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Glossary

abstract class: A class that is uninstantiable. That is, you cannot instantiate/generate any objects from this class. Abstract classes may have both concrete and abstract methods, the latter methods declared only with their signature without any code/implementation. The intention is for all derived (inherited) classes to provide a definition, making the method polymorphic. abstraction: A term applied to the process of hiding unimportant details in favor of those that matter. Function and data abstraction are tools employed in software engineering to handle complexity. activity diagram: UML notation is used for showing the objects' connection with workflow and describing the operations in parallel processing. There is one activity diagram for each use case. actor: In UML, a role that a user plays when interfacing with the application. The actor does not have to be a user, it can be another system that interfaces with the application. A single actor can perform many use cases. aggregation: The combining of data and behavior within an object. anchor: A part of a hypertext document that is either the source or destination of a hypertext link. A link might extend from an anchor to another document, or from another document to an anchor. When anchors are the starting points of these links, they are typically highlighted or otherwise identified in the hypertext browser as hotspots. applet: A Java(TM) application program that can be included in a Hypertext Markup Language page via the <APPLET> element (or tag) and can be observed in a Java technology-enabled browser or applet viewer. applet parameter: Arguments passed to Java(TM) technology applets. Parameters are defined within the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) element (or tag) and denoted by the word PARAM.

Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

applet viewer: Any program capable of executing Java(TM) technology applets; for example, Netscape Navigator(TM) 2.0 or higher and the HotJava(TM) browser. appletviewer: The appletviewer command allows you to run applets outside the context of a World Wide Web browser. The command reads in a Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) document and displays each applet referenced in its own window. application: An application is a term that generically refers to any program executable by a computer. argument: An argument is a value or data passed from one program (or part of) to another. In the Java programming language, arguments are typically used with methods. ASCII: The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) character set is the predominant character set encoding of present-day computers. The modern version uses 7 bits for each character, whereas most earlier codes (including an early version of ASCII) used fewer. This change allowed the inclusion of lowercase letters, but it did not provide for accented letters or any other letterforms not used in English (such as the German sharp-S or the ae-ligature that is a letter in, for example, Norwegian). association: A term that describes an object that is associated with another when it "uses" the other for some purpose. This is a flexible object relationship, in which the association can be made and broken at any time. A Person object may be associated with a Book object, then another Book object. The lifetimes of the objects need only intersect. attribute: A property of an Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) element, specified in the start tag of the element. The attribute list of the element is used to pass values to the Java (TM)technology program defining the applet. attribute (HTML): A property of an Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) element. For example, the APPLET tag uses the tag to pass attributes to the Java(TM) technology program defining the applet.

Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

then increments the counter. This is why automatic variables are sometimes referred to as "temporary" or "stack" variables. Bytecodes are architecture neutral and easily distributed across networks. A browser or other application that implements a Java virtual machine can interpret bytecode. the process decrements the counter. bytecode: Any Java virtual machine compliant code that is created as the result of compiling a Java programming language source code file is called a bytecode. boolean: A boolean is a primitive data type represented by a value of either true or false.attribute (object): The data or state of objects. uses the data. a process must check the value. Inc. See also integral types. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Two objects of the same class can differ by the values their attributes hold. automatic variable: An automatic variable is created when execution enters a method and is destroyed at exit from the method. All Rights Reserved. binary semaphore: A semaphore is a flag (in this case an integer variable) which is used to control access to a piece of data. as defined in the class. but the types of the attributes remain the same. Byte: An 8-bit primitive integral type used to store whole numbers in the range -2^7 to 2^7 -1. If it is greater than 0. behavior: Behavior is the way that an object acts or reacts by changing its data or by interacting with other objects. Before using it. . browser: A browser is a software program for observing a synonym for a Web client. its value can either be 0 or 1. A binary is either available or not.

