/X_b) are equal.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Short-Circuit Analysis
23 - 26
C(1)
For k, the ratio R/X_p calculated at a virtual frequency of 40% (based
on the short-circuit impedance in the positive sequence system) is
used. The R/X_b ratio is calculated according to the equivalent
frequency method, considering the breaking time and the positive
sequence impedance (as for Method C from the IEC standard, however
it should be noted that the IEC correction factors are not considered).
C(012)
Like C(1) described directly above, but uses the correct short-circuit
impedance based on the positive-, negative- and zero-sequence
system.
Consider Protection Devices
This option will calculate measured currents for all protection devices and will evaluate
tripping times. This option can be disabled to increase the calculation speed when protec-
tion devices do not need to be analyzed.
Calculate max. Branch Currents = Busbar Currents
This option is used to check the rating of the circuit breakers against the system breaker
currents. Normally the breaker currents are calculated as max{I
bus
-I
branch
, I
branch
}. If this
option is activated, the busbar short-circuit current is used as the breaker current, which
is an over-estimation of the currents.
Overhead Line Modelling: Phase Matrices
For the unbalanced short-circuit calculation, PowerFactory always uses the phase com-
ponent matrix. The following options define which phase matrix is used:
Untransposed: the short-circuit calculation uses the untransposed phase matrix.
Symmetrically Transposed: the short-circuit calculation uses the symmetrically trans-
posed phase matrix for untransposed lines.
23.3.9 Basic Options / Advanced Options (IEC 61363)
For detailed information about the IEC 61363 method and its options, please open the
Technical Reference Paper.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 1
Chapter 24
Harmonics Analysis
One of several aspects of power quality is the harmonic content of voltages and currents.
Harmonics can be analyzed in either the frequency domain, or in the time-domain with
post-processing using Fourier Analysis. The PowerFactory harmonics functions allow
the analysis of harmonics in the frequency domain.
Two different functions are provided by PowerFactory:
• Harmonic Load Flow
• Frequency Sweep
PowerFactory’s harmonic load flow calculates actual harmonic indices related to voltage
or current distortion, and harmonic losses caused by harmonic sources (usually non-linear
loads such as current converters). Harmonic sources can be defined by a harmonic current
or a harmonic voltage spectrum. In the harmonic load flow calculation, PowerFactory
carries out a steady-state network analysis at each frequency at which harmonic sources
are defined.
A special application of the harmonic load flow is the analysis of ripple-control signals. For
this application, a harmonic load flow can be calculated at one specific frequency only. In
contrast to the harmonic load flow, PowerFactory’s frequency sweep performs a contin-
uous frequency domain analysis. A typical application of the frequency sweep function is
the calculation of network impedances. The result of this calculation facilitates the iden-
tification of series and parallel resonances in the network.
These resonance points can identify the frequencies at which harmonic currents cause low
or high harmonic voltages. Network impedances are of particular importance for applica-
tions such as filter design.
PowerFactory provides a toolbar for accessing the different harmonic analysis com-
mands. This toolbar can be displayed (if not already active) by selecting the Harmonics
icon ( ) on the main toolbar. The harmonics toolbar provides two icons to open pre-
configured command dialogues for the two different calculations:
• : Calculate Harmonic Load Flow
• : Calculate Impedance Frequency Characteristics (Frequency Sweep)
The command dialogues can be also accessed through the main menu by selecting:
• Calculation ÷> Harmonics ÷> Voltage/Current Distribution...; or
• Calculation ÷> Harmonics ÷> Impedance Frequency Characteristic... .
Additionally, following the calculation of a harmonic load flow, a third icon on this toolbar
is activated. The icon is used to open the Filter Analysis (ComSh) command dia-
logue. The Filter Analysis command analyzes results from the most recent harmonic load
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 2
flow calculation and outputs results to PowerFactory’s output window.
All functions and their usage are described in this chapter.
24.1 Harmonic Load Flow
To calculate a harmonic load flow, click on the icon to open the dialogue for the Com-
Hldf command as shown in Figure 24.1.

