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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

6–7 May 2011 Budapest College of Communication and Business H-1148, Budapest, Nagy Lajos király útja 1–9. +36 (1) 273 3095

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

6–7 May 2011 Budapest College of Communication and Business H-1148, Budapest, Nagy Lajos király útja 1-9. +36 (1) 273 3095
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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Friday, 6 May
9:15–9:30 Conference Welcome by Dr László Vass, Rector of Budapest College of Communication and Business, Hungary

Globalization, Transnationalism and Security
11:45–13:30 • Chair: Tamás Magyarics Tamás Magyarics: The extended notion of (national) security in the post-Cold War era: The blending of external and internal security László J. Kiss: The Ambivalent Effects of Globalization and Transnationalization on International Security in the 21th century Péter Márton: Transnationalization in the Field of CounterTerrorism István Balogh: Thinking about Strategy and Security in the Age of Globalization – A Conceptual Framework Ruud Janssens: Europe after the End of American Hegemony: Future Planning and International Security
13:30–14:00 Lunch Break

Globalization

9:30–11:30 • Chair: Jolán Róka László Marácz: Hybridity as a characteristic feature of Globalization Larisa Korobeynikova: Soft Globalisation as Alternative to Empire’s Globalization Anthony Licari: Latest Franco-Maltese Translinguistic Initiatives as Seen in the Work of Professor Laurent Seychell of the University of Malta Ad Backus: A Toolkit for Transnational Communication in Europe Kasper Juffermans and Jinling Li: Dutch-Chinese Youth Identities in the Era of Globalization and Super-Diversity Árpád Papp-Váry and Gábor Rekettye: City-brand Models and Rankings. Hungarian “Borats” – The image of Hungary in Hollywood movies. The Vodka Globalisation: Competitors From All Over the World
11:30–11:45 Coffee Break

Borders and Security

14:00–16:45 • Chair: Virginie Mamadouh Max-Stephan Schulze and Nikolaus Wolf: Economic Nationalism and Economic Integration: the Austro-Hungarian empire in the late nineteenth century

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Zaneta Ozolina: Human Security as a Universal Concept Sona Margaryan: The EU Conflict Transformation Policy in the South Caucasus. Where are the Conflicts inside the EU? Rade Rajkovchevski: The Phenomenon of Security versus Europeanization, Globalization and Other Transnational Phenomena
15:30–15:45 Coffee Break

Saturday, 7 May Europeanization
9:30–13:00 • Chair: László Marácz Virginie Mamadouh: Global Tools for Europeanization: EU Tube Ioana Balas: Romania in the EU in the 21st Century Olga Kantokoski: Governing Transnational Policing? The European Union as a Comprehensive External Policing Actor Ana Pavlovic: Standardization of National Legal Systems in the EU Realm: Path Towards One Superstate? Robin de Bruin: European Integration as a Cause for Change of Dutch Domestic Politics, 1948–1958 Csaba Máté Sarnyai and Tibor Pap: Integration, Anti-Discrimination, Assimilation? – Aspects of the Sarazzin-case in Minority Politics
11:30–11:45 Coffee Break

Olexia Basarab: The Prospects of Transnistrian Conflict Resolution Through Europeanization Vanya Ivanova: Changing Semantics of a Border, Regional Identity –Torlak – in the Ideological Contexts of Europeanization and Globalisation Jan Mansvelt Beck: Post-Sovereignty: Reframing the Basque Borderland 16:45–17:30 Discussion 18:00 Reception for the conference presenters

Emöke Emese Batizán: Parallel Society? Expatriates in Hungary Lia Versteegh: Features of Modern Europeanization: Trafficking in Human Beings

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Francoise Companjen: Globalization and NGOs in Georgia Andra-Mirona Dragotesc: The European Politics of Addressing Violence Against Women
13:00–13:30 Lunch Break

Nadiya Trach: Language Policy in Comtemporay Ukraine: National Identity versus Multilingualism Anikó Beregszászi and Viktória Ferenc: Multilingualism at a Minority University – A Perspective to Globalization Arundhati Bhattacharya: The Two Phases of Entwining of Globalisation and Europeanisation in the Arena of Higher Education (HE) Policy Making in Europe: Continuity or Quantum Leap? 16:30–17:00 Discussion

Language and Communication
13:30–16:30 • Chair: Ad Backus Cornelia Hülmbauer: Speaking Globally: beyond Boundaries with English as a Lingua Franca Mustafa Ibrahimi and Amra Alik: Global Processes” Influence on National Languages” International Status Nora Schleicher: Global English Blagojka Zdavkovska-Adamova and Natasha ZdravkovskaStojanovska: Theoretical Perspectives on the Relationship Between Linguistic Function and Socio-Cultural Framework Sanda Lucija Udier: Croatian Language in the Process of Globalisation
15:15–15:30 Coffee Break

