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There are many different types of burner in use now for various purposes and in various areas, depending

on the supply of fuel and the purpose of the burner. In Europe, the gas burner has become very common in the lower-powered section, which is not to say that there are no large gas burners on the market! The oil burner is also very common, ranging from the extra light oil that is common in countries with low temperatures to the heavy oil burners used in some industrial processes. Oil burners will be in use permanently for many reasons. A coal burner is common in industry and for power stations, naturally enough, especially in countries with reserves of coal! Again, coal is not always coal and there are many different varieties and qualities in use. Coal burners have a bad reputation for dirt and pollution, which is not always justified. Wood burners were once only to be found in the household, but now a wood burner may be used in large-scale operations. The wood burner is also popular since this is a renewable source of energy and sometimes receives subsidies for this reason. In the petrochemical industry it is very common to find a process gas burner. This uses the waste gas produced b the cracking procedure and utilises it for powering the reheaters and other equipment.

Gas-fired burners
Natural gas has been heavily promoted in many countries in the last decade or so for a number of reasons. Once the pipe system has been laid there is little or no logistical problem in ensuring a supply to the consumers. Since the process of actually laying the pipes is very cost-intensive, it was obviously a priority to get as many connections made as possible to reduce the pay-back time for the investment. Natural gas is promoted as being a clean fuel, producing little carbon dioxide and almost no other pollutants, but does the flue gas analyzer show the "green jacket" to be justified? Natural gas consists primarily of methane and hence has a high proportion of hydrogen atoms to carbon atoms. For this reason, the ratio of carbon dioxide to water will be lower than with other fuels and hence there will be less carbon dioxide produced per heating unit than with other materials. This causes a problem for the flue gas analyzer, since the sample will contain more condensate than is the case from other burners. This condensate must be removed from the flue gas analyzer system to prevent damage to the sensors. The high temperatures used to burn gas without producing significant carbon monoxide lead, regrettably, to an increase in production of NOx. This has become the chief problem with this type of burner system. The flue gas analyzer will typically return a carbon monoxide result of around 20 ppm coupled with a NOx value of over 100 ppm. The other pollutants will be very minimal in most cases, since the gas is generally washed before being piped to the consumer. It is not common to have to measure any other components except carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in these burners. A simple flue gas analyzer is sufficient.

Sulfur and nitrogen-bearing compounds are more prevalent in the heavier oils. but the problem of solubility of the components is now present. as the flue gas analyzer will show. Coal my contain a large amount of sulfur and other impurities. the lighter the oil. ranging from peat to high quality material that produces a high level of energy and little waste. or could be.A soot test will not usually be required. leading to a build-up of soot on the heat exchanger plates. Coal-fired Burners Now we are getting to the larger burners! Coal-fired burners are in common use in heavy industry. Power station burners will pulverise the coal and blow it in as a fine dust. The chief problem here for the flue gas analyzer is simply water. They can present a problem for our flue gas analyzer due to the amount of smoke and other pollutants that some forms of coal can produce. Obviously. A simple check with the flue gas analyzer will show the fact of the matter. The problem of cross-sensitivity must always be borne in mind when these two gases are. This will require a flue gas analyzer equipped with at least a sensor for sulfur dioxide and possibly for nitrogen dioxide as well. if the fuel is clean and free from pollutants. but also to the other pollutants such as sulfur dioxide. This will have an adverse effect on overall efficiency and should be monitored if in doubt. Keep the tests short and empty the water traps afterwards. Generally speaking. present. especially in countries with reserves of coal. The efficiency of the combustion will depend largely on the preparation of the coal before burning. Apart from this. the mixing of fuel and air is much better with pulverised fuel and the combustion will be both quicker and cleaner. there is no real reason why a correctly adjusted oil burner should be a source of pollution. meaning that both SO2 and NO2 will be higher. from extra-light heating oil (red diesel) to heavy oils that require considerable preheating before combustion or flow are possible. the cleaner the combustion. There are very many different varieties and qualities of coal. The only real question is the choice of sensors and whether to fit some sort of drier to the flue gas analyzer to prevent flushing out of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. This is not just referring to smoke and carbon monoxide. reducing this load on the water trap of the flue gas analyzer. An oil burner may well suffer from smoke. Oil-fired Burners The oil-fired burner can be using a large range of fuels. The level of condensate will generally be lower with the oil burner. but is certainly not a waste of time. Both of these gases are highly water-soluble and the water may have to be removed in some way to improve the accuracy of the measurements. Particularly inferior brands of coal will contain tarry matter that will cause . The smallest burners will simply feed the chunks of coal as delivered into the combustion chamber. The simple soot test may be a requirement anyway. which will be found in the flue gas when measured.