Fig. 24.1: Harmonic Load Flow Command (ComHldf)
For a detailed description of the harmonic calculations, refer to the Section 24.4 (Model-
ling Harmonic Sources), in which the analysis and the harmonic indices are described.
The following sections describe the options available in the harmonic load flow command.
24.1.1 Basic Options
Network Representation
Calculate
Network Representation
Balanced
In the case of a symmetrical network and balanced harmonic sources,
characteristic harmonics either appear in the negative sequence
component (5th, 11th, 19th, etc.), or in the positive sequence
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 3
component. Hence, at all frequencies a single-phase equivalent
(positive or negative sequence) can be used for the analysis.
Unbalanced, 3 Phase (ABC)
For analyzing non-characteristic harmonics (3rd-order, even-order,
inter-harmonics), or harmonics in non-symmetrical networks, the
Unbalanced option for modelling the network in the phase-domain
should be selected.
Calculate
Single Frequency
Selecting this option will perform a single harmonic load flow
calculation at the given Output Frequency (parameter name: fshow) or
at the given harmonic order. A common application for this mode is the
analysis of ripple control systems. The results of the analysis are shown
in the single line diagram, in the same way as for a normal load flow at
the fundamental frequency.
All Frequencies
Selecting this option will perform harmonic load flow calculations for all
frequencies for which harmonic sources are defined. These frequencies
are gathered automatically prior to the calculation. The results are
stored in a result file, which can be used to create harmonic bar graphs
(see also Section 20.1.2 (Plots)).
Nominal Frequency, Output Frequency, Harmonic Order
Nominal Frequency
PowerFactory can only calculate harmonics of AC-systems with
identical fundamental frequencies. The relevant nominal frequency
must be entered here (usually 50Hz or 60Hz).
Output Frequency
This is the frequency for which results are displayed. In the case of a
Single Frequency calculation, this is the frequency for which a harmonic
load flow is calculated. When option All Frequencies is selected, only
the display of results in the single line diagram is influenced by this
input parameter, not the calculation itself. In this case, the results
displayed in the single line diagram are for the defined Output
Frequency.
Harmonic Order
This is used to check or to alter the Output Frequency. It is the same as
the Output Frequency but input as the Harmonic Order (f/fn). The
harmonic order multiplied by the Nominal Frequency always equals the
Output Frequency. Both floating-point and integer values are valid.
Result Variables and Load Flow
Result Variables
This option is used to select the target result object for storing the
results of the harmonic frequency sweep. See Section 24.5 (Definition
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 4
of Result Variables) for more information regarding specifying and
defining result variables.
Load Flow
This displays the load flow command used by the calculation. Click on
the arrow button ( ) to inspect and/or adjust the load flow command
settings.
24.1.2 Advanced Options
Based on Fundamental Frequency Values (IEEE)
All values are based on fundamental frequency values, as defined by
IEEE standards.
Based on Total RMS-Values (DIN)
All values are based on "true RMS''-values, as defined by DIN
standards.
24.2 Frequency Sweep
To calculate frequency dependent impedances, the impedance characteristic can be com-
puted for a given frequency range using ComFsweep. This function is available by click-
ing on the icon.
The harmonic frequency sweep command is shown in Figure 24.2.

Fig. 24.2: Harmonic Frequency Sweep Command (ComFsweep)
Harmonic analysis by frequency sweep is normally used for analyzing self- and mutual-
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 5
network impedances.
However, it should be noted that not only self- and mutual-impedances can be analyzed
and shown. The voltage source models available in PowerFactory allow the definition
of any spectral density function. Hence, impulse or step responses of any variable can be
calculated in the frequency domain. One common application is the analysis of series res-
onance problems.
The following sections describe the options available for the harmonic frequency sweep
calculation.
24.2.1 Basic Options
Network Representation
Balanced, positive sequence
This option uses a single-phase, positive sequence network
representation, valid for balanced symmetrical networks. A balanced
representation of unbalanced objects is used.
Unbalanced, 3 Phase (ABC)
This option uses a full multiple-phase, unbalanced network
representation.
Impedance Calculation
The frequency sweep will be performed for the frequency range defined by the Start Fre-
quency and the Stop Frequency, using the given Step Size.
An option is available which allows an adaptive step size. Enabling this option will normally
speed up the calculation, and enhance the level of detail in the results by automatically
using a smaller step size when required. The settings for step size adaptation can be
changed on the Advanced Options tab.
Nominal Frequency, Output Frequency, Frequency Sweep
Nominal Frequency
This is the fundamental frequency of the system, and the base
frequency for the harmonic orders (usually 50Hz or 60Hz)
Output Frequency
This is the frequency for which the results in the single line diagram are
shown. This value has no effect on the actual calculation.
Harmonic Order
This is used to check or to alter the output frequency. It is the harmonic
order equivalent of the Output Frequency. The Harmonic Order
multiplied by the Nominal Frequency always equals the Output
Frequency. Both floating-point and integer values are valid.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 6
Result Variables and Load Flow
Result Variables
Used to select the result object which will store the results of the
harmonic frequency sweep. See Section 24.5 (Definition of Result
Variables) for more information about specifying result variables.
Load Flow
This displays the load flow command used by the calculation. Click on
the arrow button ( ) to inspect and/or adjust the load flow command
settings.
The results of PowerFactory’s frequency sweep analysis are the characteristics of the
impedances over the frequency range.
24.2.2 Advanced Options
Selecting the option Automatic Step Size Adaptation on the Basic Data tab of the ComF-
sweep command is one way to increase the speed of the calculation. This option enables
the use of the step size adaptation algorithm for the frequency sweep.
With this algorithm, the frequency step between two calculations of all variables is not
held constant, but is adapted according to the shape of the sweep. When no resonances
in the impedance occur, the time step can be increased without compromising accuracy.
If the impedance starts to change considerably with the next step, the step size will be
reduced again. The frequency step is set such that the prediction error will conform to the
two prediction error input parameters, as described below:
errmax Maximum Prediction Error (typical value: 0.01)
errinc Minimum Prediction Error (typical value: 0.005)
ninc Step Size Increase Delay (typically 10 frequency steps)
Calculate R, X at output frequency for all nodes
Normally, PowerFactory calculates the equivalent impedance only at selected nodes.
When this option is selected, following the harmonic calculation, the equivalent imped-
ance is calculated for all nodes.
24.3 Filter Analysis
The Filter Analysis command is a special form of the Output of Results command (Com-
Sh). It is used to analyze the results from the previous harmonic load flow and to output
results to the PowerFactory output window. It outputs a summary of the harmonics for
the terminals/busbars and branch elements at a specified frequency, which is specified in
the Output Frequency field of the ComHldf command. It also reports the parameters and
different variables for the installed filters.
The filter analysis report generator can be activated using the icon or by using the
Output Calculation Analysis icon from the main menu (see also Section 20.2.5: Out-
put of Results). This will open the same dialogue as that used for the reporting of har-
monic results, as displayed in Figure 24.3.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 7
In the dialogue, the Output Frequency specified in the harmonic load flow command is
displayed in red text (see top of dialogue in Figure 24.3). There are four different reports
to choose from:
Busbars and Branches
This displays the results of the harmonic load flow for all node and
branch elements in the network. The distortion for various electrical
variables is printed and summarized.
Busbars/Terminals
For the electrical nodes, the rated voltage, the voltage at the
calculation frequency, as well as RMS values and distortion at the nodes
are displayed.
Filter Layout The filter layout of all active filters in the network is calculated for the
given frequency. The rated values and impedances of the filter as well
as the type and vector group are printed to the output window.
Additionally, the currents through the different components and the
losses are shown.
Filter Results
The filter results show the main layout of all filters in the network for
the calculation frequency. For a set of frequencies, the voltages and
currents through the filter are tabulated.

