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Advance Design America (VisualDesign) TUTORIAL 7

& Ductile Steel Design

Seismic Analysis

May 2008
© CivilDesign Inc 1995-2008

and shown below. for a steel building located in Montreal. type LD (R=2). except at corners. CivilDesign Inc 7-1 . type LD (R=2). Direction-z: Moment-Resisting Frame located on the three axes. where My is fixed.S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S Modal & Spectral Analyses Introduction We are going to perform a modal and spectral analysis according to the Canadian National Building Code 2005. The lateral force resisting-systems are: Direction-x: Tension-only concentrically braced frames. Support degrees of freedom are free in rotation.

and Importance factor of 1.0. Enter the following data: Building Code: CNB-2005. City of Montreal. Select the SRSS (Square-Root-of-Sum-of-Squares) method for the modal combination.A D A T U T O R I A L 7 Project Configuration Seismic tab • • Select the Seismic tab of the Project Configuration dialog box (File menu). Select the "Add ductility effects [/¯\]"option to design the ductile steel frames according to the "Capacity design" method of the CAN-CSA-S1601 Standard (section 27). Total height = 12m. 7-2 CivilDesign Inc . Location category = C. Number of stories (N) = 3. • • • Click OK.

CivilDesign Inc 7-3 . Design Criteria and Specifications Member Tab • Select all members and activate the design criteria on the Member tab of the Member Characteristics dialog box. • Select Structure / Specifications / Generator – Steel.S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S Analysis tab Increase the number of iterations to 10-12 because tension-only members are included in ductile frames. (Advance Design America needs more iteration because of the release process). Steel Specifications The Steel Specification Generator is used to generate design specifications for W and HSS square shapes and according to S16-01 Standard.

create a custom section group (Structure / Specifications / Groups of Sections) and select this group in the specification. 7-4 CivilDesign Inc . If you want Advance Design America to select optimized shapes among your personalized list of shapes. etc. HSS. The class of the ductile element is automatically set by Advance Design America during the design process.. A class 1 shape or class 2 is required for ductile elements (refer to S16-01 Standard). Timber sections and concrete ones). A section group can include many types of shapes (Steel W. American materials are also initialized.A D A T U T O R I A L 7 • Click OK. To learn more about section groups. refer to the Steel Design chapter of ADA Online Help. Section Groups The USA section groups are assigned to HSS and W shapes because Canada no longer produces these shapes.

Create custom selections for each type of frame. The selection functions are available in the Edit / Select / Create selections.S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S Ductile Frames Concentrically Braces Frames in Tension-only – Limited Ductility (R=2) The following member usages must be specified on the Member tab along with axial end conditions for tension-only bracing. We created two custom selections and assigned a color to each one: CivilDesign Inc 7-5 . Choose selections. and Edit Sections menu. Learn more about these functions in Advance Design America Online Help.

icon on the View • To select bracings only. Highlight the "T-only bracings" selection and click OK. • Mask the rest of the structure by clicking the Mask toolbar. • On the Member tab. specify tension-only <-[ ]-> axial end conditions and select the member "[Xt] Diagonal" usage in the Usage drop-down list. Click OK.A D A T U T O R I A L 7 • Click the icon on the Edit toolbar to open the Selections dialog box. 7-6 CivilDesign Inc . Click the Properties button. select Edit / Select / Sloped members.

one per X frame. Therefore. CivilDesign Inc 7-7 . Click OK. Create design groups for bracings located on each level and each frame and assign the HSS steel specification. • • Do the same for the columns composing other X-frames. select the columns on one X-frame and use the [Ctrl]+G shortcut keys. and assign the "[X] Beam" usage to beams. Enter a name for this group and select a specification. The columns located on both sides of the bracings must be continuous.S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S • • • In the same manner. To create a design group. assign the "[X] Column" usage to columns composing these frames. four design groups are required.

icon and mask Member Usages There are two member usages for this type of ductile frame: "[¯¯] Beam" and "[¯¯] Columns".A D A T U T O R I A L 7 Resisting-Moment Frames with a Limited Ductility (R=2) • Select the MRF selection using the Choose a selection the rest of the structure. 7-8 CivilDesign Inc .

Design groups are created for each continuous column (4) and for continuous beams at each level (3). The spreadsheet is available in the Structure / Groups / Steel members menu. The following design groups were created.S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S Columns and beams must be continuous. CivilDesign Inc 7-9 .

