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Probtems Review Problems
Go to Appendix G for a setof review problems with answers. De_ tailed solutions can be found i"




9:i!:!:f Fund.amentats of Ftuid Mechanics, -r 'runsou, rra (@ 2009 John Wiley and Sons, h".1.--- -*"'-"' Uu,\ et al.


lo{ote.:. Unless specific values of required Iluid properties are given in the statenrent of the pro6ler", ,ifues found
4ire tables on the inside o{ the




or a comput€r. eroliems a*sfiiated with a (r) are o,open-ended" protrlems and require-.;,il thinking in that to il'ork them one must tnaL" ur"i"r, ursimptions and provirie the necessary dll'ra' There is not a unique

in iront .""*"r.'if,. .*s clesignated ir."lf rvith an ('iJ are intended to be solved *i* tf-r" Jj"i a programmatrle calculator

where the pipe radius,.Ap the pressure drop alc fluid properry called pipe. what are rhe dimension, prpe whar oitr,l
p. a


this equation as a general "o;J#;;rffi:T:,i;l homog"n"o-us equatilni

dimen::i:':y,i:tj]i5 i'l::r:f-iii:r


ansver to

According to information found in an old h


to fhe even-nurnbered problems are iisted at the end of the tiook. Access to rhe videos r;;;;;;;;p""y probtems cas be obtained through. rhe book's ;;;;;r.,';*"rwire"v--.conr,/ college/munson, The lat_typ" p.oUt"*, this weh site. "ur'"f." n. accessed on


}fi :H;";it*i$r#x'l*H::T':',:::[

where ft is the enersv

and Units

Section 1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity,

2ozzt9 acceierarion g'auirv.' sYstem of units?

(0.0a to O.(D)(D/ eaV2 /2g unir weight, D the hose diarn^,^_ " --*rrctgr, rip diamlier, V the fluid -or


l":: q.,


dl ";f;;,, i"";. ^ fo;ilJil.'Jq;lxi."'il'i;,il1"-:t. .- {ry


1.11 The pressure difference, Ap, across

).{n"force, F, of tlre wind.blowing against building given by ' F CopV2 A/2, where Vis_the winJsp-eed, p athe Jensiryisof the air, A the cross-sectionat area of rh".b"ift;;:;; 6;;;."srant termed the drag coefEcienl Determine Ae Am#sions

i;;l[;; ;],ri,.

a partial






p me brooa aens irt



ap;;;"-i;; i.,, trt volume, ."."ilt "ii""".i**1, and (e) work. 1.3 Detennine the dimensions, in-both the FLT system the MLT system. for (a) the product-of forc;i;;r;;;."tion, and the (b) producr of force times vetocity di"id;Jl;;;;, i"i[l momentum divided by volume.

the following quantities (b) acceleration, (c) mass, ),.lich

1.2 Verifu the dimensions, in-both


FLTand, of



liL:;1rpfi"l"r.yat#"#;"ily"9;il1 unobstructed artery, and A, the area of th" stenosis. #l iq *d ;. w;;ilil;':';# ji:ff :ffi ffi "TH'"h'.i;

w!er9 V is the blood velociry,


the blood visco


1.I2. Assume that rhe speed of sound, c, in







g s

(b) stress, (c) srain. ta) torque,lialJ*ort. 1.5 If a is a velocifv. x a length,-and r a time, what are the dimensions (in tteJitf sysrem) of @) 6u/dr, (b) 02u/0xAt,and lc)

1.4 Verify the dirnensions, in.both the FLTsystem and rhe MLT system, of the following quantities. *t i"f, upp"u, io"fuUl" l.l : (a) rrequency,


*; ilJ,",X"fl'J.1i. il1':::H:#T:[ijii "'" sandard formula for the speed
d. i.l9,g.i"''

ir":{r,i':.l-;:r*{L*.""*u ilii,;*?i*::i;j?;ifare the varues

1.13 A. formula to estimate the volume rate of flo\r r' 0, flowin* over a dam .i i""g,h, i, i. given by the equarion Q


il il


the dimensions (in the MLT svstem) of (c) p/pv2?

