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Lesson 1

Defining Network Management
Overview
Due to the increased use and complexity of networks, a proper network management strategy is critical for the network administrator and the company. You must provide users with a predictable high quality of service. You need a network management strategy to minimize network downtime and take advantage of advances in technology. By using network management tools and processes to gain visibility into the network, you can proactively resolve problems, plan for changes in resource usage, and securely control and manage valuable network resources.

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to define network management by identifying goals for proper network operation and breaking the network down into functional areas. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives:
  

Define network management by identifying goals for proper network operation and the evolution of network management Break network management down into the five functional areas defined by the ISO Describe the increased productivity and the ROI of network management

What Is Network Management?
This topic describes the goals for network management and breaks down network management into functional areas.

What Is Network Management?
The Goals:
 Ensure that users of a network receive information technology services with the quality of service they expect.  Ensure the strategic and tactical planning of the engineering, operations, and maintenance of a network and its services.  Help network engineers manage the complexity of a data network and ensure that data can go across the network with maximum efficiency and transparency.  Prepare for disaster recovery.

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

CWLMS v3.0—1-2

Network management can be defined in terms of the goals a company hopes to achieve from employing a network management strategy. From the perspective of end users, the network should provide consistent, high-level services. The actual method of providing the services should be as transparent to the user as possible. The user does not care so much about the network itself, but rather that they can retrieve their e-mail quickly at any time, access application servers or network printers, transfer files, or browse web pages in a timely manner. To ensure that these needs are met, network engineers and administrators need effective network management tools to deal with network complexities, provide maximum efficiency, and minimize downtime by preparing for disaster recovery.

Evolution of Network Growth
Network traffic and network technology

Growth

Network resources (support staff, $$)

Time

 Networks are increasing in scale and complexity.  You must not only manage the elements of the network infrastructure,
but also the services across the element.

 Support staff and budget do not always keep pace with technology.
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. CWLMS v3.0—1-3

A good network management strategy must be a high priority. Because of the ever-increasing uses and complexity of networks, you must strive to keep up with network demands. Ten years ago, the main concerns of a network administrator, for the smaller, less-demanding user population, were uptime and availability. Today, uptime and availability are still important, but now more complex issues must be considered, including IP telephony, secure remote access, quality of service (QoS), and a larger, more demanding user population. You must now employ a management strategy that maximizes network efficiency and helps to reduce demands on the network administrator. Unfortunately, the growth of a support staff and budget does not always keep pace with new technologies being implemented in the network. You must often do more in your position with less support and staff. Having the correct tools to automate many routine tasks can make your job much more efficient.

What Is FCAPS?
This topic describes five functional areas of network management.

What Is FCAPS?
ISO defines five functional areas of network management:
    

Fault management Configuration management Accounting management Performance management Security management

Some management issues may span several areas.

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

CWLMS v3.0—1-4

To assist in focused management, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has defined five functional areas of network management, known as the FCAPS model, as follows:
    

Fault management Configuration management Accounting management Performance management Security management
Network issues do not always fit neatly into one functional area. Functional areas are used to define various management issues.

Note

and performance. isolation. Monitoring also includes post-collection analyzing and reporting based on the data collected. Monitoring can also include data collection about device status. Some errors. such as collisions in an Ethernet environment. the most basic function of fault management systems. and correction of either persistent or transient faults that cause networks to perform below expectations.A fault can be identified as a failure of a system. Monitoring. and requires action to resolve. However. Failures are indicated by excessive errors. or component to operate as expected. . are normal as long as they fall within an acceptable threshold. health. device. Fault management is the detection. such as alignment errors in Ethernet. includes collecting information about device hardware and software. not all errors are considered faults.

.Documenting and understanding the network is at the very root of all network management tasks. By maintaining an accurate archive of configurations. Just as important is that you have a secure and accurate archiving and tracking system for the configuration files that drive network traffic. and you can compare and change configurations as necessary. you cannot effectively maintain the network and resolve problems as they arise. If you do not have a clear picture of network connectivity and the network configuration. you have better control of the network devices because you have rapid access to vital configuration data about those devices.

Rather than looking at resource usage from a network performance viewpoint. This information also helps you to plan more accurately for anticipated growth. however. Which users are consuming resources? Which systems or applications consume the most bandwidth? Answers to these questions enable you to bill organizations for the use of these resources. . accounting management asks about who uses the resources.Accounting management systems focus on how network resources are used.

In addition. links. and applications. to identify bottlenecks in performance and provide data to support more informed solutions to performance problems. components. and report on the behavior and effectiveness of network and system equipment. links. For example. Performance management looks at the network as a whole. you can collect and store performance data over time to identify utilization patterns. and monthly data cycles. . systems. and how those utilization patterns affect the delivery of network services. systems and their components. weekly. evaluate. You can then use the performance data to identify trends to support more informed capacity planning for network and system upgrades. Performance management focuses on evaluation metrics that indicate how network and system resources are used. you can use performance management systems to poll for data from network devices. both for current analysis and future planning. such as the flow of hourly. at all of the links between any two points. daily. This reporting has value for both real-time monitoring as well as for historical reporting purposes. circuits. how well resources are performing. or applications in real time to alert support organizations of performance problems. including devices.The purpose of performance management is to monitor.

systems.The primary focus of security management is to protect networks. and should include identifying procedures to follow when a security breach occurs. data that resides on the network. security management must include policies defined by both management and technical staff to ensure secure access to networks. The security of a network extends to the physical environment that also controls access to networks and data. . and securing the manipulation of. Therefore. and data from unauthorized access. Security management also involves securing access to. Security management is an important consideration for both technical and management staff because the security of a network extends beyond the network itself.

The collected management data can also be used to maximize the return on investment. Improperly managed networks lead to downtime and loss of access to important data. verify third-party service-level agreements. Often. The time spent in formulating a network management strategy will lead to an overall increase in network reliability and effectiveness. and quantify change and growth. Managing the network cannot stop all network service degradation. which helps increase productivity. and can save the organization money. every little problem is blamed on the network. but it can minimize the degradation and provide the necessary data to assist the network administrator in a quick resolution of the problem. Most users do not care how they get their data.Benefits of Network Management This topic describes some of the benefits of a well-planned network management strategy. A well-planned and implemented network management strategy provides you with a consistently high level of network services. Deviations from expected behavior can be detected early and corrected before impacting users. Note Good network management and statistics can provide a safe and effective way to deploy new applications in a busy network. . just that they get it. Employing network management allows network administrators to be constantly aware of the status and health of the network. Network management information should be one of the basic types of information that you gather when you deploy new applications in the network. amplifying the need for network management. making users painfully aware of their dependence on the network.