Fig. 24.3: Filter Analysis Report Command (ComSh) Dialogue
The default format used for the report in the output window is defined in the Used Format
section of the dialogue and can be set or changed by clicking on the Filter Layout button
( ).
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 8
24.4 Modelling Harmonic Sources
Every switched device produces harmonics and must therefore be modelled as a harmonic
source. In PowerFactory, harmonic sources can be both current or voltage sources.
The following models can generate harmonics:
• General loads, if they are modelled as a current source (which can be defined in the
load type);
• Thyristor rectifiers;
• PWM-converters, which are generally modelled as a harmonic voltage source;
• Voltage sources, which may also be used for ripple control applications;
• Current sources, with a user-defined spectrum of harmonic injections.
The spectrum of harmonic infeeds must be defined using the Harmonic Sources type ob-
ject (TypHmcCur). The spectrum may be entered according to one of two options: bal-
anced or unbalanced (shown in Figures 24.4 and 24.5, respectively). This object is a
PowerFactory 'type' object, which means that it may be used by many elements who
have the same basic type. Multiple current source loads may, for example, use the same
TypHmcCur object. Note that PowerFactory has no corresponding element for this
type.

Fig. 24.4: Balanced Harmonic Source Type (TypHmccur)
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 9

Fig. 24.5: Unbalanced Harmonic Source Type (TypHmccur)
The spectrum object is independent of the whether the harmonic source is either a volt-
age source or a current source. The decision as to whether harmonic sources are fed into
the system as harmonic voltages or as harmonic currents is made exclusively by the ele-
ment to which the spectrum type is associated.
24.4.1 Harmonic Distortion Results
The harmonic distortion of a current or of a voltage can be quantified in terms of the Har-
monic Distortion (HD), as described by (24.1). To describe the overall distortion, the Total
Harmonic Distortion index THD (see (24.2)) has been introduced. An alternative, less
common index is the Total Arithmetic Distortion TAD (see (24.3)). All distortion indices are
described by their equations (below) for the current, but may be similarly described for
voltage distortion.
Eqn 24.1:
Eqn 24.2: (Total Harmonic Distortion)
Eqn 24.3: (Total Arithmetic Distortion)
where
I(f
i
) Component of the current at frequency f
i
HD
I
f
i
( )
I f
i
( )
I f
1
( )
-------------- =
THD
I
1
I
ref
-------- I
RMS
2
I
2
f
1
( ) – · =
TAD
I
1
I
ref
-------- I
EA
I f
1
( ) – | | · =
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 10
I
ref
Reference value for the current
Eqn 24.4: (Total RMS value)
Eqn 24.5: (Arithmetic Sum value)
The reference value I
ref
depends on the standard used. The two possible options are the
calculation according to DIN (24.6) and according to IEEE (24.7), as presented below:
Eqn 24.6: (DIN Standard)
Eqn 24.7: (IEEE Standard).
Another value which may be of importance is the Total Power (see (24.8)), which de-
scribes the power absorbed over all frequency components:
Eqn 24.8: (Total Power)
I
RMS
I
2
f
i
( )
i 1 =
n
¯
=
I
EA
I f
i
( )
i 1 =
n
¯
=
I
ref DIN .
I
RMS
=
I
ref IEEE .
I f
1
( ) =
P
tot
P f
i
( )
i 1 =
n
¯
=
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 11
24.4.2 Magnitudes and Phase values
The quantities of the spectrum type are rated to current/voltage at the fundamental fre-
quency in the balanced case. Hence, in the case of a harmonic current source, the actual
harmonic current at frequency f
h
is calculated by:

where


The values at the fundamental frequency, I
1
and m
1
, are taken from a preceding load flow
calculation. A normal load flow calculation is therefore required prior to a harmonic load
flow calculation.
In case of balanced systems in which only characteristic harmonics of orders 5, 7, 11, 13,
17, etc. occur, the option Balanced should be selected in the Balanced/Unbalanced Sourc-
es section (as shown in Figure Balanced Harmonic Source Type (TypHmccur)). In this con-
text, Balanced refers to characteristic harmonics. In the balanced case, the harmonic
frequencies are determined by the program (note that in the unbalanced case, the har-
monic frequencies can be freely-defined).
For harmonic sources which produce non-characteristic, unbalanced or inter-harmonics,
the option Unbalanced should be set in the Balanced/Unbalanced Sources section. In the
Unbalanced' case, the harmonic frequency, magnitude and phase angle of each phase can
be chosen individually for each harmonic frequency. This mode therefore caters for every
possible kind of harmonic source.
The problem commonly arises as to how one can represent the harmonic content in a sys-
tem which differs to the native modal system (positive, negative or zero sequence sys-
tem). The following example illustrates how to represent the 3rd harmonic in a positive
or negative sequence system (as opposed to the native zero sequence system).
In the symmetrical case, the phase shift between the three phases is:
I
h
k
h
e
m
h
A
I
1
e
m
1
· · · =
k
h
I
h
I
1
if balanced
I
ah
I
a1
if unbalanced phase a
I
bh
I
b1
if unbalanced phase b
I
ch
I
c1
if unbalanced phase c
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
¦
¦
¦
=
m
h
A
m
h
m
1
– if balanced
m
ah
m
a1
– if unbalanced phase a
m
bh
m
b1
– if unbalanced phase b
m
ch
m
c1
– if unbalanced phase c
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
¦
¦
¦
=
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 12
A: 0°
B: -120°
C: +120° (-240°)
For harmonics of order n:
A: 0°
B: -n*120°
C: +n*120°
Taking the 3rd harmonic as an example:
A: 0°
B: -360°(= 0°)
C: +360° (=0°)
Consequently, the 3rd harmonic in the ideally balanced case only in the zero sequence
component, as their native modal system. For representing 3rd harmonics (and multiples
thereof) in the positive sequence system, the following phase correction needs to be en-
tered:
A: 0°
B: +(n-1)*120°
C: -(n-1)*120°
Again taking the 3rd harmonic as an example:
A: 0°
B: -360° + 240° = -120°
C: +360° - 240° = 120°
24.4.3 Frequency Dependent Parameters
Due to the skin effect and variations in the internal inductance, resistances and inductanc-
es are usually frequency dependent. This can be modeled in PowerFactory by associat-
ing a "frequency characteristic'' to these quantities. Two types of characteristic may be
used: either a polynomial characteristic (ChaPol) as illustrated in Figure 24.6, or a user-
defined frequency table (TriFreq and ChaVec). These kinds of characteristics are then
assigned via the Harmonics tab of the correspoding element’s dialogue, as illustrated by
the example in Figure 24.7 for a line element.

Fig. 24.6: The Frequency Polynomial Characteristic (ChaPol)
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 13
For the polynomial characteristic object shown in Figure 24.6, the following formula is
used:

The parameters a and b are specified in the ChaPol dialogue. Variable y is usually ex-
pressed in % of the corresponding input parameters. For example, the resulting line re-
sistance is obtained by:

An example of the use of the polynomial characteristic for a line type is shown in Figure
24.7.

Fig. 24.7: Frequency Dependencies in a Line Type
It also is possible to define frequency dependent characteristics using vectorial character-
istics (ChaVec). An example for a grid impedance defined with a ChaVec is shown in
Figure 24.8.
y f
h
( ) 1 a – ( ) a
f
h
f
1
----
\ .
|
| |
b
· + =
R f
h
( ) R y f
h
( ) × =
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 14

Fig. 24.8: Frequency Dependent Grid Impedance as Vectorial Characteristic
The following objects can have frequency dependent parameters defined using a frequen-
cy characteristic:
TypLne Line Type
TypAsm Asynchronous Machine Type
TypSym Synchronous Machine Type
ElmShnt Shunt/Filter
ElmVac AC Voltage Source
ElmNec NEC/NER
Lines which are represented by a tower type TypTow are automatically assigned a har-
monic characteristic. The same applies to cables using the detailed cable representation
type TypCab.
24.4.4 Waveform Plot
The waveform plot is used to display the waveform of a voltage or a current following a
harmonic load flow calculation. The harmonics are typically emitted by a harmonic voltage
or current source, as described in Section 24.4.
In this plot, a waveform is generated using the magnitude and phase angle of the har-
monic frequencies. With this diagram, a variable such as the voltage or current, which is
defined in a harmonic source (i.e. a power electronic device or a load), can be easily
shown as a time dependent variable. This way the real shape of the voltage can be seen
and analyzed.
For a more detailed description, see Section 20.1.6 (The Waveform Plot).
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 15
24.5 Definition of Result Variables
Before a Frequency Sweep calculation can be performed, all variables of interest must be
defined for recording. These variables can be defined by right-clicking on a network com-
ponent (or multi-selecting several components and right-clicking), either in the single-line
diagram or in the data manager, and selecting the option Define ÷>Variable Set (Harmon-
ics Load-Flow); or Define ÷>Variable Set (Frequency Sweep). This will add a new (but still
empty) variable set for the selected object to the result object (referred to by parameter
Result Variables on the Basic Options tab of the Harmonic Load Flow command dialogue).
All results of harmonic analyses, with the exception of the single frequency harmonic load
flow, are stored in a normal result object (ElmRes). This result object stores graphs of
result variables vs. frequency. For more information about the result object, see
Section 20.2.1 (Result Objects).
New result variables may also be added by clicking on the Edit Result Variable icon ( )
on the main toolbar. There are two instances of this button; one for each harmonic anal-
ysis function, i.e. one associated with the Harmonic Load Flow . and one associated
with the Frequency Sweep . Select the button associated with the relevant calculation.
This will open the variable set manager, which displays the list of all defined variable sets
for that calculation. Each variable set contains the variables of interest for a single object.
A window is opened automatically whenever a new variable set is defined, as shown in
Figure 24.9, displaying the list of variable sets. A new variable set can also be defined by
clicking on the New icon ( ).