syntactically a structure with member functions. a superset of C developed primarily by Bjarne Stroustrup <bs@alice. CGI: The common gateway interface (CGI) is a standard for programs to interface with Web servers. casting: As used in programming. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. casting changes an expression or an object from one data type to another. function inlining. child class: A child class is a subclass of class (its parent class. CERN: Centre European pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) is the European laboratory for particle physics where the World Wide Web originated in 1989. class diagram: Describes the objects in an application and the relationships between those objects.C++ 2.att. For example. and abstract classes.C++: C++ is one of the most widely used object-oriented languages.In C++. and default function arguments. C++ allows implicit type conversion.com> at AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1986. a class is a user-defined type. class: The term class defines the classification of a group of related objects. It also shows the attributes (object)operations of the classes. char: A primitive textual type used for storing a single character. All Rights Reserved. overloading of operators and function names. pointers to members. It inherits public (and protected) data and methods from the parent class. defines behavior and (data) data for all instantiated objects. client: The work client refers to a software application that receives information or services from a server. Constructors and destructors are member functions called to create or destroy instances. a class Person defines the common behavior and attribute that objects (instances) instance of the Person class will possess. A class provides a blueprint. Inc. It has streams for I/O and references. A friend is a nonmember function that is allowed to access the private portion of a class. type-safe linkage.0 (May 1989) introduced multiple inheritance. .

At this time. a Person object contains a Heart object. It is useful when one object contains another for the duration of its life and its component's life. a tree collection class organizes objects into a tree. For example. a list collection class organizes objects into a list. The relationship models the fact that the lens would never be used in another frame. The Java(TM) technology programmer provides the necessary code for the user's browser to display and interpret this special format. constant_association: This term describes an association that lasts for the lifetime of the associate. . compiler: A compiler is a software program that translates human-readable source code into machine-executable code. A constructor is invoked when an object of that class is instantiated. composition: The term composition defines the object relationship of "has a" or "aggregation". Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. but it removes the need to manage explicitly the creation and destruction of the components. constant: A constant is a data item whose value does not change. Only when the lifetime of the lens ends (because it breaks or is no longer correct) does the association end. Composition is less flexible than association. For example. All Rights Reserved. and is used to initialize the object. distributing. content handler: A program loaded into the user's browser that interprets files of a type defined by the Java(TM) technology programmer. For example. The behavior of the collection reflects the organizational structure required when grouping the objects. and managing distributed objects in a network. Inc. constructor: A constructor is a special method-like member of a class. both are created together and destroyed together. another lens may be constantly associated with the frame.Collection: Used to contain collections of other objects. CORBA: Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a specification put forth by Object Management Group (OMG) for creating. a lens may be constantly associated with a frame to produce a spectacle object.

If the Library burns down. For example. and life cycle of the components. The domain name is required for the network information service database to work properly.custody: Relates to object ownership. It can specify aspects. the Books are destroyed. An object with custody of another is responsible for destroying the other. deployment descriptor: The deployment descriptor contains the instructions provided by a developer to the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) server for managing the EJB components. initializes and performs the required operations. Inc. data: The information contained in. security. See also floating point types. Books on loan are preserved because they are in the custody of Person objects. delegation: Delegation is a object-oriented behavior that allows one object to pass a message (or "delegate the message") to an object embedded within the former object. domain name: The name assigned to a group of systems on a local network that share administrative files is a domain name. or the current state of. while Book objects are associated with a Library object. document type definition: A specification for a markup language such as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) or Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). however. . a Window object can be designed to contain a Rectangle object. a message to get the window's area would be delegated to the method that implements the area calculation for the rectangle contained in that window.primitive type is used to store numbers with values to the right of the decimal point. For example. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. At runtime. and concerns the right to destroy the object. the Library may hold custody. Determining where custody lies is an important part of object modeling. double: A 64-bit Java programming language. an object. the container refers to the values specified in the deployment descriptor file. such as the transactionl behavior. All Rights Reserved.