 A good network management strategy reduces network downtime and increases user productivity.0—1-11 . © 2007 Cisco Systems. Performance. and Security (FCAPS). Configuration. All rights reserved. Summary  Network management is often defined in terms of its goals— ensuring network usability.Summary This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson. CWLMS v3. Accounting. and minimizing technology complexity. Inc. easing day-to-day operations.  Network management can be broken down into five functional areas—Fault.

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and how to properly interpret the collected data. This lesson will help you understand the resource ramifications of performing various network management tasks. you must collect and process the status and health information of the network. Objectives Upon completing this lesson.Lesson 2 Exploring the Network Management Process Overview To achieve the benefits of network management. SNMP versions. You should be familiar with how network management data can be collected. focusing on the network management standards for information. Although it is important. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives:    Describe the process of collecting network status and health information from network devices using an NMS Define SMI and the MIB hierarchy to determine the OID for proprietary and nonproprietary MIB objects Describe the SNMP communication model. and polling versus traps . and the network management information and communication models. you will be able to describe the process of collecting network status and health information. network management traffic and resource consumption is considered overhead. focusing on network management standards for information and the communication protocol. and the communication of that information. This lesson describes the process of collecting network information.

A clear understanding of these benefits is important for a successful implementation of a network management strategy. the purpose of a network management system (NMS) is to automatically gather this information and present it to the network administrator in a meaningful and useful way. and monitoring and storing the network information. Therefore. Network management should also allow for convenient and simple ways to modify devices to change their behavior to meet stated requirements. To achieve the benefits of network management.Performing Network Management This topic describes the benefits of network management to network users. reliability. and the corporation. The data sources must be capable of providing visibility into the status and health of the network and its shared components. to help ensure the availability. You can obtain this information from many intelligent sources within the network environment. The NMS should also include tools to assist in the modification of devices. performance. . network administrators. and security of the network. you must determine how to gather and analyze the network status and health information.

the MIB information model was created. can also provide network management information. . and Cisco IOS IPSLA Layer N Forwarding © 2007 Cisco Systems. including the traditional command-line interface (CLI). operating system. All rights reserved. VTP. The retrieval and modification of the information in these mechanisms for network management purposes can be achieved through numerous communication protocols (depending on the device type). the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the standard communication model for retrieving information held by the MIB. Cisco Discovery Protocol. HTTP. and the version of operating system can be used to characterize the mechanisms. Note The mechanism implementations vary from one system to another. Many network-based devices have built-in intelligence. Inc. such as VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP). Access to the data provided by these internal mechanisms is essential for network management activities. CWLMS v3. and a Cisco IOS IP service level agreement (SLA) to assist in management activities that can be configured and reported on using the same internal mechanisms. tables. Telnet. device model. Likewise. such as ping and traceroute. In an effort to standardize the mechanism used for device status information that is necessary for network management tasks. Note The MIB objects consist of a database of values on the device that you can monitor or modify using a NMS. Factors such as device type. and TFTP. The internal mechanisms can consist of counters. timers. gauges. Other simple applications.Sources for Information Telnet CLI HTTP 80/TCP syslog 514/UDP TFTP 69/UDP SNMP 161/UDP SNMP-Trap 162/UDP show Commands Web Server System Logging TFTP Client Operating System Data Structures ` 09123 COUNTERs GAUGEs TABLEs TIMERs FILEs SNMP AGENT MIB Objects Built-in Intelligence Production Services Manageable Device Ping Trace Route Cisco Discovery Protocol. and files.0—1-3 Every computer-based system has internal mechanisms designed to report on the status of the system and the production services provided by the system. syslog.

Proprietary vendor MIBs:  Extensions to standard MIBs Each OID is described using ASN. CWLMS v3. host.g. Each OID is described using Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN. temp = 85 degrees. for example. These values typically state a fact about the device. it is up to the NMS application or the network administrator to make the determination as to the significance of this value. Once this value is retrieved.0—1-4 An MIB is used to store information that represents device elements and their status. many more MIBs that are proprietary exist to uniquely manage the devices of different vendors. However. rather than a health index. All rights reserved.Standards for Information—the MIB This topic describes the standard network management information model for the MIB. The “leaves” of the tree are the actual MIB variables that contain information about some aspect of the device. . temp = 85 degrees)  Just facts—not whether it is good or bad  Defined according to SMI rules  Each managed object is described using a unique object ID (OID) MIB I/MIB II:  Standard MIB (nonproprietary)  Objects included are considered essential for either fault or configuration management Other standard MIBs:  RMON. The SMI is a tree structure that allows for efficient organization and retrieval of information. Many standard nonproprietary MIBs exist to manage standard features. The structure itself is called a Structure of Management Information (SMI). An object identifier (OID) uniquely identifies each MIB variable.1 SNMP AGENT Thousands of manageable objects following rules defined in the SMI standards © 2007 Cisco Systems. These nonstandard proprietary MIBs are simply extensions to MIB I/II. Inc. MIBs are highly structured depositories for information about a device.1). etc. Standards for Information—the MIB MIB:  Set of variables defining the status of a device (e. router.

Logically.1.1.6.2. The MIB structure can be viewed as containing two parts:   Standard or public part (nonproprietary) implemented on all devices and administered by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) Private part (proprietary) that is used by individual vendors to manage the unique features of their own devices It would be convenient if a standard MIB existed for each device type. this makes sense. The public side of the MIB (nonproprietary) contains variables that are common to all devices. Vendor Administered CWLMS v3. providing the code to traverse the SMI tree to reach the MIB variable. . The private side of the MIB allows vendors to manage unique statistics that allow network management personnel to track unique features and functions that the vendor has implemented in their devices. All rights reserved. .1. because the manufacturer of the device can best determine how to manage the device. Unassigned (9118) Internet Activities Board Administered © 2007 Cisco Systems. .3.3. However.1 System (1) Interfaces (2) Address (3) Translation IP (4) ICMP (5) mib-2 (1) TCP (6) UDP (7) EGP (8) CMOT (9) Transmission (10) SNMP (11) Proteon (1) IBM (2) Cisco (9) HP (11) Wellfleet (18) Sun (42) Apple (63) Microsoft (311) . For example.1.2. allowing for the homogeneous management of devices of all vendors.Object Identifiers ISO (1) SNMP AGENT ORG (3) DOD (6) Internet (1) Directory (1) Mgmt (2)  Hierarchically structured  Each object uniquely identified Experimental (3) Private (4) Enterprise (1) OID for system 1.1). All devices should implement these variables to comply with common management needs. Inc. an OID for a variable in the System group would always begin with (1. which is a number in dotted notation. each vendor implements their MIBs differently and therefore must be managed using a different set of variables.6.0—1-5 Each managed object within a MIB has a unique OID.