Fig. 24.9: Example of a List of Variable Sets
It should be noted that the column labelled Object must be set before any variables can
be defined. This can be done by either double-clicking the appropriate cell, or by right-
clicking the cell and selecting Select Element.... A single variable set from the variable sets
list can be accessed (and the desired variables defined) by either double-clicking on the
icon in the corresponding row, or right-clicking on the icon and selecting the
Edit menu option. The Variable Set object (IntMon) dialogue opens, as shown in Figure
24.10. Select the Harmonics tab of the IntMon dialogue and then a list of all results that
are available for the selected object (relevant to harmonics analysis) will be available for
selection.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Harmonics Analysis
24 - 16

Fig. 24.10: Harmonics Result Variables for a Terminal
Result variables may be added or removed from the set of selected variables by pressing
the or buttons. Additionally, different variables are available for selection depend-
ing on the selection made from the Variable Set drop-down list. This is available in the
Filter for section on the Harmonics tab of the IntMon dialogue.
It should be noted that as the results of the discrete harmonic analysis are discrete, the
plots generated from the result file should have the Bars option enabled. To do this, open
the subplot dialogue by double-clicking on a subplot, going to the Advanced tab, and se-
lecting Bars in the Presentation section.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Stability and EMT Simulations
25 - 1
Chapter 25
Stability and EMT Simulations
The transient simulation functions available in DIgSILENT PowerFactory are able to
analyze the dynamic behavior of small systems and large power systems in the time do-
main. These functions therefore make it possible to model complex systems such as in-
dustrial networks and large transmission grids in detail, taking into account electrical and
mechanical parameters.
Transients, stability problems and control problems are important considerations during
the planning, design and operation of modern power systems. Studies involving electro-
magnetic transients and different aspects of stability may be conducted using time-do-
main simulations for varying time periods, or dynamic or small-signal stability analysis
tools using (for example) eigenvalue analysis.
A large range of AC and DC systems can be analyzed (i.e. transmission systems with de-
tailed models of power plants, complex HVDC systems, motor start-up), as well as a com-
bination of both. Applications such as wind power integration or power electronics
constitute new challenges in the analysis of power systems, and as a result new models
and techniques are provided in PowerFactory to meet these requirements.
For modelling a variety of machines and controller units, as well as the electrical and me-
chanical components of power plants, etc., PowerFactory’s global library provides a
large number of predefined models. This library includes models of generators, motors,
controllers, motor driven machines, dynamic loads and passive network elements. As an
example, this library contains the IEEE standard models of power plant controllers. Fur-
thermore, the user can model specific controllers and develop block diagrams of power
plants with a large degree of freedom.
A Stability simulation in PowerFactory is started by:
• Selecting the Stability toolbar by clicking on the Stability icon from the Select
toolbar;
• Calculating the initial conditions for the simulation by either pressing the icon on
the main toolbar, or by selecting Calculation ÷> Stability ÷> Initial Conditions... from
the main menu;
• When the initial values have been calculated successfully, the icon on the main
toolbar will be activated and can be pressed to start the simulation.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Stability and EMT Simulations
25 - 2
25.1 Introduction
The study of power system stability involves the analysis of the behavior of power systems
under conditions before and after sudden changes in load or generation, during faults and
outages. The robustness of a system is defined by the ability of the system to maintain
stable operation under normal and perturbed conditions. It is therefore necessary to de-
sign and operate a power system so that transient events (i.e. probable contingencies),
can be withstood without the loss of load or loss of synchronism in the power system.
Transients in electrical power systems can be classified according to three possible time-
frames:
• short-term, or electromagnetic transients;
• mid-term, or electromechanical transients;
• long-term transients.
The multilevel modelling of power system elements and the use of advanced algorithms
means that the functions in PowerFactory can analyse the complete range of transient
phenomena in electrical power systems. Consequently, there are three different simula-
tion functions available:
1 A basic function which uses a symmetrical steady-state (RMS) network model for
mid-term and long-term transients under balanced network conditions;
2 A three-phase function which uses a steady-state (RMS) network model for mid-
term and long-term transients under balanced and unbalanced network conditions,
i.e. for analyzing dynamic behaviour after unsymmetrical faults;
3 An electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulation function using a dynamic network
model for electromagnetic and electromechanical transients under balanced and
unbalanced network conditions. This function is particularly suited to the analysis of
short-term transients.
In addition to the time-domain calculations, two other analysis functions are available:
• Parameter Identification
• Modal Analysis or Eigenvalue Analysis
Time-domain simulations in PowerFactory are initialized by a valid load flow, and Pow-
erFactory functions determine the initial conditions for all power system elements includ-
ing all controller units and mechanical components. These initial conditions represent the
steady-state operating point at the beginning of the simulation, fulfilling the requirements
that the derivatives of all state variables of loads, machines, controllers, etc., are zero.
Before the start of the simulation process, it is also determined what type of network rep-
