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Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 

 

 




CERTIFICATE


This is to certify that the project entitled “Simulation of Radiation patterns of different
antennas” being submitted by Mr. Ankur Arora (13/EC/05), Mr. Uchit Singhal
(92/EC/05), Mr. Ujjwal Nehra (93/EC/05) , Mr. Vivek Rawat (102/EC/05) of Department
of Electronics and Communication Engineering , in partial fulfillment of the requirements
of the award of the degree of “Bachelor of Engineering” is a record of bona-fide work
carried out by them. They have worked under my guidance and supervision and fulfilled
the requirements.
To the best of my knowledge, this project work has not been submitted, in part or full, to
any other university or institute for award of any degree or diploma.

Dated:



Dr. HARISH PARTHASARATHY
Professor, ECE division
Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology
Sector-3, Dwarka
New Delhi-110045

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


We would like to express our sincere gratitude towards our project mentor
Dr. H. Parthasarathy for providing us with his valuable time, effort, and invaluable
knowledge without which the progress of our project wouldn’t have been possible. It was
our great opportunity and experience to enrich ourselves with innovative ideas and
guidance provided by him.
We also express our regards to our colleagues who motivated us throughout the project
which led to the successful completion of the same.




ANKUR ARORA UCHIT SINGHAL
(13/EC/05) (92/EC/05)


UJJWAL NEHRA VIVEK RAWAT
(93/EC/05) (102/EC/05)



Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 

 

ABSTRACT

An Antenna is used to transmit and receive electromagnetic waves. Antennas are employed in
systems such as radio and television broadcasting, point-to-point radio communication, wireless
LAN, radar, and space exploration. Antennas usually work in air or outer space, but can also be
operated under water or even through soil and rock at certain frequencies for short distances. The
origin of the word antenna relative to wireless apparatus is attributed to Guglielmo Marconi.
There are several critical parameters affecting an antenna's performance that can be adjusted
during the design process. These are resonant frequency, impedance, gain, aperture or radiation
pattern, polarization, efficiency and bandwidth. Transmit antennas may also have a maximum
power rating, and receive antennas differ in their noise rejection properties. An antenna may be
an isotropic radiator, a dipole, yagi-uda type, horn type or patch antenna.

In this project, we have simulated the radiation pattern of horn antenna and yagi-uda antenna in
MATLAB and studied their FEKO outputs. We have designed many antennas in FEKO
environment and have made improvements in the previous designs to have better electric field
intensity and directivity. Our basic approach was to simulate the radiation pattern for a
symmetrically shaped antenna and then maximizing the output parameters by using various
techniques such as using reflector surfaces wherever the loss in antenna was due to side lobes.
Polarization of an antenna is a very important parameter in determining the loss in transmission.
In antennas matching plays a very important role in determining the final output and rain drops
due to reflection properties can lead to serious weakening of signal at high frequencies, due to
which circular polarization is generally preferred.
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATE ................................................................................................................................................................. 1 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................................................................................ 2 
ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3 
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................................. 4 
LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................................................................. 6 
LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................................................... 9 
INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................................... 11 
1.1  Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 11 
1.2  Objective ................................................................................................................................................... 12 
1.4  Project Overview...................................................................................................................................... 12 
1.4  Structure of the Report........................................................................................................................... 14 
ANTENNA THEORY .................................................................................................................................................... 15 
     2.1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 15 
     2.2 TYPES OF ANTENNA....................................................................................................................................... 16 
2.3 RADIATION PATTERN ..................................................................................................................................... 17 
2.4 Antenna Parameters ...................................................................................................................................... 18 
PYRAMIDAL HORN..................................................................................................................................................... 21 
3.1 Introduction to Horn Antenna...................................................................................................................... 21 
3.2 Horn Antenna Configurations ...................................................................................................................... 22 
3.3 E Plane Sectoral Horn .................................................................................................................................... 23 
3.3.1 Aperture Fields ........................................................................................................................................ 23 
3.3.2 Radiated Fields ........................................................................................................................................ 25 
3.4 H Plane Sectoral Horn .................................................................................................................................... 26 
3.4.1 Aperture Fields ........................................................................................................................................ 27 
3.4.2 RADIATED FIELDS .................................................................................................................................... 28 
3.5 Pyramidal Horn ............................................................................................................................................... 29 
3.5.1 APERTURE FIELDS ................................................................................................................................... 31 
3.5.2 RADIATED FIELDS .................................................................................................................................... 31 
3.6 MATLAB Simulation........................................................................................................................................ 32 
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3.6.1 MATLAB CODE ......................................................................................................................................... 32 
3.7 FEKO Simulation ............................................................................................................................................. 37 
3.8 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 41 
YAGI  UDA  ANTENNA ............................................................................................................................................... 42 
4.1 History .............................................................................................................................................................. 42 
4.2 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 43 
4.3 Working Principle ........................................................................................................................................... 43 
4.4 Mathematical Analysis .................................................................................................................................. 46 
4.5 Matlab Simulation .......................................................................................................................................... 49 
4.5.1 MATLAB CODE ......................................................................................................................................... 49 
4.5.2 MATLAB OUTPUTS .................................................................................................................................. 58 
4.6 FEKO Simulation ......................................................................................................................................... 58 
4.7  RESULTS .......................................................................................................................................................... 61 
SPIRO HELICAL ANTENNA......................................................................................................................................... 62 
5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 62 
5.2 Mathematical Analysis .................................................................................................................................. 63 
5.3 Design Methodology ...................................................................................................................................... 65 
5.3 Matlab Simulation .......................................................................................................................................... 66 
5.4 Radiation Patterns .......................................................................................................................................... 68 
6.1  FEKO Background .......................................................................................................................................... 72 
6.2   Designs proposed in past ............................................................................................................................ 72 
6.3 Antenna proposed.......................................................................................................................................... 79 
Chapter7 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 88 
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK ......................................................................................................................... 88 
7.1 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................................... 88 
7.2 Future Work .................................................................................................................................................... 89 
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................................... 90 
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................................................... 92 
Appendix A: Transverse Electric mode .............................................................................................................. 92 
Appendix B :  Method Of Moments ................................................................................................................... 94 
Appendix C : Radiation Equations ...................................................................................................................... 95 
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LIST OF PLOTS
 
Plot 3.1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    35 
Plot 3.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    35 
Plot 3.3………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    36 
Plot 3.4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    37 
Plot 3.5………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    37 
Plot 3.6………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    38 
Plot 3.7………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    38 
Plot 4.1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    56 
Plot 4.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    56 
Plot 4.3………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    57 
Plot 4.4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    57 
Plot 4.5………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    58 
Plot 4.6………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    58 
Plot 5.1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    66 
Plot 5.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    67 
Plot 5.3………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    67 
Plot 5.4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    67 
Plot 5.5………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    68 
Plot 5.6………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    68 
Plot 6.1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    71 
Plot 6.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    72 
Plot 6.3………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    72 
Plot 6.4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    73 
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 

 
Plot 6.5………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    74 
Plot 6.6………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    74 
Plot 6.7………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    75 
Plot 6.8………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    76 
Plot 6.9………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    76 
Plot 6.10……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     77 
Plot 6.11……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     78 
Plot 6.12……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     78 
Plot 6.13……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     79 
Plot 6.14……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     79 
Plot 6.15……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     80 
Plot 6.16……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     80 
Plot 6.17……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     81 
Plot 6.18……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     82 
Plot 6.19……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     82 
Plot 6.20……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     83 
Plot 6.21……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     83 
Plot 6.22……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     84 
Plot 6.23……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     84 
Plot 6.24……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     85 
Plot 6.25……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     85 
 
 
 
 
 
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 





Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 

 
LIST OF FIGURES
 
 
Figure 1.1 .........................................................................................................................................................
 
Figure 2.1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....
Figure 2.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....
Figure 2.3……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
 
Figure 3.1……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Figure 3. 2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Figure 3. 3.................................................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not 
Figure 3. 4.........................................................................................................................................................
Figure 3. 5.........................................................................................................................................................
Figure 3. 6.........................................................................................................................................................
Figure 3. 7.........................................................................................................................................................
 
Figure 4. 1.........................................................................................................................................................
Figure 4. 2.........................................................................................................................................................
Figure 4. 3.........................................................................................................................................................
Figure 4. 4.........................................................................................................................................................
Figure 4. 5.........................................................................................................................................................
 
Figure 5. 1.........................................................................................................................................................
Figure 5.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....
7

13
14
16

22
22
25
26
28
28

29

41
42
42
43
44

60
60
Figure 5.3………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....
Figure 5.4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....
61
61










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chapter1


INTRODUCTION


1.1 Introduction
An Antenna, also known as aerial, is a transducer which is used to transmit and receive the
electromagnetic waves, converting them into electric currents and vice versa. A typical antenna
finds its usage in every domain of life whether it is broadcasting or space exploration. Point to
point communication, wireless LAN are other important fields which can not suffice without an
antenna. Antenna can be deployed in any medium whether it is air, space, soil or water.
However, the range of frequencies in which it can be used efficiently narrows down in water and
soil, but its advantages outcast the limitations.
While designing an antenna various parameters need to be taken care of. The important among
them are the Gain, Directivity, Field Intensity, Reflector surfaces, Polarization, and bandwidth.
An antenna should possess its maximum energy in the direction of main lobe while possessing a
minimum of side and back lobes. For this reflector surfaces are used. Metallic surfaces act as
superb reflectors, while dielectric surfaces absorb the Electromagnetic radiation falling upon
them.
Various losses arise in the transmission due to mismatching and the reflections suffered by the
waves in the atmosphere due to precipitation, dust, water-vapors etc. Rain drops play the most
important role due to spherical symmetry, due to which circular polarization becomes a
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necessity. To increase the bandwidth various methods such as use of thicker wires and
combination of multiple antennas to give a single assembly is preferred. Hence, it is imperative
to have a design that extends to handle these factors effectively. This report focuses on the
design and architectural details of the antennas which incorporate the above mentioned features.

1.2 Objective
This project focuses on the development of antennas such that they possess a radiation pattern
which provides us with the improvement in the antenna parameters such as directivity, gain ,
electric field intensity along the main lobe and co-existence of circular polarization. The existing
designs of horn antenna and yagi-uda antenna were simulated in MATLAB and the
improvements were made through FEKO.

1.3 Motivation
We wanted to build an antenna which was better than the existing designs of antenna. The
improvement was made in regard to various antenna parameters whether it is gain, directivity,
minimization of the side lobes, maximizing the electric field intensity, cost or bandwidth. For
this, various designs were studied and the pros and cons were noted down. This was used to
obtain a design which is better than all the contemporary ones for a particular antenna parameter.
It could be directivity, or field intensity or polarization. FEKO provided us with an excellent
platform to make changes in the existing antenna designs and study the resultant radiation
pattern.

1.4 Project Overview
Keeping in mind the antenna parameters such as directivity, gain, polarization , bandwidth and
radiation intensity , the aim was to obtain the antenna designs which excelled in any particular
domain and scored well over the previous antennas. The project work has been carried out step
by step using the modular approach for the benefit of clear understanding and development of
efficient design. The figure below explains the basic project development life cycle.


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Figure 1.1 

Firstly, a literary survey of basic and existing antenna types was done. The basic antenna types
included the Pyramidal Horn and Yagi-Uda antenna. The next step was to perform the
mathematical analysis of these types of antennas to calculate the mathematical equations for the
electric field and magnetic field intensities. These equations were then simulated in Matlab to
generate the corresponding outputs. The outputs were verified theoretically and with the help of
a software FEKO. FEKO is a comprehensive electromagnetic analysis software suite, building
on state of the art computational EM (CEM) techniques to provide users with software that can
solve a wide range of electromagnetic problems. By Feko we could easily simulate the radiation
pattern after making the improvements in existing designs and the conceptualized symmetrical
designs. The results of various designs were compared so as to draw the conclusion, which
design is best for a particular antenna parameter.



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1.4 Structure of the Report
CHAPTER 1: Gives objective, motivation behind the project, basic overview of the project and
the structure of the report.
CHAPTER 2: This chapter gives a brief introduction to the antenna and various antenna
parameters. It gives the different types of antenna and basic theory of radiation pattern.
CHAPTER 3: This chapter starts with an introduction to horn antenna, thereby giving detailed
analysis of E-plane sectoral horn, H-plane sectoral horn, and pyramidal horn. Matlab code and
outputs for the pyramidal horn and the corresponding simulation results in Feko are also there.

CHAPTER 4:. In this chapter the focus will be on yagi-uda array antenna. The mathematical
analysis will be corroborated with the Matlab results. A Feko simulation will be made to
showcase the various antenna parameters of the yagi uda antenna.

CHAPTER 5: In this chapter the focus will be on spiro helical antenna. The mathematical
analysis results using Matlab and corresponding analysis will be done using NEC.
CHAPTER 6: In this chapter the focus will be on new designs simulation using FEKO and
comparing these with previous results.
CHAPTER 7: In this chapter Conclusion and Proposed Future work will be discussed.
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chapter2

ANTENNA THEORY

This chapter gives a brief introduction to the antenna and various antenna parameters. It gives the
different types of antenna and basic theory of radiation pattern.
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Antenna or aerial is a means for radiating or receiving radio waves. In other words antenna is the
transitional structure between free space and a guiding device. The guiding device may be a
coaxial line or a waveguide and it is used to transport electromagnetic energy from the
transmitting source to the antenna or from antenna to the receiver. The figure below shows the
aforementioned antenna system.

Figure 2. 1 
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2.2 TYPES OF ANTENNA
An antenna can be of various types as discussed below:
• Wire Antenna : A wire antenna can be a straight wire (dipole), loop or helix. Loop
antenna can be circular or elliptical or any other shape.






Dipole Antenna                                                                                     Loop Antenna




• Aperture antenna: It can be pyramidal, conical or rectangular waveguide.
• Microstrip antenna: They can be either rectangular or circular patch type antenna.
• Array antenna: These include the yagi-uda array antenna and various other antenna.
• Other antenna types: These include the reflector antennas and the lens antennas. A
reflector may be with front feed, cassegrain feed or corner reflection. Lens antenna
include various antenna shapes possible with convex, plane and concave surfaces.

Figure 2. 2 
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Pyramidal horn antenna Conical horn antenna


Rectangular patch antenna Yagi-Uda antenna




2.3 RADIATION PATTERN
In the field of antenna design the term 'radiation pattern' most commonly refers to the directional
(angular) dependence of radiation from the antenna. An antenna radiation pattern is defined as a
mathematical function or a graphical representation of the radiation properties of the antenna as a
function of space coordinates. Mostly it is determined in the far field region and is a function of
directional coordinates. Radiation property is the two or three dimensional spatial distribution of
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radiated energy. It may include power flux density, radiation intensity, field strength, directivity
or polarization. The spatial variation of electric or magnetic field is called field pattern.
An isotropic radiator is a theoretical point source of waves which exhibits the same magnitude
or properties when measured in all directions. It has no preferred direction of radiation. It
radiates uniformly in all directions over a sphere centered on the source.
A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates greater power in one or
more directions allowing for increased performance on transmit and receive and reduced
interference from unwanted sources. Directional antennas like yagi antennas provide increased
performance over dipole antennas when a greater concentration of radiation in a certain direction
is desired.
An omnidirectional antenna is an antenna system which radiates power uniformly in one plane
with a directive pattern shape in a perpendicular plane.
Various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as lobes, which may be either major, minor,
side or back lobes.
 
Figure 2. 3

2.4 Antenna Parameters
 
 
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2.4.1 RADIATION INTENSITY
Radiation intensity in a given direction is defined as the power radiated from an antenna per unit
solid angle. The radiation from a surface has different intensities in different directions. The
intensity of radiation along a normal to the surface is known as intensity of normal radiation. It is
the product of radiation density and square of the distance.

2.4.2 DIRECTIVITY
Directivity of an antenna is defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction
from the antenna to the radiation intensity averaged over all directions. The average radiation
intensity is equal to the total power radiated by the antenna divided by 4∏.


Where F is the radiation intensity

2.4.3 GAIN
Absolute Gain of an antenna is defined as the ratio of intensity in a given direction to the
radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna were radiated
isotropically.
In case of relative gain, it is the ratio of power gain in given direction to the reference direction.
When the direction is not stated the power gain is usually taken in the direction of maximum
radiation
                                             G(0, ф) = ecd  |4 ∏
U(0,ф)
P

Where e
cd
is the antenna radiation efficiency, U is the radiation intensity and P is the total
radiated power.

2.4.4 HALF POWER BEAMWIDTH
It is the angle between the two directions in which the radiation intensity is half the maximum
value of beam.
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2.4.5 BEAM EFFICIENCY
It is the ratio of power transmitted within cone angle θ
1
to the power transmitted by the antenna.

Where U is the radiation intensity.

2.4.6 BANDWIDTH
It is the range of frequencies within which the performance of the antenna with respect to some
characteristic conforms to a specified standard. It can be considered to be the range of
frequencies on either side of central frequency where the antenna characteristics are within an
acceptable value.

2.4.7 POLARIZATION
Polarization is a property of waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. The process
of transforming unpolarized light into polarized light is known as polarization.  By convention,
the polarization of light is described by specifying the direction of the wave's electric field.
Polarization is a property of an electromagnetic wave describing the time varying direction and
relative magnitude of the electric field vector. It is the figure traced as a function of time by the
extremity of the vector at a fixed location in space and the sense in which it is traced, along the
direction of propagation. Polarization may be linear, circular or elliptical. The figure traced in a
clockwise sense is termed as right hand polarization and counter clockwise as left hand
polarization.

2.4.8 INPUT IMPEDANCE
It is the impedance presented by the antenna at its terminal.
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chapter3
PYRAMIDAL HORN

This chapter starts with an introduction to horn antenna, thereby giving detailed analysis of E-
plane sectoral horn, H-plane sectoral horn, and pyramidal horn. Matlab code and outputs for the
pyramidal horn and the corresponding simulation results in Feko are also there.
3.1 Introduction to Horn Antenna
Horn antenna is the most widely used microwave antenna. It is one of the simplest antenna
existing till date. The Horn Antenna, at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey, is
listed as a National Historic Landmark because of its association with the research work of two
radio astronomers, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson. In 1965 while using the Horn Antenna,
Penzias and Wilson stumbled on the microwave background radiation that permeates the
universe. Cosmologists quickly realized that Penzias and Wilson had made the most important
discovery in modern astronomy since Edwin Hubble demonstrated in the 1920s that the universe
was expanding.

The horn antenna is used in the transmission and reception of RF microwave signals and the
antenna is normally used in conjunction with waveguide feeds. The horn is widely used as a feed
element for large radio astronomy, satellite tracking and communication dishes. In addition to its
utility as a feed for reflector and lenses, it is a common element of phased arrays also. It serves
as a universal standard for calibration and gain measurements of other high power antennas. Its
widespread applicability stems from its simplicity in construction, ease of excitation, versatility,
large gain and preferred all over performance. Horns can be excited in any polarization or
combination of polarizations.

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3.2 Horn Antenna Configurations
The horn antenna gains its name from its appearance. Horn is nothing more than a hollow pipe of
different cross sections which has been tapered to a larger opening. Type, direction and amount
of taper can have a profound effect on the overall performance of the element as a radiator. The
waveguide can be considered to open out or to be flared, launching the signal towards the
receiving antenna. Flare waveguides produce a nearly uniform phase front larger than the
waveguide itself.

The E-plane sectoral horn is the one whose opening is flared in the direction of E field. A
detailed geometry is as shown in the figure.
The H-plane sectoral horn is the one whose opening is flared in the direction of H field. A
detailed geometry is as shown in the figure.
The Pyramidal horn is the one whose opening is flared in the direction of H field and E field
both. A detailed geometry is as shown in the figure. Its radiation characteristics are a
combination of the E and H plane sectoral horns.
While the pyramidal, E and H plane sectoral horns are usually fed by a rectangular waveguide,
the conical horn is fed by a circular waveguide. Rest of the behavior is same.




E Sectoral Horn               H Sectoral Horn  




         Conical horn                                                                                            Pyramidal Horn 
 
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3.3 E Plane Sectoral Horn
3.3.1 Aperture Fields
Horn being an aperture antenna, it is necessary that the tangential electric and magnetic field
components over a closed surface are known, to develop an exact equivalent of it. An infinite
plane coinciding with the aperture of the horn is usually selected as a closed surface. If the horn
is not mounted on an infinite grounded plane, the fields outside the aperture cannot be calculated
and an exact equivalent cannot be formed. However as a usual approximation we assume the
fields outside the aperture to be zero.
If we treat horn as a radial waveguide, the fields at the aperture of the horn can be calculated.
The fields within the horn can be expressed in terms of cylindrical transverse electric and
transverse magnetic i.e. TE and TM wave functions which make use of Hankel functions. This
method finds the fields not only at the aperture but also within the horn.
The lowest order mode fields at the aperture of the horn can be found very easily taking into
consideration the two assumptions that,
1) Fields of the feed waveguide are those of its dominant TE
10
mode.
2) Horn length is large compared to the aperture dimensions.
The field expressions are:

Ez’ = Ex’ = Hy’ = 0
Ey’(x’,y’) = E1 cos|

u
x'| e.
-]|ky
|2
¡(2p1)]

Hz’(x’,y’) = jE1 I

kun
]sinI

u
x']e.
-]|
kV
|2
2(¡1)
]

Hx(x’,y’) = -
L1
n
cos|

u
x'| e.
-]|
kV
|2
2(¡1)
]

p1 = pe cos¢e
δ(y’) =
1
2
I
y′
2
ρ1
]

 
 
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Here E1 is a constant; ρ is the radial distance of the point.
These primes used here correspond to fields at the aperture of the horn. These are similar to the
fields of a TE
10
mode for a rectangular waveguide. The complex exponential term showing the
quadratic phase variation of the fields over the aperture is the only difference. These correspond
to following figures.
 
Figure 3. 1 
E Plane Sectoral Horn
 
 
Figure 3. 2 
E Plane view
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The quadratic phase variations due to its simplicity leads to closed form expressions (cosine and
sine Fresnel integrals) for the radiation characteristics. As the horn dimensions become large the
amplitude distribution at the aperture of the horn contains higher order modes than the TE
10

mode and the phase distribution at the aperture approaches the parabolic phase front.
 