which falsifies the readings on the flue gas analyser. Old-style wood burners taking large pieces of wood will always be relatively inefficient. Wood-fired Burner For many years. A soot test will be essential and extra filtration for the flue gas analyzer should be considered in many cases. A blocked filter may also lead to air being drawn in at joints in the gas tubing. except for a slightly higher excess air number. Again. there are different types and qualities of wood. Water is less of a problem here. QUALITY MARKING AND ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING OF SMALL-SCALE BIOMASS BOILERS IN AUSTRIA (PDF) Leopold LASSELSBERGER. which should solve the problem. This was perhaps just as well. never saw a flue gas analyzer. Today. The level of nitrogen dioxide will also be elevated due to nitrogenbearing compounds in the coal. The flue gas analyzer will certainly have to carry out a soot test and some protection against the tarry deposits may be necessary. which may contain free water as well. wood burners were more decorative than anything else and. the wood burner is another proposition entirely. District heating schemes are using the wood from land-clearance projects and from plantations of fast-growing trees.sticky smoke that can block a filter on a flue gas analyzer very quickly. Wood chippings are now being compressed into pellets which are burned in computer-controlled heating units. boosting the level of condensate greatly. which will vary in their burning characteristics. Where they are used as boilers for household heating they will have to be tested and the flue gas analyzer must cope with the smoke and tar they produce. since they tended to be very inefficient and not especially clean. This means that a calculation of NOx from nitric oxide will not be reliable and a nitrogen dioxide sensor should really also be fitted. Some will smoke more heavily than others and the levels of other pollutants will also differ. Federal Institute of Agricultural Engineering (BLT). Care must be taken to inspect the filters and change them if necessary. A-3250 Wieselburg Process-Gas Fired Burners . Extra external filters are available for most types of flue gas analyser. This means that wood burners will be increasingly measured with a flue gas analyzer and so is becoming more important. Coal burners require a flue gas analyzer capable of measuring sulfur dioxide. except with some forms of brown coal or peat. A modern wood burner using pellets as fuel will not be any different in gas composition to an oil burner. The use of various waste products such as wood has increased. The main problems are smoke and tarry deposits. as such. This will always be present to some degree.

