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Environmental Assessment Report

Environmental Assessment and Review Framework Project Number: TA 7528 April 2011

Pakistan: Railway Development Investment Program

Prepared by TERA International, Inc.

The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily document of of ADB’s members, The environmental assessment and review framework is a represent those the borrower. The Board of Directors, Management,do staff, and may be preliminary in nature. of ADB’s Board of Directors, views expressed herein or not necessarily represent those

Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in nature.

 

  CURRENCY EQUIVALENTS (as of 26 April 2011) Currency Unit PKR1.00 $1.00 – = = Rupees (PKR) $0.0118 PKR84.57

ABBREVIATIONS ADB BOD CBIS CSC CO COD dB DO EA EIA EMMP EMP ENERCON EPA GDP GoP GRC HIV/AIDS IA IEE MFF MOE MOR NCCW NEQS NOx Pak EPA PEPO PFI pH PM PMU PR QMMB REA ROW RSES SEA Sox SPS – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Asian Development Bank biochemical oxygen demand computer based instruction simulations construction supervision consultant carbon monoxide chemical oxygen demand decibel dissolved oxygen executing agency environmental impact assessment environmental management and monitoring plan environmental management plan National Energy Conservation Center Environmental Protection Agency gross domestic product Government of Pakistan grievance redress committees human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome implementing agency initial environmental examination multitranche financing facility Ministry of Environment Ministry of Railways National Council for Conservation of Wildlife in Pakistan National Environmental Quality Standards nitrogen oxides Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance Pakistan Forest Institute acidity/basicity particulate matter program management unit Pakistan Railways Quaid-I-Azam Mazar Management Board ADB’s Rapid Environmental Assessment Checklist right-of-way Environment and Safeguards Division strategic environmental assessment sulphur oxides ADB`s 2009 Safeguard Policy Statement

The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members, Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in nature.

 

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and may be preliminary in nature.   . Scientific and Cultural Organization Zoological Survey Department NOTE In this report “$” refers to US dollars In preparing any country program or strategy. or staff. The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members. Board of Directors. or by making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area in this document. Management.  ST STI TSS UNESCO ZSD – – – – – safeguards team socially transmitted infection total suspended solids United Nations Educational. the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area. financing any project.

. 12 V.. 2 Policy and Legal Framework .... Reporting .......................................... II.............. 16 VI.... Consultation and Information Disclosure ....................................... 10 A................................................................................................... CONSULTATION............... Environmental Assessment for Subprojects and/or Components ................ Environmental Criteria for Subproject Selection ..... MONITORING AND REPORTING .................................... Introduction ................... 7 ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATIVE MEASURES ................................... 12 C......... B......................................... Monitoring ......................... 16 B. III.................................... 17 B..................................................... Hazards and Climate Change Appendix III: Potential Impacts and Proposed Mitigation Measures Appendix IV: Environmental Monitoring Plan Appendix V: Environment Protection Investment – Project 1 .... Procedures for Environmental Assessment of Subprojects......................................................................... 1 Assessment of Legal Framework and Institutional Capacity ... 3 EIA Requirements of Pakistan ....................................................... AND GRIEVANCE REDRESS MECHANISM ...........................................    CONTENTS I.......... 17 Annexes: Appendix I: Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) Checklist Appendix II: Environments..... A.............10 IV............................................................... Grievance Redress Mechanism ................................................ 10 B... 17 A....................... INFORMATION DISCLOSURE......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... The Authorities Involved and Responsibilities ......................................................... 16 A................

or staff. and maysingle line. (ii) governance assessment. and remodeling of the Shahdara and Wazirabad yards for removing existing permanent speed restrictions. in addition to rehabilitation of the Lahore yard. 4. The third tranche (Project 3) will include the rehabilitation of 174 km of track from Rawalpindi to Peshawar Cantt section. thereby adding flexibility and a longer timeframe for the delivery of preparatory materials. Table 1: Investment Program Components Name Length (Km) Lahore . Project 1 will include the rehabilitation of the Lahore-Lalamusa railway section. 2. that. Tranche (Project) No. The Ministry of Railways (MOR) is the Executing Agency (EA) with Pakistan Railway (PR) acting as the Implementing Agency (IA). in addition to remodeling some of the stations along the Project corridor for removing existing permanent speed restrictions. This upgrade includes not only railway work. but also (i) preparation of the railway sector roadmap. and upgrading and installation of new telecommunications and automatic block signaling systems including power supply. (iii) feasibility of the investment program. The existing track of 53 km between Kaluwal (near Dina) and Pindora (near Gujar Khan) has very sharp curves and ruling grades due to which speed is restricted to 65 kph. The existing line between Kaluwal and Pindora stations will be retained for freight traffic and running of departmental trains. aim to upgrade the 463 km railway line between Lahore and Peshawar Cantt. The track between Rawalpindi–Golra Sharif is double line and views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members. an understanding of the nomenclature of components of the railway investment program is important. the speed will be increased up to 105 kph and the distance will also be reduced by about 17 km. Pakistan recognizes the importance of this railway corridor development in promoting national development and is committed to upgrading the entire railway section in order to meet future traffic requirements. All railway sections within the present Project will be rehabilitated. Introduction 1. As such. 5. The proposed Project 1 of the multitranche financing facility (MFF) for the Pakistan Railway Sector Investment Program is the first in a series of projects to fully rehabilitate one the country’s main railway corridors in the Punjab Province. improvements in telecommunication systems. The first tranche (Project 1) will commence in 2011. policy framework. and investment plan. and provision of a signaling system.Lalamusa 132 Lalamusa . all together. Since this Project is designed as a MFF. Management. in nature. Board of whereas the remaining section is be preliminary section. with subsequent tranches to follow as they are prepared. and (iv) formulation of financing and implementation arrangements. besides improvement in telecommunication system and provision of a signaling system. After realignment of the section. besides improvement in telecommunication systems The provision of a signaling system. the investment program consists of three tranches (shown in Table 1).1 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND REVIEW FRAMEWORK I. thus reducing the travel time between Lahore and Rawalpindi to about 3 hours.   .Rawalpindi 157 Rawalpindi . The second tranche (Project 2) will include realignment of Kaluwal–Pindora section and removal of speed restrictions on Lalamusa-Rawalpindi section to increase the speed up to 120 Km/h. The MFF loan modality permits a government to proceed with a larger project via a number of separate loan packages.Peshawar Cantt 174 3. 1 2 3 Km = kilometer. Directors.