See also floating point types. Exception objects are generally derived from the Exception class. Some elements can contain other elements. float: A 32-bit Java programming languate primitive type used to store numbers with values to the right of the decimal point. All Rights Reserved. FTP: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a means to exchange files across a network. Inc. it can catch the exception. which provides a string field to describe the error. this means that a reference variable can actually point to an object from a different class than it was originally declared as. The concept of exceptions in the Java programming language is the try-catch-finally sequence.when the application is actually executed. . Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. exception: An exception in the Java programming language is an object which is instantiated when an unusual flow occurs in code. instead of being bound to the declared class at compile time. Some have a single tag. floating point types: Java programming language primitive types. In the Java programming language. and finally clean up from either the normal code path or the exception code path. whichever actually happened. encapsulation: Encapsulation refers to controlling access to data and operations for callers outside the class. Many elements have start and stop tags. element: An element is a unit of structure in an Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) document.dynamic binding: With dynamic binding. float and double(64-bit). Java executes a protected code block that might throw one or more exceptions. It is not possible to state the largest or smallest value that each of these can hold because they allow variable accuracy depending on the magnitude of the number. used to store numbers with values to the right of the decimal point. a reference is not associated with a particular class until runtime .

The Java programming language automatically performs this process. A heap is required by languages in which functions can return arbitrary data structures or functions with free variables. Typically. gopher: A protocol for disseminating information on the Internet by using a system of menus. that uses the programming language. HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the native protocol of the Web. HTML tag: The format codes used to mark specific elements in an HTML file. <TITLE> and an end tag. the TITLE element has a start tag. A Web browser displays these pages according to a browser-defined rendering scheme. across the Internet and execute them. hot spot: An area on a hypertext document that a user can click on to retrieve another resource or document. HotJava: A (World Wide Web) browser. developed by Sun. The HotJava browser provides the ability to import code fragments. . HTML: Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the mechanism used to create Web pages. All Rights Reserved. a program has one heap that it may use for several different purposes. which is used to transfer hypertext documents. called applets. generalization: The idea of using parent classes to define the common data and behavior for any subclasses is called generalization. </TITLE>. Inc. heap: A heap is an area of memory used for dynamic memory allocation where blocks of memory are allocated and freed in an arbitrary order.garbage collector: The process by which memory allocated for objects in a program is reclaimed. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.See inheritance for more information. home page: The initial or introductory page of a World Wide Web site. For example. and the pattern of allocation and size of blocks is not known until runtime..

IDL: Interface Definition Language (IDL) lets a program written in one language communicate with another program written in a different language. parent. such as number of superscalar functional units. graphics. It is a central concept in object-oriented systems and enables the reuse of the base class members. the derived class may extend or override members inherited from the base class. are not part of the instruction set architecture (ISA). images. and cycle speed.text.hypermedia: Hypertext that includes multimedia . such as the machine language instructions and registers. Parts of the architecture that are left to the implementation. cache size. hypertext: A collection of documents that contain cross-references (links) from one section of a document to any other section in the same or another document. information hiding: When implementing encapsulation programmers can define some parts of the program as visible (public) and other parts hidden (private). clicking the mouse retrieves the resources. image map: A graphic in-line image on an Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) page that potentially connects each pixel or region of an image to a Web resource. Inc. . Web-based hypertext documents are not constrained to a single server. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. IIOP: Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) is a standard network protocol that allows interoperability among different products from different vendors. When the mouse cursor is on certain regions of the image. During class inheritance. instruction set: An instruction set is the "programmer-visible" portions of a processor's architecture. inheritance: The process by which a new class (the child or subclass) is derived from an existing class (the base. sound. These links allow for non-linear navigation. or superclass). and video. All Rights Reserved. instance: An object.

To be able to log on to the Internet the user must have Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity. and a myriad of regional and local campus networks all over the world. an interface defines a set of public methods that all implementing classes sign a contract to implement. The four integral types are: byte short int. Inc.int: A 32-bit primitive integral type used to store whole numbers in the range -2^31 to 2^31 -1.: A category of primitive types in the Java programming language used to store positive or negative whole numbers. Interfaces should be designed to be as small as possible (minimizing coupling) and should capture the essence and behavior of what is being modeled. and the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). and long interface: The set of public functions that an object makes available to the system. the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET). . The Internet uses the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite. See also integral types. be able to communicate with other systems by using <tt>telnet</tt> or <tt>ping</tt>. It consists of a large national backbone network that contains the Military Network (MILNET). Networks with only email connectivity are not classified as being on the Internet. integral types. In Java. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. that is. Internet: The Internet is the largest network in the world. All Rights Reserved.