the grate is 12 inches broad and 25 inches long. You will find freestanding burner units as well. enabling the chef to set a pan closer to the flame. but these are not available here. carbon dioxide and various other impurities. The infrared carbon dioxide sensor is an expensive investment. people will generally pay less attention to the efficiency values. since an inefficient combustion process will lead to smoke and hence sooting of the internals. allowing foods to make quickly in highly concentrated heat. that are flat like hot tops. Some grate tops are created in concentric circles called rings. And you will find griddles. Since the main part of the fuel is basically a waste product and thus free. Typically. If the heat produced from process gas is not enough to run the reheaters . heavy-duty metal grate on which to set pots and pans. that has a residual burning value and is present in a high enough concentration to be used. especially if the gas is completely uncleaned. There will also be a number of different types of burners. A griddle has the major advantage of the trough for handy removal of grease from its area as well as a detachable . but an available unit can easily be used to occasionally check the combustion processes here. which can be eliminated individually. which can be installed rather than open burners. sauteing. which means they are ordered in modules of one or two burners that "drop in" to the array best and therefore are connected there. this gas is used as it comes. then either natural gas or fuel oil is added to make up the deficit. but created of a thicker steel plate. 5% is probably nearer to a true figure. even high temperature. The flue gas analyzer needs to know the fuel parameters to calculate the level of CO2. rings disperse the high temperature over a wider region and are better for melting. It is not! This is the gas left over. Checking with a flue gas analyzer is still essential. since they use air from the surrounding atmosphere to mix using the gas and ignite the flame. This will consist of a mixture of short-chain hydrocarbons. This will further reduce efficiency and possibly result in expensive down-time. carbon monoxide. or cooking duties that require steady. this gas is left over after the catalytic cracking of petroleum products in the refining process.The term process gas seems to imply that this is a fixed and defined quantity. water vapour. this type of burner generally requires slightly more oxygen. The oxygen sensor will not be able to find any way of converting the results received to a sensible level. but will ensure constant and correct results from a combustion process that most flue gas analyzers can not easily measure. The excess air number should give an almost correct reading. the efficiency should be treated as important. since any addition of processed fuels increases costs and wastes valuable resources as well. generally in the petrochemical industry. The most common available burner is covered by a one-piece. In reality. In industrial processes. An open gas burner is sometimes known as a grate best or graduated high temperature best. You'll hear some called drop-in burners. Typically. Jets concentrate the gasoline flame and aim it immediately at a spot. and the flue gas analyzer must try to find its own solution. The flue gas analyzer will have to be fitted with a carbon dioxide sensor to make any sense of these results. In practice. These burners are also referred to as atmospheric burners. since this is based solely on the level of oxygen and the oxygen remainder will be about 3% for this type of fuel. unless the addition of processed fuel becomes high. A flue gas analyzer will hardly be purchased solely for this purpose. The high temperature may emerge from the burner through jets or rings. We've already mentioned warm tops. This makes it easy to mix and match various kinds of burners based on what you strategy to cook.

If a pan's material or dimensions aren't suitable for that range-too small. The latest technology includes a present sensor about the coil. Francesco Zinzaro has been involved with online marketing for nearly 3 years and likes to write on various subjects. Most induction cooktops provide a temperature range from 90 to 440 degrees Fahrenheit. Atmospheric natural gas burners are used successfully on ceramic kilns. the larger the range.which detects whether a pan is about the cooktop and precisely controls the power utilized (and. A combination broiler/griddle might also come in handy. with the ability to much better manage heat. the heat delivered) towards the pan. For hot glass glory-hole.com/4082462 BURNERS AND CONTROLS Follow the underlined links for more detailed information and descriptions of our range of burners and controls. in five-degree increments. Gas at high pressure as the pressure of reticulated natural gas is usually too low to inspirate sufficient air to generate a hot.drip pan to catch the grease and brief "walls" on three sides that help avoid spattering.com/?expert=Francesco_Zinzaro Article Source: http://EzineArticles. the higher the quantity of burner choices and combinations that are available. Typically. consequently. The velocity of the gas stream flowing through an orifice entrains atmospheric air for combustion from a venturi throat. the venturi throat area should be approx. There is a definite ratio between the burner port area and the venturi throat. depending on the kiln or furnace back pressure. short flame with any forward velocity. Come visit his latest website which discusses of Restaurant Fridges and fridges supplies for the owner of his own business. In basic. Article Source: http://EzineArticles. gas pressure and burner head design. atmospheric burners generally use L. The resultant mixture burns at a specially designed tip. 40-50% of the total . tank and pot furnaces. or not magnetic-the burner will not high temperature. This hybrid includes tubular burners for that griddle and infrared radiant bulbs for that broiler. y y y y y y y y Atmospheric Venturi Burners Premix Burners Nozzle Mixing Burners Recuperation Low Temperature Ovens Higher Temperature Furnaces Safety Controls Technical Notes ATMOSPHERIC (VENTURI) BURNERS These are burners that operate on gas only. Possibly the greatest breakthrough in current years is in induction cooking.P. of which there are a wide variety. known as a flame retention head.