3.3.2 Radiated Fields
To find the fields radiated by the horn, only the tangential components of the E- and or H-fields
over a closed surface must be known. The closed surface is chosen to coincide with an infinite
plane passing through the mouth of the horn.
Solving by the method of moments, the integral I2 evaluates to be:
I2 = ¹
∏p1
k
e.
]|
kV
2
ρ1
2k1
]
{[C(t2) – C(t1)] – j[S(t2) – S(t1)]
Here C(x) and S(x) are known as the cosine and the sine Fresnel integrals given by:
C(x) = ] cos (

2
x
0
t
2
) dt
S(x) = ] sin (

2
x
0
t
2
) dt
Also, Ky = k sinθ sinф and
t1 =
¹
1
∏kρ1
I–
kb1
2
- ky ρ1]
t2 =
¹
1
∏kρ1
I
kb1
2
- ky ρ1]

For the E plane sectoral horn, the maximum radiation is directed along the z axis (θ=0).Thus,
|E
θ
|
max
= |E2|
b

¹
2p2
x
[ sin ф {[ C(t2’) + C(t2’’) – C(t1’) –C(t1’)-C(t1’’)] – j[S(t2’) + S(t2’’) – S(t1’)]}]
Where,
t1’ =
¹
1
∏kp2
(-
ku1
2
-

u1
p2)
t2’ =
¹
1
∏kp2
(
ku1
2
-

u1
p2)
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
26 
 

t1’’ =
¹
1
∏kp2
(-
ku1
2
+

u1
p2) = -t2’ =v

t2’’ =
¹
1
∏kp2
(
ku1
2
+

u1
p2) =-t1’ = u
and,
a and b = Waveguide dimensions (in λ)
a1 and b1 = Horn aperture dimensions (in λ)

3.3.3 Directivity
It is one of the parameters that is often used as a figure of merit to describe the performance of
the antenna. In this case maximum radiation is formed.
Umax = U(θ,ф)|max =
r^2
2n
|E|
2
max

DE =
4∏0mux
P
  = 
64up1
∏xb1
 |F(t)|
2
 
                      = 
64up1
∏\b1
 |C
2
I
b1
√2xb1
] + S
2
I
b1
√2xb1
]| 
 
For matlab simulation we have used the following notations:-
k=2*π/λ t1p = t1’ t2p = t2’ t1dp=t1’’
t2dp=t2’’ R1=ρ1 R2=ρ2 w = 
b1
√2xb1
 
 
3.4 H Plane Sectoral Horn


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27 
 



3.4.1 Aperture Fields

Ex’ = Hy’ = 0
Ey’(x’) = E2 cosI

a1
x′] c
-]kδ(x

)

Hx’(x’) = -
E2
η
cosI

a1
x′] c
-]kδ(x

)

δ(x’) =
1
2
|
x

2
ρ2
1
p2 = ph cos ¢h


H Plane Sectoral Horn
 
 
 
 
 
Figure 3. 3 
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
28 
 
 
Figure 3. 4
H Plane view

3.4.2 RADIATED FIELDS
The value of integral I2 as solved by the method of moments results out to be:
I2 =
1
2
¹
∏ρ2
k
(e.
]|
kV
′2
ρ2
2R
]
{[C(t2’) – C(t1’)] – j[S(t2’) – S(t1’)]} + e.
]|
kV
′2
ρ2
2R
]
{[C(t2’’) – C(t1’’)] –
j[S(t2’’) – S(t1’’)]})
where,
t1’ = ¹
1
∏kρ2
I–
ka1
2
- kx

ρ2]
t2’ =
¹
1
∏kρ2
I+
ka1
2
- kx

ρ2]
kx’ = k sinθ cosф +

u1

t1’’ =
¹
1
∏kρ2
I–
ka1
2
- kx

′ρ2]
t2’’ =
¹
1
∏kρ2
I+
ka1
2
- kx′

ρ2]
kx’’ = k sinθ cosф -

a1


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29 
 
It should be noted that for E-plane ф = ∏/2 and for H-plane ф=0. This leaves us with the value of
E
ф max
as follows:
|Eφ|
max
= |E2|
b
r
¹
p2

|cosφ{[ C(u) + C(v)] – j[S(u) –S(v)]}|

The net electric field thus results out to be:
|E|
max
= .
|Eθ|
2
max + |Eφ|
2
max
= |E2|
b
r
¹
ρ2

{[C(u) - C(v)]
2
+[S(u) –S(v)]
2
]
1
2



3.4.3 DIRECTIVITY
The directivity value for the H plane sectoral horn antenna can be written as:
DH =
4∏0mux
P
=
4∏bρ2
a1x
× {[C(u) – C(v)]
2
+ [S(u) – S(v)]
2
]
where,
u =
1
√2
|
.λρ2
u1
+
a1
.λρ2
1
v =
1
√2
|
.λρ2
u1
-
a1
.λρ2
1


3.5 Pyramidal Horn
The most widely used horn is the one which is flared in both the directions. Its radiation
characteristics are essentially a combination of the E- and H- plane sectoral horns.


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30 
 
 
Figure 3. 5 

Pyramidal Horn Antenna
 
Figure 3. 6 
H Plane view
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
31 
 
 
Figure 3. 7 
E Plane view
3.5.1 APERTURE FIELDS
The corresponding value of electric and magnetic field components in Cartesian coordinates
comes out to be:
Ey’(x’,y’) = Eo cosI
n
u1
x′] |c
-j|k(
x
′2
ρ2
)¡2
+ e
-jk(
y
′2
ρ1
)¡2
]
Hx’(x’,y’) = -
Eo
η
cosI
n
u1
x′] |c
-j|k(
x
′2
ρ2
)¡2
+ e
-jk(
y
′2
ρ1
)¡2
]
 


3.5.2 RADIATED FIELDS
The far zone E and H field components of a Pyramidal Horn are:-
Er  = 0 
Eθ = j
kEoc
-]R¡
4∏r
[sinф( 1 + cosθ ) I1I2] 
Eф = j
kEoc
-]R¡
4∏r
[cosф( cosθ+1 ) I1I2] 
The integrals I1 and I2 after solving by method of moments are calculated to be as follows,
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
32 
 
I1 =
1
2
¹
∏ρ2
k
(e.
]|
kV
′2
ρ2
2R
]
{[C(t2’) – C(t1’)] – j[S(t2’) – S(t1’)]} + e.
]|
kV
′2
ρ2
2R
]
{[C(t2’’) – C(t1’’)] –
j[S(t2’’) – S(t1’’)]})
I2 = ¹
∏p1
k
e.
]|
kV
2
ρ1
2k1
]
{[C(t2) – C(t1)] – j[S(t2) – S(t1)]
where t1, t2, t1’, t1’’, t2’, t2’’ are as specified above.
The fields radiated by a pyramidal horn are valid for all angles observation. The above equation
reveals that the principal E plane pattern (Ф=π/2) is identical to the E plane pattern of an E plane
sectoral horn. Similarly the H plane (Ф=0) is identical to that of an H plane sectoral horn.
3.5.3 DIRECTIVITY
The directivity for a pyramidal horn can be written as:-
Dp =
∏λ
2
32ab
D
E
D
H

where D
E
and D
H
are the directivities of the E and H plane sectoral horns as defined previously.

3.6 MATLAB Simulation
3.6.1 MATLAB CODE
MATLAB CODE


function []=horn;
disp('E-Plane and H-Plane Horn Specifications');

R1=[]; R2=[];

R1 = input('rho1(in wavelengths) = ');
R2 = input('rho2(in wavelengths) = ');

a=[]; b=[];
a = input('a(in wavelengths) = ');
b = input('b(in wavelengths) = ');

a1=[]; b1=[];
a1 = input('a1(in wavelengths) = ');
b1 = input('b1(in wavelengths) = ');

u = (1/sqrt(2))*((sqrt(R2)/a1)+(a1/sqrt(R2)));
v = (1/sqrt(2))*((sqrt(R2)/a1)-(a1/sqrt(R2)));
u = Fresnel(u);
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33 
 
v = Fresnel(v);
w = Fresnel(b1/sqrt(2*R1));

DH = 4*pi*b*R2/a1*((real(u)-real(v))^2 + (imag(u)-imag(v))^2);
DE = 64*a*R1/(pi*b1)*((real(w))^2 + (imag(w))^2);
DP = pi/(32*a*b)*DE*DH;

k = 2*pi;
Emax = 0;
Hmax = 0;


% E and H plane Outputs
% E-Plane Amplitude

for(theta = 0:0.5:360);
I = theta*2 + 1;
theta = theta*pi/180;
phi = pi/2;

ky = k*sin(theta);
kxp = pi/a1;
kxdp = -pi/a1;

t1 = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R1))*(-k*b1/2-ky*R1);
t2 = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R1))*(k*b1/2-ky*R1);
t1p = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(-k*a1/2-pi/a1*R2);
t2p = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(k*a1/2-pi/a1*R2);
t1dp = -t2p;
t2dp = -t1p;

I1 =.5*sqrt(pi*R2/k)*(exp(j*R2/(2*k)*kxp^2)*(Fresnel(t2p-Fresnel(t1p)) + …
exp(j*R2/(2*k)*kxdp^2)*(Fresnel(t2dp) - Fresnel(t1dp)));

I2 = sqrt(pi*R1/k) * exp(j*R1/(2*k)*ky^2) * (Fresnel(t2) - Fresnel(t1));

y(I) = (1 + cos(theta))*I1*I2;
y(I) = abs(y(I));

end

for(I = 1:721)
if(y(I) > Emax)
Emax = y(I);
end
end

for(I = 1:721)
if(y(I) <= 0)
Edb = -100;
else
Edb = 20*log10(abs(y(I))/Emax);
end

theta = (I-1)/2;
x(I)=theta;
q1(I)=Edb;
end
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34 
 


% H-Plane Amplitude

for(theta = 0:0.5:360);
I = theta*2 + 1;
theta = theta*pi/180;

phi = 0;
kxp = k*sin(theta) + pi/a1;
kxdp = k*sin(theta) - pi/a1;

t1 = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R1))*(-k*b1/2);
t2 = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R1))*(k*b1/2);
t1p = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(-k*a1/2-kxp*R2);
t2p = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(k*a1/2-kxp*R2);
t1dp = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(-k*a1/2-kxdp*R2);
t2dp = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(k*a1/2-kxdp*R2);

I1 = .5*sqrt(pi*R2/k)*(exp(j*R2/(2*k)*kxp^2)*(Fresnel(t2p)-Fresnel(t1p)) + …
exp(j*R2/(2*k)*kxdp^2)*(Fresnel(t2dp) - Fresnel(t1dp)));

I2 = sqrt(pi*R1/k) * exp(j*R1/(2*k)*ky^2) * (Fresnel(t2) - Fresnel(t1));

y(I) = (1 + cos(theta))*I1*I2;
y(I) = abs(y(I));

end

for(I = 1:721)
if(y(I) > Hmax)
Hmax = y(I);
end
end

for(I = 1:721)
if(y(I) <= 0)
Hdb = -100;
else
Hdb = 20*log10(abs(y(I))/Hmax);
end

theta = (I-1)/2;
x(I)=theta;
q2(I)=Hdb;
end


% Figure 1

ha=plot(x,q1); set(ha,'linestyle','-','linewidth',2);
hold on; hb=plot(x,q2,'r--'); set(hb,'linewidth',2);
xlabel('Theta (degrees)');
ylabel('Field Pattern (dB)');
title('Horn Analysis');
legend('E-Plane','H-Plane');
grid on;
axis([0 360 -60 0]);
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35 
 

% Figure 2

figure(2);
ht1=elevation(x*pi/180,q1,-60,0,4,'b-');
hold on;
ht2=elevation(x*pi/180,q2,-60,0,4,'r--');
set([ht1 ht2],'linewidth',2);

legend([ht1 ht2],{'E-plane','H-plane'});
title('Field patterns');

% Directivity Output
directivity = 10*log10(DP)

% Fresnel Subfunction

function[y] = Fresnel(x);

A(1) = 1.595769140;
A(2) = -0.000001702;
A(3) = -6.808508854;
A(4) = -0.000576361;
A(5) = 6.920691902;
A(6) = -0.016898657;
A(7) = -3.050485660;
A(8) = -0.075752419;
A(9) = 0.850663781;
A(10) = -0.025639041;
A(11) = -0.150230960;
A(12) = 0.034404779;

B(1) = -0.000000033;
B(2) = 4.255387524;
B(3) = -0.000092810;
B(4) = -7.780020400;
B(5) = -0.009520895;
B(6) = 5.075161298;
B(7) = -0.138341947;
B(8) = -1.363729124;
B(9) = -0.403349276;
B(10) = 0.702222016;
B(11) = -0.216195929;
B(12) = 0.019547031;

CC(1) = 0;
CC(2) = -0.024933975;
CC(3) = 0.000003936;
CC(4) = 0.005770956;
CC(5) = 0.000689892;
CC(6) = -0.009497136;
CC(7) = 0.011948809;
CC(8) = -0.006748873;
CC(9) = 0.000246420;
CC(10) = 0.002102967;
CC(11) = -0.001217930;
CC(12) = 0.000233939;

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36 
 


D(1) = 0.199471140;
D(2) = 0.000000023;
D(3) = -0.009351341;
D(4) = 0.000023006;
D(5) = 0.004851466;
D(6) = 0.001903218;
D(7) = -0.017122914;
D(8) = 0.029064067;
D(9) = -0.027928955;
D(10) = 0.016497308;
D(11) = -0.005598515;
D(12) = 0.000838386;


if(x==0)
y=0;
return
elseif(x<0)
x=abs(x);
x=(pi/2)*x^2;
F=0;
if(x<4)
for(k=1:12)
F=F+(A(k)+j*B(k))*(x/4)^(k-1);
end
y = F*sqrt(x/4)*exp(-j*x);
y = -y;
return
else
for(k=1:12)
F=F+(CC(k)+j*D(k))*(4/x)^(k-1);
end
y = F*sqrt(4/x)*exp(-j*x)+(1-j)/2;
y =-y;
return
end
else
x=(pi/2)*x^2;
F=0;
if(x<4)
for(k=1:12)
F=F+(A(k)+j*B(k))*(x/4)^(k-1);
end
y = F*sqrt(x/4)*exp(-j*x);
return
else
for(k=1:12)
F=F+(CC(k)+j*D(k))*(4/x)^(k-1);
end
y = F*sqrt(4/x)*exp(-j*x)+(1-j)/2;
return
end
end 

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
37 
 


3.6.2 MATLAB OUTPUT








It is very clear from the above outputs that the final radiation possesses minimum radiation
intensity in the back lobe (at angle of 180 degrees) and a maximum of lobe power is
concentrated in the main lobe along the axis of the horn antenna. It is a highly directive antenna
with the directivity value resulting out to be :
For the input parameters:
RHO1 = 6 λ a1 = 5.5 λ a = 0.5 λ
RHO2 = 6 λ b1 = 2.75 λ b = 0.25 λ
The value of directivity given by Matlab is Dp = 76.34 but the theoretically calculated value comes out to
be Dp’ = 75.54.
Therefore, error in calculation of the directivity by the Matlab program is within ± 1%.

3.7 FEKO Simulation
3.7.1 ANTENNA DESIGN
With the following Horn Antenna dimensions a solid horn was obtained:
Plot 3.1 Plot 3.2 
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38 
 
Lower cuboid dimensions 12.96 X 6.48 X 30.2 cm
3

a=12.96 cm
b=6.48 cm
p
1
= p
2
=46 cm
a1=55 cm
b1=42.8 cm

 
Plot 3.3 



After obtaining the solid horn, our requirement is to have a hollow conductor in place of solid
one with the top and intersection faces removed. Afterwards, a wire is placed as a feed element
and an excitation voltage source with an amplitude of 1 volt and operating frequency of 1.645
GHz is placed in the wire port. The net resultant design appears to be as follows :
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
39 
 
 
Plot 3.4 
The 3D far field pattern can be shown as:
 
Plot 3.5 
3.7.2 FEKO Results
Feko Simulation result of Electric Far Field in Cartesian coordinates:
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
40 
 
 
Plot 3.6 

Plot 3.7 

Feko Simulation result of Electric Far Field in polar coordinates: 

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
41 
 
3.8 Results
It was thus found out that the results of Matlab implementation and theoretically calculated
results are within the required error limits of ±1%. It was found that the final radiation possesses
minimum radiation intensity in the back lobe (at angle of 180 degrees) and a maximum of lobe
power is concentrated in the main lobe along the axis of the horn antenna.  Both the simulations,
that of Matlab and Feko, provide us with a verification of above mentioned result.




















Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
42 
 
chapter4


YAGI UDA ANTENNA

Till this point we have discussed the mathematical analysis of Horn antenna, be it E plane
sectoral, H- plane sectoral or pyramidal horn. We simulated the mathematical field equations in
MATLAB and compared the results with a theoretically proposed design. A Feko simulation of
horn antenna was done to further strengthen the outputs of Matlab.
In this chapter the focus will be on yagi-uda array antenna. The mathematical analysis will be
corroborated with the Matlab results. A Feko simulation will be made to showcase the various
antenna parameters of the yagi uda antenna.
4.1 History
The Yagi-Uda antenna was invented in 1926 by Shintaro Uda of Tohoku Imperial University,
Sendai, Japan, with the collaboration of Hidetsugu Yagi, also of Tohoku Imperial University.
The Yagi was first widely used during World War II for airborne radar sets, because of its
simplicity and directionality. Despite its being invented in Japan, many Japanese radar engineers
were unaware of the design until very late in the war, due to internal fighting between the Army
and Navy. The Japanese military authorities first became aware of this technology after the
Battle of Singapore when they captured the notes of a British radar technician that mentioned
"yagi antenna". Japanese intelligence officers did not even recognize that Yagi was a Japanese
name in this context. When questioned the technician said it was an antenna named after a
Japanese professor. (This story is analogous to the story of American intelligence officers
interrogating German rocket scientists and finding out that Robert Goddard was the real pioneer
of rocket technology even though he was not well known in the US at that time).
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43 
 
4.2 Introduction
A Yagi-Uda Antenna, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna or Yagi, is a directional
antenna system consisting of an array of a dipole and additional closely coupled parasitic
elements (usually a reflector and one or more directors).
The geometry of the Yagi-Uda array:

 
Figure 4. 1
The second dipole in the Yagi-Uda array is the only driven element with applied input/output
source feed, all the others interact by mutual coupling since receive and reradiate
electromagnetic energy; they act as parasitic elements by induced current. It is assumed that an
antenna is a passive reciprocal device, then may used either for transmission or for reception of
the electromagnetic energy: this well applies to Yagi-Uda also.
4.3 Working Principle
The simplest or minimal Yagi-Uda antenna has at least two parasitic elements behind the Driven
Element (DE); the antenna with only one parasitic element as Reflector element (Ref) is
generally called Yagi antenna. This happens when the electrical length of the parasitic element is
greater than the driven element.
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
44 
 
 
Figure 4. 2

If the electrical length of the parasitic element is shorter than the driven element, the radiation
pattern reversed and the parasitic element became a Director (D) always in the two-elements of
the Yagi antenna.
 
Figure 4. 3

Then the basic antenna, driven element with both Reflector and Director is called three elements
Yagi-Uda, with increased directivity or beam Gain.
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
45 
 
 
Figure 4. 4
The reflector and directors in the Yagi-Uda antenna are so coupled into parasitic mode; they
mutually alter the radiation parameters of the driven element and for each element of the array.
Then the physical discovery consist in the increased gain by narrowing the beam width of the
dipole alone in a very genially cheap manner, by the means of simple metallic rod or tube
conductors, then focus the electromagnetic energy into the desired directions.
More than one parasitic element should be axially added in the front of the driven element and
each one is called director. As the reflector, the directors (D1…Dn) has not wired directly to the
feed point. As the number of director grow, it increase the directivity as the beam gain of the
Yagi-Uda system array.
In modern Yagi-Uda design, the parasitic elements should be applied to increase the impedance
bandwidth also, much more than a single dipole alone, this is in advance to directional capability
of the system to control pattern and impedance with any possible desired combination.
Yagi-Uda antennas are widely used in civilian, simple or professionals, military applications
also. Yagi-Uda design is used by lot of amateur radio enthusiast all over the world in advance for
any kind of wireless radio communication, television etc.


Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
46 
 

4.4 Mathematical Analysis
 
Figure 4. 5

The approach taken in formulating the method of solving the Yagi-Uda-type antenna problem is
based on an integral equation for the electric field of the array. The point-matching technique is
then used to satisfy the integra1 equation at discrete points on the axis of each element rather
than attempting to satisfy this equation everywhere on the surface of every element. Thus a
system of linear algebraic equations is generated in term of the complex coefficients in the
Fourier series expansion of the currents on the elements. Inversion of the matrix yields the value
of these coefficients from which the current distributions, phase velocity, and far-field patterns
may readily be obtained. Experience has shown that if one chooses a sufficient, number of points
at which to match boundary conditions, then one can obtain solutions to problems, such as this
one, theretofore not easily solvable. In the case of linear elements, such as those in Fig, it has
been found that an efficient representation for the current on element n is given by

I
n
(z’) = ∑ I
M
m=1
mn
cos|(2m-1)
πz′
Ln
|

I
nm
represent the complex current coefficient of mode m on element n and I
n
represents the
corresponding length on the n elements.
This series of odd-ordered even modes is chosen such that the current goes to zero at the ends of
element n. This is a suitable approximation for elements whose diameter is small in terms of the
wavelength.
The theory is based on Pocklington’s integral equation for total field generated be an electric
current source radiating in an unbounded space as given by the following mathematical analysis.
] I(z

) I
0
2
0z
2
+ k
2
]
I¡2
-I¡2
c
-]RR
R
dz’ = j4πωεoEz.
t

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
47 
 
where
R = .(x - x

)
2
+ (y -y

)
2
+.(z - z

)
2

Since, we know that
0
2
ðz
2
I
c
-]RR
R
] =
0
2
ðz
′2
I
c
-]RR
R
]
Putting this into the above equation, we get the reduced form of the Pocklington’s integral
equation as

] I(z

)
I¡2
-I¡2
I
c
-]RR
R
]dz’ + k
2
] I(z

)
I
2
-I
2
c
-]RR
R
dz’
= j4πωεoE
t
z
Now, we will concentrate on the integration of this reduced equation. Integrating the first term
by parts where

u = I(z’) du =
dI(z

)
dz′
dz’
dv =
6
2
6z
′2
I
c
-]RR
R
] dz’ =
δ
0z′
|
δ
0z′
I
c
-]RR
R
]| dz’
v =
δ
0z′
I
c
-]RR
R
]
Reduces it further to
]
δ
2
δz
′2
I¡2
-I¡2
I
c
-]RR
R
] dz’ = I(z

) |
δ
0z′
I
c
-]RR
R
]| |
+I¡2
–l/2
-]
δ
0z′
I¡2
-I¡2
I
c
-]RR
R
]
dI(z

)
dz′
dz’

Since we require that the current at the ends of each wire vanish i.e. I
z
(z’= +l/2) = I
z
(z’= -l/2) =
0, reduces above equation to

]
δ
2
δz
′2
I¡2
-I¡2
I
c
-]RR
R
] dz’ = -]
δ
0z′
I¡2
-I¡2
I
c
-]RR
R
] uz′
dI(z

)
dz′


Integrating by parts where
u =
dI(z

)
dz′

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
48 
 
du =
d
2
I(z

)
dz
′2
dz’
dv =
δ
0z

I
c
-]RR
R
] uz


v =
c
-]RR
R

reduces it to

]
δ
2
δz
′2
I¡2
-I¡2
I
c
-]RR
R
] dz’ =
dI(z

)
dz′
c
-]RR
R
|
+I¡2
–l/2 + ]
d
2
I(z

)
dz
′2
I ¡2
-I¡2

c
-]RR
R
dz’
When this is substituted for the first term, it is further reduced to

-
dI(z

)
dz′
c
-]RR
R
|
+I¡2
–l/2 + ] |k
2
I(z

) +
d
2
I(z

)
dz
′2
|
I¡2
-I¡2
c
-]RR
R
dz’ = j4πωεoE
t
z
For small diameter wires the current on each element can be approximated by a finite series of
odd-ordered even modes. Thus, the current on nth element can be written as a Fourier series
expansion of following form
I
n
(z’) = ∑ I
M
m=1
nm
cos|(2m-1)
πz′
Ln
|
Where I
nm
represents the complex current coefficient of mode m on element n and I
n
represents
the corresponding length of the n element. Taking the Ist and Iind derivatives of above equation
and substituting them results in
∑ I
M
m=1
nm
`
1
1
1
1
(2m-1)π
In
sin |(2m- 1)
πzn

In
|
c
-]RR
R
|
+
l
2
-
I
2
+ |k
2
-
(2m-1)
2
π
2
In
2
|
× ] cos |(2m- 1)
πz′n
In
|
In¡2
-In¡2
c
-]RR
R
uz′n


1
1
1
1
1

= j4πωεoE
t
z

Since the cosine is an even function, above equation can be reduced by integrating over only
0<=z’<=l/2 to
`I
M
m=1
nm
`
1
1
1
1
(-1)
m+1
(2m- 1)π
In
u2 |x, x

, y,
y

z
,
ln
2
+ + |k
2
-
(2m -1)
2
π
2
In
2
|
× J u2
In¡2
0
|x, x

, y,
y

z
, z′n+ cos |(2m-1)
πz′n
In
| uz′n
1
1
1
1
1

= j4πωεoE
t
z
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
49 
 
Where G2(x, x

, y,
y

z
, z′n) =
c
-]RR_
R_
+
c
-]RR+
R+

R ¬ = .(x -x

)
2
+(y - y

)
2
+ .a
2
+(z ¬ z

)
2

N= 1, 2, 3,4,…..,N
N = total number of electrons
Where
R ¬ is the distance from the center of the each wire radius to center of any other wire.
The far-field pattern is given by
Eθ = ∑ E
N
n=1
θn = -jωAθ
Where,
Aθ = ∑
N
n=1
Aθn=-
μc
-]R¡
4∏r
sinθ ∑
N
n=1
{e
jk(xn sInθ cosф+yn sInθ sInф)

M
m=1
Inm |
sIn (Z+)
z+
+
sIn (Z-)
Z-
|]
In
2


In the Matlab implementation, SINTEG function is for integration. Since integration is
very difficult here, so we have used weighted method i.e. Gaussian method which states
“In numerical analysis, a quadrature rule is an approximation of the definite integral of a
function, usually stated as a weighted sum of function values at specified points within
the domain of integration.”
4.5 Matlab Simulation
4.5.1 MATLAB CODE
MATLAB CODE
function [] = yagi_uda
global MMAX NMAX Z RHO N2 NMODE L
MMAX = 30;
NMAX = 30;
M = input ('\n NUMBER OF MODES PER ELEMENT (A POSITIVE INTEGER) = ', 's');
M = str2num (M);
N = input (' NUMBER OF ELEMENTS (A POSITIVE INTEGER GREATER THAN 1) = ',
's');
N = str2num (N);

% LENGTH OF THE DIRECTORS

if (N > 3)
fprintf (1, ' DO ALL DIRECTORS HAVE THE SAME LENGTH?\n');
ANS = input (' ANSWER: (Y OR N) ...... ', 's');
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
50 
 
else
ANS = 'N';
end

if (ANS == 'Y') | (ANS == 'y')
LDIR = input (' THE UNIFORM LENGTH (in WAVELENGTHS) OF THE DIRECTOR =
', 's');
LDIR = str2num (LDIR);
L = LDIR * ones (1, N-2);
elseif (ANS == 'N') | (ANS == 'n')
a = 1;
while a <= (N-2)
fprintf (1, ' LENGTH (in WAVELENGTHS) OF DIRECTOR # %2d =', a);
b = input (' ', 's');
b = str2num (b);
L (a) = b;
a = a + 1;
end
end

% GET THE LENGTH OF THE REFLECTOR

b = input (' LENGTH (in WAVELENGTHS) OF THE REFLECTOR = ', 's');
b = str2num (b);
L (N-1) = b;

% GET THE LENGTH OF THE DRIVEN ELEMENT

b = input (' LENGTH (in WAVELENGTHS) OF THE DRIVEN ELEMENT = ', 's');
b = str2num (b);
L(N) = b;

% ELEMENT SEPARATION BETWEEN DRIVEN ELEMENT AND 1ST DIRECTOR

b = input ('\n SEPARATION BETWEEN DRIVEN ELEMENT & 1ST DIRECTOR = ', 's');
b = str2num (b);
S_1 = b;

if (N > 3)
fprintf (1, '\n IS THE SEPARATION BETWEEN DIRECTORS UNIFORM?\n');
ANS = input (' ANSWER: (Y OR N) ...... ', 's');
fprintf (1, '\n');
else
ANS = 'N';
end

% THE SEPARATION DISTANCES OF THE DIRECTORS

if (ANS == 'Y') | (ANS == 'y')
SDIR = input (' THE UNIFORM SEPARATION BETWEEN DIRECTORS = ', 's');
SDIR = str2num (SDIR);
S = SDIR * ones (1, N-2);

elseif (ANS == 'N') | (ANS == 'n')
a = 2;
while a <= (N-2)
fprintf (1, ' SEPARATION BETWEEN DIRECTORS # %2d AND # %2d =', a-
1, a);
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
51 
 
b = input (' ', 's');
b = str2num (b);
S (a) = b;
a = a + 1;
end
end
S (1) = S_1;

% ELEMENT SEPARATION BETWEEN DRIVEN ELEMENT AND REFLECTOR

b = input (' SEPARATION BETWEEN REFLECTOR & DRIVEN ELEMENT = ', 's');
b = str2num (b);
S (N-1) = b;

% RADIUS OF EACH ELEMENT

b = input ('\n RADIUS (in WAVELENGTHS) FOR ALL ELEMENTS USED = ', 's');
b = str2num (b);
ALPHA = b;

% Initialize some variables

a = 1;
while a <= (N - 2)
YP (a) = a * S (a);
a = a + 1;
end
YP (N-1) = - S (N-1);
YP (N) = 0;

RES = 0;
G2 = 0;
INDEX = 0;
DZ = L / (2 * M - 1);
ETA = 120 * pi;
MU = 4 * pi * 10 ^ (-7);
C = 3 * 10 ^ 8;
K = 2 * pi;
RTOD = 180 / pi;
DTOR = pi / 180;

A = zeros (M * N, M * N);
B = 1:(M*N);
B = B * 0;
Inm = zeros (N, M);
I = 1;

while I <= (M * N)
IFACT = floor ((I - 1) / M);
N1 = IFACT + 1;
IMODE = I - IFACT * M;

Z = (M - IMODE) * DZ (N1);
J = 1;
while J <= (M * N)

JFACT = floor ((J - 1) / M);
N2 = JFACT + 1;
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
52 
 
NMODE = J - JFACT * M;

if (N1 == N2)
RHO = ALPHA;
else
RHO = YP (N1) - YP (N2);
end

LL = 0;
UL = L (N2) / 2;

RES = SINTEG (UL, LL, 10);
LEN = L (N2) / 2;
G2 = KERNEL (LEN);
F2M = NMODE * 2 - 1;

A (I, J) = ETA / (j * 8 * pi ^ 2) *((F2M * pi / L (N2)) * (-1) ^…
(NMODE + 1) * G2 +(K ^ 2 - F2M ^ 2 * pi ^ 2 / L (N2) ^2) * RES);
J = J + 1;

end
I = I + 1;
end

% Fill the last row of the matrix corresponding to the feeder.
I = zeros (1, M * (N - 1));
J = ones (1, M);
A (M * N, :) = [I J];
B (M * N) = 1;

% Invert system to find current coefficients in Fourier Series expansion.

ISIZE = N * M;
[A, IPERM, PIVOT] = LUDEC (A, ISIZE);
B = LUSOLV (A, ISIZE, IPERM, B);

% CONVERT SINGLE ARRAY OF CURRENT COEFFICIENTS TO A DOUBLE ARRAY OF FORM Imn.

NCUT = 0;
I = 1;
while I <= N

J = 1;
while J <= M
Inm (I, J) = B (J + NCUT);
J = J + 1;
end

NCUT = NCUT + M;
I = I + 1;
end

% CALCULATE THE RADIATED FIELDS IN THE E-PLANE

NCUT = 0;
ML = 1;
while ML <= 2
if (ML == 1)
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
53 
 
PHI = 90 * DTOR;
MAX = 181;
else
PHI = 270 * DTOR;
MAX = 180;
end

ICOUNT = 1;
while ICOUNT <= MAX
waitbar(ICOUNT/MAX*ML*0.5*0.2+0.8,h);
THETA = (ICOUNT - 1) * DTOR;
if (THETA > pi)
PHI = 270 * DTOR;
end

EZP = 0;
I = 1;

while I <= N
IZP = 0;
J = 1;
while J <= M
MODE = J;
LEN = L (I);
ANG = THETA;
IZP = IZP + Inm(I,J)*(ZMINUS(ANG,LEN,MODE)+ ZPLUS(ANG,LEN, MODE));
J = J + 1;
end

AEXP = K * YP (I) * sin (THETA) * sin(PHI);
EZP = EZP + L (I) * exp (j * AEXP) * IZP;
I = I + 1;
end

ETHETA (NCUT + ICOUNT) = j * C * MU / 8 * sin (THETA) * EZP;
ICOUNT = ICOUNT + 1;
end

NCUT = NCUT + MAX;
ML = ML + 1;
end

% FIND THE MAXIMUM VALUE IN THE E-PLANE PATTERN

EMAX = 10 ^ (-12);

abs_ETHETA = abs (ETHETA);
ARG = max (abs_ETHETA);
if ARG > EMAX
EMAX = ARG;
end

I = 1;
while I <= 361
THETA = I - 1;
ARG = abs (ETHETA (I));

if ((ARG/EMAX) > (10 ^ (-6)))
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
54 
 
ETH (I) = 20 * log10 (ARG / EMAX);
else
ETH (I) = -120;
end
I = I + 1;
end

E_PLANE = ETH;
EFTOB = - ETH (271);

% CALCULATE THE RADIATED FIELDS IN THE H-PLANE

THETA = 90 * DTOR;
MAX = 361;
ICOUNT = 1;
while ICOUNT <= MAX

PHI = (ICOUNT - 1) * DTOR;
EZP = 0;
I = 1;
while I <= N
IZP = 0;
J = 1;
while J <= M
MODE = J;
LEN = L (I);
ANG = PHI;
IZP = IZP + Inm(I,J)*(ZMINUS(ANG,LEN,MODE)+ZPLUS(ANG,LEN,MODE));
J = J + 1;
end

AEXP = K * YP (I) * sin (THETA) * sin(PHI);
EZP = EZP + L (I) * exp (j * AEXP) * IZP;
I = I + 1;
end

ETHETA (ICOUNT) = j * C * MU / 8 * sin (THETA) * EZP;
ICOUNT = ICOUNT + 1;
end

% FIND THE MAXIMUM VALUE IN THE H-PLANE PATTERN

EMAX = 10 ^ (-12);
abs_ETHETA = abs (ETHETA);
ARG = max (abs_ETHETA);
if (ARG > EMAX)
EMAX = ARG;
end

I = 1;
while I <= 361

PHI = I - 1;
ARG = abs (ETHETA (I));

if (ARG / EMAX) > (10 ^ (-6))
ETH (I) = 20 * log10 (ARG / EMAX);
else
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
55 
 
ETH (I) = - 120;
end
I = I + 1;
end

H_PLANE = ETH;
HFTOB = - ETH (271);

% CALCULATE THE ANTENNA DIRECTIVITY

THETA = 90 * DTOR;
PHI = 90 * DTOR;
AZ = 0;
I = 1;
while I <= N
IZP = 0;
J = 1;
while J <= M
MODE = J;
LEN = L (I);
ANG = THETA;
IZP = IZP + Inm(I,J)*ZMINUS(ANG,LEN,MODE)+ZPLUS(ANG,LEN,MODE));
J = J + 1;
end

AEXP = K * YP (I) * sin (THETA) * sin (PHI);
AZ = AZ + L (I) * exp (j * AEXP) * IZP;
I = I + 1;
end

UMAX = 3.75 * pi * abs (AZ) ^ 2 * sin (THETA) ^ 2;
PRAD = SCINT2 (0, pi, 0, 2 * pi, N, M, Inm, YP);
D0 = 4 * pi * UMAX / abs (PRAD);

% BASED ON FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF CURRENT, CALCULATE CURRENT DISTRIBUTION

IL = 1;
while IL <= N
DZ (IL) = L (IL) / 100;

I = 1;
while I <= 51
Z = (I - 1) * DZ (IL);
IZP = 0;
J = 1;
while J <= M
F2M = 2 * J - 1;
IZP = IZP + Inm (IL, J) * cos (F2M * pi * Z / L (IL));
J = J + 1;
end

CUR (I) = abs (IZP);
angle = atan2 (imag (IZP), real (IZP));
PHA (I) = angle * RTOD;
I = I + 1;
end

I = 1;
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
56 
 
while I <= 51
Z = (I - 1) * DZ (IL);
I = I + 1;
end

CENTER_CURRENT (IL) = CUR (1);
IL = IL + 1;
end

I = 1;
while I <= N
J = 1;
while J <= M
CURRENT = abs (Inm (I, J));
angle_radian = atan2 (imag (Inm (I, J)), real (Inm (I, J)));
ANGLE = angle_radian * RTOD;
J = J + 1;
end
I = I + 1;
end

E_PLANE = E_PLANE (1:360);
H_PLANE = H_PLANE (1:360);
angle = 1:1:360;

figure;
plot (angle, E_PLANE, '-b', 'LineWidth', 2);
hold on;
plot (angle, H_PLANE, '--r', 'LineWidth', 2);
legend ('E-Plane', 'H-Plane');
xlim ([1 360]);
ylim ([-60 0]);
title ('Yagi-Uda Analysis');
xlabel ('Theta(E)/Phi(H) degrees');
ylabel ('Field Pattern (dB)');
hold off;

figure;
INDEX = 1:1:N;
if N >= 3
CENTER_CURRENT = [CENTER_CURRENT(N-1:N) CENTER_CURRENT(1:N-2)];
INDEX = [INDEX(N-1:N) INDEX(1:N-2)];
end
plot (CENTER_CURRENT, 'LineWidth', 2);
set (gca, 'XTick', 1:1:N);
set (gca, 'XTickLabel',INDEX);
title ('Current Distribution');
ylim ([0 1]);
xlabel ('Element Number');
ylabel ('Element Current Amplitude');

figure;
h1=elevation(angle*pi/180,E_PLANE,-40,0,5,'b'); hold on;
h2=elevation(angle*pi/180,H_PLANE,-40,0,5,'r--');
set([h1 h2],'linewidth',2);
legend([h1 h2],{'E-Plane','H-Plane'});

% End of the yagi_uda function
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
57 
 

% FUNCTION SINTEG (SINGLE PRECISION)
function ANS = SINTEG (UL, LL, NO)

GAUSS = [-0.0950125098376370
-0.2816035507792590
-0.4580167776572270
-0.6178762444026440
-0.7554044083550030
-0.8656312023878320
-0.9445750230732330
-0.9894009349916500
0.0950125098376370
0.2816035507792590
0.4580167776572270
0.6178762444026440
0.7554044083550030
0.8656312023878320
0.9445750230732330
0.9894009349916500];

LEGEND = [0.1894506104550680
0.1826034150449240
0.1691565193950020
0.1495959888165770
0.1246289712555340
0.0951585116824930
0.0622535239386480
0.0271524594117540
0.1894506104550680
0.1826034150449240
0.1691565193950020
0.1495959888165770
0.1246289712555340
0.0951585116824930
0.0622535239386480
0.0271524594117540];

DEL = (UL - LL) / (2 * NO);
SUM = 0;

J = 1;
while J <= NO
S = LL + (2 * J - 1) * DEL;
I = 1;
while I <= 16
X = S + GAUSS (I) * DEL;
SUM = SUM + LEGEND (I) * FF (X);
I = I + 1;
end
J = J + 1;
end

ANS = SUM * DEL;

% End of the SINTEG function


Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
58 
 
4.5.2 MATLAB OUTPUTS


                                        Plot 4.1                                                                                              Plot 4.2 
These outputs are for the following specifications of the yagi-uda array:

Spacing between reflector and feeder = 0.25 λ Number of directors = 13
Number of reflectors = 1 Number of exciters = 1
Length of reflector = 0.5 λ Length of feeder = 0.47 λ
Length of each director = 0.406 λ Total elements = 15
Spacing between adjacent directors = 0.34 λ Radius of each wire = 0.003 λ

Output value of directivity comes out to be ≈ 37 dB.
 
The yagi uda turns out to be highly directive antenna with the difference between the
theoretically and experimentally calculated values of directivity coming out be within reasonable
error limits.  
 
4.6 FEKO Simulation
The yagi uda antenna specifications which was simulated in FEKO:
Number of elements = 6 Number of directors = 4
Length of directors = 0.420 λ Length of reflector = 0.482 λ
Length of exciter = 0.475 λ Wire radius = 0.00425 λ
Spacing between directors = 0.25 λ Spacing between reflector and feed = 0.2 λ

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
59 
 
 
Plot 4.3 
The figure above shows the 3D far field radiation pattern for the specified yagi uda antenna at a
center frequency of 826.3 MHz.
On simulating the above mentioned antenna the output values of electric field intensity and the
directivity are shown by the following curves.
For Electric field intensity:

Plot 4.4 
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
60 
 
For directivity ( Polar representation):

Plot 4.5 
For directivity with respect to frequency :

Plot 4.6 


Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
61 
 
4.7 RESULTS
It was thus found out that the results of Matlab implementation and theoretically calculated
results are within the reasonable error limits. It was found that the final radiation possesses
minimum radiation intensity in the back lobe (at angle of 180 degrees) and a maximum of lobe
power is concentrated in the main lobe along the axis of the horn antenna. The directivity of the
antenna first increases wrt frequency and then decreases as already shown. Both the simulations,
that of Matlab and Feko, provide us with a verification of above mentioned result.















Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
62 
 
chapter5
SPIRO HELICAL ANTENNA

5.1 Introduction
Helical antennas find important applications in communication systems, primarily because of
their circular polarization and wide bandwidth. This antenna, referred to as Spiro-Helical
Antenna is made of a primary helix wound on a cylinder of larger diameter. An important
advantage of this antenna is that it can be conveniently constructed. The simulation and
measurement results indicate that the spiro-helical antenna indeed provides high gain and
circular polarization over a wide bandwidth.






The figures shown are for the conventional
helix. The first one is the normal mode helix
and the latter one is axial mode helix.







       Figure 5. 1
  Figure 5. 2
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
63 
 
The primary helix has a radius a′ and pitch angle α′. Once
wrapped around a cylindrical surface of radius a, the axis of the
primary helix is transformed from a straight line into a helical
curve of radius a + a′ and pitch angle α. It is now clear that a
spiro-helical antenna can be fully described by five parameters—
two radii( a and a′), two pitch angles (α and α′), and the
number of larger turns (N) on the cylinder of radius a. The spiro-
helical antenna is fed by means of a coaxial cable, with the inner
conductor of the cable connected to the helix and the outer
conductor becoming the ground plane; a helical antenna made of a
spiral instead of a straight wire would allow smaller physical
dimensions. The figure shown represents the spiro helical
antenna in very simple representation.



 
5.2 Mathematical Analysis
The mathematical analysis of the helical antenna is carried out by considering the shown
geometry.