[(au/at) dx? 1.6 If p is a pressure, Vavelociry,






afluid density, what are

(4 p/p, fti pvp,


1.7 It


{ a.lengr}, and y a fluid property (the visco.sirr).having oirn"i.ion, ori,i:i,"*"*.6 of thekine_
are dimensionless , 1"1

V is a velocirv.


w),'ai wn, k) v2a,
of Z,


which appear in the dimensiordly;;;;;"#

y is a velocitv. determine the

dimension s


and G,

(htle, date, etc.).

field of inreresr. Define all "ngi-n-""ri,igiou_ul in you. ii,"'!q"^,ionlr.*pruin *tv rs a restricred equarion, and provide i, a-.;;;i;;.];"rnal -v"'Y:erv

cire an examole "f^r.:::q:"d homogeneous equation s6n_ tained in a technical article,found in un


where.I{ is the depth or *_:.:lr"j above,rhe top of the dam (callea the head) This formula grves e in mj/s when B and H "-^ . meter. Is rhe consranr. r.70, ai,iensio"rl,rri w.r"r,r be valid if units other than meter and second.q
were used?

t; :oiliJl

,..r ,





1.9 The volume rate of flow, *g"J-*pe containing moving liquid is given by Lne ^r, equatlon

: 4" _ 1I,&&,
() rfrAn '


l.l5 Warer flows from a larg^e drailage pipe at a rate of 4500 L/min. What is rhis volume rate of-flow i",iy!i--'-''*"


1,15 An important dimensionless pammeter in certain types fluid flow problems is rhe rroua" sg ,uiniuJ"i"#", vZVg{, where 7is a velociry, g lhe acceleration of graviq)-,'."Ji


frT#, f.';