Previously named the Ministry of Environment. and initiate legislation in various sectors of the environment. Take measures to promote research and the development of science and technology which may contribute to the prevention of pollution. Local Government and Rural Development. housing. Provide information and guidance to the public on environmental matters. sewerage and drainage. for the prevention and control of pollution. and the promotion of sustainable development. it was bifurcated in 2002 and an independent MOE was established to focus on the issues of environment. physical planning and human settlements including urban water supply. protection of the environment. plans and programs related to environmental planning. Pak-EPA also provides all kind of technical assistance to the Ministry of Environment for formulation of environmental policy and programs. This is an Act to provide for the protection. the Zoological Survey Department (ZSD).2    II. Identify the needs for. the Pakistan Forest Institute (PFI). housing. Its key roles and responsibilities include the following: (i) (ii) Prepare. conservation. ecology. Administrative control of key players in the sector including the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA). the National Energy Conservation Center (ENERCON). human settlement and forests in Pakistan. the Ministry of Environmental (MOE) is the main governmental agency that pursues environmental policy. Assessment of Legal Framework and Institutional Capacity 6. and others. either on its own accord or upon complaints from any person or organization. community organizations. the National Council for Conservation of Wildlife in Pakistan (NCCW). and Undertake inquiries or investigation into environmental issues. Specify safeguards for the prevention of accidents and disasters which may cause pollution. rehabilitation and improvement of the environment. Encourage the formation and working of non-governmental organizations. the Quaid-I-Azam Mazar Management Board (QMMB). (ii) (iii) (iv) 8. The Pak-EPA is department that is attached to the Ministry of Environment and is responsible for implementing the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 in the country. physical and human settlements. The key functions and objectives of the Ministry are as follows: (i) Developing the national policies. pollution and ecology. (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) . Economic planning and policy making with respect to forestry and wildlife. 7. and village organizations to prevent and control pollution and promote sustainable development. and sustainable development. or revise and establish the National Environmental Quality Standards with approval of the Council. At the national level. Dealings and agreements with other countries and international organizations in the fields of environment. implements ministerial control and coordinates the activities of natural resources’ use and protection.

The Act also addresses the regulatory regime for hazardous substances/wastes. conservation. delegation of power not necessarily represent those of enforcement of The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do to government agencies. A. Figure 1 shows the organizational structure for the Punjab EPA. Policy and Legal Framework 10. Figure 1: Organizational Structure For The Punjab EPA Source: Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. resource generation through establishment of a Provisional Sustainable   . Management. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency was created under Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance 1983. 11. The Pakistan Environmental Policy is based on a participatory approach aimed at achieving sustainable development through legally. administratively and technically sound institutions. The Act particularly focuses on the implementation of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council’s policies. Under the Pak-EPA. the prevention and control of pollution. Their primary responsibility of enforcing environmental protection laws is delegated to provincial protection agencies under section 26 of the Environmental Protection Act. introduction of EIA/IEE review Board of may be preliminary procedures/systems. there are also Provincial Environmental Protection Agencies in each province of Pakistan. andin nature. Its powers were enhanced under the Environmental Protection Act of 1997. ADB’s members. 12. 1997 to provide for the protection. national Directors. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 is the basic environmental law of Pakistan. rehabilitation and improvement of the environment. Quality andStandards. Environmental or staff.3 9. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act was enacted on the 6th of December. The apex body established under the Act is the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council. and the promotion of sustainable development.

regulations. and National Resettlement Policy (Draft). sewage treatment facilities. review and approval of environmental assessments. Maximum allowable noise levels from machinery and vehicles. Policy and procedures for filing. The description of the environmental impacts controlled by the Pakistani environmental laws and regulations are described in Table 2. Guidelines for the preparation and review of environmental reports. Guidelines for sensitive and critical areas. specify the following standards: (i) Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (32 parameters) in municipal and liquid industrial effluents discharged to inland waters. The National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Standards for ambient air quality have not been prescribed as yet. Guidelines for public participation. 13. Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (16 parameters) in gaseous emissions from industrial sources. Pakistan environmental legislation and the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (two parameters) in gaseous emissions from exhaust of vehicles and machinery. 1997. The environmental laws. . on the other hand. Those are part of a package of regulations and guidelines. which includes: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Pakistan Environmental Protection Act-1997. The relevant environmental laws and regulations are presented in Table 3. and standards which control the environmental impacts of each environmental parameter are described by the Pakistan Environmental Legislation and the National Environmental Standards issued in October. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 14. 15. The negative impacts associated with major transportation projects are described in the Pakistan Sectoral Guidelines for Environmental Reports.4    Development Fund and levying of Pollution Charges and providing appellant forum for environmental cases. and the sea (three separate sets of numbers).

Deforestation and desertification. Increase in poaching and subsequent hunting and fishing. Management. ditches. construction machinery and vehicular traffic. and Safety Accidents. and Problem with resettlement of households. Degradation of natural water bodied and wildlife habitat resulting from erosion and sedimentation. Resources Threat to human health amenity and to natural systems resulting from insufficient storm water management and flooding. Human Health Noise disturbance. trees.   . Displacement Displacement of settlements. Heritage Degradation of aesthetic value of historical and cultural monuments. Environmental Impacts Controlled By the Pakistani Environmental Laws and Regulations Environmental Environmental Impacts Parameter Slope failure and mass movements. Air quality deterioration/ degradation-caused by dust and vehicle emissions Air generated through construction activity. structures and remains of archeological. Damage. Split Community. Disintegration of social activity. Resettlement Problem with basic utilities in displaced and resettlement areas. changes to groundwater levels. The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members. Source: The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy. Change in natural drainage patterns. Transmission of diseases. Degradation of environment owing to ribbon development. Contamination of local water supplies. fragmentation or loss of habitat and biodiversity. Destruction of natural relief resulting by major cut and fill.5 Table 2. Deprivation of other users from water resources. or staff. Air pollution. Board of Directors. Loss of protective topsoil in borrow areas (if any). Disappearance of reproduction and food zones for fish. Ecosystem Contamination of biota. Obstructions/unsafe conditions owing to presence of side poles. Destruction of vegetation. steep slopes and barriers. historical. religious and Cultural cultural values. and may be preliminary in nature. Activities Loss of community business. Disturbance by vibration. Landscape Destruction of vegetation and trees. business and properties. Soil erosion and modification of surface relief. Degradation of natural water bodies and wildlife habitats resulting from contamination by accidental spills. aquatic and migratory birds. Community Disruption of traditional modes of transport. properties and utilities. Water Impairment of beneficial uses. Soil Contamination. Displacement of both private and public institutions and utilities. Damage of sites. Soil Sedimentation of water bodies and drains. Transmission of disease.

P Punjab and Sindh Local Government Ordinance(s) (1979/80)  Indus River Water Apportionment Accord-(1981)  Statutory Notification S.R. XXVII of 1997  The Land Improvement Loans Act (1883)  The Punjab Development of Damaged Areas Act (1952)  The Punjab Soil Reclamation Act (1952)  The West Pakistan Agricultural Pests Ordinance (1959) and Rules (1960)  The Islamabad (Preservation of Landscape) Ordinance (1966)  The Punjab Development Cities Act (1976)  The Balochistan. 742 (1993)  Statutory Notification S. P Punjab and Sindh Local Government Ordinance(s) (1979/80) Sector Environmental Protection Land Use Water Quality and Resources Air Quality Noise Toxic or Hazardous Substances Solid Wastes and Effluents Marine and Fisheries Forest Conservation . 1023 (1995)  The West Pakistan Regulation and Control of Loudspeakers and Sound Amplifiers Ordinance (1965)  The Motor Vehicle Ordinance (1965) and Rules (1969)  The Pakistan Penal Code (1860)  The Explosives Act (1884)  The Factories Act (1934)  The Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance (1971) and Rules (1973)  The Pakistan Penal Code (1934)  The Balochistan NWFP.R.R.R. Relevant Environmental Laws and Regulations Legislation  The Pakistan Penal Code (1860)  Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance. No. NWFP.R. 742 (1993)  The Pakistan Penal Code (1860)  The Factories Act (1934)  The West Pakistan Prohibition of Smoking in Cinema Houses Ordinance (1960)  The Motor Vehicles Ordinance (1965) and Rules (1969)  The Balochistan NWFP. P Punjab and Sindh Local Government Ordinance(s) (1979/80)  Statutory Notification S.6    Table 3.R. XXVII of 1997  The west Pakistan Fisheries Ordinance (1961)  Balochistan Sea-Fisheries Ordinance (1970) and Rules (1971)  The NWFP Fisheries Rules (1976)  Territorial Waters and Maritime Zones Act (1976)  The Punjab Forest (Sale of Timber) Act (1913)  The Forests Act (1927)  The NWFP Hazara Forest Act (1936)  The West Pakistan Firewood and charcoal (Restrictions) Act 1964  The Punjab Plantation and Maintenance of Trees Act (1974)  The Cutting of Trees (Prohibition) Act (1975)  The NWFP Management of Protected Forests Rules (1975)  The Balochistan NWFP. No. P Punjab and Sindh Local Government Ordinance(s) (1979/80)  Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance. Punjab and Sindh Local Government Ordinance(s) (1979/80)  The NWFP Salinity Control and Reclamation Act (1988)  The Pakistan Penal Code (1860)  The Canal and Drainage Act (1873)  The Factories Act (1934)  West Pakistan Act (1958)  The Balochistan Ground water Rights Administration Ordinance (1978)  The Balochistan NWFP.