The parametric equations of the primary helix are expressed as
 
x’ = a’cos φ’

y’ = a’sin φ’ Equations A

z’ = (a’tanα’).φ’

Once the primary helix is wound on a cylinder of radius a with
a pitch angle α as shown, the z′ -axis assumes a helical shape of
radius (a+a′). The parametric equations of the helically-shaped
z′ -axis, in analogy with (A), are expressed as follows

x = (a + a’)cos φ
y = (a + a’)sin φ Equations B
         Figure 5. 3 
               Figure 5. 4
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
64 
 
z = [(a + a’) tanα].φ
Next, let us consider an arbitrary point A on the z′ -axis. The coordinates of this point are x’=0,
y’=0, z’=z
A
and in the spiro-helical geometry are denoted as x
A
, y
A
, z
A
. The coordinates x
A
, y
A
,
and z
A
, are related to each other through (B). z’
A
can be determined in terms of z
A
using the
integral expression for length. That is,

z’
A
= ]
z=zA
z=0
|(dx)
2
+ (dy)
2
+ (dz)
2
]
1/2
= ]
z=zA
z=0
| (dx/dz)
2
+ (dy/dz)
2
+ 1]
1/2
dz Equations C

Using chain-rule differentiation,
dx
dz
=
dx


dz
= - (a + a’)sin φ / (a + a’) tanα = - sin φ / tanα
dy
dz
=
dy


dz
= - (a + a’)cos φ / (a + a’) tanα = - cos φ / tanα
and substituting in (C), yields

z’
A
=

] |
zu
0
(1/ tan
2
α) + 1]
1/2
dz
or Equations D
z’
A
= z
A
/ sin α

Now, consider a point B on the primary helix such that z’
B
=z’
A
. The other coordinates of B;
namely, x’
B
and y’
B
are related to z’
B
through equations (A). We assume that the relations among
primed coordinates remain locally valid after z′ -axis is transformed into a helix. This assumption
is valid if the shape of a single turn in the primary helix and in the spiro-helical structure remains
essentially the same. Then, introducing vectors AB, OA, and OB , we have


AB = x’
B
x
H
’ + y’
B
y
H

OA = x’
A
x
H
’ + y’
A
y
H
’ + z
A
z
H

OB = x
B
x
H
’ + y’
B
y
H
’ + z
B
z
H
Equations E,F,G, H
However,
OB = OA + AB
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
65 
 
where x
H
, y
H,
z
H
are the corresponding Hilbert Transforms of x, y, z respectively.
It can be shown, by inspection, that
x
H
’ = cos φ x
H
’ + sin φ y
H

y
H
’ = - sin α sin φ x
H
’ + sin α cos φ y
H
’ – cos α z
H
Equations I
z
H
’ = - cos α sin φ x
H
’ + cos α cos φ y
H
’ + sin α z
H

Combining (E) through (I), yields


OB = x
B
x
H
’ + y’
B
y
H
’ + z
B
z
H
= (x
A
+ x’
B
cos φ - y’
B
sin α sin φ) x
H
+ (y
A
+ x’
B
sin φ + Equations J
y’
B
sin α cos φ) y
H
+ (z
A
- y’
B
cos α) z
H


Equating the like components in (J), substituting for x
A
, y
A
, and z
A
with the right-hand side
expressions in (B), and replacing x’
B
and y’
B
with the right-hand side expressions in (A), we
finally obtain

x = x
B
= (a + a’)cosφ + a’ cosφ cos φ’ - a’ sinφ sinφ’ sinα
y = y
B
= (a + a’)sinφ + a’ sinφ cos φ’ - a’ cosφ sinφ’ sinα Equations K
z = z
B
= [(a + a’)tanα]. φ - a’ sinφ’ cosα
where,
φ = z
A
/ [(a + a’) tan α]
φ’ = z
A
/ [a’ tanα’ sin α]
z
A
varies in the range 0≤ z
A
≤ z
A max
where z
A max
is the height of the spiro-helical antenna. It is
given by,
z
A max
= 2πN(a + a’) tan α

5.3 Design Methodology
We have studied the radiation pattern of Spiro-helical antenna within the frequency range 1.5
GHz to 2.5 GHz. Then, we have done the mathematical analysis of its geometry. The next step
Primary Helix
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
66 
 
was to design a Matlab code that will generate the geometry of Spiro-helical antenna. This
geometry was stored in .nfm files that contained different segmentation coefficients. These files
were different for different frequencies and were fed as an input to the NEC (Numerical
Electromagnetic Code-2) software that will enable us to find the radiation pattern of the antenna
in the desired frequency range.

5.3 Matlab Simulation
The parameter values for the investigation of spiro helical antenna are

Number of turns, N=10
Frequency, 1.4 GHz ≤ f ≤ 3.5 GHz
Helix pitch angle, α = 10°
Spiral pitch angle, α′ = 30°
Helix radius, a = 16 mm
Spiral radius, a′ = 3 mm
Conductor radius, ro = 0.5 mm




MATLAB CODE
clear all;
a = 16; %% Radius a
ap = 3; %% Radius a prime
alph = 10*pi/180; %% Set angle for alpha
alpha = 30*pi/180; %% Set angle for alpha prime
length = 220; %% Length for number of turns
sym = '_'; %% Symbol to distinguish simulation
t = '10'; %% Used in filename for number of turns
inc = .3; %% Increment for length
begin = 1500; %% Beginning frequency
last = 2500; %% Ending frequency
l = 'k'; %% Color for Plot
rad = .0005; %% radius of conducting wire
intrvl = 50; %% Frequency interval
for freq = begin:intrvl:last,
c = 1;
lam = .02*(3*10^8/(freq*10^6)); %% .02 times lambda
f = num2str( freq/10 ); %% Simulation information
rad1 = num2str ( a );
rad2 = num2str ( ap );
pitch1 = num2str ( alph*180/pi );
pitch2 = num2str ( alpha*180/pi );
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radius = num2str ( rad );
filename = strcat( t, sym , f, pitch1, '.dat' );
fid = fopen(filename , 'w');
text1 = strcat('CMa=',rad1,',ap=',rad2,', alpha=',pitch1,',alphap=',. . .
pitch2,',radius=',radius);
text2 = strcat( 'CE',t, sym , pitch1,'.csv');
fprintf(fid, text1 );
fprintf(fid, '\r');
fprintf(fid, '\n');
fprintf(fid, text2 );
fprintf(fid, '\r');
x1(1) = 0; %% Initial values for x,y, and z
y1(1) = 0;
z1(1) = lam;
fprintf(fid, '\nGW%3d
2%10.4f%10.4f%10.4f%10.4f%10.4f%10.4f%9.4f\r',c,x1(c),y1(c),y1(c),x1(c),y1(c)
,z1(c),rad);
for zo = 2.7:inc:length,
tmp = zo;
x2 = x1(c);
y2 = y1(c);
z2 = z1(c);
c= c+1; %% Increase counter for array
phi = tmp./((a+ap) * tan(alph)); %% Calculation of Phi
%% Calculation of Phi prime
phip = tmp./(ap * sin(alph) * tan(alpha));
x1(c) = ((a+ap).*cos(phi) + ap.*cos(phi).*cos(phip) – . . .
ap*sin(alph).*sin(phi).*sin(phip))/1000;
y1(c) = ((a+ap).*sin(phi) + ap.*sin(phi).*cos(phip) + . . .
ap*sin(alph).*cos(phi).*sin(phip))/1000;
z1(c) = ((a+ap)*tan(alph).*phi - ap*cos(alph).*sin(phip))/1000;
%% x, y, and z written in input file
fprintf(fid, '\nGW%3d 1%10.4f%10.4f%10.4f%10.4f%10.4f %10.4f%9.4f\r',c,. . .
x2,y2,z2,x1(c),y1(c),z1(c),rad);
end
%% End geometry and parameters for ground plane,
%% frequency, excitation, and radiation plots.
fprintf(fid,'\nGE\r');
fprintf(fid,'\nGN 1\r');
fprintf(fid,'\nFR 0 1 0 0%10.1f 0.000\r', freq);
fprintf(fid,'\nEX 0 1 1 10 5.000 0.000\r');
fprintf(fid,'\nRP 0 37 37 1010 0.000 0.000 5.00010.000\r');
fprintf(fid,'\nEN');
fclose(fid);
end
figure(1) %% check graph of geometry to ensure number of turns
plot3(x1,y1,z1,l)
view(90,0)





Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
68 
 
MATLAB OUTPUT


Plot 5.1 


5.4 Radiation Patterns
The radiation patterns were computed through the numerical electromagnetic code -2 software.
The output patterns computed are as shown,
For the directivity with respect to frequency
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69 
 



 Plot 5.2                                                                                       Plot 5.3 









Plot 5.4 
The above curves are for the frequencies 1.5 GHz, 1.7 GHz, 1.9 GHz, 2.25 GHz and 2.45 GHz
respectively. It is clear from the above curves that the power pattern directivity first increases
with the increase in frequency, reaches a maximum value and then the pattern starts to distort
that is distortion of the pattern begins.


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70 
 

For the Gain with respect to frequency curves


Plot 5.5 

It is clear from the above plot that a peak gain of 13 dB at 2.25 GHz is there and a minimum gain
of 6.8 dB at 2.4 GHz is seen. For the frequencies in between 1.55 GHz and 2.3 GHz, the gain
lies between the minimum and maximum values.


For the Axial Ratio with respect to frequency curves


Plot 5.6 

It is observed that axial ratio is < 3 dB in frequency range 1.6 GHz < f < 2.2 GHz.
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
71 
 



5.5 RESULTS

The results of NEC-2 clearly showed that for the given antenna specifications, a peak gain of 13
dB at 2.25 GHz is there and a minimum gain of 6.8 dB at 2.4 GHz is seen. For the frequencies in
between 1.55 GHz and 2.3 GHz, the gain lies between the minimum and maximum values. It is
observed that axial ratio is < 3 dB in frequency range 1.6 GHz < f < 2.2 GHz.
































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72 
 

Chapter6
FEKO Improved Designs

6.1 FEKO Background
FEKO is a full wave, MoM (method of moment) based simulation software for the analysis of
electromagnetic problems such as coupling, antenna design, antenna placement analysis, micro
strip design, scattering analysis, etc. It has the ability to solve electrically large problems using
accurate full wave techniques. Electromagnetic fields are obtained by first calculating the electric
surface currents on conducting surfaces and equivalent electric and magnetic surface current on
the surface of a dielectric solid. The currents are calculated using a linear combination of basis
functions, where the coefficients are obtained by solving a system of linear equations. Once the
current distribution is known, further parameters can be obtained, such as near field, far field,
directivity, input impedance of an antenna.

Here we have used feko for analyzing various antennas introduced in past and to design new
antennas which give better results in terms of better gain, directivity, better circular polarization
and many other factors.

The number of designs added have been abbreviated so as to maintain relevance with our
designs.
6.2 Designs proposed in past
6.2.1 CROSSED DIPOLE ARRAY IN FRONT OF REFLECTOR

In mobile communication systems the position and orientation of the receiving and transmitting antennas
change continually. This can effect the signal strength at the receiver, even when the antennas are
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
73 
 
pointing at each other, as the orientation of the antennas may result in a polarization mismatch. A simple
way to ensure that the polarization mismatch is not more than 3dB is to use a circularly polarized antenna
at one end (e.g. transmitter) and a linearly polarized antenna at the other (e.g. receiver). However,
achieving circular polarization is difficult and practically an elliptical polarization with an axial ratio close
to unity is used. Here a four element crossed dipole array with reflecting metallic plate is modeled in
FEKO to determine gain patterns and axial ratios.
Feko modal simulated
Dimensions Used in Paper
Frequency Range :200e6 Hz
Eps: lambda/50
L = 2*lambda
Reflector Dimensions : lambda/4 x 2*lambda

Plot 6.1



Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
74 
 

Results in FEKO
Axial Ratio V/S Frequency plot

Plot 6.2
Gain V/s Frequency Plot

Plot 6.3

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75 
 
6.2.2 SMALL SIZE SIERPINSKI CARPET MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNAS
             W.‐L. Chen and G.‐M. Wang 

Aside from using high dielectric substrates applying shorting techniques and increasing the electrical
length of the antenna by optimizing the shape there are mainly two techniques to reduce the size of an
microstrip patch antenna. One is loading the edges of the patch with inductive elements and the other is
inserting the capacitive elements into the patch Koch fractal shapes have been applied to the edges of the
patch to reduce the size of the antenna and the essence of this technique falls into capacitive loading. By
etching the patch as Sierpinski carpet of different iteration orders, the simulation results show the
operating frequency of the antenna can be lowered to lower values, at the same time maintaining the
bandwidth, radiation patterns comparable to that of a normal edge-fed microstrip patch

Dimensions used in Paper
L= 48.0mm
W= 32.4mm
f =1.8GHz
iteration pf 1/3 dimension are used



Plot 6.4 


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76 
 
Simulation Results using Feko
Directivity V/S Angle Plot

Plot 6.5 
Electric Far Field V/S Angle Plot

Plot 6.6 
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77 
 
6.2.3.Simple and low cost method to improve the performance of pyramidal Horn
(By Koerner and Rogers)
A simple and low cost method to enhance gain of wide angle horn pyramidal horn is described. The
method consists of inserting disc into the horn at particular axial locations. The study shows that aperture
efficiency enhancement can be achieved for large flare angle horns thus resulting in increase in directivity
.However since directivity is concerned, mismatch losses are removed from experimental data
Model introduced

Plot 6.7 








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78 
 
Corresponding output
Gain / Angle Plot at 2.5GHz

Plot 6.8 
Directivity / Frequency plot

Plot 6.9
Yagi Uda design and simulations are already done in Matlab and Feko in Previous Chapters
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
79 
 
6.3 Antenna proposed
Antenna Design 1
It is based on the design “Crossed Dipole Array in Front of Reflector” .As can be seen above the main
lobe has a satisfactory directivity , E field but its circular polarization decreases as we move sideways and
before reaching the half of beamwidth angle , circular polarization decreases by a substancial amount.
Also Vertical polarization is much more than horizontal polarization, thus the medium in which it travel
has a large impact on the directivity and gain. Moreover some of these are used in mobile, So there is size
constrained.
In this antenna these shortcomings have been overcome
1. Improved circular polarization for large range of angle.
2. Improved circular polarization for comparatively large frequency range.
3. Size of reflector is reduced
4. Improvement in Directivity and gain
Proposed Antenna
Basic Design

Plot 6.10 


Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
80 
 
Feko Output
Axial Ratio / Frequency plot

Plot 6.11
Gain / Frequency Plot

Plot 6.12
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
81 
 
Directivity / Angle Plot

Plot 6.13
From the simulation results , the above antenna has almost 1 axial ratio and high gain or directivity in the
range of frequency 200 – 450 MHz. Thus this antenna is very useful in noisy environment.
Antenna Design 2:
This Antenna Design uses Sierpinski Curve and improved version of Paper(Sierpinski patch antenna by
W.-L. Chen and G.-M. Wang).Introducing slots in patch make it work at low freq without much loss in
directivity and gain
Proposed model

Plot 6.14

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82 
 
Feko Results
Directivity /angle plot

                                                            Plot 6.15 
Electric far field /angle Polar Plot

                                                            Plot 6.16 

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
83 
 
Antenna Design 3:
Antenna 3 is based on Yagi Uda antenna which has been discussed in earlier chapter. Matlab code and
Feko design were also done .Here Yagi Uda antenna act as the basic model for designing antenna which
has better properties.
Modified Design of Yagi Uda
Changes are made in yagi antenna taking into considerations the following Factors
1. Bandwidth
2. Directivity
3. Electric Field
4. Size Constraint
5. Gain
Design 1

Plot 6.17




Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
84 
 
Feko Results
Gain / frequency plot

                                                               Plot 6.18 
Gain /angle Polar plot

Plot 6.19 

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
85 
 
Model 2

Plot 6.20
Directivity / Frequency Plot

Plot 6.21
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
86 
 
Directivity / Angle Polar Plot

Plot 6.22
Antenna Design 4
Antenna  4  is  based  on  Simple  and  low  cost  method  to  improve  the  performance  of  pyramidal  Horn 
antenna  which  has  been  discussed.    Matlab  code and Feko  design  were  also  done  .Here  Horn  antenna 
act as the basic model for designing antenna which has better properties. 
Modified Design of Pyramidal Horn Antenna
Feko Model

Plot 6.23
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
87 
 
Directivity /Frequency Plot

Plot 6.24
Directivity / Angle plot at 2.555 Ghz frequency

Plot 6.25
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
88 
 
Chapter7
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
 
7.1 CONCLUSION
While studying Pyramidal Horn antenna, it was found out that the results of Matlab
implementation and theoretically calculated results are within the required error limits of ±1%.
Also, it was observed that the final radiation possesses minimum radiation intensity in the back
lobe (at angle of 180 degrees) and a maximum of lobe power is concentrated in the main lobe
along the axis of the horn antenna. Both the simulations, that of Matlab and Feko, provide us
with a verification of above mentioned result.
For Yagi-uda antenna also, the results of Matlab implementation and theoretically calculated
results are within the reasonable error limits. Here also, the final radiation possesses minimum
radiation intensity in the back lobe (at angle of 180 degrees) and a maximum of lobe power is
concentrated in the main lobe along the axis of the antenna. The directivity of the antenna first
increases with frequency and then decreases. Both the simulations, that of Matlab and Feko,
proved the above mentioned result.
In the case of Spiro-helical antenna, the power pattern was observed for the frequencies 1.5 GHz,
1.7 GHz, 1.9 GHz, 2.25 GHz and 2.45 GHz respectively.
At Last new Feko designs have been simulated and their results are compared with the designs
which are design wise comparable to them.


Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
89 
 
7.2 Future Work
Since till date we have designed new antennas and done their theoretical simulations but since
Physical antenna results may vary from these depending on various factors.
Also there are various antenna which some of which are shown below are not giving satisfactory
results and need further modification.

Due to the fact that these antenna has not been previously researched, there are still
many opportunities to learn more about it.
The following is a list of suggestions for future investigations of these antenna.
1. Different helical shape. The conventional helical shape determines the shape of the
spiro-helical investigated here, but the spiral wire can be used to create different overall
geometries as well. The wire can be wound into a tapered helical antenna, a conical
helical antenna, a spherical helical antenna, or any other number of designs.
2. Gain and input impedance measurements. The measurements conducted were limited
to far-field patterns only. Input impedance measurements need to be performed to have a
more realistic assessment of the performance of these antennas and their practical
applications.
 

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
90 
 
REFERENCES


• Antenna Theory , Analysis and Design By Constantine A. Balanis 
• “Some data for the design of EM Horns” IRE transactions Propagat By E.H. 
Braun 
• Antenna Engineering Handbook ( A.W. Love and T.S. Bird) 
• D.M. Pozar, ”Directivity of Omni directional Antennas” 
• R.E. Collin, “Antennas and Radio Wave Propagation” 
• Samuel Silver, ”Microwave antenna theory and design” 
• Robert S. Elliot, “Antenna theory and design” 
• Antenna theory and design By Stutzman Thiele 
• Modern Antenna Design By Thomas A. Milligan 
• Electromagnetic waves and antennas By S.J. Orfanidis 
• Antenna and EM Modeling with Matlab By Sergey N. Makarov 
• Antenna design and visualization using Matlab By Atef Z. Elsherbeni and 
Matthew J. Inman 
• www.feko.info 
• www.en.wikipedia.org 
• www.mathworks.com 
• www.edaborad.com 
 
• B.R. Piper, M.E. Bialkowski, "Electromagnetic Modeling of Conformal Wideband and
Multi-Band Patch Antennas by Bridging a Solid-Obect Modeler with MoM software",
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 46, No. 5, October 2004.
• S.P. Skobelev, B.-J. Ku, A.V. Shishlov, and D.-S. Ahn, "Optimal Geometry and
Performance of a Dual-Mode Horn Modification," IEEE Antennas and Propagation
Magazine, Vol. 43, No. 1, February 2001
• R.L. Haupt, "A Horn-Fed Reflector Optimized with a Genetic Algorithm", IEEE/ACES
International Conference on Wireless Communications and Applied Computational
Electromagnetics, April 2005, pp. 517-520.
• S.J. Franson, "Invited Paper - Hybrid Simulation of Electrically Large Millimeter-Wave
Antennas", IEEE/ACES International Conference on Wireless Communications and
Applied Computational Electromagnetics, April 2005, pp. 505-508.

• C.B. Ravipati, "Compact Circular Microstrip Antenna for Conical Patterns", Antennas
and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2004.
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
91 
 
• E. Gschwendtner, W. Wiesbeck, "Ultra-Broadband Car Antenna for Communications
and Navigation Applications", IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51,
No. 8, August 2003.
• A dual-band dual-polarized radar antenna By Yang Bochao Huang Yong
Res. Inst. of Navigation Technol., Xi'an;
• Design and analysis of TEM horn antennas for ultra-wideband technology
Ying Suo; Jinghui Qiu; Yeshu Yuan Electromagnetic Compatibility and 19th
International Zurich Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2008.
• Application of FDTD Method to Analyze a U-Slot Patch Antenna By S.-H. Chen and H.-
Y. Chen (Taiwan)
• Novel Circularly Polarized Printed Crossed Dipole Array with Broad Axial Ratio
Bandwidth By Jung-Woo Baik Kyoung-Joo Lee Won-Sang Yoon Tae-Hak Lee
Young-Sik Kim Dept. of radio Commun. & Eng., Korea Univ., Seoul
• Circuit model of microstrip patch antenna on ceramic land grid array package for
antenna-chip codesign of highly integrated RF transceivers
By Wang, J.J.; Zhang, Y.P.; Kai Meng Chua; Lu, A.C.W.; Antennas and Propagation,
IEEE Transactions on Volume 53, Issue 12, Dec. 2005 Page(s):3877 – 3883
• A model for calculating the radiation field of microstrip antennas By Hammer, P.; Van
Bouchaute, D.; Verschraeven, D.; Van de Capelle, A.;
Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on [legacy, pre - 1988]
Volume 27, Issue 2, Mar 1979 Page(s):267 – 270
“Analysis and Simulation of a 1-18GHz Broadband Double-Ridge Horn Antenna,” By
C Burns, P. Leuchtmann, R. Vahldieck, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic
Compatibility, Vol 45, No 1, pp 55-60, Feb 2003.
 
 
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
92 
 
APPENDICES
 
Appendix A: Transverse Electric mode
Waveguide differs from a transmission line in some respects. In the first place, a transmission
line can support only a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave whereas a waveguide can
support many possible field configurations. Second, at microwave frequencies (roughly 3-300
GHz), transmission lines become inefficient due to skin effect and dielectric losses; waveguides
are used at that range of frequencies to obtain larger bandwidth and lower signal attenuation.
Common waveguides are rectangular or circular.

Consider a rectangular waveguide. We shall assume the waveguide is filled with (ρ=0, J=0)
lossless dielectric material (σ = 0). After all derivation we obtain,

E
xs
=
-y
h
2

ðLzs
ðx
-
]oµ
h
2

ðHzs
ðy
Æ A1
E
ys
=
-y
h
2

ðLzs
ðy
-
]oµ
h
2

ðHzs
ðx
Æ A2
H
xs
=
]os
h
2

ðLzs
ðy
-
-y
h
2

ðHzs
ðx
Æ A3
H
ys
= -
]os
h
2

ðLzs
ðx
-
-y
h
2

ðHzs
ðy
Æ A4
where b
2
= y
2
+ k
2


From the above equations we notice that there are different types of field patterns or
configurations. Each of these distinct field patterns is called a mode. Four different mode
categories can exist, we are concerned with the TE (transverse electric) mode.

In the TE modes, the electric field is transverse (or normal) to the direction of wave propagation.
We set E
z
= 0 and determine other field components E
x
, E
y
, H
x
, H
y
, and H
z
from equations and the
boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are obtained from the fact that the tangential
components of the electric field must be continuous at the walls of the waveguide; that is,

E
xs
= 0 at y=0 Æ B1
E
xs
= 0 at y=b Æ B2
E
ys
= 0 at x=0 Æ B3
E
ys
= 0 at x=a Æ B4

From equations A and B, the boundary conditions can be written as
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
93 
 

ðHzs
ðy
= 0 at y = 0
ðHzs
ðy
= 0 at y = b
ðHzs
ðx
= 0 at x = 0
ðHzs
ðx
= 0 at x = a

Imposing the above boundary conditions on following equation we get,

H
zs
(x,y,z) = (B
1
cosk
x
x + B
2
sink
x
x)(B
3
cosk
y
y + B
4
sink
y
y)c
-yz


E
xs
=
]oµ
h
2
I
nL
b
]Ho cosI
mLx
u
] sinI
nLy
b
] c
-yz
Æ C1
E
ys
= -
]oµ
h
2
I
mL
u
]Ho sinI
mLx
u
] cosI
nLy
b
] c
-yz
Æ C2
H
xs
=
y
h
2
I
mL
u
]Ho sinI
mLx
u
] cosI
nLy
b
] c
-yz
Æ C3
H
ys
=
y
h
2
I
nL
b
]Ho cosI
mLx
u
] sinI
nLy
b
]c
-yz
Æ C4
where m = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .; and n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . .

For TE modes, (m, n) may be (0, 1) or (1, 0) but not (0,0). Both m and n cannot be zero at the
same time because this will force the field components in equations C1-C4 to vanish. This implies
that the lowest mode can be TE
l0
or TE
01
, depending on the dimensions of the guide. It is
standard practice to have a > b. Thus TE
10
is the lowest mode and the dominant mode is the mode
with the lowest cut-off frequency.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
94 
 
Appendix B : Method Of Moments
] I(z

) I
0
2
0z
2
+ k
2
]
I¡2
-I¡2
c
-]RR
R
dz’ = j4πωεoEz.
t
……(1)
This equation is referred to as Pocklington’s equation. It can be used to determine the equivalent
filamentary line-source current of the wire, and thus current density on the wire, by knowing the
incident field on the wire surface.
This equation has the form of F(g) = h. Where F is a known linear operator, h is a known
excitation function and g is the response function. Our aim is to determine g once F and G are
specified. The linearity of F operator makes a numerical solution possible.
In above equation, this is done by solving the integral equation using numerical techniques such
as the Moment Method. This method is analytically simple and versatile. It requires that the g
function be expanded as a linear combination of N terms and written as
g (z’) = a
1
g
1
(z’)+ a
2
g
2
(z’)+ ……… a
N
g
N
(z’)= ∑
N
n=1
a
n
g
n
(z’)…..(2)
Each a
n
is an unknown constant and each g
n
(z’) is a known function usually known as a basis or
expansion function. The domain of the g (z’) and g
n
(z’) functions are same. Using (2) in (1) and
using the linearity of the F operator (1) reduces to

N
n=1
a
n
F(g
n
) = h……(3)
The basis functions g
n
are chosen so that each F(g
n
) can be evaluated conveniently, preferably in
closed form or at the very least numerically. Now, the end task remaining is to find the a
n
unknown constants. Expansion of (3) leads to one equation with N unknowns. To resolve the N
constants, it is necessary to have N linearly independent equations. It can be achieved by
evaluating (3) at N different points. (eg. applying boundary conditions). This is referred to as
point-matching or collocation. Doing this (3) takes the form of

N
n=1
a
n
F(g
n
) = h
m
m=1,2,…., N …….(4)
In matrix form, [Z
mn
] [I
n
] = [V
m
] …..(5)
Where , Z
mn
= F(g
n
)
I
n
=

a
n
V
m
= h
m

The unknown coefficients a
n
can be found by solving (5) using matrix inversion techniques as
[I
n
] = [Z
mn
]
-1
[V
m
]


Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
95 
 
Appendix C : Radiation Equations
For far-field observations, the distance of observation R can be approximated by
R ≈ r- r’ cos Ψ for phase variations…..(1)
R ≈ r for amplitude variations…….(2)
Where Ψ is the angle between the vectors r and r’. The primed coordinates indicate the space
occupied by the sources J
s
and M
s
. The unprimed coordinates indicate the observation point.
Using (1), (2) following equations result.
A =
u
4∏
] [
s2
s1
s
c
-]kR
R
ds’ =
μc
-]kR
4∏R
N…..(3)

N = ] [
s2
s1
s
c
-]k¡

cos +
ds’

F =
=
4∏
] H
s2
s1
s
c
-]kR
R
ds’ =
=c
-]RR
4∏R
L

L = ] H
s2
s1
s
c
-]k¡

cos+
ds’……..(4)
The radial components not necessarily zero, are negligible compared to the θ and φ components.
(E
A
)
θ
≈ -jωA
θ

(E
A
)
φ
≈ -jωA
φ

(H
F
)
θ
≈ -jωF
θ

(H
F
)
φ
≈ -jωF
φ

(E
F
)
θ
≈ +η (H
F
)
φ
= -jωηF
φ

(E
F
)
φ
≈ - η (H
F
)
θ
= +jωηF
θ

(H
A
)
θ
≈ - (E
A
)
φ
/η = -jωA
φ

(H
A
)
φ
≈ + (E
A
)
θ
/η = -jωA
θ

Combining the above eight equations and using (4),we have following equations for total E and
H fields.
Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas 
 
96 
 

E
r
≈ 0
E
θ
≈ -
]kc
-]kr
4∏¡
( L
φ
+ ηN
θ
)
E
φ
≈ +
]kc
-]kr
4∏¡
( L
θ
- ηN
φ
)
H
r
≈ 0
H
θ
≈ +
]kc
-]kr
4∏¡
( N
φ
– L
θ
/η )
H
φ
≈ -
]kc
-]kr
4∏¡
( N
θ
+ L
φ
/η )

Using (3) and (4), we have
N
θ
= ]|[
x
cos θ cos φ + [
y
cos θ sin φ – [
z
sin θ] c
]k¡

cos +
ds’
N
φ
= ]|-[
x
sin φ + [
y
cos φ] c
]k¡

cos +
ds’
L
θ
= ]|H
x
cos θ cos φ + H
y
cos θ sin φ – H
z
sin θ] c
]k¡

cos +
ds’
L
φ
= ]|-H
x
sin φ + H
y
cos φ] c
]k¡

cos+
ds’

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  2     

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our sincere gratitude towards our project mentor Dr. H. Parthasarathy for providing us with his valuable time, effort, and invaluable knowledge without which the progress of our project wouldn’t have been possible. It was our great opportunity and experience to enrich ourselves with innovative ideas and guidance provided by him. We also express our regards to our colleagues who motivated us throughout the project which led to the successful completion of the same.

ANKUR ARORA (13/EC/05)

UCHIT SINGHAL (92/EC/05)

UJJWAL NEHRA (93/EC/05)

VIVEK RAWAT (102/EC/05)

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  3     

ABSTRACT
An Antenna is used to transmit and receive electromagnetic waves. Antennas are employed in systems such as radio and television broadcasting, point-to-point radio communication, wireless LAN, radar, and space exploration. Antennas usually work in air or outer space, but can also be operated under water or even through soil and rock at certain frequencies for short distances. The origin of the word antenna relative to wireless apparatus is attributed to Guglielmo Marconi. There are several critical parameters affecting an antenna's performance that can be adjusted during the design process. These are resonant frequency, impedance, gain, aperture or radiation pattern, polarization, efficiency and bandwidth. Transmit antennas may also have a maximum power rating, and receive antennas differ in their noise rejection properties. An antenna may be an isotropic radiator, a dipole, yagi-uda type, horn type or patch antenna.

In this project, we have simulated the radiation pattern of horn antenna and yagi-uda antenna in MATLAB and studied their FEKO outputs. We have designed many antennas in FEKO environment and have made improvements in the previous designs to have better electric field intensity and directivity. Our basic approach was to simulate the radiation pattern for a symmetrically shaped antenna and then maximizing the output parameters by using various techniques such as using reflector surfaces wherever the loss in antenna was due to side lobes. Polarization of an antenna is a very important parameter in determining the loss in transmission. In antennas matching plays a very important role in determining the final output and rain drops due to reflection properties can lead to serious weakening of signal at high frequencies, due to which circular polarization is generally preferred.

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28  3.................... 29  3............................................................................................. 15       2................................................................................................................................................1  1.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11  1................................................................................. 4  LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................................................................. 18  PYRAMIDAL HORN..................................... 23  3............................................................................... 23  3..................................................2 Radiated Fields ............................................................................. 32  ..................................................................................................................... 27  3......................4  1...................................................................................................................... 21  3.................. 12  Project Overview.......................3 E Plane Sectoral Horn .... 12  Structure of the Report.................................................................2  1.......Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  4      TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATE ............................................ 9  INTRODUCTION........................... 17  2...................................................................................................................................................... 22  3..............................................4  Introduction ...........................................................................................................................3............................................ 1  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................................................. 3  TABLE OF CONTENTS ...4.............................. 21  3...................3..................................................................................................................................... 14  ANTENNA THEORY ................................................................................................................ 15       2..................................1 Aperture Fields ..... 26  3........................................................................................................................5 Pyramidal Horn ...............1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................2 Horn Antenna Configurations .........................................1 APERTURE FIELDS .................................................................................................................................................................. 11  Objective ...................................................6 MATLAB Simulation......................................................................1 Introduction to Horn Antenna...............................................................................................................................................................2 TYPES OF ANTENNA...................4...4 Antenna Parameters ................... 25  3.......... 6  LIST OF FIGURES ..................2 RADIATED FIELDS .................................................................................................................................................................... 16  2............................................................... 2  ABSTRACT ...........................................................................................................................4 H Plane Sectoral Horn ..... 31  3.................................................5...............................5.............................. 31  3..........................................3 RADIATION PATTERN ..................................................................................................2 RADIATED FIELDS .......................................................................................................................1 Aperture Fields ....

....................................................................... 65  5........................................... 49  4....................................................................................................................................................................................... 58  4...................................................................................1 History .................................................................................................................. 66  5.......................................................................................1 MATLAB CODE .....................................................................................................................................5..............................................................................................................................................................................................5 Matlab Simulation ........................7 FEKO Simulation ........................................................................................................................... 49  4.... 58  4......................................................................................................................................................................................... 68  6.......................................................................................6 FEKO Simulation ........................... 42  4.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Design Methodology ..... 92  Appendix A: Transverse Electric mode ........................8 Results ................2   Designs proposed in past ................................................................................................................... 90  APPENDICES .................2 Future Work ......................................................................2 Introduction .................................................1  FEKO Background ........................................... 92  Appendix B :  Method Of Moments .......................................... 43  4...........................................4 Mathematical Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37  3..................................3 Working Principle ...................................................................................................... 32  3.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 88  7................................5.1 MATLAB CODE ............................................ 46  4..............................................................................................................................................................................7  RESULTS ................. 72  6............. 62  5...................................................... 94  Appendix C : Radiation Equations .............................................. 62  5..........1 CONCLUSION .................... 89  REFERENCES .................................................................................................................... 41  YAGI  UDA  ANTENNA ............................................................................................................................................ 42  4......................................................................................................................................................................Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  5      3.............................................................................2 Mathematical Analysis .......... 63  5..................... 43  4.................................................................3 Antenna proposed............... 61  SPIRO HELICAL ANTENNA...1 Introduction ......................................................................2 MATLAB OUTPUTS ...................... 72  6..3 Matlab Simulation ..................................................................6.......................................................................................................................................... 88  7............................................................................................... 79  Chapter7 ..............................................................................4 Radiation Patterns .............................................. 95  ................................................................... 88  CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK ...........................

6………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    68  Plot 6.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    35  Plot 3.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    67  Plot 5.4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    73  .3………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    72  Plot 6.5………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    37  Plot 3.1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    35  Plot 3.5………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    68  Plot 5.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    72  Plot 6.4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    67  Plot 5.1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    71  Plot 6.3………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    36  Plot 3.3………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    67  Plot 5.1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    56  Plot 4.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  6      LIST OF PLOTS   Plot 3.5………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    58  Plot 4.7………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    38  Plot 4.2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    56  Plot 4.6………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    58  Plot 5.3………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    57  Plot 4.1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    66  Plot 5.4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    37  Plot 3.6………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    38  Plot 3.4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    57  Plot 4.

8………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    76  Plot 6.25……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     85            .6………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    74  Plot 6.24……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     85  Plot 6.15……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     80  Plot 6.21……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     83  Plot 6.13……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     79  Plot 6.16……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     80  Plot 6.20……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     83  Plot 6.10……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     77  Plot 6.5………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    74  Plot 6.14……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     79  Plot 6.7………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    75  Plot 6.11……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     78  Plot 6.18……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     82  Plot 6.19……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     82  Plot 6.17……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     81  Plot 6.22……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     84  Plot 6.12……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     78  Plot 6.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  7      Plot 6.9………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………    76  Plot 6.23……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………     84  Plot 6.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  8                                          .

............ Error! Bookmark not  Figure 3. Figure 5.......... Figure 5.............2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......................................................... Figure 3.........   Figure 3............................................................................ Figure 5.....................1……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3.............................................................. 4............................. 1....................... Figure 4.... 7......................................................... Figure 3............ Figure 4........1 ............................... Figure 2...........................................1…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............................................. Figure 3........................................ 3....................................................................................................................................................................   Figure 4........................ 4.................. Figure 4...................................... 2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………................................................ 2.............................................................. Figure 3........................................................... Figure 3.................................................... 5..................... 1.. 5................................................................................................................................................................... 6....................................................................................................... 7   Figure 2.....2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....................................................................................................................Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  9      LIST OF FIGURES     Figure 1............................3…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………......................4………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….... Figure 4.....................................................................................................................3…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......................................................... Figure 2............................................................. 13 14 16 22 22 25 26 28 28 29 41 42 42 43 44 60 60 61 61 .....................................................................................................................   Figure 5..........

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  10      .

An antenna should possess its maximum energy in the direction of main lobe while possessing a minimum of side and back lobes. water-vapors etc. Directivity. Antenna can be deployed in any medium whether it is air. Reflector surfaces. Various losses arise in the transmission due to mismatching and the reflections suffered by the waves in the atmosphere due to precipitation. Point to point communication. Rain drops play the most important role due to spherical symmetry. Field Intensity. but its advantages outcast the limitations. dust.1 Introduction An Antenna. also known as aerial. converting them into electric currents and vice versa. due to which circular polarization becomes a . the range of frequencies in which it can be used efficiently narrows down in water and soil. soil or water. space. Metallic surfaces act as superb reflectors. is a transducer which is used to transmit and receive the electromagnetic waves. Polarization. For this reflector surfaces are used.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  11      chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. While designing an antenna various parameters need to be taken care of. wireless LAN are other important fields which can not suffice without an antenna. The important among them are the Gain. A typical antenna finds its usage in every domain of life whether it is broadcasting or space exploration. and bandwidth. while dielectric surfaces absorb the Electromagnetic radiation falling upon them. However.

The improvement was made in regard to various antenna parameters whether it is gain.2 Objective This project focuses on the development of antennas such that they possess a radiation pattern which provides us with the improvement in the antenna parameters such as directivity. 1. or field intensity or polarization. gain . maximizing the electric field intensity. electric field intensity along the main lobe and co-existence of circular polarization. FEKO provided us with an excellent platform to make changes in the existing antenna designs and study the resultant radiation pattern. The project work has been carried out step by step using the modular approach for the benefit of clear understanding and development of efficient design. polarization . This report focuses on the design and architectural details of the antennas which incorporate the above mentioned features. bandwidth and radiation intensity . The existing designs of horn antenna and yagi-uda antenna were simulated in MATLAB and the improvements were made through FEKO. This was used to obtain a design which is better than all the contemporary ones for a particular antenna parameter. . the aim was to obtain the antenna designs which excelled in any particular domain and scored well over the previous antennas. Hence. 1. minimization of the side lobes. various designs were studied and the pros and cons were noted down. It could be directivity.3 Motivation We wanted to build an antenna which was better than the existing designs of antenna. it is imperative to have a design that extends to handle these factors effectively.4 Project Overview Keeping in mind the antenna parameters such as directivity. directivity. To increase the bandwidth various methods such as use of thicker wires and combination of multiple antennas to give a single assembly is preferred. 1.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  12      necessity. gain. For this. The figure below explains the basic project development life cycle. cost or bandwidth.

building on state of the art computational EM (CEM) techniques to provide users with software that can solve a wide range of electromagnetic problems.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  13      Figure 1. These equations were then simulated in Matlab to generate the corresponding outputs. a literary survey of basic and existing antenna types was done. The next step was to perform the mathematical analysis of these types of antennas to calculate the mathematical equations for the electric field and magnetic field intensities. By Feko we could easily simulate the radiation pattern after making the improvements in existing designs and the conceptualized symmetrical designs. The outputs were verified theoretically and with the help of a software FEKO. .1  Firstly. which design is best for a particular antenna parameter. The basic antenna types included the Pyramidal Horn and Yagi-Uda antenna. The results of various designs were compared so as to draw the conclusion. FEKO is a comprehensive electromagnetic analysis software suite.

It gives the different types of antenna and basic theory of radiation pattern. motivation behind the project. CHAPTER 6: In this chapter the focus will be on new designs simulation using FEKO and comparing these with previous results. H-plane sectoral horn. CHAPTER 2: This chapter gives a brief introduction to the antenna and various antenna parameters. CHAPTER 5: In this chapter the focus will be on spiro helical antenna. CHAPTER 7: In this chapter Conclusion and Proposed Future work will be discussed. basic overview of the project and the structure of the report.4 Structure of the Report CHAPTER 1: Gives objective. The mathematical analysis will be corroborated with the Matlab results. and pyramidal horn. The mathematical analysis results using Matlab and corresponding analysis will be done using NEC. Matlab code and outputs for the pyramidal horn and the corresponding simulation results in Feko are also there. CHAPTER 3: This chapter starts with an introduction to horn antenna. CHAPTER 4:. thereby giving detailed analysis of E-plane sectoral horn.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  14      1. . In this chapter the focus will be on yagi-uda array antenna. A Feko simulation will be made to showcase the various antenna parameters of the yagi uda antenna.

In other words antenna is the transitional structure between free space and a guiding device. The guiding device may be a coaxial line or a waveguide and it is used to transport electromagnetic energy from the transmitting source to the antenna or from antenna to the receiver. Figure 2. It gives the different types of antenna and basic theory of radiation pattern. 1  . The figure below shows the aforementioned antenna system.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  15      chapter 2 ANTENNA THEORY This chapter gives a brief introduction to the antenna and various antenna parameters.1 INTRODUCTION Antenna or aerial is a means for radiating or receiving radio waves. 2.

conical or rectangular waveguide. . Loop antenna can be circular or elliptical or any other shape.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  16        2. Other antenna types: These include the reflector antennas and the lens antennas. A reflector may be with front feed. 2  • • • • Aperture antenna: It can be pyramidal. plane and concave surfaces. Array antenna: These include the yagi-uda array antenna and various other antenna.2 TYPES OF ANTENNA An antenna can be of various types as discussed below: • Wire Antenna : A wire antenna can be a straight wire (dipole). cassegrain feed or corner reflection. Lens antenna include various antenna shapes possible with convex. loop or helix. Microstrip antenna: They can be either rectangular or circular patch type antenna. Dipole Antenna                                                                                     Loop Antenna Figure 2.

An antenna radiation pattern is defined as a mathematical function or a graphical representation of the radiation properties of the antenna as a function of space coordinates. Mostly it is determined in the far field region and is a function of directional coordinates. Radiation property is the two or three dimensional spatial distribution of .Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  17      Pyramidal horn antenna Conical horn antenna Rectangular patch antenna Yagi-Uda antenna 2.3 RADIATION PATTERN In the field of antenna design the term 'radiation pattern' most commonly refers to the directional (angular) dependence of radiation from the antenna.

  Figure 2. The spatial variation of electric or magnetic field is called field pattern. which may be either major.4 Antenna Parameters     . An omnidirectional antenna is an antenna system which radiates power uniformly in one plane with a directive pattern shape in a perpendicular plane. It has no preferred direction of radiation. Directional antennas like yagi antennas provide increased performance over dipole antennas when a greater concentration of radiation in a certain direction is desired. An isotropic radiator is a theoretical point source of waves which exhibits the same magnitude or properties when measured in all directions. radiation intensity. minor. side or back lobes. A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates greater power in one or more directions allowing for increased performance on transmit and receive and reduced interference from unwanted sources. 3 2. Various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as lobes. It may include power flux density.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  18      radiated energy. directivity or polarization. It radiates uniformly in all directions over a sphere centered on the source. field strength.

In case of relative gain.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  19      2.3 GAIN Absolute Gain of an antenna is defined as the ratio of intensity in a given direction to the radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna were radiated isotropically.4. U is the radiation intensity and P is the total radiated power. When the direction is not stated the power gain is usually taken in the direction of maximum radiation                                              G .2 DIRECTIVITY Directivity of an antenna is defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the radiation intensity averaged over all directions.ф P   Where ecd is the antenna radiation efficiency. The intensity of radiation along a normal to the surface is known as intensity of normal radiation. . It is the product of radiation density and square of the distance. 2. ф  = ecd  4 ∏ U .4.4 HALF POWER BEAMWIDTH It is the angle between the two directions in which the radiation intensity is half the maximum value of beam. 2. it is the ratio of power gain in given direction to the reference direction.1 RADIATION INTENSITY Radiation intensity in a given direction is defined as the power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle. The radiation from a surface has different intensities in different directions.4.4. The average radiation intensity is equal to the total power radiated by the antenna divided by 4∏. Where F is the radiation intensity 2.

It is the figure traced as a function of time by the extremity of the vector at a fixed location in space and the sense in which it is traced. The process of transforming unpolarized light into polarized light is known as polarization. Where U is the radiation intensity.6 BANDWIDTH It is the range of frequencies within which the performance of the antenna with respect to some characteristic conforms to a specified standard. circular or elliptical. 2.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  20      2.5 BEAM EFFICIENCY It is the ratio of power transmitted within cone angle θ1 to the power transmitted by the antenna. the polarization of light is described by specifying the direction of the wave's electric field. along the direction of propagation. It can be considered to be the range of frequencies on either side of central frequency where the antenna characteristics are within an acceptable value.4.4. 2. Polarization is a property of an electromagnetic wave describing the time varying direction and relative magnitude of the electric field vector. The figure traced in a clockwise sense is termed as right hand polarization and counter clockwise as left hand polarization.  By convention.4. 2. Polarization may be linear.8 INPUT IMPEDANCE It is the impedance presented by the antenna at its terminal.4.7 POLARIZATION Polarization is a property of waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. .

1 Introduction to Horn Antenna Horn antenna is the most widely used microwave antenna. Its widespread applicability stems from its simplicity in construction. New Jersey. The horn antenna is used in the transmission and reception of RF microwave signals and the antenna is normally used in conjunction with waveguide feeds. In 1965 while using the Horn Antenna. It is one of the simplest antenna existing till date. The horn is widely used as a feed element for large radio astronomy. satellite tracking and communication dishes. Horns can be excited in any polarization or combination of polarizations. is listed as a National Historic Landmark because of its association with the research work of two radio astronomers. 3. It serves as a universal standard for calibration and gain measurements of other high power antennas. versatility. large gain and preferred all over performance.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  21      chapter 3 PYRAMIDAL HORN This chapter starts with an introduction to horn antenna. H-plane sectoral horn. The Horn Antenna. at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Holmdel. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson. and pyramidal horn. Cosmologists quickly realized that Penzias and Wilson had made the most important discovery in modern astronomy since Edwin Hubble demonstrated in the 1920s that the universe was expanding. ease of excitation. Matlab code and outputs for the pyramidal horn and the corresponding simulation results in Feko are also there. . thereby giving detailed analysis of Eplane sectoral horn. Penzias and Wilson stumbled on the microwave background radiation that permeates the universe. In addition to its utility as a feed for reflector and lenses. it is a common element of phased arrays also.