a JavaBeans component is a reusable software component that can be visually manipulated in builder tools. Java technology application: A Java(TM) technology program that does not require an applet viewer to execute. This is especially important when prototyping and testing code where an editinterpret-debug cycle can often be much shorter than an edit-compile-run-debug cycle. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Java programming language: Created by Sun. All Rights Reserved. More specifically. It takes longer to run a program under an interpreter than to run the compiled code but it can take less time to interpret it than the total time required to compile and run it. Java technology block: The code between matching curly braces { and }. Access to variables is also slower in an interpreter because the mapping of identifiers to storage locations must be done repeatedly at runtime rather than at compile time. . executable applications for a variety of computer platforms. Inc. J2EE: Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) is a specification that consists of a comprehensive set of technologies to facilitate the building of distributed component-based business applications. Java technology package: A set of classes with a common high-level function declared with the package keyword. Interpreting code is slower than running the compiled code because the interpreter must analyze each statement in the program each time it is executed and then perform the desired action. Java Beans: A JavaBeans component is a reusable software component that works with Java (TM) technology. The primary purpose of JavaBeans components is to enable the visual construction of applications. This run time analysis is known as <i>interpretive overhead</i>.interpreter: An interpreter is a program that executes other programs. This is in contrast to a compiler that does not execute its input program (the source code) but translates it into executable machine code (also called object code) that is output to a file for later execution. It might be possible to execute the same source code either directly by an interpreter or by compiling it and then executing the machine code produced. whereas the compiled code just performs the action. the Java programming language is an object-oriented programming language for creating distributed.

All Rights Reserved. or other resource. . and GridBagLayout. Inc. After a JVM has been provided for a platform.Java technology transaction API: Java(TM) technology transaction API (JTA) provides a programming interface to start transactions. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. lifetime: The time between an object's creation and its destruction. join existing transactions. and roll back transactions. In the case of the latter. When an object is associated with another object. link: A location within a Web page that can be clicked on. taking the user to another page. BorderLayout. their lifetimes completely overlap. Java(TM) technology applet: A Java(TM) technology program that can be included in an Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) page via the <APPLET> element (or tag) and can be observed in a Java(TM) technology-enabled browser or applet viewer. When an object is composed of other objects. Java Virtual Machine(JVM): Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a specification that defines an abstract machine that acts as an interface between the compiled Java code and the hardware platform. the programmer must address the issue of custody. An object may have a finite lifetime in a system. Java technology-enabled browser: A World Wide Web browser that can display Java applets. GridLayout. Java transaction technology service: Java transaction service (JTS) is the Java(TM) technology binding of Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Object Transaction Service (OTS). logical_type: See boolean. their lifetimes need only intersect. There are five basic layout managers: FlowLayout. commit transactions. any compiled Java(TM) technology program can run on that platform. A link may also point to another location within the same page. CardLayout. layout manager: The layout manager determines how portions of the screen will be sectioned and how components within that section will be placed. image.

" message passing: The activity of one object communicating with another by sending it a message. the method being requested. A pointer variable is used to store the starting address of the memory allocated. Operations are defined in the class and can be public (interface functions or methods) or private (implementation). Inc. member variable: Member variables. These variables continue to exist for as long as the object exists. See also integral types. Messages consist of three components: the name of the target object. the amount of free memory decreases... memory sufficient to contain valid values of the variable is automatically reserved (allocated). Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.long: A 64-bit primitive integral type used to store whole numbers in the range -2^63. When this variable is no longer needed the reserved memory is released (deallocated). MIME: Multimedia Imbedded Mail Extensions (MIME) is a specification for multimedia document formats. Operations are defined in the class and may be public (being interface functions or methods) or private (implementation). but the result is the same. also known as attributes. are created when an object is constructed using the new Xxxx() call. memory leaks: A memory leak occurs when allocated memory is not deallocated when it is no longer needed. Many languages allow the programmer to explicitly allocate memory and explicitly deallocate memory. As this allocation/non-deallocation process repeats. The mechanism for message passing might be as simple as a method call. . if required. Improper allocation/deallocation can lead to memory leaks. hence the term "memory leak. memory allocation-deallocation: When a program declares a variable. 2^63-1. member: The operations and the attributes (public or private) that comprise an object. method: The behavior that an object may perform. and the arguments for the method. methods: The function or behavior that an object can perform. All Rights Reserved.