This method of firing is the cheapest in terms of equipment costs but is also the least economical. Special flow regulators can be fitted to simplify adjustment enabling alteration of air flow only to raise or lower the temperature. is the volume of combustion products that can be introduced to the furnace combustion area. castable tunnel or MP multiport tip (illustrated) mounted into the furnace wall. Some operators have traded tip life for lower noise and lower capacity by sealing the tip in the furnace port with fibre.I. PRE-MIX OPEN AND SEALED BURNERS These are burners using a machined mixing set and forced air from a blower or compressor. Flame safety systems for these burners are usually the thermoelectric type that can be used with or without a separate pilot burner. This will indicate the settings are close to perfect. Smaller burners with smaller gas orifices and higher gas pressure would develop higher mixture pressures allowing more combustion products into the space in a shorter time. a hotter flame is produced and the sealed burner requires no wasteful secondary air. Attention should be paid to obtaining as neutral (correct mixture of atmospheric air and gas) a flame as possible as either oxidising (more air then gas) or reducing (less air) flames or atmospheres are wasteful.burner port area. The open burner will need secondary air for cooling purposes to prolong the tip¶s life and to complete combustion. Again. The higher mixture pressures developed by this burner style enable greater combustion volumes into the available furnace combustion space. Low rates can be achieved by using a preheat pilot. It is always better and safer to purchase the burners assembled and pre-tested with the appropriate controls. Some careful preheating of the combustion air may be possible but is not recommended. Automatic ignition and quick lockout safety systems are readily available as an option for these burners. It is possible to check the furnace conditions by restricting the flue exit and checking for slight reduction. Special process or glaze firings are of course excluded. care must be taken to correctly size the mixer as a definite ratio exists between the size of the mixer chambers and the burner orifice for proper operation. as there is a risk of flashback or damage to the controls through heat conduction. These burners are more efficient than atmospheric burners as greater control is available over the air and gas mix. try to keep it to a minimum by correctly sized burner ports and flue outlets. Natural gas or L. Gas may be used at low pressure as the forced air induces the gas and produces a blast-type flame. As a . due to the low mixture pressure produced. It is difficult to achieve sufficient temperature in higher temperature furnaces with these burners. P. Mismatching may result in a decrease in mixture velocity producing inadequate burning or at worst "flash back". Premix burners generally have a shorter flame length than comparable nozzle mix burners. Mount the pilot and/or safety probe well away from the furnace back heat. In some cases better results have been attained by using several smaller burners rather than a single. Open burners use a suitable cast iron or steel flame retention tip and the sealed type utilise a R. The pilot burner can serve as a low-fire setting. The greatest limitation. large burner. Although some secondary air (air entrained around the burner tip) is necessary for complete combustion. It is possible to construct a simple mixer from pipe pieces but extra care should be taken to ensure it is not possible for the air to flow into the gas line if the burner or feed pipe is blocked. This lends itself to simple. Simply increasing the combustion space size will not achieve results as losses will increase proportionally. Obviously there is a fine balance. Please contact for more advice on this option. the air/gas ratio is easier to control and the burner overall generally easier to set up. accurate temperature control. A better alternative is to increase the pressure the combustion products are forced into the space by using a forced air supply.