To retrieve a scalar variable.4 Sal A. there is an MIB variable called interface errors identified by a unique OID.4. Mander 1. there exists only one instance of the variable. .1. This results in multiple instances of an MIB variable. there exists a separate instance of this variable. All rights reserved. OID for SNMP object sysContact 1.3.0 The OID for each MIB variable is appended with an instance identifier to differentiate it from multiple occurrences of the same variable. an instance identifier must be associated with each interface and appended to the interface errors OID. Mander OID for SNMP variable Sal A.1.1. For example.6. CWLMS v3. such as the MIB variable system name.2.1.0—1-6 Scalar objects have only one instance of a variable. In some cases. Inc.Scalar Objects (Instance 0) ISO (1) Org (3) DOD (6) Internet (1) Mgmt (2) MIB-2 (1) System (1) sysDescr (1) sysObjectID (2) sysUpTime (3) sysContact (4) sysName (5) sysLocation (6) sysServices (7) © 2007 Cisco Systems.6. To distinguish interface errors for each interface on a device. These objects are known as scalar variables.1. the instance identifier of 0 is appended to the end of the OID of the scalar variable.3.1. For each interface.2.

whereas the OID string with an appended instance identifies the value for the instance of the object.1.2. in which the column is the MIB variable. present an interesting problem. When traversing the MIB tree using the OID. the NMS wants to retrieve the interface description for interface 2 (the instance number of an interface may not always be corresponding).2. the number branch or object before the interface description leaf points to a table.3. the OID string alone identifies the object. All rights reserved.3.2. and the row is the instance of the device object.6.Multiple Instances Org (3) ISO (1) Vector objects have appended instance suffixes >0 to identify the row in two dimensional tabular data structures. and is used to access the row of the table. which corresponds to the interface description MIB variable. The same OID with a different instance would result in the interface description for a different interface. ifSpecific (22) ifDescr (3) ifType (4) value CWLMS v3. MIB variables that can have more than one value.. DOD (6) Internet (1) Mgmt (2) 1.. The result is the interface description for interface 2.0—1-7 If each object is to be uniquely identified. Device objects that have multiple instances in which multiple MIB variables are defined are represented using a table. . Inc.1. Most management software applications append the appropriate instance identifier to an OID. In the figure. OID for variable: Instance 2 of ifDescr Mib-2 (1) Interfaces (2) Ifnumber (1) ifTable (2) ifEntry (1) ifIndex (1) row 1 2 3 column © 2007 Cisco Systems.2 System (1) Conceptualized Table ifMtu (5) . The final number of the OID is the instance of the variable.1. The solution is to append an instance identifier to the OID. The next number in the OID indicates the column of the table. such as multiple interfaces.

The product line at that time consisted exclusively of routers. CiscoPolicyAuto(18) OLD-CISCO-INTERFACES-MIB CISCO-SMIv1-MIB All Cisco MIBs can be downloaded from Cisco. Within one revision level of Cisco IOS Software.Cisco MIB Iso (1) Org (3) DOD (6) Internet (1) Private (4) Enterprise (1) Cisco (9) CiscoProducts (1) Local (2) Temporary (3) OLD-CISCO-SYS-MIB lsystem(1) avgBusy1(57) linterfaces(2) CiscoMgmt(9) locIfInBitsSec(6) locIfOutBitsSec(8) . the Cisco MIB was broken into individual component MIB documents. Inc. pakmon (4): Reserved for pakmon. This structure allows quicker implementation of new features and allows you to compile only the parts you need into your NMS. Brief descriptions of the main subordinate branches under Cisco (9) are listed as follows:      CiscoProducts (1): The root of the Cisco product sysObjectID values that are declared in CISCO-PRODUCTS-MIB. All rights reserved. Therefore. Temporary (3): The Cisco IOS Release 10. a 10. Local (2): The subtree beneath which releases prior to Cisco IOS Release 10. this massive MIB model became unscalable.2. all of the objects under the Cisco MIB branch were documented in one large document. each focusing on a specific feature.0 Cisco MIB. . and so on.2 experiments were placed here. . updated with each new release of Cisco IOS Software. .com.0 Cisco MIB. In the past. CWLMS v3. which are declared in more than 150 different MIB definitions. or device type. there were different versions.2 MIBs were built. The product line also began to include other devices such as LAN switches running completely different software.0—1-8 The figure presents a partial look at the structure of the MIB that is administered by Cisco. As Cisco IOS Software matured and the product line grew. There are many objects administered by Cisco. Starting with Cisco IOS Release 10. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Workgroup (5): Reserved for use by the Workgroup Business Unit. technology. there was a 9. such as the IP-only image and the IBM feature set version.

Cisco works-in-process are MIBs that have not been assigned a permanent object identifier by the Cisco assigned number authority. MIBs are typically based here if they fall into one of two categories: Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) work-in-process and Cisco work-inprocess.         Note The current URL to download Cisco MIBs is www. typically because the MIB is not ready for deployment. CiscoPolicy (17): The root of the policy management subtree.com for ―software center download mibs‖. CiscoPolicyAuto (18): This branch is a subtree for OIDs that are automatically assigned for use in policy management. Partner sysObjectID values are composed of the CiscoPartnerProducts prefix. CiscoAgentCapability (7): The root for the assigned AGENT-CAPABILITIES value.shtml. CiscoExperiment (10): This branch provides a root OID from which experimental MIBs may be temporarily based. Support for MIBs in the CiscoExperiment subtree are deleted when a permanent OID assignment is made. CiscoAdmin (11): Reserved for OIDs not associated with MIB objects. Newport (15): Reserved for Newport Systems Solutions.     OtherEnterprises (6): The location that MIBs from other companies are rerooted to in order to maintain a controlled version. followed by a single identifier that is unique for each partner. CiscoConfig (8): The main subtree for configuration MIBs. Lightstream (13): Reserved for use by LightStream. Note that the chassisPartner MIB object defines the value of the identifier assigned to each partner. CiscoPartnerProducts (16): This is the root OID from which partner sysObjectID values may be assigned.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs. now part of the Access Business Unit. CiscoMgmt (9): The main subtree for new MIB development. CiscoModules (12): The root for the MODULE-IDENTITY objects. followed by the value of sysObjectID of the Cisco product from which the partner product is derived. IETF works-in-process are MIBs that have not been assigned a permanent OID by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).cisco. Ciscoworks (14): The root for MIBs applicable to the CiscoWorks family of network management products. . or search cisco.