A detailed geometry is as shown in the figure. Its radiation characteristics are a combination of the E and H plane sectoral horns.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  22      3. A detailed geometry is as shown in the figure. The Pyramidal horn is the one whose opening is flared in the direction of H field and E field both. A detailed geometry is as shown in the figure. the conical horn is fed by a circular waveguide. The waveguide can be considered to open out or to be flared. Rest of the behavior is same. The E-plane sectoral horn is the one whose opening is flared in the direction of E field. Horn is nothing more than a hollow pipe of different cross sections which has been tapered to a larger opening. E and H plane sectoral horns are usually fed by a rectangular waveguide. direction and amount of taper can have a profound effect on the overall performance of the element as a radiator. E Sectoral Horn               H Sectoral Horn            Conical horn                                                                                            Pyramidal Horn    . The H-plane sectoral horn is the one whose opening is flared in the direction of H field. launching the signal towards the receiving antenna. Type.2 Horn Antenna Configurations The horn antenna gains its name from its appearance. Flare waveguides produce a nearly uniform phase front larger than the waveguide itself. While the pyramidal.

3.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  23      3. The field expressions are: Ez’ = Ex’ = Hy’ = 0 Ey’(x’. e. the fields at the aperture of the horn can be calculated. The lowest order mode fields at the aperture of the horn can be found very easily taking into consideration the two assumptions that. An infinite plane coinciding with the aperture of the horn is usually selected as a closed surface. The fields within the horn can be expressed in terms of cylindrical transverse electric and transverse magnetic i. Hx(x’.e. TE and TM wave functions which make use of Hankel functions. ∏ / Hz’(x’. 1) Fields of the feed waveguide are those of its dominant TE10 mode. This method finds the fields not only at the aperture but also within the horn. However as a usual approximation we assume the fields outside the aperture to be zero. 2) Horn length is large compared to the aperture dimensions. to develop an exact equivalent of it.1 Aperture Fields Horn being an aperture antenna. it is necessary that the tangential electric and magnetic field components over a closed surface are known. If the horn is not mounted on an infinite grounded plane. If we treat horn as a radial waveguide. the fields outside the aperture cannot be calculated and an exact equivalent cannot be formed.3 E Plane Sectoral Horn 3.y’) = - cos 1 = e cos e δ(y’) = ′ ρ     .y’) = E1 cos ∏ e.y’) = jE1 ∏ sin ∏ e.

These are similar to the fields of a TE10 mode for a rectangular waveguide. The complex exponential term showing the quadratic phase variation of the fields over the aperture is the only difference. These correspond to following figures. These primes used here correspond to fields at the aperture of the horn.   Figure 3. 2  E Plane view . 1  E Plane Sectoral Horn     Figure 3.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  24        Here E1 is a constant. ρ is the radial distance of the point.

3.Thus. Solving by the method of moments. ρ {[C(t2) – C(t1)] – j[S(t2) – S(t1)] Here C(x) and S(x) are known as the cosine and the sine Fresnel integrals given by: C(x) = S(x) = Also. cos sin ∏ 2 t ) dt ∏2 t ) dt and k ρ1 k ρ1 Ky = k sinθ sinф t1 = t2 = ∏ ρ – ∏ ρ For the E plane sectoral horn. only the tangential components of the E.   3. As the horn dimensions become large the amplitude distribution at the aperture of the horn contains higher order modes than the TE10 mode and the phase distribution at the aperture approaches the parabolic phase front. |Eθ| max = |E2| Where. the maximum radiation is directed along the z axis (θ=0).2 Radiated Fields To find the fields radiated by the horn. the integral I2 evaluates to be: I2 = ∏ e.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  25      The quadratic phase variations due to its simplicity leads to closed form expressions (cosine and sine Fresnel integrals) for the radiation characteristics.and or H-fields over a closed surface must be known. t1’ = t2’ = ∏ [ sin ф {[ C(t2’) + C(t2’’) – C(t1’) –C(t1’)-C(t1’’)] – j[S(t2’) + S(t2’’) – S(t1’)]}] (( - ∏ 2) 2) ∏ ∏ . The closed surface is chosen to coincide with an infinite plane passing through the mouth of the horn.

U max = U(θ.3 Directivity It is one of the parameters that is often used as a figure of merit to describe the performance of the antenna. In this case maximum radiation is formed.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  26      t1’’ = ∏ (- + ∏ 2) = -t2’ =v t2’’ = and.3.ф)|max = DE =                       =  ∏ ^ |E|2max   =   C   ∏  |F t |   S √ ∏ √   For matlab simulation we have used the following notations:k=2*π/λ t2dp=t2’’ t1p = t1’ R1=ρ1 t2p = t2’ R2=ρ2 t1dp=t1’’ w =  √     3. ∏ ( + ∏ 2) =-t1’ = u a and b = Waveguide dimensions (in λ) a1 and b1 = Horn aperture dimensions (in λ) 3.4 H Plane Sectoral Horn .

 3  .Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  27      3.1 Aperture Fields Ex’ = Hy’ = 0 Ey’(x’) = E2 cos Hx’(x’) = E η ∏ x′ x′ ′ δ ′ cos ∏ δ ′ δ(x’) = ρ 2 = h cos h H Plane Sectoral Horn           Figure 3.4.

4.2 RADIATED FIELDS The value of integral I2 as solved by the method of moments results out to be: I2 = ∏ρ (e. ′ ρ {[C(t2’’) – C(t1’’)] – j[S(t2’’) – S(t1’’)]}) where. t1’ = t2’ = ∏ ρ – k ′ ρ2 k ′ ρ2 ∏ ∏ ρ kx’ = k sinθ cosф + t1’’ = t2’’ = – ∏ ρ k ′ ′ρ2 k ′′ ρ2 ∏ ∏ ρ kx’’ = k sinθ cosф - . ′ ρ {[C(t2’) – C(t1’)] – j[S(t2’) – S(t1’)]} + e. 4 H Plane view 3.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  28        Figure 3.

u= v= λρ √ λρ √ λρ λρ ∏ = ∏ ρ {[C(u) – C(v) + [S(u) – S(v) 3. Its radiation characteristics are essentially a combination of the E.plane sectoral horns.3 DIRECTIVITY The directivity value for the H plane sectoral horn antenna can be written as: DH = where. This leaves us with the value of Eф max as follows: |Eφ| max = |E2| |cosφ{[ C(u) + C(v)] – j[S(u) –S(v)]}| λ The net electric field thus results out to be: |E| max = |Eθ| max ρ λ |Eφ| max +[S(u) –S(v) = |E2| {[C(u) .and H.C(v) 3.4. .5 Pyramidal Horn The most widely used horn is the one which is flared in both the directions.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  29      It should be noted that for E-plane ф = ∏/2 and for H-plane ф=0.

 5  Pyramidal Horn Antenna   Figure 3.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  30        Figure 3. 6  H Plane view .

 7  E Plane view 3.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  31        Figure 3.2 RADIATED FIELDS The far zone E and H field components of a Pyramidal Horn are:- Er  = 0  Eθ = j Eф = j E ∏ E ∏ [sinф( 1 + cosθ ) I1I2]  [cosф( cosθ+1 ) I1I2]  The integrals I1 and I2 after solving by method of moments are calculated to be as follows.1 APERTURE FIELDS The corresponding value of electric and magnetic field components in Cartesian coordinates comes out to be: ′ Ey’(x’.5.y’) = Eo cos Hx’(x’. .5.y’) = E η x′ x′ ρ / ′ +e +e ρ / ] ] ′ cos ρ / ′ ρ /   3.

t1’.1 MATLAB CODE MATLAB CODE function []=horn. Similarly the H plane (Ф=0) is identical to that of an H plane sectoral horn. . u = (1/sqrt(2))*((sqrt(R2)/a1)+(a1/sqrt(R2))). b1=[]. b1 = input('b1(in wavelengths) = '). t2. a=[]. b = input('b(in wavelengths) = '). t1’’. 3.6.3 DIRECTIVITY The directivity for a pyramidal horn can be written as:Dp = ∏λ DE DH where DE and DH are the directivities of the E and H plane sectoral horns as defined previously. 3. ρ {[C(t2) – C(t1)] – j[S(t2) – S(t1)] where t1. t2’. R1=[]. u = Fresnel(u).Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  32      I1 = ∏ρ (e. The above equation reveals that the principal E plane pattern (Ф=π/2) is identical to the E plane pattern of an E plane sectoral horn. ′ ρ {[C(t2’’) – C(t1’’)] – j[S(t2’’) – S(t1’’)]}) I2 = ∏ e. The fields radiated by a pyramidal horn are valid for all angles observation. a1=[]. ′ ρ {[C(t2’) – C(t1’)] – j[S(t2’) – S(t1’)]} + e. disp('E-Plane and H-Plane Horn Specifications'). R2 = input('rho2(in wavelengths) = '). b=[]. v = (1/sqrt(2))*((sqrt(R2)/a1)-(a1/sqrt(R2))). a = input('a(in wavelengths) = ').5. R2=[]. R1 = input('rho1(in wavelengths) = '). a1 = input('a1(in wavelengths) = ').6 MATLAB Simulation 3. t2’’ are as specified above.

end theta = (I-1)/2. y(I) = (1 + cos(theta))*I1*I2. DH = 4*pi*b*R2/a1*((real(u)-real(v))^2 + (imag(u)-imag(v))^2). t2p = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(k*a1/2-pi/a1*R2). end for(I = 1:721) if(y(I) > Emax) Emax = y(I). I2 = sqrt(pi*R1/k) * exp(j*R1/(2*k)*ky^2) * (Fresnel(t2) .Fresnel(t1)). I1 =. DP = pi/(32*a*b)*DE*DH. t1p = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(-k*a1/2-pi/a1*R2). kxp = pi/a1. k = 2*pi.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  33      v = Fresnel(v). t2dp = -t1p. I = theta*2 + 1.5*sqrt(pi*R2/k)*(exp(j*R2/(2*k)*kxp^2)*(Fresnel(t2p-Fresnel(t1p)) + exp(j*R2/(2*k)*kxdp^2)*(Fresnel(t2dp) . w = Fresnel(b1/sqrt(2*R1)). ky = k*sin(theta).Fresnel(t1dp))). y(I) = abs(y(I)). t1dp = -t2p. end … . q1(I)=Edb. % E and H plane Outputs % E-Plane Amplitude for(theta = 0:0. kxdp = -pi/a1. t2 = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R1))*(k*b1/2-ky*R1). x(I)=theta. else Edb = 20*log10(abs(y(I))/Emax). phi = pi/2. theta = theta*pi/180. t1 = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R1))*(-k*b1/2-ky*R1).5:360). Emax = 0. Hmax = 0. DE = 64*a*R1/(pi*b1)*((real(w))^2 + (imag(w))^2). end end for(I = 1:721) if(y(I) <= 0) Edb = -100.

'-'. y(I) = (1 + cos(theta))*I1*I2.5:360). kxdp = k*sin(theta) .'r--'). set(ha. x(I)=theta.pi/a1. legend('E-Plane'.2).Fresnel(t1)). ylabel('Field Pattern (dB)'). q2(I)=Hdb.'linewidth'. hb=plot(x. t1dp = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(-k*a1/2-kxdp*R2).q1). t2 = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R1))*(k*b1/2). y(I) = abs(y(I)). end end for(I = 1:721) if(y(I) <= 0) Hdb = -100.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  34      % H-Plane Amplitude for(theta = 0:0. theta = theta*pi/180. else Hdb = 20*log10(abs(y(I))/Hmax).Fresnel(t1dp))).'linestyle'. set(hb. hold on. I1 = . end theta = (I-1)/2.q2. title('Horn Analysis'). t1 = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R1))*(-k*b1/2). axis([0 360 -60 0]). end for(I = 1:721) if(y(I) > Hmax) Hmax = y(I). t2p = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(k*a1/2-kxp*R2). . kxp = k*sin(theta) + pi/a1. grid on.5*sqrt(pi*R2/k)*(exp(j*R2/(2*k)*kxp^2)*(Fresnel(t2p)-Fresnel(t1p)) + … exp(j*R2/(2*k)*kxdp^2)*(Fresnel(t2dp) . xlabel('Theta (degrees)'). t1p = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(-k*a1/2-kxp*R2).'H-Plane'). I = theta*2 + 1.2). end % Figure 1 ha=plot(x. phi = 0. t2dp = sqrt(1/(pi*k*R2))*(k*a1/2-kxdp*R2). I2 = sqrt(pi*R1/k) * exp(j*R1/(2*k)*ky^2) * (Fresnel(t2) .'linewidth'.

B(7) = -0.000233939.000001702. CC(5) = 0.000246420. ht2=elevation(x*pi/180. CC(9) = 0.000000033.920691902.075752419. B(6) = 5.138341947. A(4) = -0. legend([ht1 ht2].4.001217930.150230960. A(9) = 0.050485660.024933975.2). B(10) = 0.000689892.702222016. B(3) = -0.-60.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  35      % Figure 2 figure(2). A(5) = 6.216195929. A(1) = 1. CC(3) = 0.019547031. . A(3) = -6.005770956.363729124. hold on.q2.'linewidth'.025639041.{'E-plane'.'b-'). CC(10) = 0.q1. B(2) = 4.006748873. CC(7) = 0.595769140.0.'H-plane'}). A(6) = -0. set([ht1 ht2]. A(11) = -0.403349276.011948809.-60. B(1) = -0. CC(6) = -0. title('Field patterns'). B(11) = -0.850663781.009520895.016898657.780020400. CC(1) = 0.4.075161298.'r--'). CC(4) = 0. A(12) = 0. B(12) = 0. B(4) = -7. CC(8) = -0. B(5) = -0. A(2) = -0.000576361. CC(2) = -0. % Directivity Output directivity = 10*log10(DP) % Fresnel Subfunction function[y] = Fresnel(x).009497136.002102967. B(9) = -0.808508854. ht1=elevation(x*pi/180.000092810. B(8) = -1.255387524. A(8) = -0.0.000003936. A(7) = -3. CC(12) = 0. CC(11) = -0.034404779. A(10) = -0.

if(x==0) y=0. D(7) = -0. F=0. D(5) = 0. end y = F*sqrt(4/x)*exp(-j*x)+(1-j)/2. D(10) = 0.029064067. return end end  .000023006.027928955.199471140.004851466.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  36      D(1) = 0. return end else x=(pi/2)*x^2.009351341. D(8) = 0. end y = F*sqrt(x/4)*exp(-j*x). if(x<4) for(k=1:12) F=F+(A(k)+j*B(k))*(x/4)^(k-1).001903218. return elseif(x<0) x=abs(x). F=0. y =-y. D(3) = -0. x=(pi/2)*x^2.000000023. D(2) = 0. end y = F*sqrt(x/4)*exp(-j*x). D(6) = 0.000838386. end y = F*sqrt(4/x)*exp(-j*x)+(1-j)/2. return else for(k=1:12) F=F+(CC(k)+j*D(k))*(4/x)^(k-1).017122914. D(4) = 0. return else for(k=1:12) F=F+(CC(k)+j*D(k))*(4/x)^(k-1). D(11) = -0. if(x<4) for(k=1:12) F=F+(A(k)+j*B(k))*(x/4)^(k-1).016497308. y = -y. D(12) = 0. D(9) = -0.005598515.

2 MATLAB OUTPUT Plot 3.75 λ a = 0.5 λ b = 0.1 Plot 3. 3.5 λ b1 = 2. error in calculation of the directivity by the Matlab program is within ± 1%. Therefore.2  It is very clear from the above outputs that the final radiation possesses minimum radiation intensity in the back lobe (at angle of 180 degrees) and a maximum of lobe power is concentrated in the main lobe along the axis of the horn antenna.7.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  37      3.54. It is a highly directive antenna with the directivity value resulting out to be : For the input parameters: RHO1 = 6 λ RHO2 = 6 λ a1 = 5.34 but the theoretically calculated value comes out to be Dp’ = 75.1 ANTENNA DESIGN With the following Horn Antenna dimensions a solid horn was obtained: .6.25 λ The value of directivity given by Matlab is Dp = 76.7 FEKO Simulation 3.

The net resultant design appears to be as follows : .96 X 6.2 cm 3 a=12. our requirement is to have a hollow conductor in place of solid one with the top and intersection faces removed. a wire is placed as a feed element and an excitation voltage source with an amplitude of 1 volt and operating frequency of 1. Afterwards.48 X 30.645 GHz is placed in the wire port.96 cm b=6.48 cm p1= p2=46 cm a1=55 cm b1=42.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  38      Lower cuboid dimensions 12.8 cm   Plot 3.3  After obtaining the solid horn.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  39        Plot 3.7.4  The 3D far field pattern can be shown as:   Plot 3.2 FEKO Results Feko Simulation result of Electric Far Field in Cartesian coordinates: .5  3.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  40        Plot 3.6  Plot 3.7  Feko Simulation result of Electric Far Field in polar coordinates:  .

.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  41      3. It was found that the final radiation possesses minimum radiation intensity in the back lobe (at angle of 180 degrees) and a maximum of lobe power is concentrated in the main lobe along the axis of the horn antenna. provide us with a verification of above mentioned result. Both the simulations. that of Matlab and Feko.8 Results It was thus found out that the results of Matlab implementation and theoretically calculated results are within the required error limits of ±1%.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  42     

chapter

4

YAGI UDA ANTENNA
Till this point we have discussed the mathematical analysis of Horn antenna, be it E plane sectoral, H- plane sectoral or pyramidal horn. We simulated the mathematical field equations in MATLAB and compared the results with a theoretically proposed design. A Feko simulation of horn antenna was done to further strengthen the outputs of Matlab. In this chapter the focus will be on yagi-uda array antenna. The mathematical analysis will be corroborated with the Matlab results. A Feko simulation will be made to showcase the various antenna parameters of the yagi uda antenna.

4.1 History
The Yagi-Uda antenna was invented in 1926 by Shintaro Uda of Tohoku Imperial University, Sendai, Japan, with the collaboration of Hidetsugu Yagi, also of Tohoku Imperial University. The Yagi was first widely used during World War II for airborne radar sets, because of its simplicity and directionality. Despite its being invented in Japan, many Japanese radar engineers were unaware of the design until very late in the war, due to internal fighting between the Army and Navy. The Japanese military authorities first became aware of this technology after the Battle of Singapore when they captured the notes of a British radar technician that mentioned "yagi antenna". Japanese intelligence officers did not even recognize that Yagi was a Japanese name in this context. When questioned the technician said it was an antenna named after a Japanese professor. (This story is analogous to the story of American intelligence officers interrogating German rocket scientists and finding out that Robert Goddard was the real pioneer of rocket technology even though he was not well known in the US at that time).

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  43     

4.2 Introduction
A Yagi-Uda Antenna, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna or Yagi, is a directional antenna system consisting of an array of a dipole and additional closely coupled parasitic elements (usually a reflector and one or more directors). The geometry of the Yagi-Uda array:

 

Figure 4. 1 The second dipole in the Yagi-Uda array is the only driven element with applied input/output source feed, all the others interact by mutual coupling since receive and reradiate electromagnetic energy; they act as parasitic elements by induced current. It is assumed that an antenna is a passive reciprocal device, then may used either for transmission or for reception of the electromagnetic energy: this well applies to Yagi-Uda also.

4.3 Working Principle
The simplest or minimal Yagi-Uda antenna has at least two parasitic elements behind the Driven Element (DE); the antenna with only one parasitic element as Reflector element (Ref) is generally called Yagi antenna. This happens when the electrical length of the parasitic element is greater than the driven element.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  44     

 

Figure 4. 2

If the electrical length of the parasitic element is shorter than the driven element, the radiation pattern reversed and the parasitic element became a Director (D) always in the two-elements of the Yagi antenna.

 

Figure 4. 3

Then the basic antenna, driven element with both Reflector and Director is called three elements Yagi-Uda, with increased directivity or beam Gain.

then focus the electromagnetic energy into the desired directions. this is in advance to directional capability of the system to control pattern and impedance with any possible desired combination. by the means of simple metallic rod or tube conductors. 4 The reflector and directors in the Yagi-Uda antenna are so coupled into parasitic mode. it increase the directivity as the beam gain of the Yagi-Uda system array. In modern Yagi-Uda design. the parasitic elements should be applied to increase the impedance bandwidth also. Yagi-Uda design is used by lot of amateur radio enthusiast all over the world in advance for any kind of wireless radio communication. they mutually alter the radiation parameters of the driven element and for each element of the array. television etc. much more than a single dipole alone. simple or professionals. the directors (D1…Dn) has not wired directly to the feed point. As the reflector. military applications also. Yagi-Uda antennas are widely used in civilian. More than one parasitic element should be axially added in the front of the driven element and each one is called director. As the number of director grow.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  45        Figure 4. Then the physical discovery consist in the increased gain by narrowing the beam width of the dipole alone in a very genially cheap manner. .

This series of odd-ordered even modes is chosen such that the current goes to zero at the ends of element n. such as this one. theretofore not easily solvable. 5 The approach taken in formulating the method of solving the Yagi-Uda-type antenna problem is based on an integral equation for the electric field of the array. and far-field patterns may readily be obtained. The point-matching technique is then used to satisfy the integra1 equation at discrete points on the axis of each element rather than attempting to satisfy this equation everywhere on the surface of every element.4 Mathematical Analysis   Figure 4. then one can obtain solutions to problems. it has been found that an efficient representation for the current on element n is given by In(z’) = ∑M π ′ L Imn cos 2m 1 Inm represent the complex current coefficient of mode m on element n and In represents the corresponding length on the n elements. such as those in Fig. In the case of linear elements. Thus a system of linear algebraic equations is generated in term of the complex coefficients in the Fourier series expansion of the currents on the elements. number of points at which to match boundary conditions. / / I z′ k R R dz’ = j4πωεoEz. This is a suitable approximation for elements whose diameter is small in terms of the wavelength.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  46      4. Inversion of the matrix yields the value of these coefficients from which the current distributions. . Experience has shown that if one chooses a sufficient. phase velocity. The theory is based on Pocklington’s integral equation for total field generated be an electric current source radiating in an unbounded space as given by the following mathematical analysis.