resentation must be used for further analysis, what step sizes to use, which events to han-
dle and where to store the results.
The simulation uses an iterative procedure to solve AC and DC load flows, and the dynam-
ic model state variable integrals simultaneously. Highly accurate non-linear system models
result in exact solutions, including during high-amplitude transients. Various numerical in-
tegration routines are used for the electromechanical systems (including voltage regula-
tors and power system stabilisers) and also for the hydro-mechanical or thermo-
mechanical models.
The process of performing a transient simulation typically involves the following steps:
1 Calculation of initial values, including a load flow calculation;
2 Definition of result variables and/or simulation events;
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Stability and EMT Simulations
25 - 3
3 Optional definition of result graphs and/or other virtual instruments;
4 Execution of simulation;
5 Creating additional result graphs or virtual instruments, or editing existing ones;
6 Changing settings, repeating calculations;
7 Printing results.
25.2 Calculation Methods
25.2.1 Balanced RMS Simulation
The balanced RMS simulation function considers dynamics in electromechanical, control
and thermal devices. It uses a symmetrical, steady-state representation of the passive
electrical network. Using this representation, only the fundamental components of volt-
ages and currents are taken into account.
Depending on the models of generators, motors, controllers, power plants and motor driv-
en machines used, the following studies may be carried out:
• transient stability (e.g. determination of critical fault clearing times);
• mid-term stability (e.g. optimization of spinning reserve and load shedding);
• oscillatory stability (e.g. optimization of control device to improve system damping);
• motor start-up (e.g. determination of start-up times and voltage drops);
Various events can be included in the simulation, including the following examples:
• start-up and/or loss of generators or motors;
• stepwise variation of loads;
• load-shedding;
• line and transformer switching/tripping;
• symmetrical short-circuit events;
• insertion of network elements;
• power plant shut down;
• variations of controller setpoint;
• change of any system parameter.
Because of the symmetrical network representation, the basic simulation function allows
the insertion of symmetrical faults only.
25.2.2 Three-Phase RMS Simulation
If asymmetrical faults or unbalanced networks have to be analysed, the three phase RMS
simulation function must be used. This simulation function uses a steady-state, three-
phase representation of the passive electrical network and can therefore compute unbal-
anced network conditions, either due to unbalanced network elements or due to asym-
metrical faults. Dynamics in electromechanical, control and thermal devices are
represented in the same way as in the basic RMS simulation function.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Stability and EMT Simulations
25 - 4
Asymmetrical electromechanical devices can be modelled, and single-phase and two-
phase networks can also be analysed using this analysis function.
In addition to the balanced RMS simulation events, unbalanced fault events can be sim-
ulated, such as:
• single-phase and two-phase (to ground) short-circuits;
• phase to phase short-circuits;
• inter-circuit faults between different lines;
• single- and double-phase line interruptions.
All of these events can be modelled to occur simultaneously or separately, hence any com-
bination of symmetrical and asymmetrical faults can be modelled.
25.2.3 Three-Phase EMT Simulation
Voltages and currents are represented in the EMT simulation by their instantaneous val-
ues, so that the dynamic behavior of passive network elements is also taken into account.
This is necessary for the following applications:
• DC and harmonic components of currents and voltages;
• Exact behavior of inverter-driven machines;
• Exact behavior of HVDC transmission systems;
• Non-linear behavior of passive network elements such as transformer saturation;
• Overvoltage phenomena in switching devices;
• Lightning strikes and travelling waves;
• Analysis of the exact behavior of protection devices during faults.
The high level of detail used to represent the modelled network means that all phases and
all defined events (symmetrical and asymmetrical) can be simulated. The EMT function
can also be used for the simulation of longer-term transients. However, due to the passive
network elements being represented dynamically, the integration step size has to be sig-
nificantly smaller than in the case of a steady-state representation and as a result, the
calculation time increases.
25.3 Setting Up a Simulation
Based on the results of a load flow calculation, all internal variables and the internal op-
erating status of connected machines, controllers and other transient models have to be
determined. As a result of this calculation, the synchronous generator excitation voltages
and load angles are calculated. Additionally, all state variables of controllers and power
plant models, and any other device which is active and will affect the time-domain simu-
lation, are also calculated.
The calculation of initial conditions is started by either:
• Selecting the icon from the icon toolbar, and then pressing the icon;
• Selecting Calculation ÷> Stability ÷> Initial Conditions... from the main menu.
In the Initial Conditions command (ComInc) dialogue all simulation settings can be de-
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Stability and EMT Simulations
25 - 5
fined, such as the simulation type (i.e. RMS or EMT, balanced or unbalanced) and simu-
lation step size settings.
These settings include:
Basic Options
The simulation type is selected here (RMS, EMT; balanced,
unbalanced), and the load flow command, the result object and the
event list are defined.
Step Sizes
Maximum and minimum step size are specified for use by the step size
algorithms.
Step Size Adaptation
Enables the variable step size algorithm.
Advanced Options
Includes various error margins, iteration limits, damping factors, etc.
Noise Generation
Defines parameters of the noise generation for stochastic applications.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Stability and EMT Simulations
25 - 6