You should reread the variable some time later. because there is no association with how long the counter has been counting. What is the temperature of the device? Temperature 88  Counter – A value that is always incrementing.  . which is the time between each reading of the MIB variable. (for example. speedometer) – A gauge variable is not time-dependent. The value returned by a gauge represents the condition at the time the value was polled. The following describes three basic types of MIB variables:   String: The value returned is simply a text string describing some aspect of the device. All rights reserved. odometer) – It requires two reads to associate it with time. or other measuring metric.0—1-9 The values returned by the MIB variables are used to make determinations about the health of a system. An analogy would be the speedometer in a car. Counter: A counter can be described as a delta value. two readings must be taken to associate the variable with respect to time.Basic MIB Variable Types  String – A text string that provides information. the odometer indicates how many total miles the car has traveled since the car was built. Counters simply increment every time the corresponding event takes place. Inc. At any time. (for example. The value can go up or down. You should not be alarmed when the Ethernet collisions MIB variable returns a large value. To properly analyze a counter variable. It is important to understand the different types of MIB variables to properly interpret the value returned. resulting in a delta value. What is the collision rate? 3567451 – 3567433 = 18/min t=0 t=60s ethCollisions 3567433 ethCollisions 3567451 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Gauge: One way to describe a gauge would be an absolute value. An analogy would be the odometer in a car. such as Ethernet collisions. CWLMS v3. What is this device? sysDescr Cisco Systems WS-C55005  Gauge – A value that can go up or down. the speedometer indicates how fast the car is going at that moment. and the two values should be compared. The result is the number of collisions that occurred during the polling period.

SNMP is a simple protocol that. As its name suggests. get-response: The get-response message is generated by an agent on receipt of a getrequest. a get-next-request.Standards for Communication—SNMP This topic describes the standard network management communication model. set-request: The set-request message is used by the SNMP manager to initialize or reset the value of an MIB variable. All SNMP managers use UDP port 161 for receiving SNMP messages except for traps. The original five message types are as follows:   get-request: The SNMP manager generates get-request messages when it requests the value of an MIB variable. Trap: The Trap message is an unsolicited message sent by an agent. get-next-request: These messages are very similar to get-request messages except that a get-next-request message obtains the value for the next instance of an MIB variable or the MIB variable next in line to the OID specified in the previous request.    SNMP managers and agents generate SNMP messages and encapsulate them in User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for transmission over IP. SNMPv1. SNMP managers listen for traps on port 162. or set-request message sent by an SNMP manager. Traps occur when an agent observes an occurrence of a preset parameter in the agent. had five protocol message types that defined how information was exchanged between manager and agents. used to retrieve information from the MIBs. SNMP. in its original version. Each SNMP . The SNMP protocol defines the rules that govern communication between the manager and the management agents in network elements.

used to restrict access to managed devices. .message. except the trap message. contains a plaintext string. known as the community string.

2.6.SNMP Get Request and Response OID 1. creates an SNMP get-request message containing the OID for the system description MIB object (1.3.3. and the read community string for access to the MIB on the device (public in the example).1.1.1. which also understands the MIB structure.0).1.6. The SNMP agent places the result of the request into a get-response message and sends it back to the NMS for viewing.1.0—1-11 In the figure.2. Inc. The SNMP agent on the device receives the request and checks for proper read access by comparing its SNMP read community string with the string sent by the NMS. (sysDes onse IOS) 0=Cisco MIB value © 2007 Cisco Systems. If the community strings are the same. the NMS has requested the system description of a device on the network. SNMP Agent Verify access permission and retrieve MIB value using OID to traverse the MIB tree. The NMS.1 Instance Read = public read/write = private SNMP Manager get-request( sysDescr. .0) Read Comm unity(public) get-resp cr.1. All rights reserved. the request is authorized and the SNMP agent uses the OID in the get-request message to traverse the MIB tree to retrieve the requested MIB object.1. CWLMS v3.

SNMPv3 provides a user-based security model. for a more efficient retrieval of multiple rows of a table – Has 64-bit counters – Still lacks strong security  SNMPv3 – Issued in 1998 – Contains security enhancement – Provides remote administration capabilities – Is an architectural framework © 2007 Cisco Systems. SNMPv3: SNMPv3 was issued in 1998 and offered many new enhancements over SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c. Perhaps the most important enhancement is that SNMPv3 defines a method for providing SNMP message-level security. SNMPv3 provides authorization and access to an MIB subtree on a per-user basis. especially with high-speed links such as Gigabit Ethernet. remote administration capabilities. a user masquerading as a valid user. the 64-bit counters address the issue of the 32bit counters rolling over too quickly. Inc. CWLMS v3. the modification of an SNMP message stream.0—1-12 There are three versions of SNMP available today:   SNMPv1: SNMPv1 was defined in 1988 to address the management needs of the evolving Internet and quickly became a standard in 1990.  . However. Retrieving information with get and get-next-request messages was an inefficient method of collecting information from device tabular data structures. which was one of the original goals. SNMPv2c: SNMPv2c was released in 1993 and revised in 1995 to address observed limitations in SNMPv1. much like the client-server security that is prevalent today to protect users against four types of threats: the modification of information.Evolution of SNMP  SNMPv1 – Defined in 1988 to address management needs of the evolving Internet  SNMPv2c – Released in 1993 and revised in 1995 – Added new message type. The most noticeable enhancements were the introduction of the get-bulk-request message type and the addition of 64-bit counters. The get-bulk-request of SNMPv2c addresses this weakness by receiving a “bulk” of information using a single request. Also. SNMPv2c still lacks strong security. and an architectural framework. or disclosure. the get-bulk request. All rights reserved. Only one variable at a time can be solicited with SNMPv1. SNMPv3 provides strong security.