Integrating the first term by parts where u = I(z’) dv = v= δ ′ R R ′ du = dz’ = δ ′ δ ′ R R I ′ ′ dz’ R R dz’ Reduces it further to / δ / δ ′ R R dz’ = I z′ - δ ′ / / R δ R | R / –l/2 I ′ ′ ′ R dz’ Since we require that the current at the ends of each wire vanish i. we know that x R x′ = ′ y R y′ R z z′ R Putting this into the above equation. reduces above equation to / δ / δ ′ R R dz’ = - / / δ ′ R R dz′ I ′ ′ Integrating by parts where u= I ′ ′ .e. we get the reduced form of the Pocklington’s integral equation as / / I z′ R R dz’ + k I z′ R R dz’ = j4πωεoE z Now. I z(z’= +l/2) = Iz (z’= -l/2) = 0. we will concentrate on the integration of this reduced equation.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  47      where R= Since.

it is further reduced to I ′ ′ R R - | / –l/2 + / / k I z′ I ′ ′ R R dz’ = j4πωεoE z For small diameter wires the current on each element can be approximated by a finite series of odd-ordered even modes. Thus. ′ y ′ ln . y. y . above equation can be reduced by integrating over only 0<=z’<=l/2 to M 1 I nm 2m In / 1π G2 x. z 2 k 2m 2m In 1 1 π G2 x. x′ . y. the current on nth element can be written as a Fourier series expansion of following form In(z’) = ∑M Inm cos 2m 1 π ′ L Where I nm represents the complex current coefficient of mode m on element n and I n represents the corresponding length of the n element. z′n cos z πz′n dz′n In = j4πωεoE z . x′ .Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  48      du = dv = v= reduces it to / δ / δ ′ δ I ′ ′ dz’ R ′ R R dz′ R R R dz’ = I ′ ′ R R | / –l/2 + / / I ′ ′ R R dz’ When this is substituted for the first term. Taking the Ist and Iind derivatives of above equation and substituting them results in π I sin 2m 1 π I ′ R ∑M I nm R / / | k 1 π ′ I π I R cos 2m R dz′n = j4πωεoE z Since the cosine is an even function.

.. Since integration is very difficult here.. usually stated as a weighted sum of function values at specified points within the domain of integration. . N = input (' NUMBER OF ELEMENTS (A POSITIVE INTEGER GREATER THAN 1) = '. M = str2num (M). SINTEG function is for integration. 's').. N = str2num (N).. M = input ('\n NUMBER OF MODES PER ELEMENT (A POSITIVE INTEGER) = '.1 MATLAB CODE MATLAB CODE function [] = yagi_uda global MMAX NMAX Z RHO N2 NMODE L MMAX = 30. 's'). Gaussian method which states “In numerical analysis. . so we have used weighted method i. NMAX = 30.e. y. ' ANS = input (' DO ALL DIRECTORS HAVE THE SAME LENGTH?\n'). x ′ .N N = total number of electrons Where R is the distance from the center of the each wire radius to center of any other wire.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  49      Where G2(x.5.5 Matlab Simulation 4. 2..z′n R = x x′ y y′ ′ R_ R_ + R R + a z z′ N= 1. '. % LENGTH OF THE DIRECTORS if (N > 3) fprintf (1. 3.” 4.…. The far-field pattern is given by Eθ = ∑N Where. ANSWER: (Y OR N) . Aθ = ∑N Aθn=μ ∏ E θn = -jωAθ sinθ ∑N e θ ф θ ф ∑M Inm Z Z Z In the Matlab implementation.4.. 's'). a quadrature rule is an approximation of the definite integral of a function.

N-2). a).. LDIR = str2num (LDIR). b = str2num (b).Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  50      else ANS = 'N'. end if (ANS == 'Y') | (ANS == 'y') LDIR = input (' THE UNIFORM LENGTH (in WAVELENGTHS) OF THE DIRECTOR = '. '\n IS THE SEPARATION BETWEEN DIRECTORS UNIFORM?\n'). a). 's').. str2num (SDIR). 's'). 's').. b = input (' '. a = a + 1. while a <= (N-2) fprintf (1. S_1 = b. b = str2num (b). elseif (ANS == 'N') | (ANS == 'n') a = 1. if (N > 3) fprintf (1. '. end % THE SEPARATION DISTANCES OF THE DIRECTORS 'Y') | (ANS == 'y') input (' THE UNIFORM SEPARATION BETWEEN DIRECTORS = '. while a <= (N-2) fprintf (1. 's'). L (a) = b. % ELEMENT SEPARATION BETWEEN DRIVEN ELEMENT AND 1ST DIRECTOR b = input ('\n SEPARATION BETWEEN DRIVEN ELEMENT & 1ST DIRECTOR = '. '\n'). fprintf (1.. 's'). N-2). else ANS = 'N'. end end % GET THE LENGTH OF THE REFLECTOR b = input (' LENGTH (in WAVELENGTHS) OF THE REFLECTOR = '. L = LDIR * ones (1. ' SEPARATION 1. L(N) = b. b = str2num (b).. 's'). a- . % GET THE LENGTH OF THE DRIVEN ELEMENT b = input (' LENGTH (in WAVELENGTHS) OF THE DRIVEN ELEMENT = '. ANS = input (' ANSWER: (Y OR N) . L (N-1) = b. if (ANS == SDIR = SDIR = S = SDIR * elseif (ANS == 'N') | (ANS == 'n') a = 2. ones (1. BETWEEN DIRECTORS # %2d AND # %2d ='. b = str2num (b). ' LENGTH (in WAVELENGTHS) OF DIRECTOR # %2d ='. 's').

while J <= (M * N) JFACT = floor ((J . C = 3 * 10 ^ 8. 1:(M*N). % RADIUS OF EACH ELEMENT b = input ('\n RADIUS (in WAVELENGTHS) FOR ALL ELEMENTS USED = '. b = str2num (b). IMODE = I .2) YP (a) = a * S (a). M).S (N-1). MU = 4 * pi * 10 ^ (-7). 1. end YP (N-1) = . end end S (1) = S_1. S (a) = b. Z = (M . INDEX = 0. N1 = IFACT + 1. DZ = L / (2 * M . .IFACT * M. RES = 0. G2 = 0. N2 = JFACT + 1.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  51      b = input (' '.1) / M).1) / M). while a <= (N . 's'). ALPHA = b. 's'). A = B = B = Inm I = zeros (M * N. B * 0. ETA = 120 * pi. S (N-1) = b.1). a = a + 1. % Initialize some variables a = 1.IMODE) * DZ (N1). a = a + 1. b = str2num (b). DTOR = pi / 180. 's'). b = str2num (b). K = 2 * pi. YP (N) = 0. M * N). % ELEMENT SEPARATION BETWEEN DRIVEN ELEMENT AND REFLECTOR b = input (' SEPARATION BETWEEN REFLECTOR & DRIVEN ELEMENT = '. RTOD = 180 / pi. = zeros (N. while I <= (M * N) IFACT = floor ((I . J = 1.

while I <= N J = 1. = ones (1. ML = 1. 10). :) = [I J]. B). end % I J A B Fill the last row of the matrix corresponding to the feeder. G2 = KERNEL (LEN). % CONVERT SINGLE ARRAY OF CURRENT COEFFICIENTS TO A DOUBLE ARRAY OF FORM Imn. = zeros (1. ISIZE = N * M. end NCUT = NCUT + M.1)). UL = L (N2) / 2. ISIZE). J) = B (J + NCUT). J = J + 1. F2M = NMODE * 2 . [A. NCUT = 0.JFACT * M. RES = SINTEG (UL. (M * N) = 1. ISIZE. M * (N . I = I + 1.F2M ^ 2 * pi ^ 2 / L (N2) ^2) * RES). B = LUSOLV (A.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  52      NMODE = J . % Invert system to find current coefficients in Fourier Series expansion.YP (N2). J = J + 1. while ML <= 2 if (ML == 1) . end LL = 0. IPERM. LL. PIVOT] = LUDEC (A. M).1. A (I. I = 1. J) = ETA / (j * 8 * pi ^ 2) *((F2M * pi / L (N2)) * (-1) ^… (NMODE + 1) * G2 +(K ^ 2 . if (N1 == N2) RHO = ALPHA. end I = I + 1. end % CALCULATE THE RADIATED FIELDS IN THE E-PLANE NCUT = 0. LEN = L (N2) / 2. else RHO = YP (N1) . while J <= M Inm (I. (M * N. IPERM.

2+0. ARG = abs (ETHETA (I)).1) * DTOR. end % FIND THE MAXIMUM VALUE IN THE E-PLANE PATTERN EMAX = 10 ^ (-12). end NCUT = NCUT + MAX.LEN. ML = ML + 1. IZP = IZP + Inm(I. abs_ETHETA = abs (ETHETA). LEN = L (I). end ETHETA (NCUT + ICOUNT) = j * C * MU / 8 * sin (THETA) * EZP. if (THETA > pi) PHI = 270 * DTOR. = 270 * DTOR. if ARG > EMAX EMAX = ARG. ICOUNT = ICOUNT + 1. while J <= M MODE = J.h). ICOUNT = 1. I = I + 1.5*0. end AEXP = K * YP (I) * sin (THETA) * sin(PHI).LEN. end EZP = 0. = 181. end I = 1. EZP = EZP + L (I) * exp (j * AEXP) * IZP.MODE)+ ZPLUS(ANG. while ICOUNT <= MAX waitbar(ICOUNT/MAX*ML*0. = 180. ANG = THETA. if ((ARG/EMAX) > (10 ^ (-6))) . while I <= 361 THETA = I . ARG = max (abs_ETHETA).1.J)*(ZMINUS(ANG.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  53      PHI MAX else PHI MAX end = 90 * DTOR. J = J + 1. I = 1. MODE)). J = 1. THETA = (ICOUNT . while I <= N IZP = 0.8.

J = 1. EZP = 0. end AEXP = K * YP (I) * sin (THETA) * sin(PHI).1. else . IZP = IZP + Inm(I. end ETHETA (ICOUNT) = j * C * MU / 8 * sin (THETA) * EZP. while I <= 361 PHI = I .MODE)+ZPLUS(ANG. end % FIND THE MAXIMUM VALUE IN THE H-PLANE PATTERN EMAX = 10 ^ (-12). end I = I + 1. ARG = abs (ETHETA (I)). while I <= N IZP = 0.J)*(ZMINUS(ANG. ARG = max (abs_ETHETA). else ETH (I) = -120. ICOUNT = ICOUNT + 1. LEN = L (I). while J <= M MODE = J.ETH (271). end I = 1. I = 1. % CALCULATE THE RADIATED FIELDS IN THE H-PLANE THETA = 90 * DTOR. while ICOUNT <= MAX PHI = (ICOUNT . EZP = EZP + L (I) * exp (j * AEXP) * IZP. I = I + 1. EFTOB = . ANG = PHI.MODE)). if (ARG / EMAX) > (10 ^ (-6)) ETH (I) = 20 * log10 (ARG / EMAX).LEN. end E_PLANE = ETH. if (ARG > EMAX) EMAX = ARG.LEN. MAX = 361.1) * DTOR.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  54      ETH (I) = 20 * log10 (ARG / EMAX). ICOUNT = 1. abs_ETHETA = abs (ETHETA). J = J + 1.

% BASED ON FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF CURRENT. 1. N. while J <= M F2M = 2 * J . atan2 (imag (IZP). J = 1.J)*ZMINUS(ANG.ETH (271). 0. while I <= 51 Z = (I .LEN. HFTOB = . M. . IZP = IZP + Inm (IL. end CUR (I) angle = PHA (I) I = I + end I = 1. LEN = L (I). PRAD = SCINT2 (0. end UMAX = 3. end I = I + 1.1) * DZ (IL).Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  55      ETH (I) = . while I <= N IZP = 0. real (IZP)). I = 1. Inm. YP).MODE)). 2 * pi. I = I + 1. IZP = 0. AZ = AZ + L (I) * exp (j * AEXP) * IZP. end AEXP = K * YP (I) * sin (THETA) * sin (PHI).120. CALCULATE CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IL = 1. J) * cos (F2M * pi * Z / L (IL)). J = 1. % CALCULATE THE ANTENNA DIRECTIVITY THETA = 90 * DTOR.MODE)+ZPLUS(ANG. AZ = 0. J = J + 1. IZP = IZP + Inm(I. ANG = THETA. while IL <= N DZ (IL) = L (IL) / 100. PHI = 90 * DTOR. = abs (IZP). end H_PLANE = ETH. J = J + 1.75 * pi * abs (AZ) ^ 2 * sin (THETA) ^ 2. I = 1.1. = angle * RTOD. D0 = 4 * pi * UMAX / abs (PRAD). while J <= M MODE = J. pi.LEN.

xlim ([1 360]). title ('Current Distribution'). J = J + 1. end I = 1.0.1) * DZ (IL). set (gca. 'LineWidth'. INDEX = 1:1:N. real (Inm (I. 1:1:N). IL = IL + 1. H_PLANE = H_PLANE (1:360).Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  56      while I <= 51 Z = (I . figure.INDEX).0. J)). plot (angle. title ('Yagi-Uda Analysis'). while J <= M CURRENT = abs (Inm (I. figure. end plot (CENTER_CURRENT. 'LineWidth'. E_PLANE. end CENTER_CURRENT (IL) = CUR (1).'linewidth'. '-b'. INDEX = [INDEX(N-1:N) INDEX(1:N-2)]. ylim ([-60 0]). angle_radian = atan2 (imag (Inm (I.-40. H_PLANE. ylim ([0 1]).H_PLANE. end E_PLANE = E_PLANE (1:360).5.'H-Plane'}).2). J))). '--r'. 2). set([h1 h2].5. 'H-Plane'). % End of the yagi_uda function .{'E-Plane'.E_PLANE. if N >= 3 CENTER_CURRENT = [CENTER_CURRENT(N-1:N) CENTER_CURRENT(1:N-2)]. J)). h1=elevation(angle*pi/180. xlabel ('Theta(E)/Phi(H) degrees'). I = I + 1.-40. ylabel ('Element Current Amplitude'). 2). angle = 1:1:360.'r--'). hold on. 'XTickLabel'. hold on.'b'). plot (angle. legend ('E-Plane'. hold off. h2=elevation(angle*pi/180. while I <= N J = 1. end I = I + 1. 'LineWidth'. legend([h1 h2]. ANGLE = angle_radian * RTOD. set (gca. xlabel ('Element Number'). figure. 'XTick'. ylabel ('Field Pattern (dB)'). 2).

1246289712555340 0.9894009349916500 0.4580167776572270 0.LL) / (2 * NO). NO) GAUSS = [-0.0271524594117540].0951585116824930 0.1894506104550680 0.8656312023878320 0. I = I + 1. end J = J + 1.1) * DEL.0271524594117540 0.1826034150449240 0.8656312023878320 -0. J = 1. I = 1. SUM = 0.6178762444026440 0. LEGEND = [0.0951585116824930 0. LL.0622535239386480 0.0950125098376370 0.1495959888165770 0. while I <= 16 X = S + GAUSS (I) * DEL.1691565193950020 0.1495959888165770 0.9445750230732330 -0.2816035507792590 0.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  57      % FUNCTION SINTEG (SINGLE PRECISION) function ANS = SINTEG (UL.1894506104550680 0.1246289712555340 0.7554044083550030 -0.1826034150449240 0. while J <= NO S = LL + (2 * J .7554044083550030 0. end ANS = SUM * DEL.9445750230732330 0.1691565193950020 0.0950125098376370 -0.4580167776572270 -0.9894009349916500]. DEL = (UL . % End of the SINTEG function . SUM = SUM + LEGEND (I) * FF (X).0622535239386480 0.6178762444026440 -0.2816035507792590 -0.

406 λ Spacing between adjacent directors = 0.2 λ .420 λ Length of exciter = 0.2  These outputs are for the following specifications of the yagi-uda array: Spacing between reflector and feeder = 0.5 λ Length of each director = 0.5.47 λ Total elements = 15 Radius of each wire = 0.1                                                                                              Plot 4.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  58      4.34 λ Output value of directivity comes out to be ≈ 37 dB.25 λ Number of directors = 4 Length of reflector = 0.     4.475 λ Spacing between directors = 0.482 λ Wire radius = 0.6 FEKO Simulation The yagi uda antenna specifications which was simulated in FEKO: Number of elements = 6 Length of directors = 0.25 λ Number of reflectors = 1 Length of reflector = 0.   Number of directors = 13 Number of exciters = 1 Length of feeder = 0.00425 λ Spacing between reflector and feed = 0.003 λ The yagi uda turns out to be highly directive antenna with the difference between the theoretically and experimentally calculated values of directivity coming out be within reasonable error limits.2 MATLAB OUTPUTS                                         Plot 4.

3  The figure above shows the 3D far field radiation pattern for the specified yagi uda antenna at a center frequency of 826.4  .Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  59        Plot 4. On simulating the above mentioned antenna the output values of electric field intensity and the directivity are shown by the following curves.3 MHz. For Electric field intensity: Plot 4.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  60      For directivity ( Polar representation): Plot 4.6  .5  For directivity with respect to frequency : Plot 4.

 The directivity of the antenna first increases wrt frequency and then decreases as already shown.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  61      4. .7 RESULTS It was thus found out that the results of Matlab implementation and theoretically calculated results are within the reasonable error limits. that of Matlab and Feko. Both the simulations. It was found that the final radiation possesses minimum radiation intensity in the back lobe (at angle of 180 degrees) and a maximum of lobe power is concentrated in the main lobe along the axis of the horn antenna. provide us with a verification of above mentioned result.

The simulation and measurement results indicate that the spiro-helical antenna indeed provides high gain and circular polarization over a wide bandwidth. The figures shown are for the conventional helix. 2 . 1   Figure 5. An important advantage of this antenna is that it can be conveniently constructed.         Figure 5. The first one is the normal mode helix and the latter one is axial mode helix.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  62      chapter 5 SPIRO HELICAL ANTENNA 5. primarily because of their circular polarization and wide bandwidth. referred to as Spiro-Helical Antenna is made of a primary helix wound on a cylinder of larger diameter. This antenna.1 Introduction Helical antennas find important applications in communication systems.

the z′ -axis assumes a helical shape of radius (a+a′). Once wrapped around a cylindrical surface of radius a. two pitch angles (α and α′). The figure shown represents the spiro helical antenna in very simple representation.φ’ Once the primary helix is wound on a cylinder of radius a with a pitch angle α as shown. The spirohelical antenna is fed by means of a coaxial cable. in analogy with (A). the axis of the primary helix is transformed from a straight line into a helical curve of radius a + a′ and pitch angle α.            Figure 5.2 Mathematical Analysis The mathematical analysis of the helical antenna is carried out by considering the shown geometry. 3  5. and the number of larger turns (N) on the cylinder of radius a.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  63      The primary helix has a radius a′ and pitch angle α′. with the inner conductor of the cable connected to the helix and the outer conductor becoming the ground plane. The parametric equations of the primary helix are expressed as   x’ = a’cos φ’ y’ = a’sin φ’ z’ = (a’tanα’). are expressed as follows x = (a + a’)cos φ y = (a + a’)sin φ Equations B                Figure 5. The parametric equations of the helically-shaped z′ -axis. 4 Equations A . a helical antenna made of a spiral instead of a straight wire would allow smaller physical dimensions. It is now clear that a spiro-helical antenna can be fully described by five parameters— two radii( a and a′).

F.G. yields z’A = or z’A = zA / sin α Now. and OB .Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  64      z = [(a + a’) tanα]. We assume that the relations among primed coordinates remain locally valid after z′ -axis is transformed into a helix.sin φ / tanα = . The coordinates of this point are x’=0.φ Next. z’A = = (dx)2 + (dy)2 + (dz)2]1/2 (dx/dz)2 + (dy/dz)2 + 1]1/2 dz Equations C Using chain-rule differentiation. yA. zA. OB = OA + AB Equations E. are related to each other through (B). let us consider an arbitrary point A on the z′ -axis. namely. consider a point B on the primary helix such that z’B=z’A. and zA. The coordinates xA. x’B and y’B are related to z’B through equations (A). = = φ φ φ φ = . Then. yA. OA.H . z’A can be determined in terms of zA using the integral expression for length.(a + a’)sin φ / (a + a’) tanα = .cos φ / tanα and substituting in (C).(a + a’)cos φ / (a + a’) tanα = . introducing vectors AB. y’=0. The other coordinates of B. z’=zA and in the spiro-helical geometry are denoted as xA. we have (1/ tan2 α) + 1]1/2 dz Equations D AB = x’B xH ’ + y’B yH ’ OA = x’A xH’ + y’A yH ’ + zA zH OB = xB xH ’ + y’B yH’ + zB zH However. This assumption is valid if the shape of a single turn in the primary helix and in the spiro-helical structure remains essentially the same. That is.

zH are the corresponding Hilbert Transforms of x. zA max = 2πN(a + a’) tan α Equations K Equations J 5.a’ cosφ sinφ’ sinα z = zB = [(a + a’)tanα]. z respectively.y’B cos α) zH Equating the like components in (J). Then.5 GHz. yA. substituting for xA.a’ sinφ sinφ’ sinα y = yB = (a + a’)sinφ + a’ sinφ cos φ’ . we have done the mathematical analysis of its geometry.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  65      where xH.y’B sin α sin φ) xH + (yA + x’B sin φ + y’B sin α cos φ) yH + (zA . The next step . and replacing x’B and y’B with the right-hand side expressions in (A). φ . by inspection.a’ sinφ’ cosα where. It can be shown. φ = zA/ [(a + a’) tan α] φ’ = zA / [a’ tanα’ sin α] zA varies in the range 0≤ zA ≤ zA max where zA max is the height of the spiro-helical antenna.cos α sin φ xH’ + cos α cos φ yH ’ + sin α zH Combining (E) through (I). yH.5 GHz to 2. and zA with the right-hand side expressions in (B). y. we finally obtain x = xB = (a + a’)cosφ + a’ cosφ cos φ’ .3 Design Methodology We have studied the radiation pattern of Spiro-helical antenna within the frequency range 1. yields Equations I OB = xB xH ’ + y’B yH’ + zB zH = (xA + x’B cos φ . that Primary Helix xH’ = cos φ xH’ + sin φ yH ’ yH’ = . It is given by.sin α sin φ xH’ + sin α cos φ yH ’ – cos α zH zH’ = .