P Punjab and Sindh Local Government Ordinance(s) (1979/80)  West Pakistan Penal Code (1860)  The Boilers Act (1923)  The Public Health (Emergency Provisions) Ordinance (1944)  The West Pakistan Factories Canteen Rules (1959)  The Balochistan NWFP. It The views expressed herein areintegration consultant and do not necessarily represent those of planning describes those of the of the environment into development ADB’s members. B. EIA Requirements of Pakistan 16. the project level. (i) (ii)   . Management. Board of Directors. P Punjab and Sindh Local Government Ordinance(s) (1979/80)  Export and Control Order (1982) Mineral  The Regulation of Mines and Oil-Fields and Mineral Development development (Government Control) Act (1948) Cultural  The Antiquities Act (1975) Environment  The Punjab Special Premises (Preservation) Ordinance (1985)  West Pakistan Goats (Restriction) Ordinance (1959)  West Pakistan Punjab Animal Slaughter Control Act (1963)  The Grazing of Cattle in the Protected forests (Range Lands) Rules (1978) Livestock  Pakistan Animal Quarantine (Import and Export of Animals and Animal Products) Ordinance (1979/80)  The Balochistan NWFP. 1997. or staff. the National Environmental Policy was developed in 2005. (iii) Enactment of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. (iv) Development of the Pakistan IEE/EIA Regulations of 2000. and may be preliminary in nature. The following are the key milestones that Pakistan’s environmental protection requirements have passed through: EIA became mandatory for all new projects in July 1994. It also through the implementation of the EIA process at promotes Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) as a tool for integrating the environment into the decision-making process. The formalized arrangements for the implementation of an EIA system in Pakistan evolved over a period of fifteen years.7  The NWFP (Conservation and Exploitation of Certain Forests in Hazara Division) Ordinance (1980)  The NWFP Forest Development Corporation Ordinance (1980)  The West Pakistan Ordinance (1959)  The Kohat Marzri Control Act (1954)  The Sindh Wildlife protection ordinance (1972) and Rules (1972)  The Punjab wildlife (Protection Preservation Conservation and Management ) Act (1974) and Rules) (1974) Parks and  The Balochistan Wildlife Protection Act (1974) and Rules (1975) Wildlife  The NWFP Wildlife (Protection Preservation Conservation and Conservation Management ) Act (1975) and Rules) (1976) Protection  The Pakistan Penal Quarantine Act (1976)  Islamabad wildlife (Protection Preservation Conservation and Management) Ordinance (1979/80)  The Balochistan NWFP. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a rapidly growing field of work and has become a mandatory legal requirement in Pakistan. (v) Finally. P Punjab and Sindh Local Government Ordinance(s) (1979/80)  The West Pakistan Epidemic diseases Act (1979/80) Source: The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy. It started with the promulgation of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance (PEPO) of 1983 (repealed in 1997). Documentation of sectoral guidelines as an EIA Package became effective in1997.

according to Pakistan’s requirements. Figure 3 illustrates the EIA working layout. and to ensure that they are aware of the procedures that apply at the earliest possible time. and shall be aware that the proper specification of the consultant’s task will only become clear as the work on the IEE and other scoping activities are undertaken. developers shall consult with the responsible project authority to confirm the categorization of the project. Figure 2: Pakistan EIA Process Project Proposal Screening Process EIA required refer Schedule-II IEE required. Proponents and their consultants shall visit the site. refer Schedule-I N No IEE/EIA required refer Schedule-III Scoping/baseline collection of data from site Submitted to EPA Finding of NonSignificant i t Yes Impact analysis to indentify Environmental impacts during construction and operation periods *Then Process for approval to EPA is concerned Consideration of mitigation measures EMP made by proponent authority EIA report prepared Public involvement/ consultation EIA report submitted for Not Approval Approved Redesign Implementatio n and Follow Resubmitted Source: Environmental Impact Assessment in Pakistan – overview. TRITA LWR Masters Thesis 0624. 2006.8    17. railway sector projects are categorized as projects for which filing an EIA is required. collect available data. In terms of the steps in the IEE/EIA preparation process itself. Those Regulations list the projects that require an IEE in its Project Schedule-I and the projects for which an EIA is required in Project Schedule-II. is a legal requirement under section 12 of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997. Figure 2 illustrates the EIA process as per IEE/EIA regulations. June. whether public or private. Environmental Impact Assessment of all development projects. talk with local people about their values and the proposals. implementation and effectiveness. The review of IEE and EIA Regulations is meant to strengthen and give guidance to existing requirements under section 12 of the Environmental Protection Act. Projects that are not listed in either schedule require no action. Proponents may have already engaged consultants at this time. 18. and consult with other departments and stakeholders. . According to the listed projects in the Regulation.

EIA working layout EIA Proposal Screening: Initial environmental Evaluation No EIA is required EIA is required Pre-feasibility studies Public . The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members. and Pakistan environmental legislation and National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). TRITA LWR Masters Thesis 0624. The following are the general guidelines that shall be followed in the railway sector projects: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Policy and procedures for making the EIAs. Guidelines for sensitive and critical areas. 20. Guidelines for the preparation and review of environmental reports. or staff.   . scientific com munity & decis ion makers partic ipate SCOPING. Pak EPA Regulations for the year 2000). identify impacts. Guidelines for public consultation. Provide feedback for future EIA’s Implementation Audit Assess EIA Process Operation &Management Source: Environmental Impact Assessment in Pakistan—overview. implementation and effectiveness. 19. and may be preliminary in nature.9 Figure 3. make major revision to a proposal Fea sibility studies Detailed Design & prepa ration Public informed and consulted PREDICTION & MITIGATION. define issues. 2006. the Pakistan Environment Protection Agency in collaboration with other key stakeholders have prepared an “EIA Package” which includes both General Guidelines and Sectoral Guidelines. To help the proponent throughout the preparation of the EIA report.e. Management. proposed mitigation meas ures Re view of EIS by Re gulatory Authorit y and Public Prepare draft EIS Prepare final EIS MANAGEMENT & Monitoring. Board of Directors.. June. In regard to the sectoral guidelines. the Pakistan Sectoral Guidelines for Environmental Reports shall be followed as well as the format of the IEE/EIA as prescribed in the EIA Package (i. review and approval of environmental assessments. implement EMP plant including monitoring .