SNMPv2c uses a community string match for authentication. – It is recommended that you use ACLs to filter SNMP requests to a device. SNMPv3 noAuthNoPriv uses a username match for authentication. integrity protection. CWLMS v3. SNMPv3 authNoPriv provides authentication based on the Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC)MD5 or HMAC-SHA algorithms.0—1-13 CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution (LMS) currently supports the following SNMP options:  SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c: SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c use a community string as a form of security.CiscoWorks LMS SNMP Support  SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c – Community strings are sent in plaintext. All rights reserved. SNMPv3 authNoPriv: SNMPv3 provides packet-level security. and replay protection.  The table lists all of the security models and levels defined in SNMP: SNMP Security Models and Levels Model v1 v2c v3 v3 Level noAuthNoPriv noAuthNoPriv noAuthNoPriv authNoPriv Authentication Community string Community string Username Message Digest 5 (MD5) or Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) Encryption No No No No What Happens SNMPv1 uses a community string match for authentication. . but does not encrypt the packets. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. it is recommended that you use an access control list (ACL) on Cisco IOS devices and an IP permit statement on Cisco Catalyst operating system devices to restrict SNMP requests. – Does not encrypt the packets. Because the community string is sent in plaintext.  SNMPv3 authNoPriv – Provides authentication based on the HMAC-MD5 or HMAC-SHA algorithms.

Model v3 Level authPriv Authentication HMAC-MD5 or HMAC-SHA Encryption Data Encryption Standard (DES) What Happens SNMPv3 authPriv provides authentication based on the HMAC-MD5 or HMAC-SHA algorithms. . Provides DES 56-bit encryption in addition to authentication based on the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) DES (DES-56) standard.

0—1-14 © 2007 Cisco Systems. a trap message is sent to the NMS. Compare this scenario to using SNMP traps. If the utilization reaches 98%. then massive failures occur (equals lost revenue). Obviously. the system may have already crashed. Inc. Now the condition is discovered at the exact moment it occurs and WAN bandwidth for polling is almost zero. In this scenario. You should use care when configuring management tools in order to limit the amount of traffic generated by management tasks. . At this rate. They automate the polling of disk utilization and create a script to check disk utilization. All rights reserved. which in turn runs the script to perform the necessary maintenance. the company has many mission-critical resources overseas that can cause a major system meltdown if a disk becomes full. polling all of the resources at this rate causes a substantial hit to the WAN utilization. perform maintenance. If disks reach 100%. the WAN is not burdened by the management traffic. However. At this rate. send trap and perform maintenance Problem Avoidance Not good 15min High Good trap Nil N/A Exact moment CWLMS v3. a trade-off. the process of collecting the information is still categorized as overhead. As beneficial as network management can be. Example The figure shows the trade-off between setting polling intervals and using traps. The company wants to monitor the disk utilization using SNMP. but not at the expense of the granularity needed to properly manage the network. the setting of the polling interval can be challenging. the script performs maintenance procedures on the disks to avoid a system meltdown. Polling Rate 15min WAN Utilization Low Value Retrieved t=0 97% t=15 Dead t=0 97% t=15 99% Action None Update resume None Perform maintenance When disk utilization = 98%. Employees modify the BIOS on all of the resources to check the disk utilization after each disk write operation.Polling vs. the polling period is great enough that by the time the next poll occurs. If the 98% threshold is breached. Next. However. the next polling period is soon enough to catch the condition close to its actual occurrence. The overhead is now the burden of the resource. they try 15 seconds. The trick is to set the polling period frequently enough to recognize and correct the condition early enough. again. The engineer first sets the polling period to every 15 minutes. but not so frequently that the polling overloads the high-cost WAN link. Traps Disk NMS WAN (equals $$) Disk Disk Server Farm Rule: If disk utilization is greater than 98%.

Summary This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.  MIBs allow for a standardized way to define and store the data. CWLMS v3.  SNMP provides a standardized way to retrieve data stored in MIBs. © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.0—1-15 . Summary  To reach the goals of network management. you must collect information about the status and health of the network and network devices. Inc.

Objectives Upon completing this lesson. Understanding the functions of each CiscoWorks application enables you to choose which tools to use to solve a particular problem. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives:   Explain how CiscoWorks is a bundle of network management applications and describe the client/server architecture Describe each of the applications that are included in the CiscoWorks LMS bundle . you will be able to describe an overview and the features of the CiscoWorks applications in the CiscoWorks LMS bundle.Lesson 3 Examining the CiscoWorks LMS Applications Overview This lesson describes the features and benefits of the applications in CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution (LMS) software. and the client/server architecture used in these applications.

© 2007 Cisco Systems. CiscoWorks LMS optionally uses security information maintained in Cisco Secure Access Control Server (ACS) to simplify the management of user privileges. and supports secured user views of specific devices or groups of devices by geographic or logical network segments. and performance management for Cisco-based networks. improving manageability and allowing the management system to more dynamically adjust to changes. CiscoWorks LMS has a centralized system for sharing device information across all applications. Cisco Secure ACS integration provides flexibility in defining user roles. CiscoWorks LMS also offers a new lightweight desktop interface that facilitates rapid navigation between tools and that can be modified to individual workflow needs. . fault. resilience. and security in a consistent way. The CiscoWorks LMS Portal provides launch points for applications and the major functions installed on the local or remote CiscoWorks servers. All rights reserved. network managers can provide comprehensive configuration.What Is CiscoWorks? This topic describes the CiscoWorks LMS bundle and its functional architecture for managing network devices. Portal provides launch points for applications. These tools provide innovative ways to centrally manage critical network characteristics such as availability. CWLMS v3. Inc.0—1-2 The CiscoWorks LMS bundle contains some of the most common applications used to manage Cisco network devices. Tools provide innovative ways to manage network devices. What Is CiscoWorks? Centralized system for sharing network device information. Using these applications. responsiveness.