N=10 Frequency.02*(3*10^8/(freq*10^6)). lam = . %% Symbol to distinguish simulation t = '10'.3 Matlab Simulation The parameter values for the investigation of spiro helical antenna are Number of turns.0005. %% Radius a prime alph = 10*pi/180. a = 16.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  66      was to design a Matlab code that will generate the geometry of Spiro-helical antenna.3. α = 10° Spiral pitch angle. pitch2 = num2str ( alpha*180/pi ). a = 16 mm Spiral radius. %% Ending frequency l = 'k'. ro = 0. pitch1 = num2str ( alph*180/pi ). %% Increment for length begin = 1500.5 mm MATLAB CODE clear all.02 times lambda f = num2str( freq/10 ). 1. %% Used in filename for number of turns inc = . These files were different for different frequencies and were fed as an input to the NEC (Numerical Electromagnetic Code-2) software that will enable us to find the radiation pattern of the antenna in the desired frequency range. %% Radius a ap = 3. %% Length for number of turns sym = '_'. %% . rad2 = num2str ( ap ). %% Beginning frequency last = 2500. %% Simulation information rad1 = num2str ( a ). c = 1. α′ = 30° Helix radius. %% Set angle for alpha alpha = 30*pi/180. .nfm files that contained different segmentation coefficients. This geometry was stored in .5 GHz Helix pitch angle. a′ = 3 mm Conductor radius.4 GHz ≤ f ≤ 3. %% Frequency interval for freq = begin:intrvl:last. 5. %% Set angle for alpha prime length = 220. %% radius of conducting wire intrvl = 50. %% Color for Plot rad = .

fprintf(fid.*sin(phi).4f%9.4f%10.z2. freq).rad1.radius). fprintf(fid.4f%10. %% Initial values for x. c= c+1.rad2.'\nEX 0 1 1 10 5.'\nFR 0 1 0 0%10.y.. z1(1) = lam. text2 ). %% Calculation of Phi %% Calculation of Phi prime phip = tmp.c. y2 = y1(c). and z written in input file fprintf(fid.4f\r'.x1(c).dat' ). fprintf(fid. fprintf(fid.'\nGN 1\r').x1(c). x1(c) = ((a+ap). '\n').000\r').4f%10.4f %10.x1(c).*sin(phi) + ap.alphap='. fid = fopen(filename . '.rad).csv'). ap*sin(alph).y1(c). %% Increase counter for array phi = tmp.4f%9. .4f%10.4f%10.t.7:inc:length.'. fprintf(fid. y. 'w').*sin(phi). '\r'). tmp = zo.000 0. .4f%10. sym .*cos(phi) + ap. fclose(fid). fprintf(fid.*phi . . fprintf(fid. text1 = strcat('CMa='. fprintf(fid.'\nEN'). x2 = x1(c). fprintf(fid. fprintf(fid.000 0.'.ap='.*sin(phip))/1000.4f%10.*sin(phip))/1000. . pitch2. z2 = z1(c). z1(c) = ((a+ap)*tan(alph).ap*cos(alph). y1(c) = ((a+ap). and radiation plots.*cos(phi).*sin(phip))/1000. . %% x. end figure(1) %% check graph of geometry to ensure number of turns plot3(x1.'\nRP 0 37 37 1010 0.'\nGE\r'). sym . ap*sin(alph).rad). alpha='.'.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  67      radius = num2str ( rad ).z1(c).y1(c)./(ap * sin(alph) * tan(alpha)). '\r').y1(c). %% frequency. '\nGW%3d 1%10.c.'.4f%10.000 5.000\r'). excitation.y1(c) .1f 0. text1 ).4f\r'. for zo = 2.pitch1. .y2. fprintf(fid. pitch1. '\nGW%3d 2%10.000\r'. and z y1(1) = 0./((a+ap) * tan(alph)). end %% End geometry and parameters for ground plane. pitch1.. x1(1) = 0.radius='. fprintf(fid.*cos(phi). f.4f%10.0) .*cos(phip) – . filename = strcat( t.l) view(90.y1. . x2.*cos(phip) + . .00010.z1. text2 = strcat( 'CE'.z1(c).'.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  68      MATLAB OUTPUT Plot 5. The output patterns computed are as shown.4 Radiation Patterns The radiation patterns were computed through the numerical electromagnetic code -2 software.1  5. For the directivity with respect to frequency .

7 GHz.5 GHz. 2.3  Plot 5.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  69       Plot 5. 1.4  The above curves are for the frequencies 1. .2                                                                                       Plot 5.45 GHz respectively. It is clear from the above curves that the power pattern directivity first increases with the increase in frequency. 1. reaches a maximum value and then the pattern starts to distort that is distortion of the pattern begins.25 GHz and 2.9 GHz.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  70      For the Gain with respect to frequency curves Plot 5.55 GHz and 2. .6 GHz < f < 2.6  It is observed that axial ratio is < 3 dB in frequency range 1.4 GHz is seen.5  It is clear from the above plot that a peak gain of 13 dB at 2.25 GHz is there and a minimum gain of 6.2 GHz. For the frequencies in between 1.3 GHz.8 dB at 2. the gain lies between the minimum and maximum values. For the Axial Ratio with respect to frequency curves Plot 5.

3 GHz. .8 dB at 2.55 GHz and 2.5 RESULTS The results of NEC-2 clearly showed that for the given antenna specifications. a peak gain of 13 dB at 2.2 GHz. the gain lies between the minimum and maximum values.4 GHz is seen. It is observed that axial ratio is < 3 dB in frequency range 1. For the frequencies in between 1.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  71      5.6 GHz < f < 2.25 GHz is there and a minimum gain of 6.

far field. further parameters can be obtained. It has the ability to solve electrically large problems using accurate full wave techniques. Here we have used feko for analyzing various antennas introduced in past and to design new antennas which give better results in terms of better gain. antenna design. where the coefficients are obtained by solving a system of linear equations. directivity. micro strip design. input impedance of an antenna. scattering analysis. The currents are calculated using a linear combination of basis functions.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  72      Chapter 6 FEKO Improved Designs 6.2 Designs proposed in past 6.1 FEKO Background FEKO is a full wave. The number of designs added have been abbreviated so as to maintain relevance with our designs. directivity. Electromagnetic fields are obtained by first calculating the electric surface currents on conducting surfaces and equivalent electric and magnetic surface current on the surface of a dielectric solid. even when the antennas are .1 CROSSED DIPOLE ARRAY IN FRONT OF REFLECTOR In mobile communication systems the position and orientation of the receiving and transmitting antennas change continually. etc. Once the current distribution is known. This can effect the signal strength at the receiver. 6. better circular polarization and many other factors.2. MoM (method of moment) based simulation software for the analysis of electromagnetic problems such as coupling. such as near field. antenna placement analysis.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  73      pointing at each other. achieving circular polarization is difficult and practically an elliptical polarization with an axial ratio close to unity is used. transmitter) and a linearly polarized antenna at the other (e.1 . Here a four element crossed dipole array with reflecting metallic plate is modeled in FEKO to determine gain patterns and axial ratios. receiver).g.g. However. Feko modal simulated Dimensions Used in Paper Frequency Range :200e6 Hz Eps: lambda/50 L = 2*lambda Reflector Dimensions : lambda/4 x 2*lambda Plot 6. as the orientation of the antennas may result in a polarization mismatch. A simple way to ensure that the polarization mismatch is not more than 3dB is to use a circularly polarized antenna at one end (e.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  74      Results in FEKO Axial Ratio V/S Frequency plot Plot 6.3 .2 Gain V/s Frequency Plot Plot 6.

One is loading the edges of the patch with inductive elements and the other is inserting the capacitive elements into the patch Koch fractal shapes have been applied to the edges of the patch to reduce the size of the antenna and the essence of this technique falls into capacitive loading. Wang  Aside from using high dielectric substrates applying shorting techniques and increasing the electrical length of the antenna by optimizing the shape there are mainly two techniques to reduce the size of an microstrip patch antenna.‐L.4  .2.0mm W= 32.2 SMALL SIZE SIERPINSKI CARPET MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNAS              W.4mm f =1.8GHz iteration pf 1/3 dimension are used Plot 6.‐M. at the same time maintaining the bandwidth.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  75      6. the simulation results show the operating frequency of the antenna can be lowered to lower values. By etching the patch as Sierpinski carpet of different iteration orders. Chen and G. radiation patterns comparable to that of a normal edge-fed microstrip patch Dimensions used in Paper L= 48.

6  .5  Electric Far Field V/S Angle Plot Plot 6.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  76      Simulation Results using Feko Directivity V/S Angle Plot Plot 6.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  77      6.3.Simple and low cost method to improve the performance of pyramidal Horn (By Koerner and Rogers) A simple and low cost method to enhance gain of wide angle horn pyramidal horn is described. The method consists of inserting disc into the horn at particular axial locations.However since directivity is concerned.7  . The study shows that aperture efficiency enhancement can be achieved for large flare angle horns thus resulting in increase in directivity . mismatch losses are removed from experimental data Model introduced Plot 6.2.

9 Yagi Uda design and simulations are already done in Matlab and Feko in Previous Chapters .8  Directivity / Frequency plot Plot 6.5GHz Plot 6.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  78      Corresponding output Gain / Angle Plot at 2.

Improved circular polarization for large range of angle.As can be seen above the main lobe has a satisfactory directivity . circular polarization decreases by a substancial amount. E field but its circular polarization decreases as we move sideways and before reaching the half of beamwidth angle . Size of reflector is reduced Improvement in Directivity and gain Proposed Antenna Basic Design Plot 6. 4.10  . thus the medium in which it travel has a large impact on the directivity and gain. Moreover some of these are used in mobile. 2. So there is size constrained. In this antenna these shortcomings have been overcome 1.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  79      6. 3. Also Vertical polarization is much more than horizontal polarization. Improved circular polarization for comparatively large frequency range.3 Antenna proposed Antenna Design 1 It is based on the design “Crossed Dipole Array in Front of Reflector” .

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  80      Feko Output Axial Ratio / Frequency plot Plot 6.11 Gain / Frequency Plot Plot 6.12 .

Antenna Design 2: This Antenna Design uses Sierpinski Curve and improved version of Paper(Sierpinski patch antenna by W.13 From the simulation results . Wang).-M.14 .Introducing slots in patch make it work at low freq without much loss in directivity and gain Proposed model Plot 6. Chen and G. Thus this antenna is very useful in noisy environment.-L. the above antenna has almost 1 axial ratio and high gain or directivity in the range of frequency 200 – 450 MHz.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  81      Directivity / Angle Plot Plot 6.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  82      Feko Results Directivity /angle plot                                                             Plot 6.15  Electric far field /angle Polar Plot                                                             Plot 6.16  .

4. Bandwidth Directivity Electric Field Size Constraint Gain Design 1 Plot 6.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  83      Antenna Design 3: Antenna 3 is based on Yagi Uda antenna which has been discussed in earlier chapter. 5. 3. 2. Modified Design of Yagi Uda Changes are made in yagi antenna taking into considerations the following Factors 1.Here Yagi Uda antenna act as the basic model for designing antenna which has better properties.17 . Matlab code and Feko design were also done .

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  84      Feko Results Gain / frequency plot                                                                Plot 6.19  .18  Gain /angle Polar plot Plot 6.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  85      Model 2 Plot 6.20 Directivity / Frequency Plot Plot 6.21 .

  Modified Design of Pyramidal Horn Antenna Feko Model Plot 6.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  86      Directivity / Angle Polar Plot Plot 6.    Matlab  code and Feko  design  were  also  done  .23 .Here  Horn  antenna  act as the basic model for designing antenna which has better properties.22 Antenna Design 4 Antenna  4  is  based  on  Simple  and  low  cost  method  to  improve  the  performance  of  pyramidal  Horn  antenna  which  has  been  discussed.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  87      Directivity /Frequency Plot Plot 6.555 Ghz frequency Plot 6.24 Directivity / Angle plot at 2.25 .

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  88     

Chapter

7

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
 

7.1 CONCLUSION
While studying Pyramidal Horn antenna, it was found out that the results of Matlab implementation and theoretically calculated results are within the required error limits of ±1%. Also, it was observed that the final radiation possesses minimum radiation intensity in the back lobe (at angle of 180 degrees) and a maximum of lobe power is concentrated in the main lobe along the axis of the horn antenna. Both the simulations, that of Matlab and Feko, provide us with a verification of above mentioned result. For Yagi-uda antenna also, the results of Matlab implementation and theoretically calculated results are within the reasonable error limits. Here also, the final radiation possesses minimum radiation intensity in the back lobe (at angle of 180 degrees) and a maximum of lobe power is concentrated in the main lobe along the axis of the antenna. The directivity of the antenna first increases with frequency and then decreases. Both the simulations, that of Matlab and Feko, proved the above mentioned result. In the case of Spiro-helical antenna, the power pattern was observed for the frequencies 1.5 GHz, 1.7 GHz, 1.9 GHz, 2.25 GHz and 2.45 GHz respectively. At Last new Feko designs have been simulated and their results are compared with the designs which are design wise comparable to them.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  89     

7.2 Future Work
Since till date we have designed new antennas and done their theoretical simulations but since Physical antenna results may vary from these depending on various factors. Also there are various antenna which some of which are shown below are not giving satisfactory results and need further modification.

Due to the fact that these antenna has not been previously researched, there are still many opportunities to learn more about it. The following is a list of suggestions for future investigations of these antenna. 1. Different helical shape. The conventional helical shape determines the shape of the spiro-helical investigated here, but the spiral wire can be used to create different overall geometries as well. The wire can be wound into a tapered helical antenna, a conical helical antenna, a spherical helical antenna, or any other number of designs. 2. Gain and input impedance measurements. The measurements conducted were limited to far-field patterns only. Input impedance measurements need to be performed to have a more realistic assessment of the performance of these antennas and their practical applications.  

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  90     

REFERENCES

• Antenna Theory , Analysis and Design By Constantine A. Balanis  • “Some data for the design of EM Horns” IRE transactions Propagat By E.H.  Braun  • Antenna Engineering Handbook ( A.W. Love and T.S. Bird)  • D.M. Pozar, ”Directivity of Omni directional Antennas”  • R.E. Collin, “Antennas and Radio Wave Propagation”  • Samuel Silver, ”Microwave antenna theory and design”  • Robert S. Elliot, “Antenna theory and design”  • Antenna theory and design By Stutzman Thiele  • Modern Antenna Design By Thomas A. Milligan  • Electromagnetic waves and antennas By S.J. Orfanidis  • Antenna and EM Modeling with Matlab By Sergey N. Makarov  • Antenna design and visualization using Matlab By Atef Z. Elsherbeni and  Matthew J. Inman  • www.feko.info  • www.en.wikipedia.org  • www.mathworks.com  • www.edaborad.com   
• • • • B.R. Piper, M.E. Bialkowski, "Electromagnetic Modeling of Conformal Wideband and Multi-Band Patch Antennas by Bridging a Solid-Obect Modeler with MoM software", IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 46, No. 5, October 2004. S.P. Skobelev, B.-J. Ku, A.V. Shishlov, and D.-S. Ahn, "Optimal Geometry and Performance of a Dual-Mode Horn Modification," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 43, No. 1, February 2001 R.L. Haupt, "A Horn-Fed Reflector Optimized with a Genetic Algorithm", IEEE/ACES International Conference on Wireless Communications and Applied Computational Electromagnetics, April 2005, pp. 517-520. S.J. Franson, "Invited Paper - Hybrid Simulation of Electrically Large Millimeter-Wave Antennas", IEEE/ACES International Conference on Wireless Communications and Applied Computational Electromagnetics, April 2005, pp. 505-508. C.B. Ravipati, "Compact Circular Microstrip Antenna for Conical Patterns", Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2004.

51. Y.. Chen (Taiwan) Novel Circularly Polarized Printed Crossed Dipole Array with Broad Axial Ratio Bandwidth By Jung-Woo Baik Kyoung-Joo Lee Won-Sang Yoon Tae-Hak Lee Young-Sik Kim Dept.     . IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility. No 1. 2005 Page(s):3877 – 3883 A model for calculating the radiation field of microstrip antennas By Hammer.. Wiesbeck.. No.Y. J. A.” By C Burns.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  91      • • • • • • • E.. Dec. Van de Capelle. D. Leuchtmann. Design and analysis of TEM horn antennas for ultra-wideband technology Ying Suo. Vol. pp 55-60. Issue 12. Yeshu Yuan Electromagnetic Compatibility and 19th International Zurich Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility. pre . A dual-band dual-polarized radar antenna By Yang Bochao Huang Yong Res. Application of FDTD Method to Analyze a U-Slot Patch Antenna By S. 2008. P. Inst. Issue 2.W. Korea Univ. Mar 1979 Page(s):267 – 270 “Analysis and Simulation of a 1-18GHz Broadband Double-Ridge Horn Antenna. Xi'an. 8.P. Gschwendtner.1988] Volume 27.. IEEE Transactions on Volume 53. Jinghui Qiu... & Eng.. Zhang. Seoul Circuit model of microstrip patch antenna on ceramic land grid array package for antenna-chip codesign of highly integrated RF transceivers By Wang. IEEE Transactions on [legacy. Lu. Vahldieck. of Navigation Technol. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. of radio Commun.-H. Antennas and Propagation. Vol 45. D.. Verschraeven. Feb 2003. R. "Ultra-Broadband Car Antenna for Communications and Navigation Applications".J. A.C. Antennas and Propagation. Van Bouchaute. August 2003.. Kai Meng Chua. W. P. Chen and H.

Exs = 0 at y=0 Exs = 0 at y=b Eys = 0 at x=0 Eys = 0 at x=a B1 B2 B3 B4 From equations A and B. In the first place. Hx. We shall assume the waveguide is filled with (ρ=0. Consider a rectangular waveguide. that is. Second. In the TE modes. The boundary conditions are obtained from the fact that the tangential components of the electric field must be continuous at the walls of the waveguide. the boundary conditions can be written as . transmission lines become inefficient due to skin effect and dielectric losses. Four different mode categories can exist. J=0) lossless dielectric material (σ = 0). After all derivation we obtain. Common waveguides are rectangular or circular. waveguides are used at that range of frequencies to obtain larger bandwidth and lower signal attenuation. the electric field is transverse (or normal) to the direction of wave propagation. We set Ez = 0 and determine other field components Ex . Each of these distinct field patterns is called a mode. Ey. Exs = Eys = Hxs = Hys = where = + µ µ A1 A2 A3 A4 From the above equations we notice that there are different types of field patterns or configurations. at microwave frequencies (roughly 3-300 GHz). a transmission line can support only a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave whereas a waveguide can support many possible field configurations. Hy. and Hz from equations and the boundary conditions. we are concerned with the TE (transverse electric) mode.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  92      APPENDICES   Appendix A: Transverse Electric mode Waveguide differs from a transmission line in some respects.

n) may be (0.               . (m.. . Both m and n cannot be zero at the same time because this will force the field components in equations C1-C4 to vanish. 2. . . It is standard practice to have a > b. 2. depending on the dimensions of the guide.y. 3. . For TE modes. Thus TE10 is the lowest mode and the dominant mode is the mode with the lowest cut-off frequency. and n = 0.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  93      = 0 at y = 0 = 0 at y = b = 0 at x = 0 = 0 at x = a Imposing the above boundary conditions on following equation we get. . This implies that the lowest mode can be TE l0 or TE01.0). 0) but not (0.z) = (B1 coskxx + B2 sink xx)(B3 cosk yy + B4 sink yy) Exs = Eys = Hxs = Hys = µ µ Ho cos Ho sin Ho sin Ho cos sin cos cos sin C1 C2 C3 C4 where m = 0. 3. 1. 1. 1) or (1. Hzs (x.

Using (2) in (1) and using the linearity of the F operator (1) reduces to ∑ an F(gn) = h……(3) The basis functions gn are chosen so that each F(gn) can be evaluated conveniently. (eg. it is necessary to have N linearly independent equations. the end task remaining is to find the an unknown constants. Zmn = F(gn) In = an Vm = h m The unknown coefficients an can be found by solving (5) using matrix inversion techniques as [In] = [Zmn]-1 [Vm] . This is referred to as point-matching or collocation. This equation has the form of F(g) = h.(2) Each an is an unknown constant and each gn(z’) is a known function usually known as a basis or expansion function. applying boundary conditions).(5) Where . To resolve the N constants. It requires that the g function be expanded as a linear combination of N terms and written as g (z’) = a1 g1(z’)+ a2 g2(z’)+ ……… aN gN (z’)= ∑ angn(z’)…..(4) In matrix form. and thus current density on the wire. Doing this (3) takes the form of ∑ an F(gn) = h m m=1. Expansion of (3) leads to one equation with N unknowns. [Zmn] [I n] = [Vm] …. ……(1) This equation is referred to as Pocklington’s equation. It can be achieved by evaluating (3) at N different points. It can be used to determine the equivalent filamentary line-source current of the wire. N ……. This method is analytically simple and versatile. Now... this is done by solving the integral equation using numerical techniques such as the Moment Method. The linearity of F operator makes a numerical solution possible.2.Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  94      Appendix B : Method Of Moments / / I z′ k R R dz’ = j4πωεoEz. preferably in closed form or at the very least numerically. by knowing the incident field on the wire surface. h is a known excitation function and g is the response function. Where F is a known linear operator. The domain of the g (z’) and gn(z’) functions are same.…. In above equation. Our aim is to determine g once F and G are specified.

Using (1). The primed coordinates indicate the space occupied by the sources Js and Ms. (2) following equations result.(4) The radial components not necessarily zero. (EA)θ ≈ -jωAθ (EA)φ ≈ -jωAφ (HF)θ ≈ -jωFθ (HF)φ ≈ -jωF φ (EF)θ ≈ +η (HF)φ = -jωηFφ (EF)φ ≈ ..η (HF)θ = +jωηFθ (HA)θ ≈ . .Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  95      Appendix C : Radiation Equations For far-field observations. the distance of observation R can be approximated by R ≈ r.(EA)φ /η = -jωAφ /η (HA)φ ≈ + (EA)θ/η = -jωAθ /η Combining the above eight equations and using (4).we have following equations for total E and H fields.r’ cos Ψ R≈ r for phase variations…..(3) N= ′ s ds’ F= ∏ s ds’ = R ∏ L L= ′ s ds’…….(2) Where Ψ is the angle between the vectors r and r’.. The unprimed coordinates indicate the observation point.(1) for amplitude variations……. A= ∏ s ds’ = μ ∏ N…. are negligible compared to the θ and φ components.

Simulation of Radiation pattern of different antennas  96      Er ≈ 0 Eθ ≈ Eφ ≈ + Hr ≈ 0 Hθ ≈ + Hφ ≈ ∏ ∏ ( Lφ + ηNθ ) ( Lθ . we have Nθ = Nφ = Lθ = Lφ = x x cos x θ cos φ + y y cos θ sin φ – ′ z sin θ] ′ ds’ sin φ + cos φ] y cos ds’ z cos θ cos φ + x θ sin φ – ′ sin θ] ′ ds’ sin φ + y cos φ] ds’ .ηNφ ) ∏ ( Nφ – Lθ/η ) ( Nθ + Lφ /η ) ∏ Using (3) and (4).