and Jim are actual objects of Person.or problem-world scenario in terms of objects. If output file is omitted. If. input file is omitted. John. Inc. object: An instance of a class. and the object is an actual instantiation of this form and nature. in addition. such as C. Dave.Mosiac: A graphical Web browser originally developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). A class Person describes operations and states for persons in general. . Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. native methods: Class methods that are declared in a Java(TM) technology class but implemented in other programming languages. The class specifies the form and nature of an object. and their interrelationships. object modeling: The process of representing a real. standard output is used for output. classes. standard input is used for input. navigating: The act of observing the content of the Web for some purpose. The Java(TM) technology compiler and other Java(TM) technology tools can only process files that contain Latin-1 and/or Unicode-encoded (\udddd notation) characters. The Java programming language does not support multiple inheritance. It now includes a number of commercially licensed products. native2ascii converts files that contain other character encodings into files containing Latin-1 and/or Unicode-encoded charaters. multiple inheritance: The process of deriving a new class from two or more base classes through inheritance. native2ascii: The native2ascii tool converts a file with native-encoded characters (characters that are non-Latin 1 and non-Unicode) to one with Unicode-encoded characters. non-visual component: Non-visual components do not have a visual interface and are completely invisible at run time. All Rights Reserved.

Thus the interface to objects is well defined. include other arguments. which might be an error. as in the case where no superclass defines the requested method.object oriented: The basic concept in this approach is that an "object" is a data structure (abstract data type) encapsulated with a set of routines. All Rights Reserved. A class Person describes operations and states for people in general. Inc. and allows the code implementing the methods to be changed as long as the interface remains the same. OMG: Object Management Group (OMG) was an association of vendors formed in 1989 to put forth a standard architecture for distributed objects. If the method is not defined for the object's class. A message names a method and can. that operate on the data. ORB: Object Request Broker (ORB) is a distributed paradigm model that combines client/server technology with object-orientation. Operations on the data can only be performed using these methods. which are common to all objects that are instances of a particular "class" (see inheritance). Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. overloading: To declare one or more methods with the same name but distinct argument lists. optionally. called methods. Each class is a separate module and has a position in a "class hierarchy. Java programming language methods can be overloaded. ORB allows business logic components to be built as a series of reusable objects that can be distributed across multiple platforms. the method is looked up in the object's class to find out how to perform that operation on the given object. John. . objects: Objects are runtime representations or instantiations of their class definition. operations: A function or behavior that acts upon data. and Jim are actual objects of Person. The standard architecture put forth by OMG is Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)." Methods or code in one class can be passed down the hierarchy to a subclass or inherited from a superclass. When a message is sent to an object. Dave. it is looked for in its superclass and so on up the class hierarchy until it is found or there is no higher superclass. Procedure calls always return a result object. Procedure calls are described in terms of message passing.

Note that only non-static methods may be overridden.. parameter: See applet parameter. parameter list: The set of values passed to a method.override: Overridding a method is replacing the superclass implementation of a method with a subclass specific one. An overriden method (the implementation in the sublcass) is executed at runtime based on the true type of the object because methods in the Java programming language are virtual by design. Java(TM) technology provides packages. Classes in a different package need to be imported if not already included in the classpath. packet: The smallest unit of information that is usually transmitted over a network.io and java.lang. A packet also contains the necessary addressing data for it to reach its destination. package: A package is a group of classes that belong together. Users typically define their own package structure and group related classes together. panel: An invisible GUI component used to contain other components. Inc. such as java. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. page: The basic unit of information used on the World Wide Web. including the argument list. which holds some of the basic classes such as System and String. The definition of the method describes how these values are manipulated. must be identical. Unlike overloading. All Rights Reserved. parent class: The originating class of a given subclass. in overriding the method signatures. . ownership: See custody. For example. A Web browser generally views information one page at a time.