its use in small production situations has only recently become viable due to high fuel costs. A simple and effective recuperator uses a stainless steel tube on the flue outlet with a larger tube sited around it. lower gas and air pressures (unless high velocity is required) may be used and there is no chance of flash back. RECUPERATION Recuperation is the process of preheating the combustion air by utilising the waste flue products. If accurate mixing and turn down are required. Fuel savings of up to 40% can be achieved through properly designed and implemented systems. Up to the burner head the air and gas are kept separate. They have been used in industry where little forward flame travel is desirable and efficient radiant heat is best.minimum. use the correct mixer. Nozzle mix burners that will provide high preheat temperatures and maximum fuel savings are constructed from stainless steel internals or in some special cases ceramic materials. They generally have greater turn down than other burner types by controlling the gas only and can use preheated air. Basic cast nozzle-mix burners can handle low preheat temperatures providing some fuel savings but deterioration may result if these burners are exposed to high temperatures for a period of time. The area between the inner and outer tubes must be adequate to allow for free circulation of the cold combustion air but sufficiently restricted to enable the heat conducted through the inner tube to heat the air to the desired preheat temperature by the time the air exits the recuperator and flows to the burner head. Although recuperation has been used in industry in various forms for many years. with some States demanding full sequence electronic flame failure while others may allow glory hole burners without safety if the burner is constantly supervised. Various types of flame shapes and capacities can be designed to suit the customers¶ requirement including flat flame burners. It is important not to exceed the working temperature of the steel and a refractory base or longer section may need to be used to take the initial heat. All enclosed kilns. NOZZLE-MIX BURNERS These types of burners accomplish the mixing of the air and gas after they leave the burner port. Air and gas controls and safety equipment are similar to premix burners. Experience has shown that over a period of . nozzle mix) burners tend to differ. A simple counter flow design is illustrated. a light flap safety check valve should be fitted to the gas line. pot or tank furnaces should have quick lock out safety as these burners can produce large amounts of unignited mixture in a short period of time. This type of burner has a specially designed burner tip and refractory quarl to produce a spinning flat flame that spreads at 90 degrees to the mixture outlet. State gas regulations concerning forced draft (premix. Baffles may be added to the inner tube or the single inner tube exchanged for multiple tubes to increase the available surface area. The passage of the hot combustion products flowing through the inner tube must similarly be restricted to allow sufficient heat penetration. As the preheated combustion air is kept separate there is no chance of over-heating the gas controls.

Low gas pressure burners suitable for these ovens are atmospheric and can be pipe-type burners with either a row of drilled holes. more industrial kilns should use higher pressure forced draft burners firing across. however higher gas pressure burners can fire horizontally along a base channel. brick ovens can virtually cool down (with all openings closed) at the required rate without any added heat input. for even temperature gradients. Larger. An efficient oven will have many capabilities including even heat distribution. Sealed burner tips are better. As temperature control is such an important consideration. on either side of the loading area. to a degree. creating a circular swirl. more efficient and have a better turndown. Air piping from the recuperator to the burner head should have a large cross sectional area to cope with the expansion of the cold air as it is heated. . Insulation materials are a matter for personal preference with many people maintaining that R. The newer types are generally cheaper. Against this it must be remembered that it takes extra energy to heat a brick oven than a light-weight fibre type. Refractory recuperators can be made to increase the preheated air temperature to the burner and prolong life. Provision must be made for periodic cleaning of the inside tube and it is a good idea to have a small reservoir underneath the flue outlet to gather these products rather than allow them to block the furnace outlet. It is important if using this method that sufficient draw is available from the fluing system particularly in the early stages of a firing. Electric kilns are easily controlled with programmers. Better ovens have been constructed using high pressure burners firing around the top of the space. the ability to maintain a set temperature and fire down over a period of time at an accurate rate if required. This can be up to 40% at typical temperatures. Gas ovens work best using a down draft design (the flue outlet near the base of the oven) and burners that have a short. clean flame with good turndown characteristics (high flame to low flame). under or through the load. programmable units are available to accurately maintain and control the temperature gradient. Safety controls are usually thermoelectric. FIRING LOW TEMPERATURE OVENS There are many functional ovens in use including some with well-designed features such as adjustable combustion spaces for varied throughput¶s and automatic doors for hands free loading. HIGHER TEMPERATURE FURNACES These furnaces fire to higher temperatures (more than 700oC) but can employ similar burners. These use an air fan/blower with the appropriate mixing mechanism to deliver sufficient velocity for even heat distribution. the contactor coil or relay substituted for the solenoid valve. The burners usually fire through the base. slots or newer designs that incorporate a mixer with many fine slots in the burner casing. Accurate electronic digital units are available up to 8 or 12 stages and control the burners using solenoid valves according to demand. on radiation from the flame. This method relies not only on convection heat input but also. Downdraft designs are effective for general work but it is also possible to fire high pressure smaller burners across the product.I. It may be necessary to preheat the flue but in any case pressure drops across the flue pipe and exit port must be minimised.time a coating of products produced by the glass making process tend to accumulate on the inner tube surface.