The spectral envelopes E01 and E02 are selected.A D A T U T O R I A L 7 Load Cases Enter the following NBC-2005 load case titles and types in the Loads Definition spreadsheet: Load Combination Generator The Load Combination Generator is used to obtain ultimate and service load combinations according to NBC-2005. CivilDesign Inc 7-10 . the "Mass" load combination will also be generated. The "Mass" load combination must include the dead loads plus 25% of snow loads. • Click the "Next" button. Therefore.

• Click the "Finish" button.S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S • Click the "Next" button. 7-11 CivilDesign Inc .

A default value for the number of calculated modes is automatically initialized. • • to open the Modal Analysis dialog Select the "Mass" load combination.A D A T U T O R I A L 7 The Load Combination Generator generated these load combinations and corresponding load factors: • Close the spreadsheet. • 7-12 CivilDesign Inc . Enter 20 for the number of requested modes. Modal Analysis • Click the Modal Analysis icon box. You are ready to run a modal analysis to obtain the structure vibration modes and corresponding frequencies. Click the "Analyze" button to launch the modal analysis. To learn more. The CNBC code suggests 2 to 3 vibration modes per building story for a spectral analysis. refer to the "Number of Calculated Modes" topic in the Dynamic Analysis chapter of Online Help.

Select an XY. • • In the Animation dialog box. close the dialog box. Use the Animation function to visualize the building deflection under a selected vibration mode. Click the Animation icon on the View toolbar. CivilDesign Inc 7-13 . [Home] or [Pg Up] control keys. Modal Analysis Results Animation of a Vibration Mode When the modal analysis is completed. • • Select a vibration mode in the drop-down list of the Activate toolbar. the Vibration mode is automatically activated.S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S • When analysis is completed. Use the Camera function or use the [Pg Dn]. YZ or isometric view of the structure. click the green arrow to capture images.

7-14 CivilDesign Inc . Dir. y. and Dir. click the Adjust Amplitude icon Diagrams toolbar.0 for components Dir. x. Z means that 100% of the vibration mode is acting in this direction. X and Dir. z are specified in the Linear Seismic Directions spreadsheet. Use the Animation function again.A D A T U T O R I A L 7 • If the amplitude is too small. on the Frequencies and Vibration Modes • Select Results / Modal & Spectral / Frequencies and Vibration Modes. Mode 1 and 5 are the main vibration modes. acting in the main x and z directions because corresponding modal contributions (γz and γx) are the highest. A value of 1. When components Dir. Advance Design America automatically initializes the main vibration modes according to the highest modal contributions that were calculated in the Frequencies and Vibration Modes spreadsheet.

S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S Spectral Analysis Linear Seismic Directions Spreadsheet • • Select the Linear Seismic Directions spreadsheet in the Loads / Seismic Directions menu. • Entered a value of 1. and "Ro" columns are relevant to the new NBC-2005 code. Insert two rows and enter the name Dir x and Dir z in the "Number" column. you could obtain 0.67 for direction x and 0. "Rd". y. • CivilDesign Inc 7-15 . according to the highest modal contributions.36 for direction z. In this case.0 if the main seismic directions are at angle relative to global axes. The next "Seismic Force Resisting System". x.0 for the x and z components. Select (double-click) the appropriate ductile frame for each direction. Note: Components Dir. For example. as per NBC code. The corresponding Rd and Ro (force modification factors) are automatically initialized. select a lateral force resisting system for each direction. Press the F1 key to open Advance Design America Online Help and learn more about this parameter. z These components can be different from 1. The second main direction. and Dir. should have similar components. Double-click the first column and expand the CSA-S16 root. Advance Design America initialized mode 1 and 5. you should enter these values as components. Enter a value of 1. which must be orthogonal to the first direction. • In the "Structure" column.0 for direction x and z. Select a spectral envelope for each direction in the "Envelope" column. Dir.