^L"g,t. ^:"'u"i';; Y: :t2,,



..5 Ideal Gas Law 1. p.2 | s8}. what is the magnitude of the velocity gridient needed to produce a shear stress of 1. and the absolute pressure within the tank is Section 1.3 N of a gas. Print this photo and write a briefparagraph that describes the situation involved.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 1.37 The helium-filled blimp shown in Fig.24 An open. in the tange 2O "C < T < 50 'C. (a) Determine the density of the Martian atmosphere for tlese conditions if the gas constant for the Martian atmosphere is assumed to be equivalent to that of carbon dioxide. respectively.2 m.1 m3 of water at 4 oC. 1. 1. and its liquid water content is 0.c) I 20 | zs I :o I rs I 40 I +s I p : c r * c2T * caT2 which can be used to predict the density over the range indicated.369 kg while an empty can weighs 0. L.r I 992.30 The presence of raindrops in the air during a heavy rainstorm increases tbe average deniity of the air-water mixtur€.l:. sure are TI "C wrd 98 kPa (ab$.26 A mountain climber's oxygen tank contains 4.45 N of oxygen when he begins his trip at sea level where the acceleration of gravity is 9.5'A' Atank of oil has a mass of 365 kg. respectively.98 and 1. What is the weight of the oxygen in the tank when he reaches the top of Mt. Plot the densiry of helium as a function of temperature from 0 oC to 200 "C and pressures of 50.t so Temperaturel.1 | 99s.19 Clouds can weigh thousands of newtons due to their liquid water content. 1.2 | 990.35 A compressed air tank contains 5 kg of air at a temperature of 80 "C. it will be used on the descent portion of the climb..38 Develop a computer program for calculating the densin' of an ideal gas when the gas pressure in pascals (abs). is given in the following table. cup of cream having a density of 1005 kg/m3 is turned into 3 cups of whipped cream.28 The variation in the density of water.2 g/m3. 1. Which do you think it is? Explain how you arrived at your answer.6 Viscosity (Also see Lab Problems 1. 1.29 Use these data to determine an empirical equation of the form Section 1. with 7.21 A certain object weighs 300 N at the earth's surface. Over a 24-hour period of time the water temperafiire varies from 4 to 32'C.) 1. Determine the volume of the tank. determine the specific gravity and specific weight of the whipped cream. 1. density. to tank contains air at a pressure of 620 kPa (abs) and of 15 "C.6 m. 1.6 kPa (abs).i lri:j Sl Ofiepterl llntroduction t1.7 | 994. Determine its specific gravity and specific weight. By how much will the pressure increase as the temperature is increased to 43 "C? a temperatue ry6 e rigid f1.21 The information on a can of pop indicates that the can contains 355 mL. Compare the predicted values with the data given.32 Nitrogen is compressed to a density of 4 kg/ml under an absolute pressure of 400 kPa. Deterrnine the volume of the liquid in the tank. perature in degrees Celsius. Print this photo and write a brie: paragraph that describes the situation involved.15.33 The temperafure and pressure at the surface of Mars during a Martian spring day were determined to be -50 "C and 900 Pa.39 Obtain a photographr/image of a situation in which the viscosity of a fluid is important. *1.81 m/sz. a hydromerer reading indicates a specific gravity of 1. and the gas constant in J/kg . dFIGUFIE P1.0 N/mz? .23 A hydrometeris used to measure the specific gravity of liquids. cylindrical tank conrains 0.zmr) 1998.06 m3 is hlled with 1. and specific gravity of the pop and compare your results with the corresponding values for water at20"C. lh . Section 1. Everest where the acceleration of gravity is 9. and 200 kP: (abs).9. temperature. (a) Determine its weight newtons at the eanh's surface. 150. Estimate by what percent ihe average air-water density-is greater than that of just still air.1 "C? 7.153 N.37 is used at various athletic events./s2. (b) What would be its mass (in kg) and its weight (in newtons) if located on the moon's surface where the gravitational attraction is approximately one-sixth that at the earth's surface? 1. 1.22 The density of a certain type of jet fuel is 775 kg.) For a certain liquid. 1 If Ll40 For flowing water. List all assumptions and show all calculations. There is some question as ro whether the gas in the tank is oxygen or helium. Determine the mass of the object (in kilograms) and its weight (in newtons) when located.34 A closed tank having a volume of 0. State all assumptions and show ealculations. Make use of the data in Appendix B 1.18 A tank contains 500 kg of a liquid whose specific gravity is 2.37 *1. would the corresponding change in water depth be very noticeable? Explain. (b) Compare the answer from part (a) with the density of the earth's atmosphere during a spring day when the temperature is 18'C and the pressure 101./s2? Assume that no oxygen has been removed from the tlnk./m3. Assume that a cumulus cloud occupies a volume of one cubic kilometer. A pressure gage atkched to the tank reads 83 kPa when the gas temperature is 27 "C. The mass of a tull can of pop is 0.2 | 99'1.31 Determine temperah-rre. 100. rigid-walled. Determine the specific weight. 7. Often this content is measured in grams per cubic meter G/m3). What is the density of warer at 42. For a tank diameter of 0.K are specified. What is the liquid's density and specific weight? 1.78 m. Determine the number of newtons of heliurn within it if its volume is 1926 m3 and the tempemture and pres. Determine the temperature in degrees Celsius.8. A gage on the tank reads 300 kPa. (a) What is the volume of this cloud in cubic kilometers? (tl) How much does the water in the cioud weigh in newtons? 200 kPa (abs).25 Estimate the number of newtons of mercury it would take fill your bathtub. the mass of air in a 2 m3 tank if the air is at room 20 'C. (See Video V2. on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to 1. P1.17 Obtain a photograpMmage of a situation in which the densiry or specific weight of a fluid is important. the tem- Density (kg. to determine how much the volume-of water will change.