By using the extensive knowledge base in Cisco. Because protecting company information and network access is a top priority. or when a change in the network is detected. and is stored in a central database located on the CiscoWorks server. Telnet. Telnet. and SNMP v3. SCP. SSH. authentication and authorization of users is handled locally on the CiscoWorks server. and more. you can integrate CiscoWorks with an ACS. Communication between multiple CiscoWorks servers is enabled by a trust model addressed by certificates and shared secrets.CiscoWorks Functional Architecture AAA Server (Access Control Server) Cisco. RCP. This trust model allows you to install applications within the CiscoWorks LMS bundle on separate servers and still share information collected from the network. CiscoWorks is tightly integrated with Cisco. and agents. or TFTP to retrieve information from managed devices or agents located in the network. CWLMS v3. All rights reserved. By default. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is used to secure user authentication when the CiscoWorks server is accessed. Inc. software images. For a more custom control of authentication and authorization on a per-device basis. HTTPS. . and performance is stored in the MIBs of the devices.com User Authentication and Authorization RADIUS TACACS+ CiscoWorks Client (Web Browser) CiscoWorks Servers MIBs HTTP HTTPS SNMP. you can easily locate CiscoWorks product information. Authentication can also be handled remotely by one of several methods. The information is gathered from the network on a scheduled or manual basis. servers. including TACACS+ and RADIUS. Clients access network information in the CiscoWorks database by using a supported web browser to access the CiscoWorks server. on which you can create user defined roles. you can secure the access between the CiscoWorks server and remote devices by using Secure Shell (SSH). faults. software updates. In addition. Remote Copy Protocol (RCP). TFTP.0—1-3 The CiscoWorks architecture is based on clients.com. Secure Copy Protocol (SCP). Information about the Cisco device configurations. and HTTPS Multi-Server Trust Changes/ Updates Network Devices (SNMP Agents) The CiscoWorks Functional Architecture provides:  A client/server/agent architecture  Central storage of information  Access to information using a web browser  Automatic collection of updates and changes © 2007 Cisco Systems. The server uses Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

The rest of the CiscoWorks applications focus on the functional areas of the ISO Fault.1 includes CiscoView. All rights reserved. Integration Utility. CiscoWorks Common Services Release 3. and CiscoWorks Assistant. CWLMS v3. Configuration. and troubleshooting of Cisco networks. Inc.CiscoWorks LMS Applications This topic describes the individual applications in the CiscoWorks LMS bundle. Accounting. Except for CiscoView. Performance. monitoring. CiscoWorks LMS includes the following applications:          CiscoWorks Common Services CiscoWorks Portal CiscoWorks Assistant CiscoWorks Campus Manager CiscoWorks Resource Manager Essentials (RME) CiscoWorks Internet Performance Monitor (IPM) CiscoWorks Device Fault Manager (DFM) CiscoView CiscoWorks Device Center CiscoWorks Common Services provides a set of shared application services that all of the CiscoWorks LMS applications use. CiscoWorks LMS Applications CiscoWorks Portal CiscoWorks Assistant Internetwork Performance Monitor CiscoView Resource Manager Essentials Campus Manager Device Fault Manager Common Services © 2007 Cisco Systems. CiscoWorks Portal. these applications are used for managing the CiscoWorks server. and Security (FCAPS) model.0—1-4 CiscoWorks LMS provides the integrated management tools needed to simplify the configuration. Device Center . administration.

and the help engine Database engine and utilities. user role definitions. CiscoWorks Common Services creates a standard user experience for all management functions. CWLMS v3.CiscoWorks Common Services Network Devices Common set of management services shared by the CiscoWorks applications (CiscoWorks Common Services) Runtime Services System Services DCR Applications Web page. and job and process management. process management. and the help engine. If you have a popup blocker enabled in your browser. security protocols. event and message handling. none of these popups will appear. It also provides a common framework for all basic system-level operations such as installation. login. and job management Web Browser User Interface © 2007 Cisco Systems. Therefore. which allow you to control access to applications and specific features within the applications. data storage. or through an external ACS. CiscoWorks Common Services enables you to manage user roles and privileges. User roles and privileges are controlled by built-in authentication and authorization services. Inc.0—1-5 CiscoWorks Common Services represents a common set of management services that the CiscoWorks applications share. if a popup blocker is installed. user security. All rights reserved. Note . data management including backup-restore and import-export. event distribution services. and navigation. The CiscoWorks Common Services server consists of the following services:   Runtime services: The web page. access privileges. security. process management. which is enabled at installation System services: The database engine and utilities. CiscoWorks Common Services provides a model for device credentials. you must disable it. as well as event distribution services and job management CiscoWorks Common Services and CiscoWorks applications use popup dialog boxes for many features.

The primary benefits of the CiscoWorks LMS Portal are as follows:   Customization: You can personalize the CiscoWorks LMS portal using the drag and drop. add. Multiserver support: The CiscoWorks LMS Portal lists all of the portlets based on the applications installed on remote servers. and remove features. You can add. and are organized into views that are displayed as tabs across the top of the portal. Lightweight GUI: The CiscoWorks LMS Portal eliminates the need to install plug-ins to launch an application. often-viewed information for applications in the CiscoWorks LMS suite. You can view important statistics and details on the CiscoWorks LMS applications installed on your CiscoWorks server in a single page instead of navigating through several pages. Portlets are the basic units in the CiscoWorks LMS Portal. edit.CiscoWorks LMS Portal is the first page that appears when you launch the CiscoWorks LMS application. or customize portlets and views in your private portal. delete.   . It serves as a top-level navigation interface and launch point for the frequently used functions in the application. Information available in a single click: The CiscoWorks LMS Portal provides easy and quick access to the most vital. The public portal is shared by all users and can only be modified by an administrator.

Using CiscoWorks Assistant. CiscoWorks Assistant workflows contain functionalities that are available across CiscoWorks LMS applications. These functionalities are grouped logically to set up and configure the CiscoWorks LMS server and to troubleshoot your end hosts. CiscoWorks Assistant supports the following deployment and troubleshooting workflows:  Server Setup: You can deploy a single CiscoWorks LMS server or multiple CiscoWorks LMS servers in your network. You can also change the CiscoWorks user authentication and authorization. IP phones. you can easily deploy multiple CiscoWorks LMS servers and maintain device credentials. thus providing you with the information required to troubleshoot and analyze connectivity issues. is a web-based tool that provides workflows to help you overcome network management and software deployment challenges.   . Device Troubleshooting: This workflow helps you identify the root cause for device unreachabililty problems.CiscoWorks Assistant. You can add devices to the Device and Credential Repository (DCR) and import these devices across CiscoWorks LMS applications. CiscoWorks Assistant is installed with CiscoWorks Common Services. End Host/IP Phone Down: This workflow allows you to locate and track the end hosts and IP phones in your network. and network devices. included in the CiscoWorks LMS solution.