Realignment of the section would require preparation of a land acquisition and resettlement action plan. Ensuring that the EA documentation is prepared in compliance with the requirements of the Government and ADB. Detailed information about the type of land along the approved alignment and its market price will be collected during the field survey for costing purposes. IV. including submission to the EPA for government review. based on the environmental classification of projects. 25. The people are mostly agriculturists but their holdings are too small to provide subsistence. the MFF will mainly involve rehabilitation of existing track and rehabilitation of bridges. inter alia. protection of landslide. including hiring an environmental consultant to prepare IEE or EIA reports including an environmental management plan (EMP) for public disclosure. Environmental Assessment for Subprojects and/or Components A. and that adequate consultation with affected people is undertaken in accordance with ADB requirements. The Authorities Involved and Responsibilities 1. 23. besides improvement in telecommunication system and provision of CBIS signaling system. It will also incorporate all consulting services under the project. As the Executing Agency MoR’s responsibilities will include: (i) Preparing any environmental screening checklists and classifying projects in consultation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other departments. and asphalt plants. The area is generally barren and hilly with cultivation in patches. The PMU will. information disclosure and consultation with project-affected people. soil. measures to protect critical side-slopes. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) . classification. site preparation. land clearing. Overseeing the review of the IEE or EIA. and other associated drainage structures. Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigative Measures 21. The existing track of 53 km between Kaluwal (near Dina) and Pindora (near Gujar Khan) has very sharp curves and ruling grades due to which speed is restricted. The Ministry of Railways will act as Executing Agency and the overall technical and administrative authority for this MFF. Implementing Agency (IA) 24. Leading the day-to-day implementation of the project as a whole will be a Program Management Unit (PMU) located within the MoR. Application of mitigative and monitoring actions should be applied as defined in the model environmental mitigation and monitoring plan (Appendix 1). The second tranche project (Project 2) will include the realignment of the Kaluwal– Pindora section and removal of speed restrictions on the Lalamusa–Rawalpindi section to increase the speed up to 120 kph. setting up of temporary construction camps to house workers. and works. An EIA study will also be conducted besides carrying out social development and poverty alleviation. With the exception of Project 2. including assistance to the provinces and will oversee the conduct of feasibility studies (including environmental studies) by project consultants. and unstable material. culverts. extraction of material for embankments using cut and fill procedures. conduct package screening. Preparing a terms of reference for the environmental assessment. Conducting the initial environmental examination (IEE) or environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies.10    III. 22. disposal of gravel. vegetation. ensuring that all documentation is compliant with GoP and ADB requirements.

11       (vi) Obtaining necessary permits and/or clearance. Investigating and reporting on environmental effects stemming from any design and construction changes added after the detailed design is completed. Completing the mitigation and monitoring actions as defined in the EMP. The contractor is therefore responsible for: (i) (ii) Confirming the provision of environmental safeguard expertise. Often contractors have no such expertise and must either hire staff or a consultant to provide the expertise to help them implement all mitigative and monitoring tasks defined in the EMP. as required. ensuring that all necessary regulatory clearances are obtained before commencing any civil work. and Preparing mitigation and monitoring completion reports for submission to the railway operator or the project executing agency. The actual work during the construction period will be completed by the contractors. and. or staff. and its EMP and other documents. Submitting project environmental mitigation and monitoring completion report to ADB. (vii) 26. The implementing agency’s (IA) responsibilities will include: (i) (ii) Ensuring that EMP tasks including relevant mitigation and monitoring measures needing to be incorporated during the pre-construction stage are implemented. For the operation period the responsibility will be handed over to Pakistan Railways as the implementing agency. and Submitting to ADB the final IEE or EIA. The Contractor (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) 27. as necessary. Unless the IA has inspectors in the field constantly and undertakes the constructionperiod mitigation and monitoring.   . confirming that contractors understand their responsibilities to mitigate environmental problems associated with their rehabilitation and construction activities. including any emergency programs. the contractor must fill that role. Ensuring that any EMP tasks including relevant mitigation and monitoring measures needing to be incorporated during the construction stage by the contractor are included in the bidding documents and are implemented. from EPA and other relevant government agencies. they form a PMU who will hire a Construction Supervision Consultant (CSC) and also establish a Safeguards Team (ST) to oversee the planning and implementing of monitoring and mitigation measures during detailed design and rehabilitation of the railway section. by preparing a construction period monitoring plan and reporting on actions taken on a monthly basis. (iii) (iv) The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members. Submission to the ADB of semi-annual reports on implementing EMPs. and may be preliminary in nature. That is. Completing mitigation and monitoring checklist for every construction inspection cycle and for inclusion in the bi-annual submission to ADB. Management. leading to unpredicted environmental impacts. The MoR will be the executing agency (EA) for the individual subprojects. Ensuring that contractors have access to the EIA or IEE and EMP reports of the projects. Board of Directors. Ensuring that EMP tasks including relevant mitigation and monitoring measures needing to be incorporated during the operating period are implemented 2. three years after the start of the operating period of the project.

Under ADB guidelines.org/Safeguards. or the consultant on their behalf and provide a no objection note as needed. the following environmental criteria should be applied for the selection of future subprojects in the Railway Development Investment Program: (i) (ii) (iii) Each Project must not have any one of ten activities that are classified as restricted in Annex 5 of ADB`s 2009 Safeguard Policy Statement. The IEE can also act as an EIA screening document and indicate when a full EIA is needed to fully address environmental matters. recorded and implemented if appropriate. Undertaking annual environmental review missions for category A and B sensitive projects. Asian Development Bank (ADB) The ADB will be responsible for: (i) (ii) (iii) Reviewing EIA or IEE reports prepared by the EA. Otherwise. if an EIA is not needed. 32. Considering the potential environmental impacts of the future subprojects and the relevant environmental requirements of ADB and the Government of Pakistan. The guidelines to prepare ADB-compliant environmental assessment are found in the ADB`s 2009 Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) Annex 1 on www. ADB classifies all of its projects into one of three environmental assessment categories. mostly reversible effects. ADB`s EA process is the preferred procedure to be applied. namely “A” through “C”. but with careful consideration of and compliance with GoP standards. Projects judged to have some adverse impacts. and where impacts and mitigative measures are well understood (based on past experience). Projects with potential for significant adverse environmental impacts are classified into category A. are classified as category B projects. the executive summary of the EIA and IEE (for category B sensitive projects only). If ADB funding is involved in any future project. habitat or species designated as protected or significant by the GoP or an international agency. Each Project should not permanently degrade any culturally. Procedures for Environmental Assessment of Subprojects (iv) C. 29. annotated with the GoP requirements is summarized below . with reference to all appropriate regulations should be applied. Environmental Criteria for Subproject Selection B. the categorization and process defined in GoP regulations.adb. the IEE is regarded as the final environmental assessment report. Each Project shall only involve activities that comply with government regulations. before the detailed design stage is completed. These require an initial environmental examination (IEE). and Disclosing to the public on the ADB website. For existing and future projects the ADB process is to be applied. 30. archaeologically or environmentally important site. 28. but preferably the entire EA documentation in English and the local language. but less severe. 31. and The alignment and design changes planned for each Project will be discussed in detail with local communities along the RoW and suggested modifications considered.12    3. requiring a complete EIA. To that end the ADB`s step-by-step process.