1 !FIGURE P1. Assume L56 _C. P1. located a distance 6 ibove the fixed_plate. (a) Assume the velocity dist tion is of the form u:CJ*Czy3 IFIGUFIE P.zs lzz. Th. " x1.57 i b -----> lvt v 1.zs l+.:t r(N/m2) | 0. plate arrangement of the type shown in Fig. top plate.0 X i0-a m% unO u"*p""in" gravity of O.I-56 a lnq as shown in Fig.10 du/dy (s-') I z. a velocity of 3 m/s. and the area of the block in contact with the oil is 0. l.57. The other thin plate is located a distance cb. IFIGURE P1.(*/.. Determine the magni and direction of the shearing stress that the water exerts on the I surface for U : Zm/s and /r : 0.06 i0.r.L T -'h-h2 . Plot the ratio Vr/V as a function of c for 0 < c < 1. Explaia how you anived at your The sled-shovrn h Fig.. N:V.60 Standard air flows past a flat surface and velocity mea ments near the surface indicate the following disfribution: y(m) | 15x t0-o l3 x l0-1 16x t0-4 lt2x l0-ol18x l0-ol 24 x . Determine the force p required to pu1 thJ. cous 1.< IFIGURE P1.6).30 I 0.ft . and the n head is to be positioned 0. The total area of both runners in contact with the wa_ teris 0.ces tom.000 rpm.Chapter 1 I Infroducfion available the constants canbe obtaiqed.58 A 10-kg block slides down a smooth inclined surfacr shown in Fig.o I qo.015 m.007 m2. unJ"i tt Io. which is determined by the vis_ imposed on it by the fluids on its top and bor :t] lr.S N when ttre is pulled along with speed V.s2 I l.3-mm gap between the shaft and bearin! i.s speed is 15 m. The fluid on the top is twice as viscous as that on the bor tom.t0 with- yy'for^uparallel shearing shess of 150 pa develops at lhe uooei olate when it is pulled at a velocity of I m/s. if the 0.54 Two flat plates are oriented parallel above a fixed lower plate as slown in Fig. a This plate moves wirh speed V'..59 A layer of water flows down an inclined fixed surface the velociry profile shown in Fig. as sl in Fig.z: Io. F-0. Based on the dara given below determine if the blood is a New_ IFIGURE P1.012 mm. 10. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap is ear. It.5 m-__________l <.h. and rate of shearing strun. The disc is to rotate at 10. for-exarnple.59. 1. above the surface of the Estimate the shearing force on the reader head as a result of tt between the disc and the head. Video V1. (b) Make use of the results of part (a) r termine the magnitude of the shearing stress at the wall {-r and at Y : 0.l2 I 2.n The coordinate y is measured normal to the surface and r i velocity parallel to the surface.61.1-mm gap between the block and the surface contains i 30 oil at 15 oC.54. z.o I zzs I +so l::#. Deiermine the'v'iscosity of the fluid between the plates.57 A 25-mm-diamerer shaft is pulled through cylindrical bear_ and use a standard curve-fitting technique to determine the stants Cr and C2.s I +s. For a given fluid the distinction between Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior is usually based on measurements of shear stress and rate of shearing strain.n.58 I rr.54 1.)Io.ou Io.04 | 0. * oif having a kine_ matic viscosity of 8. where 0 1.56 slides along on a thin horizontal layer of water between the ice and the runnerslThe horizontal force that t]r9 water puts on the mnnen is equal to i. Tr. 1.55 There are many fluids that exhibit non_Newtonian behavior (see.59 a linear velociry distribution in the w#r Uyer. fin"*. As_ sume that the viscosity of blood is to be determined by measure_ m9nt1 9f shear stress. . p1.'du/dy. Assume the velocity distribuion in tf.4 it is found ttrat when the diitance berween'plates is 2 mm. P1. Determine the terminal velocity of the b.18 I 0. ob_ tained from a small blood sample tested in a iuitable viscometer. p1.-'that filts the 0.direc(1 out rewriting the equation) fton\.58.12 non-Newtonian fluid. f. and the viscosity of the wateii. P1. P1. above the fixed plate. 16g i0-5 Determine the thiclqpess of the water tuy".61 A new computer drive is proposed to have a disc./s.1 m." gup1." fi.

