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JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 3, ISSUE 5, MAY 2011, ISSN 2151-9617

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Deployment of sensor nodes and Optimization of


Energy in Wireless Sensor Network using Voronoi
Diagram.
Ms.Mitali R. Ingle, Ms.Sonali Nimbhorkar

Abstract—Wireless Sensor Network is a group of low-cost, low-power, multifunctional and small size wireless sensor nodes that work
together to sense the environment, perform simple data processing and communicate wirelessly over a short distance. Some of these sensor
nodes are able to move on their own. With the ability to move independently, these mobile sensors are able to self deploy and self repair, thus
adding more to their value. The energy constraint sensor nodes in sensors networks operate on limited batteries, so it is a very important
issue to use energy efficiently and reduce power consumption. The aim is to develop a system that deals with the Deployment of sensors
nodes efficiently so that energy consumption is minimum with maximum data transfer in minimum hopping using the concept of Voronoi
Diagram

Index Terms— sensor networks, node deployment, voronoi diagram, energy efficiency.

——————————  ——————————

1 INTRODUCTION

A wireless sensor network consists of light-weight,


low power, small size of sensor nodes distributed
over an area to collect information. The areas of ap-
for evaluating the quality of service (QoS) in WSN.
Coverage can be classified into three classes; area cover-
age, point coverage and barrier coverage. Area coverage,
plications of sensor networks vary from military, civil, as the name suggest is on how to cover an area with the
healthcare, and environmental to commercial. sensors, while point coverage deals with coverage for a
Examples of application include forest fire detec- set of points of interest. Decreasing the probability of un-
tion, inventory control, energy management, surveillance detected penetration is the main issue in barrier coverage.
and reconnaissance, and so on. Due to the low-cost of Most of the works discuss in this paper deal with area
these nodes, the deployment can be in order of magni- coverage where the objective is to maximize the coverage
tude of thousands to million nodes. The nodes can be de- percentage; ratio of area covered by at least one sensor to
ployed either in random fashion or a pre-engineered way. the total area of the region of interest (ROI).
The sensor nodes perform desired measurements, process Coverage problem in WSN basically is caused by three
the measured data and transmit it to a base station, com- main reasons; not enough sensors to cover the whole ROI,
monly referred to as the sink node, over a wireless chan- limited sensing range and random deployment.
nel. The base station Collects data from all the nodes, and Different strategies have been proposed in the
analyses this data to draw conclusions about the activity literature for the WSN coverage optimization. grid cover-
in the area of interest. Sinks can act as gateways to other age strategy for effective surveillance and target position-
networks, as a powerful data processor or as access points ing using integer linear programming (ILP). The sensor
for human interface. They are often used to disseminate field is represented as grid. With the sensors placed at the
control information or to extract data from the network. grid points, a target can be located easily at any time.
Nodes in sensor networks have restricted storage, compu- However, grid based deployment strategies require the
tational and energy resources; these restrictions place a sensors to be placed exactly and accurately at the grid
limit on the types of deployable routing mechanisms. points. Therefore, this method is subject to errors such as
misalignment and random misplacement. Other ap-
A sensor’s prime function is to sense the environment for proaches for optimizing the coverage in WSN are virtual
any occurrence of the event of interest. Therefore cover- field; It is assumed that the sensor nodes and obstacles
age is one of the major concerns in WSN. In fact it is a key have potential fields which exert virtual forces. The nodes
repel each other until either their sensing fields no longer
———————————————— overlap or they cannot detect each other. This system
 Ms.Mitali R. Ingle is student of 4th Sem M.E (Wireless Communication & aims to present a use of Voronoi diagrams based solu-
Computing) at G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, India. tions for sensor network coverage determination and op-
 Ms.Sonali Nimbhorkar is Assistant Professor at CSE Department,
timization of energy.
G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, India.
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2 VORONOI DIAGRAM sor  nodes  deployed  using  the  voronoi  diagram;  here  the 
Voronoi diagram is a partition of sites in such a way that voronoi  diagram  is  partially  implemented  as  there  are 
a points inside a polygon are closer to the site inside the some sensor nodes which are in sleep mode. The basic of 
polygon than any other sites, thus one of the vertices of voronoi diagram implementation is to find the area each 
the polygon is the farthest point of the polygon to the site node is responsible for, so after implementing the voronoi 
inside it. Voronoi diagram can be used as a sampling diagram some of the sensor nodes are in sleep mode,this 
method in determining coverage of WSN; with the sen- sensor nodes which are in sleep mode are activated  if any 
sors act as the sites. If all Voronoi polygons vertices are of  the  sensor  node  is  dead  or    Whose  energy  is  totally 
covered, then the ROI is fully covered. Let S = {p1, p2. . . consumed. 
pi, . . . , pn} be a set of points in a two-dimensional Eu-  
clidean plane. These points are called sites. A Voronoi
diagram decomposes the space into regions around each
site, such that all points in the region around pi are closer
to pi than any other point in S.
The Voronoi region V (pi) for each pi consists of all
points that are closer to pi than any other site. The set of
all sites form the Voronoi Diagram V (S).