particularly if the project is located less than 1. a scoping exercise is recommended. 36.13       1. ADB SPS. 39.000 meters from any designated wildlife sanctuary. 40. Board of Directors. Scoping 38. In general. or staff. a project will be classified as ‘category A’ if it: (i) (ii) Is a new railway alignment. Screening 33. Will generate impact affecting an ecologically sensitive area. usually the legal RoW plus additional land in either side of the alignment. 41. yielding a project classification and boundary. mitigation measures. A very important scoping task is to define the projects ‘corridor of impact’. and Exists and already passes through any ecologically. STEP 2: Before conducting any environmental assessment involving category A or B projects. This work should involve an experienced environmental assessment practitioner. Categorization is established by defining the most environmental sensitive component and the extent and duration of the impact on that component. STEP 3: Establishing the baseline conditions for the components of the environment likely affected by the project is completed with a thorough review of existing information. It is described as a process of interaction between the public. GoP classifies any railways project as one needing an EIA to be completed. and is summarized on the following eight subsections. is provided in the Appendix. the government. culturally or archaeologically sensitive areas. Railway upgrading and rehabilitation subprojects that do not involve any of the three conditions defined above and which do not trigger any of ADB’s 10 no-funding conditions (Annex 5. 34. 2009) are classified as B. other sanctuary. This helps to bound the assessment by defining the geographic boundary and time scale to be used to define impacts. With the screening and scoping completed. STEP 1: All future subprojects to be included in the MFF will be screened to determine their environmental category based on the ADB’s Rapid Environmental Assessment Checklist (REA). Identifying Baseline Conditions and Impacts The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members. 3. site   . 37. In GoP’s requirements the scoping phase as a vital one that determines valued environmental components that could be affected by a project. the project is classified according to the most sensitive component. based on the ADB’s format. These still require a short report justifying their classification and why no impacts are predicted. and the proponent. the planning and execution of the field program is the next important task. or area of international significance or cultural heritage and archaeological sites designated by UNESCO and/or the GoP. Management. national park. monitoring tasks and the overall duration of an assessment. A suggested template of the REA. Projects involving training and purchase of equipment usually do not involve any impacts and are classified as category C. If this analysis identifies a significant impact and the component affected is in a special category and even if other components remain unaffected. (iii) 35. and may be preliminary in nature. 2.

by relating cause with effect such as changes in traffic volume. 50. fleet makeup and traffic patterns degrading air quality and noise. protected areas. 42. soils. Good EMPs not only identify the source of the impact. 49. 4. or where monitoring takes place and the timing of these activities should remain uniform or at least easily traceable. specific and systematic. GoP’s process has identical steps. 5. It is important to provide enough lead time (at least 3 weeks) for communities to attend such sessions. often via a written short booklet accompanied by an invitation to attend a workshop/information session. 47. permitting future comparative analysis or audits of the technical credibility of the assessment. impacts and location.14    visits and the collection of any available and relevant databases. such as for terrain/topography. every effort should be made make the EA work ‘transparent’ and traceable. With a record of impact source. Therefore each mitigative measure needs to be matched with a monitoring activity. People assigned monitoring tasks can easily complete. 43. Public Consultations and Information Distribution 44. Preparation of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) 46. All data must be collected so that their source can be traced by anyone who picks up the document. STEP 4: This step involves predicting likely change as a result of major construction activities and operation of the railway. STEP 6: The preparation of the EMP is one of the two most important outputs of an environmental assessment. The locations where base data are collected. The EMP must be practical. 45. and Can be translated or simply referenced as environmental clauses in contract specifications. GoP’s process has similar steps. the EIA/IEE team should at this point systematically record each predicted impact occurrence. and then specifies when. geology. . such that it can easily be converted to mitigative and monitoring actions which: (i) (ii) (iii) Proponents and contractors can undertake. helping to identify oversights regarding impacts. forest cover. land use. The PMU is required to review and update the EMP as soon as the contractor has been appointed and the mobilization date is established. when and who should implement each mitigative and monitoring action and who is responsible. noise and water quality conditions in the project corridor. define an appropriate mitigative action that either prevents the impact or reduces it a level acceptable under national standards or international best practice. where and who should implement and supervise each action. how often. 48. This baseline will become the conditions against which any changes due to project effects will be measured. but also where. While following strict scientific methods in preparing an EIA is far too costly and time consuming. the effect on the biophysical environment and the monitoring action to be taken. and all ambient air. This is the same for both EIAs and IEEs. The consultation must be preceded by the provision of information on the project to the affected communities. STEP 5: The objective of public consultation is to engage the general affected public as well as government officials at several levels in a dialogue leading to better mitigative measures.

should be short and focused. identifying needs based on obvious gaps.15       51. and recommended actions. fuel handling and storage protocols and work camp waste management. STEP 9. Estimating Mitigation. The assessment. Since the contractors play such an important role in EMP implementation. The EMP should identify the lead implementing and supervising agencies and their provincial counterparts involved in all mitigation and monitoring actions. the preparation of the EA document should begin at the very start of the work. then estimating the cost to undertake each. . Costing of mitigation and monitoring is undertaken under the GoP's environmental assessment process. Finally appropriate capacity building actions addressing both longer term and short term requirements. GoP’s process has similar related to the capacity and training needs of the project management entities. implementation and supervision of the mitigation and monitoring actions from preconstruction through the operating period. Management. While listed as the last EA step. 56. GoP’s process has similar steps. This estimation is done by using the EMP columns that identify the mitigative action and associated monitoring task. STEP 7: involves the identification of the agencies and units at the national and provincial level that will likely be involved in the management. Costing details must be systematic and include rates and unit costs and an indication of actions that. 58. Reporting 57. and what constitutes successful reporting. The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members.   . such as lack of experience in any international-level assessments or lack of experience with preparation and implementation of EMPs. in relation to realistic budgetary limits need to be specified and costed. It also provides details on the report review process. with the completion of a detailed Table of Contents (based on the mandatory content defined in the ADB’s SPS (2009) (Annex 1 & 2) or as specified in the relevant national standards. for example slope stabilization. while referred to as environmental. GoP requirements explain in great detail the reporting requirements. Board of Directors. re-vegetation. therefore reducing the risk of double counting. helps with the collection and analysis of the appropriate information. 7. Having a clear vision of what must go into the EA document. and may be preliminary in nature. 54. 6. using mostly the interview approach. they must not be left out of the analysis and a general approach to strengthening their safeguards skills must be included in the analysis. It is important to separate capital or one-time expenses to reoccurring costs. 8. Careful interviews will almost always result in those needing assistance identifying what they need most. are normally found in other budget items. or staff. 53. STEP 8 involves costing of each of the mitigative and monitoring actions as well as the institutional capacity building. Monitoring and Training Costs 55. Assessing Institutional Capacity for EMP Implementation 52. such as compliance monitoring during the construction period.