the corresponding entries are not available. The Edit icon displayed for each setting takes you to the respective application page to configure the settings. and enables you to configure them in a common space.CiscoWorks LMS Setup Center Shortcuts to:  System settings  Security settings  Data collection settings  Data collection schedule  Data purge settings Shortcuts to system-wide setup configuration tasks and the CiscoWorks Assistant Server setup © 2007 Cisco Systems. and Device Fault Manager. CiscoWorks Campus Manager. CiscoWorks RME. including CiscoWorks Common Services. are grouped within these five categories. CWLMS v3. .0—1-8 CiscoWorks LMS Setup Center is a centralized area that displays the CiscoWorks system configurations. The configurations in CiscoWorks LMS Setup Center are grouped into the following categories:      System settings: The configurations that the system needs to function Security settings: The security-related settings for the product Data collection settings: The settings necessary for collecting data from the devices Data collection schedule: The schedule settings for collecting the data from the server Data purge schedule: The configurations that are necessary for the device to purge data The settings specific to all applications. Inc. All rights reserved. CiscoWorks LMS Setup Center was designed to provide shortcuts to those options that can be difficult to find. It also has a shortcut to the CiscoWorks Assistant Server Setup. It allows you to configure the server settings immediately after installing the CiscoWorks LMS software. One of the most common observations from new CiscoWorks users is that it is difficult to remember which application menu to navigate when changing a system setting. If an application is not installed.

or between the endpoints of an IP phone call. assign VLANs to ports. Diagnostics: Path Analysis is a diagnostic tool for troubleshooting connectivity-related problems between end stations and Layer 2 and Layer 3 devices. User Tracking: The User Tracking tool greatly simplifies the task of tracking user and end-station connections to the network. configure trunk ports.     . and PCs. CWLMS v3. and VLANs associated with selected devices. end users. Domain Name System (DNS) host name. including printers. Reports: The CiscoWorks Campus Manager Reports menu allows you to view device attributes. best practices. and discrepancies. both physical and logical connectivity. on the discovered network.CiscoWorks Campus Manager Visualization (Topology Services) Configuration  View physical and logical connectivity of network.  Report on devices.  Configure and view VLANs. you can run discrepancy reports discovered during data collection and display best practices deviations found in the network. disallow VLANs on trunks. This trace makes it easier to find the problem when connectivity is lost. of devices and end stations. manage PVLANs. servers. Inc. Fault Management © 2007 Cisco Systems.0—1-9 CiscoWorks Campus Manager focuses primarily on configuration management. User Tracking also collects detailed information about each end station. The user can trace the Layer 2 and Layer 3 path between any two endpoints. and ATM domains. display VLAN ports. All rights reserved. It consists of the following separate tools that can be used to manage and monitor Layer 2 and Layer 3 Cisco devices on the network:  Visualization: With Topology Services. port assignment. IP address. you no longer have to trace cables through a wiring closet to determine which devices are connected to which ports.  Obtain a map or table trace of the Layer 2 and Layer 3 communication between two devices. and IP phones. IP phones. and VLAN memberships. User tracking automatically identifies all end stations connected to Cisco switches that have been discovered on the network. VTP. port attributes. Configuration: CiscoWorks Campus Manager provides configuration menu workflows that allow you to create and modify VLANs. In addition. Reports User Tracking Diagnostics (Path Analysis) Configuration Management. and configure promiscuous ports.  Locate the connectivity of hosts. including MAC address. The Topology Services tool auto-discovers Cisco routers and switches on the network and displays the network layout in browser-accessible topology maps allowing you to view and monitor the physical and logical services in your network.

Config Editor allows you to edit and download individual configuration files to devices through a GUI instead of the command-line interface. Software Management: The Software Management function is used to store the most current copies of software images running on all of the supported Cisco devices in the network. The Inventory Management function collects and stores detailed information on every device managed by the CiscoWorks RME server. CiscoWorks RME also includes fault management features through the filtering of syslog messages. NetConfig and Config Editor. Optionally. Inventory Management automatically tracks any changes to device components.CiscoWorks RME primarily focuses on the configuration management aspect of network management. for added security and change   . Two additional functions. You can use Software Management to reliably upgrade images on one or more devices at the same time. If any errors occur during an upgrade. CiscoWorks RME consists of these major functions. as well as any additional software images that a network manager wishes to maintain. Inventory Management displays this information through an extensive set of custom and standard inventory reports. such as performing software upgrades or changing configuration files on multiple devices. In conjunction with Change Audit Services. It automatically tracks changes to configuration files and updates the archive if a change is made. The number of previous versions stored is a user-configurable number. as well as some additional features that you can use to manage Cisco devices:  Inventory Management: All CiscoWorks RME functions are based upon devices from the DCR. Configuration Management: The Configuration Management function stores the current and previous versions of the configuration files for all of the supported Cisco devices managed in the CiscoWorks RME inventory. The NetConfig application allows you to save sets of commands and execute those commands on multiple devices at the same time. are available to edit configuration files. It includes many automated features that simplify configuration management tasks. CiscoWorks RME allows the user to roll back to the previous version.

a report of any messages logged in the past 24 hours is available. For example. You can track changes by what change was made. software images are not downloaded unless approved by specifically assigned users. This information allows the user to track changes in case there are problems. you can send an e-mail to the network administrator if a critical-level error occurs on an important network device. Audit Trail: Audit Trail is similar to Change Audit. Change Audit Services: The Change Audit Services function allows you to trace changes made to various functions within the network. You can also sort and view change records by type. and configuration files. Instead of logging changes to devices.  Syslog Analysis: The Syslog Analysis function stores syslog messages from any device configured to forward syslog messages to the CiscoWorks RME server.   . alarm type. In addition. CiscoWorks RME function. You can customize it to filter out certain messages. software images. how the change was made. or to automatically execute a series of commands if a specific message is detected. Change Audit Services stores detailed information about changes that are made to the inventory. date. to see if any serious errors occurred overnight. or method of change. or date.management control. and who made the change. Syslog reports allow you to quickly view and sort messages by severity level. such as Telnet. user. when the change was made. and other methods. Audit Trail tracks and reports administrative changes made to the CiscoWorks RME settings. device.