6. The torque I required to develop ar is measured and the viscosity is calculated from these two measrrements.70 Estimate the increase in pressure (in kPa) required to deunit volume of mercury by O.t./m2). 1.63 1. Determine the torque required ro rotate the circular plate slowly at 2 rprn./m2 fills the 0. and ( -. In this device the outer cylinder is fixed and the inner cylinder is rotated with an angulm velocity.g.000 rpm 0. The outer cylinder is fixed.6 cm and the gap width between cylinders is 0.7 : : c- nt n- outer cyl inder el of gs 0.lVo.s. and R.(. R.68 Obtain a photograph/image of a situation in which the compressibility of a fluid is important.479 N. Determine the reading on the gage when the piston has compressed the air to one-third its original volume. Determine the torque and the power required to rotate the inner cylinder at 180 revlmin. Express your answer in m./s. s.64 The viscosity of liquids can be measured through the use of a rotaring cylinder viscometer of the [pe illustrated in Fig. P1.25 cm gap between the two plates filled with glycerin as shown in Fig. 5.Problerns 35 For this viscometer & 6. and (c) natural gas (methane). :d rs )al Jt [1 Assume the veloc'ity distribution in the gap to be linear.69 A sound wave is observed to travel through a liquid with a speed of 1500 m/s. _l TFIGUFIE P.7 Compressibility of Fluids 1. Neglect end effects and assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear. Assume velocity (radls) . Determine the frictional torque on the shaft when it rotates at 5.52 N/m2 for a corresponding rate of shearing strain of 200s-r. EFIGURE P. Estimate the change in the volume of the water when a piston applies a pressure of 35 MPa.64 1.65. it with the viscosity of water at the same p=0.479N'Vm2 Section 1.65 A 30 cm-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bortom plate with a 0.ll A 1-m3 volume of water is contained in a rigid container.63. 1.25 cm gap IFIGURE P1. 1- tr. lf2 Oeterm:ne the speed of sound at 20 "Cin (a) air.u.67 Some measurements on a blood sarnple at 37 oC indicate a shearing stress of 0.65 11. (tr) helium.64.63 A pivot bearing used on the shaft of an electrical instrument is shon'n in Fig.000 rpm. crease a 1. The specific gravity of the liquid is 1. Determine the bulk modulus for this fluid. P1.66 Vehicle shock absorbers damp out oscillations caused by road roughness. (b) The following torque-angular velocity data were obtained with a rotating cylinder viscometer of the type discussed in part (a).61 I 4 lg icf te v.62 The space between two 15 cm-1ong concentric cylinders is fiiled with glycerin (viscosity : 407 x 10-3 N .22 cm. 1. A pressure gage ailached to the cylinder indicates an initial reading of 172 kPa.73 Air is enclosed by a rigid cylinder conraining a piston.Assume that tbe velocity distribution in the gap is linear and that the shear stress on the edge ofthe rotating plate is negligible.r.025 mm gap between the rotating shaft and the stationary base. Print this photo and write a brief paragraph that describes the situation involved..I. l.5. The inner cylinder has a radius of 7.3S cm. P1.012 mm FFIGT-''FIE F1.12-7 cm Make use of these data and a standard curve-fitting program to determhe the viscosity of the liquid contained in the viscometer.R0. (a) Develop an equation reiating. Describe how a temperature change may affect the operation of a shock absorber. Determine ttre apparent viscosity of the blood and compare temperature. 1. An oil with a viscosity of 1t : 9. rr. Fixed .25 cm.p.