and Grievance Redress Mechanism A. needs to present the project. The roles of such committees would have to be further described to take the ADB requirements into consideration. indicating that participants’ input can still be applied to project planning and design. in collaboration with the project Executing Agency. Public consultations for full EIAs include newspaper advertisement(s) in the regional and national news papers at least one month before the session(s) is to take place. It should address affected people's concerns and complaints using an understandable and transparent process that is gender responsive. and any findings on impacts and benefits. Information Disclosure. The participants should be explicitly invited (not instructed) to provide comments and corrections to what is presented. ADB requires that the Project Executing Agency (Ministry of Railways) establish and maintain a grievance redress mechanism to receive and facilitate resolution of affected peoples’ concerns and grievances about its delivery of environmental safeguards at the project level. 61. the consultation session takes place at the time when the EMP is being prepared.. To that end the Executing Agency. For a category A project consultation is required at least twice during the EIA: (i) first as part of the scoping stage to define the project and to get feedback on options. At the provincial level these will be comprised of the head of the environmental planning department and two members. These findings must be defined as tentative or interim. 60. as defined in the assessment documents (primarily the EMPs). Often. 62. a project website is created containing more details on the project and a link provided in the announcement. and easy to access. will establish an environmental issues’ specific Grievance Redress Committee(s) (GRCs). Grievance Redress Mechanism 64. an overview of the EA process. B. . nearly all conditions as defined above are the same except only 1 consultation session is needed. its location and timetable for implementation. The grievance redress mechanism should be scaled to the risks and impacts of the project. A local government representative for district specific issues shall also be included in the GRCs. Consultation sessions must have minutes and attendance sheets prepared and included as part of the environmental assessment documentation. and no written invitations (a list of potential attendees and contact should be made). there is no newspaper advertisement. The announcement should provide a brief project description.16    V. one being a woman and one being identified as the point of contact for any grievance claim. The Pakistani environmental guidelines describe procedures for the appointment of Environmental Monitoring Committees. Sometimes. in cooperation with the Punjab Province and impacted areas. Adequate and convenient contact information for use by participants should be provided. The EA team. Consultation and Information Disclosure 59. and (ii) fter the draft EMP has been prepared. Consultation. For category B projects. 63. 65. location and specific contact data (including telephone numbers). culturally appropriate.

Reporting 69. for a variable time period. 73. Works’ monitoring takes place at regular intervals throughout the project period. with bi-annual monitoring reports. and file bi-annual reports (short checklists usually no more than 2-3 pages). This plan then forms the basis of the construction period mitigation and monitoring task list and can be used as a monitoring checklist. Monitoring is required during all three stages of a project. to develop its monitoring activity. collapse these into one table showing the mitigative measures and monitoring requirements. Monitoring 66. The railway operator. working in cooperation with the PMU. planning. and mayreports should be submitted 2 times per year during Board Directors. or staff. 68. Monitoring during the planning stage usually takes place twice. 75. including not only what needs to be monitored but where and for what duration. rehabilitation and operation to record the mitigative actions taken and the resulting effects designed to either avoid or reduce predicted impacts. Monitoring and Reporting A. likely PR. requires that monitoring be preliminary in nature. 74. supervised by the Executing and Implementing Agencies or the PMU. Some of the monitoring during both the implementation and operating periods will require sample collection as well as field measurements B. The best approach to reporting is to use the EMPs mitigation and monitoring tables. Well prepared EMPs present the impacts mitigative actions and monitoring requirements throughout the project. Within 4 months of the end of the construction period the Executing Agency or its PMU should instruct the contractor(s) to prepare the construction period environmental mitigation and monitoring summary. but usually are completed annually for three years. Major responsibility for implementation of these actions will rest with the contractor(s). This plus some text would form the monitoring reports. then add columns to record actions taken.   . The preparation and oversight of any monitoring work is the responsibility of the Executing Agency and its consultant.17       VI. Interim monitoring reports are to be complete every 6 months. will use this report and the items defined under Operating Period in the EMP. the construction period and also twice a year for three Project operating years. 70. This report needs to be handed to the operating unit of the Project. During the planning stage the Executing Agency will be required to prepare a planning stage monitoring checklist confirming all the items listed in the EMP.e. once to incorporate mitigative measures in the planning process and then at the end of that stage to monitor compliance. The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members. 67. usually quarterly. ofThe ADBManagement. i. 71. Prior to the mobilization of the contractor(s) the EMP’s construction period mitigation and monitoring tasks need to be converted into a construction period action plan by the contractor. but monitoring checklists every 3 months. dates and results observed. Operating period monitoring is dependent on the types and duration if impacts identified during the environmental assessment. 72.

Potential Environmental Impacts Will the Project cause…  encroachment on historical/cultural areas. refer also to ADB's (a) checklists on involuntary resettlement and Indigenous Peoples. and (d) gender checklists. and quarries?  encroachment on precious ecology (e. (iii) Answer the questions assuming the “without mitigation” case. Use the “remarks” section to discuss any anticipated mitigation measures. It is to be attached to the environmental categorization form and submitted to the Environment and Safeguards Division (RSES). sensitive or protected areas)?  alteration of surface water hydrology of waterways crossed by project. RSES and for approval by the Chief Compliance Officer. disfiguration of landscape by embankments. for endorsement by Director. Country/Project Title: Sector Division: Screening Questions A. (ii) This checklist focuses on environmental issues and concerns. (c) staff guide to consultation and participation. (b) poverty reduction handbook. resulting in increased sediment in streams affected by increased soil erosion at construction site?  deterioration of surface water quality due to silt runoff and sanitary wastes from worker-based camps and chemicals used in construction? Yes No Remarks . Project Siting Is the project area adjacent to or within any of the following environmentally sensitive areas?  Cultural heritage site  Protected Area  Wetland  Mangrove  Estuarine  Buffer zone of protected area  Special area for protecting biodiversity B. The purpose is to identify potential impacts.18    Appendix I: Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) Checklist Instructions: (i) The project team completes this checklist to support the environmental classification of a project. cuts. To ensure that social dimensions are adequately considered. fills.g.

and radiological hazards during project construction and operation during project construction and operation?  noise and vibration due to blasting and other civil works?  dislocation or involuntary resettlement of people?  dislocation and compulsory resettlement of people living in right-of-way?  disproportionate impacts on the poor.19       Screening Questions  increased local air pollution due to rock crushing. Yes No Remarks Board of Directors. cutting and filling works. storage. and use and/or disposal of materials such as explosives. biological. and may be preliminary in nature. grease and fuel spills. women and children. Management. or staff. Indigenous Peoples or other vulnerable groups?  other social concerns relating to inconveniences in living conditions in the project areas that may trigger cases of upper respiratory problems and stress?  hazardous driving conditions where construction interferes with pre-existing infrastructure?  poor sanitation and solid waste disposal in construction camps and work sites. chemical. and other materials from vehicles using the project?  social conflicts if workers from other regions or countries are hired?  large population influx during project construction and operation that causes increased burden on social infrastructure and services (such as water supply and sanitation systems)?  risks to community health and safety due to the transport.   . leading to accidental spills of toxic materials?  increased noise and air pollution resulting from traffic volume?  increased risk of water pollution from oil. and chemicals from asphalt processing?  risks and vulnerabilities related to occupational health and safety due to physical. and possible transmission of communicable diseases (such as STI's and HIV/AIDS) from workers to local populations?  creation of temporary breeding habitats for diseases such as those transmitted by mosquitoes and rodents?  accident risks associated with increased vehicular traffic. fuel and other chemicals during construction and herein are The views expressedoperation? those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members.