Inc. CWLMS v3. All rights reserved. and analyze response time patterns end-to-end as well as hop-by-hop (router-to-router). and DHCP.  Identify performance trends using historical data. . CiscoWorks IPM measures the performance of business application traffic directly. Users often report that they have network performance and availability issues. can provide important information for optimizing the network. such as TCP. Measuring the delay of voice data and other upper layer protocols. CiscoWorks IPM also warns the network administrator of long delays by using SNMP traps and events that allow the network administrator to proactively solve potential performance issues before they affect the end user.0—1-11 The constant growth of networks today creates challenges for the network administrator in maintaining the performance and availability of the network. Performance Management © 2007 Cisco Systems. before the problems affect end users. determine availability. User Datagram Protocol (UDP).CiscoWorks Internet Performance Monitor  Use synthetic tests to measure protocol response times and monitor device availability. usually by collecting data. CiscoWorks IPM provides the network administrator with the ability to measure network response time. Using only ping to measure response time may not be enough. Network administrators need an effective way to discover network problems. – ICMP echo test – TCP connect test – DNS resolution test – DHCP test – HTTP response test – Voice. To measure response time information more precisely. video jitter test – And more  Isolate delays by viewing latency hop-by-hop. DNS. such as the network being slow or down.

voltage. and contains the intelligence to poll for predefined MIB variables for most Cisco devices. a device can be “up” but performing poorly. CiscoWorks DFM directly addresses these issues. listening to SNMP traps. etc. All rights reserved. Inc. Most fault managers allow you to selectively poll specific MIB variables to determine the overall health of a device.  Search 31 days of fault history. resulting in network performance degradation.CiscoWorks Device Fault Manager  Proactively monitor Cisco devices for faults: – Environmental (temperature. and you can search the fault history by alerts or events that are stored for 31 days. Alerts and Activities Fault History Fault Management © 2007 Cisco Systems. memory utilization. With the complexity of network infrastructure equipment today. and which MIB variables to poll to determine its health. down  Generate notifications for alerts and events. Traditionally. – Interface utilization. fault managers simply determined whether a device was up or down.0—1-12 Fault management of the network is vital to the success of a company. However. You can configure notifications to proactively advise you when a problem exists in the network. CWLMS v3. power supply) – Connectivity – Processor. errors. . CiscoWorks DFM then correlates multiple events together and displays them as alerts to determine the health of a device without user intervention. this selective polling requires a great deal of knowledge to determine what constitutes a healthy device.

and minimum hardware requirements.0—1-13 CiscoView Chassis View is an easy-to-use. switches. The CiscoView Chassis View features provide dynamic status. Used in conjunction with certain Cisco devices. All rights reserved. graphical application that allows the user to configure and monitor a Cisco device. real-time. Fault Management © 2007 Cisco Systems. CWLMS v3. network access. Note CiscoView is installed when CiscoWorks Common Services is installed.  Configure and monitor mini-RMON on Ethernet ports. CiscoView Mini-RMON Manager provides visibility into network issues or problems before they become critical. device monitoring. CiscoView Chassis View aides network managers by displaying a physical view of a Cisco device and color-coding device ports for at-a-glance port status. Inc.CiscoView  Graphically monitors and configures a Cisco network device. . Chassis View Mini-RMON Manager Configuration Management. Performance Management. Remote Monitoring (RMON) information to users to facilitate troubleshooting and improve network availability. CiscoView Chassis View allows access from any client that has a standard browser. and access products. CiscoView Mini-RMON Manager provides web-enabled. and comprehensive configuration information for Cisco internetworking products such as routers. allowing you to quickly grasp essential information. Being web-based.

CiscoWorks Device Center is a very useful tool in troubleshooting devices in the network. such as changing device attributes.CiscoWorks Device Center Launch tools. You can launch other CiscoWorks LMS tools. CiscoWorks Device Center provides a device-centric view for CiscoWorks applications from a single location.0—1-14 Navigating the CiscoWorks menus to find the correct application can be challenging. reports. It displays a summary. . reports. but only from applications that reside on the local server. The network administrator may not use the correct application in troubleshooting a problem because they do not navigate to the correct menu location. CWLMS v3. All rights reserved. and more. and management tasks from CiscoWorks Device Center. it is easier to start from that device to see what tools are available. When a specific device is experiencing unusual behavior. and tasks that you can perform on the selected device. various tools. available reports. You can perform device-centric activities. Note You cannot launch tools. reports. Fault Management © 2007 Cisco Systems.  Tools used to debug devicerelated problems  Reports that can be launched for the selected device  Management tasks that can be performed on the selected device Configuration Management. updating inventory. Inc. Performance Management. depending on the applications that are installed on the local CiscoWorks Common Services server. or perform management tasks that pertain to applications installed on a remote server. Telnet. and management tasks on a network device.

 The CiscoWorks applications in the CiscoWorks LMS bundle are CiscoWorks Common Services. CiscoWorks IPM. CiscoWorks Assistant. CiscoWorks LMS Setup Center. CiscoWorks Campus Manager. CiscoWorks LMS Portal. CiscoWorks RME.Summary This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this lesson.0—1-15 . Summary  CiscoWorks LMS is a bundle of applications that can securely and efficiently manage network devices from a centralized location by using a web-based client/server architecture. CiscoWorks Device Fault Manager. and CiscoWorks Device Center. CWLMS v3. All rights reserved. Routine tasks can be automated to make the network administrator more effective. Inc. CiscoView. © 2007 Cisco Systems.

DFM. This becomes more difficult with increased network use and complexity. a standard for the way data is stored and retrieved was developed. CiscoView. Sometimes you are expected to do more with fewer resources at your disposal.  CiscoWorks LMS is a bundle of applications that assist in managing network devices from a centralized location. IPM. Network management tools are designed to automate routine tasks and remotely manage a network. CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution (LMS) is a bundle of applications that manage the network from a centralized location. A good network management strategy will reduce network downtime.0—1-1 When you successfully perform your role as a network administrator. With network management software. The CiscoWorks applications in the LMS bundle are CiscoWorks Common Services. Inc. . The typical user of a network does not care how the network works. All rights reserved.  Collecting information about the status and health of the network is accomplished by standardizing the way to store data (MIBs) and the method used to retrieve data (SNMP). CiscoWorks RME.Module Summary This topic summarizes the key points that were discussed in this module. In order to accomplish these tasks. Module Summary  The ultimate goal for network management is to make a network as transparent as possible. CWLMS v3. automating many routine tasks. and CiscoWorks Device Center. CiscoWorks LMS Portal. Campus Manager. © 2007 Cisco Systems. The goal to make the network as transparent as possible becomes more difficult with increased use and complexity. as long as they can do their job. LMS Setup Center. nobody really knows who you are and how well you do your job. It is when the network goes down that the user gets to know you. automating many routine tasks and making your job easier and more efficient. ISO defines network management using the FCAPS model. a user can easily obtain data stored in the MIB on a device via Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). CiscoWorks Assistant.