2.1 Properties of Voronoi Diagram


 A Voronoi edge between two Voronoi regions R
(pi) and R (pj) is a portion of the perpendicular
bisector of the line segment connecting the two
generators pi and pj.
 A Voronoi vertex is the centre of the circle that  
 
passes through the three generators, whose re-
gions are incident to the vertex, i.e., it is the cir- Figure  2  Diagram  showing  the  nodes  which  are  in  sleep 
cumcenter of the triangle with those generators mode. 
as the vertices. In the figure 2 the sensor nodes which are in sleep mode 
 A Voronoi region R (pi) is a convex (possibly is shown the nodes number 9,19,21,6,15,18,16,14,4,0 are in 
unbounded) polygon containing the correspond- sleep mode,this nodes will be activated if any node in the 
ing generator pi. network is dead or whose energy is totally consumed. 
 
3. IMPLEMENTATION
The system for Deployment of sensor nodes and
Optimization of Energy include:
 Maximum Coverage Area in Minimum Hopping.
 To increase the Life Time of sensor nodes.
 To Optimize Energy Requirement.
The first phase of the system is dealing with the deploy-
ment of sensor nodes using voronoi diagram. For this the
system considers only 20 sensor nodes at initial stage to
view the behaviour of the system. The number of nodes
can be increased but a particular threshold values is to be
decided.
 
 
Figure 3 Diagram showing the nodes which are dead. 
 
In  further  simulation  time,  some  nodes  in  the 
monitored  area  become  dead  nodes  as  there  energy  is 
totally  consumed  in  the  data  transmission.  The  nodes 
numbers  6,15,19,9,21,16  are  dead  nodes.  Now  in  next 
phase of development the dead nodes are to be removed 
and  the  voronoi  diagram  is  needed  to  be  updated.  The 
energy comparison is to be done for the implementation 
Figure 1 Area to be monitored  till now, for this graph of Energy vs. simulation time is 
In the figure 1 the area which is to be monitored is shown.  traced. 
The simulation result shows the area consisting of 20 sen‐
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      Figure 4 Diagram showing the Energy consumption.   Figure  6  Diagram  showing  Throughput  of  generating 


 The  above  graph  is  traced  from  the  trace  file  packets vs. simulation time. 
which  shows  that  there  are  still  energy  losses  in  the  sys‐
After this energy comparision the various parameters are 
tem  as  the  voronoi  diagram  is  not  totally  implemented. 
also considered.The parameters which are considered are 
As  there  are  dead  nodes  in  the  system  so  now  the  most  as  follows  Throughput  of  generating  packets 
important  aim  to  update  the  voronoi  diagram.  After  the  vs.simulation  time,  Throughput  of  sending  packets  vs. 
voronoi diagram is updated the energy losses will be re‐ simulation  time,  Throughput  of  sending  bits  vs.  End  to 
moved and energy efficient deployment will be achived.  End delay,Number of backup nodes vs. density. 
After the voronoi diagram is updated the energy 
loss which was there is removed and we get two different 
graph.  One  graph  is  traced  with  some  nodes  in  sleep 
modes  and  another  graph  is  obtained  by  activating  the 
nodes  in  the  sleep  mode.The  energy  loss  are  removed  to 
much  extent  in  the  graph  with  nodes  activated  in  sleep 
modes.  

      Figure 7 Diagram showing Throughput of generat-
ing packets vs. simulation time.

Figure  5  Diagram  showing  Throughput of generating


packets vs. simulation time
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The above result shows that with the implementation of


voronoi diagram that is with scheduling gives much im-
proved result as compared to the result without schedu-
leing.The performance of system is improved with the
implementation of the voronoi diagram.

4 CONCLUSION
This  system  is  implemented  using  Voronoi  dia‐
gram.The  Voronoi  Diagram  based  solutions  for  sensor 
network coverage determination and  optimization of en‐
ergy  and  analyses  the  potential.  The  Voronoi  Diagram 
based  solution  are  obtained  by  scheduling  of  sensor 
Figure 8 Diagram showing Throughput of sending  nodes  which  are  improved  as  compared  to  the  solutions 
packets vs. simulation time  obtained by without scheduling of sensor nodes. 
 

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