tropical cyclone winds. permafrost melting or increased soil moisture content could affect sub0-grade). ethnic minorities. increased erosion or landslides could increase maintenance costs. floods.. by encouraging settlement in areas that will be more affected by floods in the future. rural-urban migrants.20    Screening Questions  community safety risks due to both accidental and natural causes.g.  Is the Project area subject to hazards such as earthquakes. operation and decommissioning. tsunami or volcanic eruptions and climate changes (see Appendix I)  Could changes in temperature.. high incidence of marginalized populations. Yes No REMARKS . especially where the structural elements or components of the project are accessible to members of the affected community or where their failure could result in injury to the community throughout project construction. precipitation. storm surges. Yes No Remarks Climate Change and Disaster Risk Questions The following questions are not for environmental categorization. illegal settlements.  Are there any demographic or socio-economic aspects of the Project area that are already vulnerable (eg.. or extreme events patterns over the Project lifespan affect technical or financial sustainability (eg. landslides. women or children)?  Could the Project potentially increase the climate or disaster vulnerability of the surrounding area (e. They are included in this checklist to help identify potential climate and disaster risks. or encouraging settlement in earthquake zones)? Note: Hazards are potentially damaging physical events.

River basins. 10-30% projected decrease in water availability in next 40 years. Faunal and floral species migration. with coral reefs threatened by ocean warming in some areas. likely overall decrease in agricultural productivity. coastal erosion.si.000 years – see www. permafrost melting causes damage to facilities. projected increase in drought duration and severity under climate change. Earthquakes. but medium certainty that 10–20% of dry lands degraded.edu). ADB’s members. or staff. Humid and SubHumid Plains. Low vegetative cover. 10-30% projected decrease in water availability in next 40 years. Resilient ecosystems and complex human pastoral and cropping systems. rockfalls/landslides and glacial lake outburst floods. natural (and humaninduced) subsidence resulting from sediment compaction and ground water extraction. Tsunami possible/likely on some coasts. Increased salinity increases corrosion of materials which can break-down. frequently. glacial lake outbursts wash out river-crossings.000km2 in area. High islands often experience high rainfall intensities. storm surges associated with tropical cyclones/typhoons and sea level rise. geophysical hazards may be occur in these environments. Likely overall decrease in agricultural productivity and compromised food production from variability. Often fertile Damage and loss of railways. Reduced effectiveness of drainage which results in a reduction in the bearing capacity of the soils which become saturated Same as above River Valleys/ Deltas and Estuaries and Other Low-Lying Coastal Areas Small Islands Small islands generally have land areas of less than 10. projected increase in droughts.    21 Appendix II: Environments. Example Impact on Transportation Infrastructure Reduced availability of water for compaction during construction. Enhanced snow melt and fluctuating stream flows may produce seasonal floods and droughts. Sea level rise is likely to threaten the limited ground water resources. leading to Ecosystems increased debris flows. Alignment is eroded by increased wave action.volcano. Damage to infrastructure from landslides and mudflows. Resilient ecosystems and complex pastoral and systems. Lowland agri-business and subsistence farming in these regions at significant risk. Management. with rain-fed agriculture yield reduced by 30% or more by 2020. Small islands may have low adaptive capacity and high adaptation costs relative to GDP. Hazards and Climate Change Environment Arid/Semi-Arid and Desert Environment Natural Hazards and Climate Change Low erratic rainfall of up to 500 mm rainfall per annum with periodic droughts and high rainfall variability. though Papua New Guinea and Timor with much larger land areas are commonly included in lists of small island developing states. Volcanic Recently active volcanoes (erupted in last 10. Earthquakes and other geophysical hazards may also occur in these environments. agriculturally productive zones are shifting. which may also collapse. Earthquakes and other geophysical hazards may also occur in these environments. heat waves and floods. Increased moisture content in the subsurface can result in increased penetration of water into the fill. Increased flooding from overtopping of seawater over facility or salt-water intrusion in to groundwater. with rainfed agriculture yield reduced by 30% or more by 2020. more frequent wind erosion in intermontane valleys. Increased mobilization of sand dunes and other soils as vegetation cover declines. Low-lying islands are especially vulnerable to storm surge. deltas and estuaries in low-lying areas are vulnerable to riverine floods. for example. Foothills and Hill Country Increased landslides and mudflows disrupt networks. Melting of permafrost in The views expressed herein areenvironments. More than 500 mm precipitation/yr. alignment may need to be reviewed where. landslides likely on steeper slopes. Mountain Accelerated glacial melting. frequent landslides and tectonic environments in which landslides and earthquakes are not uncommon with (occasional) volcanic eruptions. insecurity for   . increased erosion of loess-mantled landscapes by wind and water. liquefaction of soft sediments as result of earthquake ground shaking. increased sand on reduce safety. Increased incidence of forest and agriculture-based insect infestations. river bank erosion and floods and more extensive outwash plains and. possibly. tsunami and sealevel rise and. increased gully erosion. some those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of landslides and other Board of Directors. andmay alsopreliminary in nature.

Subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions including pyroclastic flows and mudflows/lahars and/or gas emissions and occasionally widespread ash fall. Example Impact on Transportation Infrastructure works crew and maintenance .22    Environment Environments Natural Hazards and Climate Change soils with intensive agriculture and landslides on steep slopes.

movement of trucks and trains to transport materials. Environment machinery resulting in and performing maintenance operations in Board of Directors. waste Training and kits for handling any spills or waste of hazardous materials. and may be preliminary in nature. or staff. wastewater from equipment and vehicle washing treated biologically. Included in Environment Protection Investment Table Rehabilitation works’ sites. $US Location Time Frame Implementation Supervision Included in Environment Protection Investment Table Rehabilitation Sites and vicinities Rehabilitation Period Contractor Punjab-EPA Work sites. designated sealed areas. lubricants. proper maintenance of equipment. covering vehicles and trains transporting materials. Water and wastewater TSS. works’ sites. Included in Environment Protection Investment Table Punjab-EPA. Management. sediment concentration in surface runoff Included in Environment Protection Investment Table Rehabilitation works’ sites. COD. staff Quarters Rehabilitation Rehabilitation period Contractor Punjab-EPA   . Maintaining equipment in good Included in lubricant and oil leaks from The views expressed herein areconditions the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of those of to avoid leaks of oils and lubricants.Protection Investment lubricants and chemicals. use of machinery silencers. access roads. and minimizing idling of machinery Mitigation Measures Estimated Cost. domestic oils. Soil and Materials Earth moving. use of new and wellmaintained equipment and vehicles. Forestry Department Scheduling operation to efficiently complete works close to residential areas. Air Quality Dust and emissions generated from machinery and vehicles. ADB’s members. Noise and Vibration Noise from works and use of heavy equipment and vehicles including locomotives 4. staff quarters Rehabilitation period Contractor Vegetation and stabilization Contractor 5.    23 Appendix III: Potential Impacts and Proposed Mitigation Measures Responsibility Environmental Issue I. earthmoving and disposal sites Rehabilitation period Punjab-EPA. and petroleum resulting from workers camps. landfill sites. surrounding areas Rehabilitation period Contractor Punjab-EPA Workers camps located away from water bodies and agricultural lands. Gaseous emissions from vehicles operating during the rehabilitation works. Proper storage of Table debris and waste. Ministry of Water and Power. workers camp. washing of equipment and vehicles 3. 2. Hazardous Materials & Waste Management Solid waste management plan and proper transport and disposal in designated areas and Workers and staff daily living. Department of Irrigation Dust control measures such as spraying of work sites and stock piles. BOD. fuel efficiency. and chemicals for machinery. Department of Irrigation. staff living quarters. Rehabilitation Phase 1.

