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3. PART 1 4. PART 2 5. PART 3
First and foremost, I would like to thank god that finally, I had succeeded in finishing this project work. I would like to thank my beloved Additional Mathematic Teacher, Mrs. Wan Nurhalina bt.__________for all the assistance she has provided me during my job search. I appreciate the information and advice she have given, as well as the connections she have shared with me. Her expertise and help have been invaluable during this process. Also, thanks to my mom and my dad for giving me fully support in completing this project work and permission to use their notebook for further research in completing this project work. I sincerely appreciate their generosity. I would like to give my special thank to my fellow friends who had given me extra information on the project work and study group that we had done. Thank you for spending time with me to discuss about the coursework. Last but not least, I would like to express my highest gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this coursework. I really appreciate all your helps. Again, thank you so much. Best Regards,

A circle is a simpleshape of Euclidean geometry consisting of thosepoi nts in aplane which are the samedis tance from a given point called thecentre. The common distance of the points of a circle from its centre is called itsradius. Circles are simple closedcu rves which divide theplane into two regions, aninterior and an exterior. In everyday use the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure (known as theperimeter) or to the whole figure including its interior, but in strict technical usage "circle" refers to the perimeter while the interior of the circle is called adisk. Thecircumference of a circle is the perimeter of the circle (especially when referring to its length). A circle is a specialellipse in which the twof oci are coincident. Circles are conic sections attained when a right circular cone is intersected with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cone.

There are a lot of things are a lot of things around us related to circles or parts of a circle. Circle exists in our everyday lives and without circles, we could not imagine what it would cause to this world as the most important thing, the Earth itself is a circle. In this project, I will use the principle of circle that I had studied to design a garden to beautify the school. Before I further my task, first, we have to know what do pi ( ) related to a circle. When referring to this constant, the symbol is always pronounced like "pie" inEnglish, which is the conventional English pronunciation of the Greek letter. In Greek, the name of this letter ispronounced /pi/. Pi or is a mathematical constant whose value is therati o of anycircle's circumference to its diameter. In Euclidean plane geometry, is defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.

respectively.Archimedes proved the sharp inequalities 223»71 < < 22»7. Babylonian mathematicians were using § 25»8. obtained a value of 3. such as the fact that all circles aresimilar. and BCR.The ratio C/d is constant.1416.142.. or 0.04% off.. which is approximately 3. which is about 0. PAB.5% below the exact value. to determine the relation between the lengths of arcs PQR. and the height is believed to have been 280 cubits tall at the time of its construction.02% and 0. by means of regular 96-gons. in which d1 + d2 = 10cm..e. However. preserving the ratio C/d. these values are 0.6% above the exact value. TheRhind Mathematical Papyrus dates from the Egyptian Second Intermediate Period²though Ahmes stated that he copied a Middle Kingdom papyrus (i. in the second century AD. To find the length of arc.142708 with inscribe 96-gon and 192-gon. an error of less than 0. Semicircles PAB and BCR of diameter d1 and d2 respectively are inscribed in PQR such that the sum of d1 and d2 is equal to 10cm.14 was a good enough approximation for practical purpose..13888. regardless of a circle's size. For example. This can be considered a problem when occurs in areas of mathematics that otherwise do not involve geometry. A common choice is to define The early history of pi is believed to be built during the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt's Old Kingdom. without reference to geometry. or 0. PART 2 Diagram 1 shows a semicircle PQR of diameter 10cm. These definitions depend on results of Euclidean geometry. (Differentiating thearctangent function leads to a simple modern proof that indeed 3+1»7 exceeds .. Later he obtained a more accurate result § 3927»1250 = 3. which is correct to three decimal places.) Later. Alternatively can be also defined as the ratio of a circle'sarea (A) to the area of a square whose side is equal to theradi us. Each side is 440 cubits long.09% below the exact value). using a regular 360-gon. The Indian astronomer Yajnavalkya gave astronomical calculations in the Shatapatha Brahmana (c. I had used the formula: Arc of semicircle = ½ d d1 (cm) . or 0.16. mathematicians often prefer to define a definition. instead selecting one of itsanalytic properties as as twice the smallest positive x for whichcos(x) = 0.01%. Diagram 1 (a) I had completed the Table 1 by using various values of d1 and the corresponding values of d2. from before 1650 BC)²and describes the value in such a way that the result obtained comes out to 256»81. he suggested that 3.141666. As early as the 19th century BC. the average of these two values is 3.141024 and 3.[1] The Chinese mathematician Liu Hui in 263 AD computed with to between 3.04% above the exact value. the Great Pyramid was constructed with an approximate ratio of height to circumference of the base of 2 . In the third century BC.. AnEgyptian scribe namedAhmes wrote the oldest known text to give an approximate value for .141864. For this reason.. 9th century BC) that led to a fractional approximation of § 339»108 (which equals 3. This puts the value at approximately 3. Ptolemy. if a circle has twice the diameter d of another circle it will also have twice the circumference C. which is correct to two decimal places when rounded.

d2 (cm) Length of arc PQR in terms of (cm) Length of arc PAB in terms of (cm) Length of arc BCR in terms of (cm) 1 9 5 ½ 9/2 2 8 5 4 3 7 5 3/2 7/2 4 6 5 2 3 5 5 5 5/2 5/2 6 4 5 3 2 7 3 5 7/2 3/2 8 2 5 4 9 1 5 column 10 baris .

PAB and BCR is that the length of arc PQR is equal to the sum of the length of arcs PAB and BCR. we know that the length of arc PQR is not affected by the different in d1 and d2 in PAB and BCR respectively. which the equation is: S PQR = S PAB + S BCR Let d1= 3.5 9/2 ½ Table 1 From the Table 1. The relation between the length of arcs PQR. and d2 =7 SPQR = S PAB + S BCR 5 = ½ (3) + ½ (7) 5 = 3/2 5 = 10/2 5 =5 + 7/2 .