7. (See Yideo V1. it is possible.C.a::: depth in the tank of 1 m. Section 1.79 An important dimensionless parameter concerned with very high-speed flow ls the Ma ch numbe4 defined as V/c. Explain why this blade sinks.9.C will rise due :i capillary action in a clean.81 (See Fluids in the News article titled "This water jet is a blast.9.82 During a mountain ciimbing trip it is observed that the water used to cook a meal boils at 90 oC rather than the standard 100 "C at sea level.* tank. Small droplets of carbon tetrachloride at zOeC are forrne. to have metal objects float on water.85 When water at 70'C flows through a converging section of . u. What tube diameter is needed if the water c brief paragraph that describes the sinration invoived. Estimate the minimum absolute pressure. 1. :rLr 1eve.: lf the average diameter of the droplets r.75 Carbon dioxide at 30 "C and 300 kPa absolure pressure expands isothermally to an absolute pressure of 165 kPa.73 if &e compression process takes place without friction and without h€at transfer (isentropic process). Surface tension force 1. What is the maxim_r diameter that the rod can have before it will sink? Assume rir.5 cm.:r paper clip has a diameter of 0. tqo* 1s .87 Obtain a photograph/image of a situation in which the surface tension of a fluid is important.-Estimate the minimum absolute pressure that can develop without causing cavitation. Note: A stanC. (b) If you wanr -_:j error to be less than lVo. but a single-edge blade witl sink.74 Repeat Problem 1. What will be -rc height 1.73.84 Estimate the minimum absolute pressure (in pascals) that can be developed at the inlet of a pump to avoid cavitition if the fluid is carbon tetrachloride at20"C.. tr 1.61 x 10-3 kg. with a spray nozzle. Due to surface tension the pressure inside the jet u-| be slightly higher than the surrounding atmospheric pressure.03 cm? open tank.93 Under the right conditions.86 At what atmospheric pressure will water boil at 35 .90 A l2-mm-diameter jet of water discharges vertically into atmosphere. 1.3 kPa (ab$ is compressed isentropically to a new absolute pressure of 483 kPa.96 Determine the height that water at 15 .8 Vapor Pressure 1.. termine the vaiue of 0 required to maintain equilibrium beru. x 104 Determine the value of the surface tension for this liquid.36 Chapterl llntroduction is zero.91 1. due to surface re:sion. 1.port your answer with the necessary calculations. For a projectile traveling at 1290 kmr/h through air at l0'C and standard atrnospheric pressure.e.97 (See Fluids in the News article titled "Walking on \ri'-:: Section 1.91 As shown in Video V1. N/rl 1.. . S. At what altitude are the climbers preparing their meai? (See Tables B.: IFIGURE P1.77 Compare the isentropic bulk modulus of air at l0l kpa (abs) with that of water at the same pressure. where V is the speed of the object such as an airplane or projectile.64 X 10-3 kg.. surface tension forces can be strc: s enough to aliow a double-edge steei razor blade to "float" on . D:termine this difference in pressure. 1. @ outside of the droplets? 1. and the tcr length of its sides is 154 mm. atmospheric pressure. Assume a water temperature of 30 'il Show your results on a graph of percent error versus tube dia:eter.76 Natural gas at 27 oC and standard atmospheric pressure of 101.2 the compression process to be isothermal and the local atmospheric pressure to be 101.92 To measure the water depth in a large open tank with opaqwalls.94 An open. Pl. Determine the final density and t€mperature of the gas. 1. Check your program against the results obtained for hoblem 1.) in Fig.9. *1. (a) For a true s. what is the difference in pressure between the inside ar.) Cl:sider placing a short length of a small diameter steel (sp. clean glass tube.ter. an open vertical glass tube is attached to tfie side of r.:r and see if you can get it to float on water. make use of Eq.200 m. low pressures may develop in localized regions of the bend.1) By what percenr is the volume of water decreased if its pressure is increased to 304 Mpa? Section 1. inserted vertically into a dish of mercury at 20 .1 1. 0.) (a) The water strider bug shown in Fig. clean glass tube (0 : 0') is inserted verricall-r. The contact angle between the liquid and the rube 1. Do the results of :r." Section 1. and the type of process (isothermal or isentropic) are specified.9. sion forces act at an angle 0 relative to the water surface as sho'.l for data needed to solve thii problem.88 When a 2-mm-diameter tube is inserted into a liquid in if the diameter is reduced to 0.: a measure of the depth of water in the tank.3 kPa.: the blade weight and the resultant surface tension force. Partially unfold a paper .80 Jet airliners rypically fly at attitudes berween approximately 0 to 12.. in the range 0.r . Determine the final density of the gas. Assume that the surface r:'.09 cm.0. 1.. and c is the speed of sound in the fluid surrounding the object. the pressure decieases in the direction of flow.r. (b) T:: mass of the single-edge blade is 2.78 Develop a computer program for calculating the final gage pressure ofgas when the initial gage pressure.pipe. 200 pm. The height of the water column in the tube is then used .25 cm < D < 2. Dr.and the specific weight of the liquid is 1. P1-91.21 (with d . print this photo and write a an the tube is to rise one tube diameter (due to surface tension). 1.95 An open. the liquid is bbserved to rise 10 mm above the free sur_ face of the liquid. experiment support your analysis? 1.(in kPa) that can develop without causing cavitation if the fluidls watei at 70 "C.iJ the colurnn of mercury in the tube be depressed? 1.5 cm-diameter tube..9 Surface Tension a pan of water.C? 1. what is the value of the Mach number? 1. (a) The mass of the double-edge blade -" 0.. 1. what is the smallest tube diam:::allowed? 9t'1 Wfr"n a fluid flows through a sharp bend. = 77 kN/m') rod on a surface of water.:. 1. initiai and final volumes. and the total length of its sides is 206 mm.1 and C. Make use of the data in Appendix C to show on a graph how the speed of sound varies over this range.: :: determine the percent error due to capillarity as the diameter -: the glass tube is changed. D. having a diameter of 3 mrr. the surlace tension forces act vertically upward.