The Java programming language rules require that you give each variable and constant a type. Some can store only whole numbers (integral types). They may only be accessed indirectly through public members. polymorphism: A method that is "multiply formed. . Each implementation is appropriate for the particular class for which it is defined. pointer arithmetic: Pointer arithmetic is the process of manipulating the value stored in the pointer to access different parts of memory. A problem domain could be an intersection with a traffic light. a company's system for processing orders. to read. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.pointer: A pointer is a special variable that holds a memory address. Others for storing character information (char) and true/false logical values (boolean)." That is. private: Members of an object that may not be accessed directly by other objects. display. In Java. the same method name with the same prototype is defined for two or more classes. and so on. and update an object). problem domain: The system you want to model using OO in preparation for representing in an application written in the Java programming language. protocol handler: A program that is loaded into the user's browser and that interprets a protocol. If an error occurs. but different implementations. primitive variable: A Java (TM)technology variable with a primitive type. These protocols include standard ones such as Hypertext Markup Language (HTTP) or programmer-defined protocols. while others can store decimal places as well (floating point types). manipulating pointer arithmetic is not the developer's responsibility. the pointer could be pointing to a location in memory that contains garbage. primitive types: Categories of data that restrict the values you can put into a variable or that a constant can have. and make up the simple data parts of the Java programming language. Polymorphic methods have the same semantics (that is. Inc. write. All Rights Reserved. The value of the pointer variable is assigned/used in memory allocation/deallocation routines.

while others can be referenced from only limited portions of a program. The access control modifier (public. protected) used in the declaration and where an identifier is declared determine the scope of an identifier. and modification. (The object is itself defined by one of the Java(TM) technology reference types. Inc. All Rights Reserved. An identifier's scope is where the identifier can be referenced in a program. Public member functions (data is usually private) define the interface or methods for the class. reference variable: When you create objects you store them in a separate part of memory. verification. Some identifiers can be referenced throughout a program. sequence diagram: UML notation used to capture the operations of a single use case and show how groups of objects collaborate on those operations. Robots that collect resources for later database queries by users are sometimes called spiders. . The entities in the problem world are modeled directly as objects in the analysis. private. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.public: Members of a class that may be accessed from other objects and other member functions directly. A strength of object-oriented systems is that they reduce the semantic gap between the problem world and the computer representation. robot: A software program that automatically explores the Web for a variety of purposes. but you need to remember the address of where they were created. reference type: The type of data that can be stored in a reference variable. server: A software application that provides information or services based on requests from client programs. scope: The range over which an action or definition applies. design. semantic gap: The distance between the problem world and the computer representation of the problem. This promotes ease of understanding. and program representations. Reference variables are used to hold the addresses of objects. A UML diagram showing the sequence of interactions among objects.

For example. Innovations included the bitmap display. Methods with the same name may have been overloaded (different argument list) or overriden (same signature). signature: The combination of a method's name and argument list is know as the method signature. See also integral types. including Java technology. site: A location on the Internet that contains a common grouping of files or information. it is permitted to have several methods in a class of the same name. and use of a mouse. Inc. a Gopher site. Smalltalk took the concepts of class and message from Simula-67 and made them all-pervasive. All Rights Reserved. or a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) site. American National Standards Institute (ANSI). a programming environment. windowing system. In the Java programming language. specialization: See inheritance. for example. Because of the popularity of the BSD programming model. and an extensive object library. Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is an International Organization for Standardization (ISO). "this is a paragraph" or "this is a title. ." short: A 16-bit primitive integral type used to store whole numbers in the range -2^15 . Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. led by Alan Kay. at Xerox PARC in 1972.SGML: Standardized. and European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) standard that specifies a way to annotate text documents with information about types of sections of a document. 2^15 -1. the name has been reused in other areas.. smalltalk: Smalltalk is the pioneer object-oriented programming system developed by the Software Concepts Group. It includes a language (usually interpreted). socket: Socket is a Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) system call used to create UNIX (R) domain sockets (the end points of communication links between processes). a Web site. See also overloading. software components: Software components are defined as reusable software building blocks that can be assembled to create applications.