one second by closing a solenoid valve fitted into the gas line. All valves and fittings must be approved and pipe fittings particularly must be suitable for gas. In some instances the authorities may also insist on over temperature protection or explosion relief. Their main advantage in high temperature situations compared to flame rods is that they can be mounted away from the heat zone.Automatic temperature programmers are important and can be effectively connected with any gas burner system. Non-return check valves may also be required in the gas main to prevent air flowing back to the meter. gas installations to monitor the gas flow and provide the correct pressure outlet. They are protected and see through a protective cover such as ultra violet transmitting fused quartz . This current excites an electro-magnet located in a safety valve and attracts a plate allowing gas to flow. Flame safety is simply fitted to the ladder pilot with manual or automatic spark ignition an option. the flame rectification type and the ultra-violet type. For reliable operation the earthing point on the burner must have at least four times the area of the rod in the flame. can be up to 20 seconds. These operate on an electromagnetic principle and require no power. A flame sensing rod made from special high temperature material is used and must be situated near the edge of the main flame. We can advise on any of the above safety considerations and recommend suitable components. Flame safety controls are recommended for all types of burners where there is the risk of a build-up of unignited gas should the flame be extinguished. They shut down on a flame failure in approx. Multiple tips commonly utilise a ladder type pilot arrangement on either side. A micro-amp meter may be used in series with the rod to check the best position and minimise nuisance shutdowns. SAFETY CONTROLS Safety controls for gas appliances vary from over-temperature controls to sophisticated automatic start-up and flame failure controllers.P. should the probe cool. Gas. THERMOELECTRIC SAFETY This is the simplest form of flame safety and is permitted on atmospheric burners with a capacity under 500 MJ/hour. ELECTRONIC QUICK-LOCKOUT These units require power and are usually fitted to forced air burners or safer atmospheric burners. The wire must be sturdy enough to resist drooping or deterioration at high temperatures and the porcelain insulators must be kept clean or replaced if cracks develop. The regulations cover natural gas and L. Flame rectification or UV units are required on all forced air burners and gas will not be connected unless they are fitted. A regulator is always required on either natural gas or L. Flame rectification relies on the ability of ionised gases in the flame to rectify on AC current from the control unit. modulating the main burners to relight from the pilot for accurate temperature control. Safety valves should be listed in the gas association bulletin and the burners and controls installed by a licensed person. Shut off time. UV monitors are sensitive to the ultra violet radiation produced by flames. A small current is generated when the tip of a thermocouple probe is heated by the flame. Two main types are available. Explosion relief is simply a panel fitted to the furnace of the correct dimensions of a material with less resistance to an explosion than the furnace itself.P. They also sense the arc of a spark so must be sited away from any automatic spark igniters fitted to the burner.