Fig. 25.1: The Initial Conditions Command (ComInc) Dialogue
25.3.1 Basic Options
The basic options are used to select the simulation type and the network representation.
References to the result object, the event list and the load flow command are available
for inspecting or editing these objects, by clicking on the respective icon.
Verify Initial Conditions
If the initial conditions can be fulfilled, the power system will be in a steady-state condi-
tion. When the Verify Initial Conditions options is enabled, then the condition dx/dt=0 is
checked for all state variables. If one or more of the state variable derivatives does not
equal zero, the power system may start 'moving' from the very beginning of the simula-
tion, even without the application of an external event. In this case the user should anal-
yse the relevant controller or model and its defined initial conditions carefully.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory Stability and EMT Simulations
25 - 7
All warnings or error messages issued in the output window should be checked carefully.
Typical problems are devices which are overloaded or operate above or below signal lim-
itation from the beginning of the simulation.
The error message displayed in the output window might look as follows:
DIgSI/err - Some models could not be initialized.
DIgSI/err - Please check the following models:
DIgSI/err - 'Simple Grid\AVR Common Model.ElmDsl':
DIgSI/err - Initial conditions not valid !
Automatic Step Size Adaptation
This option enables the step size adaptation algorithm, and can be used to speed-up the
simulation considerably. PowerFactory adjusts the step size to the actual course of each
state variable at any moment in time. Based on the local discretisation error, PowerFac-
tory calculates an optimal step size that keeps the numerical errors within the specified
limits. A step size controller adjusts the integration step size.
As a result, when fast transients have decayed, PowerFactory automatically increases
the step size and speeds up the simulation process considerably. In the case of events
(external or internal), the step size is always set back to the Minimum Step Size. This way,
the behavior of the system during a transient event is represented with the best accuracy.
If this option is activated, two integration step sizes are available on the Step Size tab of
the dialogue:
Electromagnetic Transients/Electromechanical Transients
Minimum step size for EMT and RMS simulations, respectively.
Maximum Step Size
Maximum step size for the simulation.
Further parameters to adapt this algorithm can be found on the Step Size Adaptation tab.
25.3.2 Step Sizes
Integration Step Sizes
When using a fixed step size for the simulation (deactivate Automatic Step Size Adaptation
on the Basic Options tab), the integration step size for EMT or RMS has to be set.
It is often unnecessary to plot every single calculated time step, and this reduction in plot-
ted data can also result in a reduced simulation time. For this purpose, the step size for
the output graphs can be set, so that not every point in time throughout the simulation
time will be drawn on the virtual instruments plot. By selecting a larger Output step size,
the simulation process will speed up without influencing the calculation process. It should
be noted, however, that fast changes may not be seen in the reported results.
The parameters which are available for the step size are:
dtemt Electromagnetic Transients (typical value: 0.0001 sec)
dtgrd Electromechanical Transients (sym, asm, vco, pss) (typical 0.01 sec)
dtout Output (typical equal to dtemt for EMT; and dtgrd for RMS simulation)
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Start Time
The start time of the simulation. This is typically negative, allowing the first event
to be analysed to take place at t=0s.
Note When setting up time-domain simulations, it is very important to
use the correct time steps for simulations in order to observe the
right phenomena in the results. For the RMS simulation the mini-
mum time step should always be smaller then the time constants
in the system. In controllers one must consider both the open-loop
and the closed-loop time constants. For electromagnetic tran-
sients, e.g. when analyzing travelling waves, the smallest travelling
time would be the upper limit for the minimum time step.
In addition to the Newton-Raphson based algorithm for the solution of "weak'' non-linear-
ities (i.e. saturation effects in synchronous and asynchronous machines), the EMT simu-
lation function allows interrupts for the simulation of "strong'' non-linearities (i.e.
switches, two-slope transformer saturation or thyristors). These interrupts can also occur
between time steps.
In case of such an interrupt, all time dependent variables are interpolated to the instant
of interrupt and the simulation restarts at that point. This prevents numerical oscillations
and allows much a lower integration step size to cater for power electronics devices.
The dynamic model equations of the voltage-controllers (vco) and the power system sta-
bilisers (pss) are solved simultaneously with the electrical generator and passive network
equations (stepsize dtgrd).
25.3.3 Step Size Adaptation
If option Automatic Step Size Adaptation is enabled on the Basic Options tab, further step
size options are available on the Step Size Adaptation tab. These options are:
errmax Maximum Prediction Error (typical value: 0.01)
errinc Minimum Prediction Error (typical value: 0.01)
ninc Delay for Step Size Increase (typical value: 10 time steps)
finc Speed Factor for increasing the time step (default value: 1.5)
fdec Speed Factor for decreasing the time step (default value: 2)
ddtemt_max Maximum increase of step size (typical values: 0.05 for RMS; 0.001 sec
for EMT)
Note The simulation time can be very sensitive to some of the parame-
ters. For example when you increase the maximum time step the
duration of calculating transients may not always increase. If this
time step is increased over an "optimal'' time step the simulation
time may increase as well. It is strongly recommended to critically
observe the simulation time and the results for different simulation
parameters.
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25.3.4 Advanced Options
The advanced options may be used to tune the performance of the simulation algorithm.
Less experienced users are recommended to use the default values.
Event Control
Resolution Factor
The value entered here (parameter name: kres) determines the time interval used to syn-
chronize events. Every time an internal or external event occurs (usually between two in-
tegration time steps), PowerFactory interpolates all state variables up to the moment
in time at which the event has occurred and restarts the simulation from there. In the
case of large disturbances it is possible that a very large number of events occur almost
simultaneously. As this would slow down the simulation considerably, PowerFactory ex-
ecutes all events that occur within a time interval of duration kres*dtmin at the same time.
All system variables are then interpolated up to the point in time when the event takes
place, and the simulation is started from there. A higher resolution factor decreases the
minimum time interval between events. The default value of 0.001 is usually sufficient.
If an event occurs, there are two different options available:
Interpolation at user defined events
• Calculation of v(t) and v(t+h) as usual. PowerFactory uses special numerical
methods to allow this without numerical oscillations.
Re-Initialize After Event
• Calculation of v(t) and v(t+h), hence two values at the same time, one before the
occurrence of the event, and one after. The second method is applied if the option Re-
initialize After Event is enabled.
Further parameters can be changed to control the simulation algorithm.
Integration Control
errseq Maximum Error of State Equations (typical value: 0.1%)