x. Vd is the seismic lateral force acting at the base of the structure obtained from the spectral analysis. Click the "Analyze" button to start Note: At least 90% of participating mass must be obtained in each seismic direction. Ve is the equivalent lateral force acting at the base of the structure and represents the elastic response. the spectral analysis is OK. which are listed in the Loads Definition spreadsheet. These static equivalent loads are applied to the structure nodes when a static analysis or design is performed. Launch the Spectral Analysis. Torsion M. you should eliminate local vibration modes. z). Spectral Analysis Results Checking Participating Mass • Open the Linear Seismic Directions spreadsheet and check the percentage of participating mass (Modal M/M). The participating mass exceeds 90% for each main direction. and Modal M/M parameters are written in the spreadsheet when the spectral analysis is completed. Advance Design America modifies these loads to obtain equivalent static loads (Tx Dir. x. • Click the Spectral Analysis the analysis. and torsional moment acting at the base of the structure (Torsion M). If you get less than 90%. V chosen. Therefore. • Click OK to exit the spreadsheet. 7-16 CivilDesign Inc . icon. Note Ve and Vd are calculated from the modal analysis. increase the number of requested modes and perform another modal and spectral analysis. Vd. z and Tr Dir.A D A T U T O R I A L 7 • The Ve. Equivalent Static Loads Torsion loads and loads due to inelastic effects (P-delta) are generated during the spectral analysis. the base shear (Vd).

Δmx. They should not exceed the allowable limit. The calculated interstory drifts are below this limit. select the Results tab of the View Options dialog box and select a force diagram. In our model. The CNB-2005 Code limits this displacement to 2. • To view seismic forces and deflections.1. CivilDesign Inc 7-17 .5% of the story height for a regular building (Cl. Verify the corrected average interstory drifts. x. Envelopes E01 and E02 includes the resulting seismic forces acting respectively in the z-direction and x-direction. Seismic Envelopes E01 and E02 The Envelope mode is automatically activated when closing the Spectral Analysis dialog box.8. z loads are the forces obtained from the retro calculations done by Advance Design America for ductile frames (capacity design method).025 x 4000mm = 100mm. Information on Levels • Select Results / Modal/Spectral / Levels.S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S The Ri:Dir.13). this limit is equal to 0. 4.

7-18 CivilDesign Inc . Advance Design America automatically initializes data in the Linear Seismic Directions spreadsheet during the design process. • Select the vibration mode #1 on the Activate toolbar and select Results / Modal/Spectral / Node Displacements. to perform the modal and spectral analyses at each design cycle (shapes change and so are the seismic response). Node Displacements Node displacements are available for a selected vibration mode. Sort data using design groups and design load rates. Ductile Steel Design • Launch the steel design by clicking this icon.A D A T U T O R I A L 7 Interstory Drifts • Select Results / Modal/Spectral / Interstory Drifts. Steel Design Results Spreadsheet • Select Results / Structure Design / Steel and verify the member design load rates. and for each seismic direction. During the Design Process: We recommend selecting the Dynamic and Spectral analysis at each cycle of design option in the Analysis and Design dialog box. This spreadsheet lists differential displacements from the top and base of each column. When the vibration modes and main seismic directions change during the design. at each story.

CivilDesign Inc 7-19 .S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S Steel design results are OK.

A D A T U T O R I A L 7 Optimized Shapes for Concentrically Braced Frames 7-20 CivilDesign Inc .

S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S Optimized Shapes for Moment-Resisting Frame CivilDesign Inc 7-21 .

• • • 7-22 CivilDesign Inc . Press the F1 control key to get the definition of each column. The spectral envelope E02 corresponds to lateral forces towards direction x where concentrically braced frames are modeled to dissipate the energy. Direction x – Envelope E02 • Select the load combination ULS5_11 on Activation toolbar. Select Results / Structure Design / Steel – Seismic Design and verify the ductile members that dissipated energy during the earthquake.A D A T U T O R I A L 7 Seismic Steel Design Results This spreadsheet is composed of parameters that are relevant to ductile frames calculated according to section 27 of S16-01 Standard. Display the concentrically braced frames through the Selections dialog box (Edit / Select / Choose a selection) and mask the rest of the structure. The Seismic Design Results spreadsheet is available when a load combination is selected on Activation toolbar. through Advance Design America Online Help. Sort data using design groups.

Sort data using design groups. • • Display the moment-resisting frame through the Selections dialog box. Lateral forces are absorbed by the moment-resisting frames.S E I S M I C A N A L Y S I S Direction z – Envelope E01 The load combination ULS5_10 is selected. CivilDesign Inc 7-23 . Open the seismic steel design spreadsheet.

Verify that displacements do not exceed the allowable limit fixed by the NBC code.15mm. 7-24 CivilDesign Inc . The allowable interstory drift is 100 mm and the maximum reached is 98.A D A T U T O R I A L 7 Information on Levels • Check the corrected average interstory drifts (Results / Modal / Spectral).