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# Communication Networks (2nd Edition

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Chapter 6 Solutions

36. Suppose that 80 percent of the traffic generated in the LAN is for stations in the LAN, and 20 percent is for stations outside the LAN. Is an Ethernet Hub preferable to an Ethernet switch? Does the answer change if the percentages are reversed? Solution: The difference between a hub and a switch is that in the hub frame are broadcast to all lines, while in a switch, frames are forwarded to another collision domain only if the destination is in that domain. When 80% of the traffic is local, the switch will only forward 20% of frames to other collision domains, thus increasing the bandwidth available on those domains. If 80% of the traffic is to other collision domains, then the switch forward more traffic to other domains. If there is only one other domain, then the switch forwards almost as much traffic as a hub would and is thus ineffective in containing broadcast traffic. On the other hand, if the switch has multiple broadcast domains, then the amount of traffic forwarded from the switch will be less than that forwarded by a hub. 37. Calculate the parameter a and the maximum throughput for a Gigabit Ethernet hub with stations at a 100-meter distance and average frame size of 512 bytes; 1500 bytes; and 64,000 bytes. d = 100 Tprop = 0.0000005 R = 1.00E+09 a Throughput 512 0.12207 0.56 1500 0.041667 0.788525 64000 0.000977 0.993754

42. Use IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11 to discuss three differences between wired and wireless LANs. Solution: Error rate: Unlike wired LANs, wireless LANs have high error rate due to interference and noise. Wireless LANs need to implement ARQ and/or error correction to increase the reliability of the communication channel. Station mobility: Unlike wired LANs where stations connected to the LANs are static, in wireless LANs, the stations can be mobile and portable. Wireless LAN protocols may have to implement dynamic traffic routing and service handoff when the station moves from one service area to another. Collision detection: Collision detection is not effective in wireless LANs due to the hidden station problem. Consequently, the sender must wait for explicit acknowledgment (e.g. RTS/CTS) from the receiver to know whether or not a frame has been received. The wireless LAN protocol implements a collision avoidance algorithm rather than the collision detection in wired LAN, and the delay in the contention period is longer than thee round-trip delay of 2tprop of wired LAN because of waiting for the receiver’s acknowledgment. Other differences: Security: In a wired LAN, the transmission medium is usually physically secure. In a wireless LAN, any device within the geographic transmission area can intercept the transmissions. To provide data security, wireless LANs need to implement encryption at the expense of higher cost and reduced performance. Power consumption: Portable and mobile devices are usually battery powered, and thus have limited power capacity. The wireless LAN protocol must be designed to be power efficient. All these issues are addressed in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN protocol.

Leon-Garcia/Widjaja

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44. Solution: Error correction at the physical layer uses up bandwidth in the form of check bits and adds complexity in terms of hardware for detecting and correcting errors. ρ max = X data + 2 SIFS + X ack X data + e( DIFS + X rts + SIFS + X cts ) Leon-Garcia/Widjaja 25 . suppose all stations are contending for the channel and have a probability of p to transmit RTS during a contention slot. in CSMA-CA. The MAC sublayer can provide connectionless service and the LLC can add reliability for those network layers that require it. the sender stations contend for the channel by sending a RTS frame to the receiver. However. The implementation of ARQ is much simpler than complex error correction. The number of check bits required for error detection is less than for error correction. Bandwidth is “wasted” only on retransmissions. This duration is similar to 2tprop in CSMA-CD. Suppose that all packet transmissions are preceded by a RTS-CTS handshake. Src Dest DIFS RTS SIFS CTS Contention slot SIFS Data SIFS Data transmission ACK DIFS RTS SIFS CTS Contention slot Similar to CSMA-CD. discuss the advantages and disadvantages of providing reliability by (a) implementing error correction at the physical layer. Find the capacity of this protocol following the analysis used for CSMA-CD.11 DCF with RTS-CTS handshake. the sender knows it has failed and will execute a backoff. and the average # of contention slots in a contention period is e. By this time. and it successfully captures the channel only when it receives a CTS frame from the receiver. Error control at the MAC layer is the preferred approach if the error rate is not too high. Consider the distributed coordination function in IEEE 802. ARQ at a higher layer may be simpler and more efficient. The sender does not know if it has succeeded until time = DIFS + XRTS + SIFS + XCTS. Solution: In IEEE 802. error correction may become essential to be able to communicate at all over the radio medium. not in a large number of check bits in every transmission. and (c) implementing error control at the LLC layer. if no CTS frame arrives. Therefore. If the bit error rate is low. the time can be divided in contention slots of size (DIFS + XRTS + SIFS + XCTS). if the bit error rate is high.11. Error control at the LLC layer provides flexibility when operating over a MAC sublayer. The maximum throughput occurs when all of the channel time is spent in transmission period followed by contention intervals. (b) implementing error control as part of the MAC layer.Communication Networks (2nd Edition) Chapter 6 Solutions 43. Then the maximum probability of success is 1/e as the number of station increases. For data packet radio networks.

Communication Networks (2nd Edition) Chapter 6 Solutions 47. as shown in the figure below.3 protocol has very low error rates. Initially. Suppose the following stations transmit frames: S2 transmits to S1. and S6 transmits to S5. S5 transmits to S4. 52.11 and not in IEEE 802. Why is error control (ARQ and retransmission) included in the MAC layer in IEEE 802. S1 transmits to S2. S3 transmits to S5. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 LAN1 port 1 B1 port 2 Port LAN2 port 1 B2 port 2 Port LAN3 Station Station Solution: Station S2 S5 S3 S1 Port 1 2 2 1 Station S2 S5 S3 S1 S6 Port 1 2 1 1 2 Leon-Garcia/Widjaja 26 . In contrast. the forwarding tables are empty.11 because of the noise and interference in the wireless medium. the wired medium for IEEE 802.3? Solution: Error control is required in the MAC in IEEE 802. Fill in the forwarding tables with appropriate entries after the frames have been completely transmitted. Six stations (S1-S6) are connected to an extended LAN through transparent bridges (B1 and B2).