there are mainly two types of burners for gas cooktops. this screw may be set for maximum gas only and the manual air and gas valves adjusted to alter the flow. Check the heat up rate recommended by the manufacturer to be safe and use a pilot or small torch as a low rate if necessary.com Gas stoves are commonly made with four burners. 1. Furnace pressure is controlled by the flue and flue exit size assuming the gas and air flows are at the most efficient settings. It is possible to reduce the noise on an open type premix burner by sealing the burner in the open port (cutting the secondary air) with ceramic fibre. Seal the rest of the door opening completely with ceramic fibre and fit a balloon on the other end of the tube. often in two different sizes (small and large). Of course. This can be tested in a basic fashion by using a hollow tube fitted through a gap in the door. however in the absence of these tools. a slightly reducing gas/air mix with the air rate kept at a minimum will achieve the temperature required. If manual control is preferred. The open type premix burners can have the primary air reduced further as a percentage is entrained as secondary air. Premix burners have a gas adjusting valve under the aluminium cap located on the mixing chamber. Ideally furnaces should be commissioned using combustion analysers. Furnaces take longer to reach operating temperatures during the initial heat up phase. NOTES ON FIRING HIGH TEMPERATURE FURNACES Nozzle mixing and premix furnace burners can be oversized to reduce the ambient noise level providing control is not compromised. The trade off will be a shortened life for the cast iron tip as the cooling secondary air is not available. Loosen the locknut and turn the brass screw anti-clockwise for more gas. In some situations cooling air should be blown across the UV cell face to remove dust and protect from excessive back-heat. Discover the differences between the two burner types before making a buying decision. o Close-up of a classic gas stove heating up. a better option is to use the MP ceramic tip. If burners have been undersized. sealed burners should be blue without hard. The ideal open flame has slight yellow tips.glass. the large burner will have a higher British Thermal Unit (BTU) output than the other burners for bigger cooking tasks. Furnace pressures should be slightly positive to ensure the flue is not drawing excessively and there is no possibility of wasteful ingress of secondary air. Nozzle mixing burners usually require special proportionators in the gas line for accurate high to low control of the flame although some furnaces require models that are able to modulate the gas only for better turn down and even temperatures. They should be replaced if there is excessive corrosion or the outer casting has burnt away. Allow this time to slowly heat castables or furnace parts that may not have been fired past critical temperatures previously. gas image by Danil Vachegin from Fotolia. Refer to specific instructions on setting up and adjusting burners.e. more capacity is possible by increasing the flue height and the draw to allow greater furnace gas inputs. A slight inflation of the balloon indicates slight positive pressure. defined cones. The tip/s should be cleaned frequently with particular attention given to the small retention ports around the main port. . i. Size considerations and BTU output notwithstanding. In many stove models. the adjustment of the gas valve will alter the air/gas ratio only. if more gas is supplied there will be a gas rich flame over the entire range. If a zero type regulator is used on the gas line for single (air) valve control of the burner output.

though many are equipped with electronic ignition systems rather than old-fashioned pilot lights.000 BTUs. Sealed Burners o Sealed burners are made with spill-catching bowls which are built around the perimeter of the burner. As the name suggests. which is measured in BTUs.000 BTUs of heat. The advantage of using sealed burners is the easy cleanup. sealed burners wipe up very easily after use. . All gas stoves require gas hookups to operate. Non-sealed Burners o Non-sealed burners on gas cooktops are made with drip trays that are made to fit underneath the burners.2. As a result of this design. Standard gas burners will put out approximately 8. making cleanup easier than non-sealed burner types.000 to 10. sealed burners will not get as hot as quickly as their open counterparts. A hole in the center of the drip tray allows necessary airflow to keep the fire burning hot enough to cook food. resulting in shorter cook times than you would experience otherwise. Heavy-duty gas burner varieties found in commercial kitchens may put out heat up to 18. The air hole allows the burner to heat up quickly. Standard and Heavy-Duty Burners o All types of burners made for gas cooktops output different levels of heat. sealed burners are made without the air hole found in nonsealed varieties.