itrpx Maximum Number of Successive State Iterations (typical value: 10)
alpha_rms Damping Factor (RMS) (typical value: 1)
alpha_emt Damping Factor (EMT) (typical value: 0.99)
Iteration Control
errsm Maximum Iteration Error of Nodal Equations (typical value: 10*errlf)
The iteration error errsm depends on the nominal power of the
machines and the voltage levels. As an adequate starting value, errsm
should be set to:
errsm = 10*errlf, where errlf is the Max. Allowable Load-Flow Error for
each Bus. Checking is best done by plotting some voltages at generator
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busbars. If voltage steps are observed, the value of errsm should be
reduced.
erreq Maximum Error of Model Equations (typical value: 1%)
itrlx Maximum Number of Iterations (typical value: 25)
itrpx specifies the max. number of iterations at each integration step
which are allowed to reach the max. tolerable bus-error errsm. During
the transient simulation process, the typical number of iterations
required is between 1 and 5. Under certain conditions - i.e. after
switching operations - up to 25 iterations may be observed.
itrjx Iteration Limit to Recompute Jacobian Matrix (typical value: 5)
Signal Buffer
Reference System
Local/Global Reference System
The PowerFactory stability analysis uses the angle of a reference machine and refers
all other angles to this reference angle. This is a numerically very efficient approach. After
running initial conditions, the reference machine is displayed in the output window. It is
usually the "Slack''-machine of the load-flow calculation.
In case of several isolated islands, PowerFactory offers the option of using one refer-
ence machine for the whole system (Global Reference System), or to use an individual
reference machine for each island. The first case should be used if the islands are re-syn-
chronised again later in the simulation. In all other cases the option (Local Reference Sys-
tem) should be used because it leads to a higher numerical stability and to faster
simulation times.
Calculate Maximum Rotor Angle Deviation
PowerFactory can also calculate the maximum deviation between the rotor angles be-
tween the synchronous machines in the system. This variable is then called dfrotx and
can be chosen and displayed from the variables of all synchronous generators in the sys-
tem. This variable can be used as an indicator for the synchronous operation of a large
transmission system.
A-stable integration algorithm for all models
If you enable this option, PowerFactory uses an A-stable numerical integration algo-
rithms for all models to solve the simulation. In this case dynamic model equations and
network equations are solved simultaneously. This algorithm is (slightly) slower in case of
small step sizes but converges much better in case of large step sizes. Typical applications
are longer term simulations, in which the simulation step size is increased considerably
after fast transients have decayed. Another typical application are systems with power
electronics. Even if power electronics devices are usually equipped with very fast controls,
the A-stable algorithm still allows reasonable step sizes, at which the relaxation method
would fail.
When using a conventional, explicit numerical integration algorithm, such as Runge-Kutta
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(not an A-stable algorithm), the integration step size must be adjusted to the eigenvalues
of a system. Such a method (Relaxation Method) means a mutual solution of dynamic
model equations and network equations until convergence is reached: This algorithm is
fast for small step sizes but fails to converge when the step size is increased. Best choice
for classical transient stability applications. But if excessively large step sizes are used, the
numerical solution becomes unstable, even if fast modes have fully decayed and are no
longer apparent in the system.
With the PowerFactory A-stable algorithm, the step size can be adjusted to the actual
course of all state variables without considering numerical stability. When fast transients
have decayed, the step size can be adjusted to the speed of slower transients, etc.
If some very fast modes are not of interest, a large step size can be selected from the
beginning, and the algorithm will automatically smooth fast variations. A typical applica-
tion of this type of algorithm is the simulation of long-term phenomena - where it is nec-
essary to increase the simulation step size to the range of minutes, even if fast modes are
present in the system.
However, if power electronics are involved, characteristic time constants can be extremely
short (i.e. 1ms), even if a stability model with steady-state equations for the electrical net-
work is used. Hence, using a classical integration algorithm would require the use of step
sizes significantly smaller than the smallest time constant of the system, otherwise it
would be numerically instable.
Note A requirement for using the A-stable integration algorithm is that
just "true" input and output signal variables are used for exchang-
ing information between different models.
It should be mentioned, that it is also possible to choose the usage of an A-stable algo-
rithm for some element models only (not for all models), so that it is possible to run just
a part of the models with the A-stable algorithm (for example the power electronic con-
verters or fast controllers). This option is available in the dialogues of the elements.
With the A-stable algorithm, these systems can be analysed with reasonable step sizes.
Hence, the A-stable algorithm cannot be described as using simplified models but as a
different type of numerical integration algorithm.
25.3.5 Noise Generation
The Noise Generator element (ElmNoise) can be used in a transient simulation to pro-
duce a noise signal based on random numbers. On the Noise Generation page of the
ComInc dialogue, the random number generation method can be selected. The random
number generator can be selected to be automatic (by selecting option auto), which is
the default value and the most commonly used.
Alternatively, the option renew may be selected, in which case the random seed of the
noise generator can be selected manually from "A" to "K". Thus the noise signal will look
the same in every simulation, i.e. the results of a former simulation can be reproduced
exactly.
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25.3.6 Advanced Simulation Options - Load Flow
There are further options which can influence the simulation process and its results. In
the load flow command dialogue (ComLdf, see also Section 22.3.1) on the Advanced
Simulation Options tab, the influence of protection devices or various controller models
can be neglected. Hence the chosen models or protection devices will be ignored during
the simulation as well as in load flow and other calculations. This is illustrated in Figure
25.2.

Fig. 25.2: Advanced Simulation Options in the ComLdf Command Dialogue
The options available for the consideration of protection devices are:
none
No protection devices are considered in the calculations
all
All protection devices are considered
main
Only the protection devices are in operation, which are defined as
'main' devices
backup
Only the 'backup' protection devices are considered. According to the
controller models, there is the possibility to ignore all controllers and
mechanical elements with the option Ignore Composite Elements. If
there are only some specific model types one would like to neglect in
the simulation, they can be moved from the left window Considered
Models to the right window, Ignored Models.
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25.4 Result Objects
During an EMT or RMS simulation, a large number of signal variables are changing over
time. To reduce the available data and to narrow down the number of variables to those
necessary for the analysis of each particular ca