Trains Operation stage Pakistan Railways Punjab-EPA Operation stage Punjab-EPA . use of solar water heaters in supplying hot water to stations and depots Included in Environment Protection Investment Table Rail corridor. wheel-track friction. depots. stations. Hazardous Materials & Waste Management Lubricants and chemicals. and fuel emissions resulting from locomotives 2. passenger areas. Total Suspended Particles. spoils. living quarters and surrounding vicinity Pakistan Railways Operation stage Punjab-EPA Operation stage Punjab-EPA Operation stage Punjab-EPA 5. erection of noise barriers in the form of walls at certain areas Included in Environment Protection Investment Table Various locations along the line. washing of locomotives and trains 3. Soil and Materials Stability of sub-base and embankments Maintenance of vegetation and soil stabilization areas for the creating of wind breakers Included in Environment Protection Investment Table Along the alignment Operation stage Pakistan Railways Punjab-EPA Locomotive operators instructed to prevent whistling when passing near villages during night time. stations. Operation Phase 1.24    II. traveling passengers 6. Sewage and wastewater treated by anaerobic biological filter tank (water tight septic tanks) Included in Environment Protection Investment Table Staff quarters. Air Quality SOx. stations 4. Included in Environment Protection Investment Table Staff quarters. Also. BOD. keeping equipment and locomotives in good operational conditions. COD. Training and kits for handling any spills or waste of hazardous materials. Water and wastewater TSS. NOx. offices. stations. domestic waste resulting from locomotives hauling bulk liquids. staff daily living. Noise and Vibration Noise from train whistling. office buildings. green belts as sound barriers near villages. office buildings. depots Pakistan Railways Improving the fuel efficiency of operation. utilization of modern gate systems and erection of walls along the alignment to serve as noise barriers and curb random crossing Included in Environment Protection Investment Table Near residential areas along the alignment and known crossing points Pakistan Railways Proper handling and equipment for the haulage of bulk liquids especially oils and flammable substances. waiting passengers. Safety Random crossing of pedestrians and livestock along the alignment near residential areas Utilization of pedestrian facilities (bridges) and specific crossing points for cattle. depots. stations Pakistan Railways Water saving and reuse and recycling adopted. petroleum resulting from staff living.

metallic scraps. and Lalamusa and other populated areas. Gujranwala. Gujranwala. Effluent outlets and WW collection points. Monitoring frequency: Annual Monitoring parameter: Visual inspection and soil sampling if needed. Monitoring frequency: Quarterly. NOx. 5 and 10 of railway operation. pH. COD. international best management practice. namely Shahdara. Gujranwala. CO and visible dust using sticky pad measurements. public safety records Monitoring frequency: Annual. Monitoring parameter: Slag. culverts. increased number of tourists. and increased income of locals. Monitoring Standard: International Best Management Practices and or WHO Noise Level Standards. Monitoring frequency: Semi-annually. phenol Monitoring frequency: Bi-annual. Soil Erosion and Movement 7. Entire railway line and inspection of vegetation sites. oil. Monitoring frequency: Year 2. Board of Directors. namely Shahdara. Near populated areas. Entire railway line. Monitoring parameter: Signs. Monitoring frequency: Bi-annual. Monitoring parameter: Visual inspection Monitoring frequency: Bi-annual. PM. Noise EPA and/or independent monitor 4. namely Shahdara. COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand. Solid Waste 5. DO: Dissolved Oxygen. Wazirabad. Management. sources. Time Frame Rehabilitation and operation Phase Responsibility 1. Monitoring frequency: Bi-annual. BOD: Biological Oxygen Demand. Public Safety 8. Hazardous Liquid Waste 6. Monitoring parameter: Increased shipment of local products. and may be preliminary in nature. important water bodies feeding agricultural areas along the alignment. PM: Particulate Matter. and sludge.   . Water and Wastewater Rehabilitation and operation Phase Rehabilitation and operation Phase Rehabilitation and operation Phase Rehabilitation and operation Phase Rehabilitation and operation Phase Rehabilitation and operation Phase Operation EPA and/or independent monitor in cooperation with Department of Irrigation 3. and Lalamusa. Monitoring parameter: dB. or staff. Community Participation EPA and/or independent monitor and the local municipalities EPA and/or independent monitor EPA and/or independent monitor Note: TSP: Total Suspended Particles. Monitoring parameter: TSS. SOx. Air Quality EPA and/or independent monitor 2. DO. Wazirabad. TSS: Total Suspended Solids. Main handling stations and locomotive maintenance locations. Induced Socioeconomic Benefits 9. air quality standards. CO: Carbon Monoxide. Near populated areas. Monitoring parameter: Number of participants. local drinking water supply and irrigation. Monitoring Standard: Local construction by-laws. Disposal sites. and Lalamusa and other populated areas. and Lalamusa.  Appendix IV: Environmental Monitoring Plan Monitoring Parameters   25 Location and Frequency of Parameter Measurement Monitoring parameter: TSP. Wazirabad. BOD. pH: acidity/basicity The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s members. Water quality standards. Monitoring Standard: Water and Sanitation Code of. Location Near populated areas. Near populated areas. Gujranwala. namely Shahdara. NOx: Nitrogen Oxides. increased local revenue. Sox: Sulphur Oxides. Wazirabad. domestic refuse.

5 $150.183.63095 $320. Design Designing soil erosion comprehensive plan Unit lump sum Quantity 1.500 $25.15 $120.2 27.000 $190.070 lump sum Sub-total: 12.2125 2.275 15.2 5.26    Appendix V: Environment Protection Investment – Project 1 Unit cost PRS (Mill) Unit cost (US$) Cost PRS (Mill) Cost (US$) Item A.000 B.825 55.000425 $5.000 $848.00 0.070 8.000 $150.75 12.75 12.95 16. Environmental Impact Assessment Studies EIA for Project 2 EIA for Project 3 Sub-total: Grand Total: 12. Environmental Monitoring Monitoring Consultancy Procurement of Monitoring Equipment Sub-total: D.5 $150.75 25.500.200 0.000 $70.25 59.000 27.000 $15.500 3.275 $15.000 $34.02 Sub-total 2. Waste Used oil storage tank pieces 10 0. Ecology Procurement of seedlings Implementation of soil and land cover protection works Lump sum lump sum Sub-total 4.5 2.000 $300.000 10.75 25.000 $25.85 9.000 $325.000 $150.000 $300.500 Sub-total C.9325 11. Water Biological wastewater treatment systems at main stations Irrigation system at stations Location Location 10 10 0.000 $695.00 4.070 . Mitigation 1.500 $134.43095 $5. Air Quality and Noise Dust suppressants Noise Barriers (also for safety) Lump sum meter 3.000 $2.000.000 Sub-total 1.07 mill $45.00 Sub-total 3. Capacity Building Training in environmental monitoring Training in environmental management D.500 1070 0.975 10.43 mill $100.