See also reference variables. Inheritance is a mechanism for defining a new class in terms of an existing class. Typical operations on a stack are to create a new stack. strings: The class used to store reference variables for textural values. See also inheritance. This is usually supported at the machine code level directly by "jump to subroutine" and "return from subroutine" instructions. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. so TennisBall is a subclass of the Ball superclass. or both. In Java.spider: A software program that traverses the Web collecting information about resources for later queries by users seeking to find resources. TennisBall." stack: A stack is a data structure for storing items that are to be accessed in last-in first-out order (LIFO). TennisBall inherits members from the Ball class. subclass: The class that inherits from another class. For instance. Most processors include support for stacks in their instruction set architectures. by auto-increment and auto-decrement addressing modes. . spoof: "Spoof" is a technical term meaning "hoax. Strings are objects and thus have attributes as well as methods that can be invoked on them. subtype: UML term for subclass. state: The set of current data for an object. These allow a contiguous area of memory to be set aside for use as a stack and allow the user to choose either a special purpose register or a general purpose register as a stack pointer. a general Ball class could be used to define a new class. All Rights Reserved. and to "pop" the top item off. Error conditions are raised by attempts to pop an empty stack or to push an item onto a stack that has no room for further items (because of its implementation). An object's state changes at runtime based on the behaviour invoked due to interaction with other objects. Perhaps the most common use of stacks is to store subroutine arguments and return addresses. Inc. to "push" a new item onto the top of a stack.

or to save memory. so TennisBall is a subclass of the Ball superclass. tag: See HTML Tag. such as converting a long to an int. Inheritance is a mechanism for defining a new class in terms of an existing class For instance.superclass: The class that another class inherits from. TennisBall. The SunOS networks run on TCP/IP by default. typecast: To lower the range of a value by changing its type. The Internet suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. A multi-threaded program executes more than one task at a time with concurrent threads (contexts of execution). Each thread is an independently executable piece of code. Inc. TennisBall inherits members from the Ball class. See also inheritance. . Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. thread: A single-threaded program is a program that only does one task at one time. surfing: The act of navigating the Web. a general Ball class could be used to define a new class. a multi-threaded program allows you to continue working while the program prints in the background. typically by using techniques for rapidly traversing the Web to find subjectively valuable resources. For example. Typecasting is typically done in order to access other developer's methods that accept only certain types as arguments. TCP/IP: The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite is used to establish a connection for data transmission (TCP) and to define the composition of the packet of information being transferred (IP). supertype: UML term for superclass. textual type: See char. text editor: A program that creates and modifies text files normally using the ASCII format standard. All Rights Reserved.

It was originally implemented using UNIX-to-UNIX copy program (UUCP) software and telephone connections. with decentralized administration. Unicode: A character set that supports many world languages. systems. UML is programming language independent and can be used to create case. visual component: A visual component has a visual representation that requires physical space on the display surface of a parent application. used for electronic mail and transmission by special-interest discussion groups. although more modern methods are also used. data inputs and outputs. class. activity diagrams and more. Java uses a unicode character scheme and thus supports internationalization by default. use case diagram: UML notation showing all the use_case for the application you want to create. design and notate a system in preparation for development. variable: A data item whose value may change during program execution.UML: Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to model. URL: A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a form of addressing typically used for World Wide Web or Internet resources. Inc. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Usenet: A worldwide network of UNIX&reg. All Rights Reserved. . handling of error conditions and interfaces with external applications. sequence. main/alternate flows. the actors (a role that a user plays when interfacing with the application) on those use cases. and the links (relationships) among the use cases. use case: In UML. A use case is a detailed description of a single activity in a business process that may identify actors. performance/timing requirements. an interaction of a user with an application in order to achieve a desired result. that method of communication remains important.

All Rights Reserved.VRML: The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is a specification for threedimensional rendering used with Web browsers. . Web server: Software that uses the client/server model and the World Wide Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to provide services to Web clients. WWW: See World Wide Web. weaving: The act of creating and linking Web pages. Web clients (browsers) can access multiprotocol and hypermedia information by using an addressing scheme. Web: See World Wide Web. World Wide Web: A hypertext information and communication system popularly used on the Internet computer network with data communications operating according to a client-server model. Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.