Conference Organisers
Dr Jolán Róka, Professor and Vice Rector for International Relations, Budapest College of Communication and Business Dr László Károly Marácz, Lecturer East European Studies, University of Amsterdam

Conference Sponsor
Budapest College of Communication and Business

For Additional Information Contact
Dr Jolán Róka at jroka@bkf.hu or +36 (20) 366 5023
6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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László Marácz (University of Amsterdam) Hybridity as a Characteristic Feature of Globalization
At the core of “globalization” is a set of social processes transforming human life into tight global political, social, economic, and cultural interconnections, interdependencies and flows. These interconnections, interdependencies and flows result into mixing, intertwining, intermingling of cultural and social forms, styles and structures (Manfred Seger 2009). These cultural and social phenomena have been described and analyzed as instances of “hybridization”. “Hybridity” in the context of globalization has been researched most intensively in the cultural fields, like fashion, music, dance, film, food and language. In order to illustrate hybridity, the paper will discuss phenomena from the field of cultural studies, especially films and literature and linguistics, like colonial languages and modes of communication, like code-switching and English as a global lingua franca. But hybrid structures have a wider appearance. They have also been observed in the case of international relations and geopolitics. Interestingly, scholars of international relations and geopolitics use terms like “hybrid”, “hybridization”, “hibridity” to characterize postmodern political and security structures and entities, like the European Union and NATO. Hence, we will extend hybridization in the context of globalization with political structures as well. We will argue that the following zero-hypothesis is true. Anytime we detect “hybridity” in the field of global political, social, economic and cultural relations we suppose that this is caused by globalization. In other words, hybridity is a diagnostic feature of
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globalization. In fact, all the phenomena discussed in this paper and their analyses offer a strong argument for the zero-hypothesis that hybridity is a diagnostic feature of globalization. László Marácz Assistant professor to the Department of European Studies of the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands European Studies, Faculty of Humanities University of Amsterdam Spuistraat 134 1012 VB Amsterdam The Netherlands 00 31 30 525 2280 l.k.maracz@uva.nl

Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Prof. Larisa Korobeynikova (Tomsk State University) Soft Globalization as Alternative to Empire’s Globalization
The paper presents a new interpretation of globalization in terms of the author’s idea of soft globalization. It suggests a normatively attractive alternative to globalization conceived as Empire. The author argues that the conditions for relationship among contemporary world communities do not require any unification in the form of Empire, but instead the creation of non repressive mechanisms of social regulation – this is what it is meant by “soft globalization” (a mental idea of globalization). As a matter of fact, globalization occurs nowadays only in a strictly material form, which has both positive and negative dimensions. Positive dimensions: the spread of Western advanced forms of social life. Negative dimensions: the clash of different ethnic and religious minorities, determining cases of terrorism and extremism. Historically, globalization – in the Empire form – was already observed at the time of the Roman Empire. Indeed, at this time, processes of development inside the Empire could be seen as manifestations of globalization in its highest cultural shape. But Ancient Rome was also a social and political experiment that assumed in the end the form of a purely material globalization – and historically brought about the irreversible crash of the Roman Empire itself. Contemporary fluctuations referring to the process of globalization can be registered in US’s attempts of material domination inside this or that existing cases of civilization. The main idea stressed in the paper is that only a spiritual form of globalization could in the end be successful (243 words). Prof. Larisa Korobeynikova Tomsk State University, Department of Cultural Studies Lenin Street 36, 634650 Tomsk, Russia 007 382 241 2921 007 906 956 9611 marco.negri11@tin.it

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Dr Anthony Licari (University of Malta) Latest Franco-Maltese Translinguistic Initiatives as seen in the work of Professor Laurent Seychell
In this day and age of fast communication and speedy travel, transnational phenomena can take many forms and aspects. With the continuous work of the UNO, UNESCO, the Council of Europe, the EU and so many other organisations, linguistic transnational realities have become more evident. Malta’s strategic position in a Euro-Mediterranean geo-cultural context encourages it to take initiatives in a field with which it is familiar due to the passage and sojourn of several cultures on its territory, its multicultural tourism and its eagerness to host international conferences. While very proud of its native culture, Malta reaches out for dialogue with international cultures. One of the recent attempts at this linguistic rapprochement between Malta and the French-speaking world is the work of Prof Laurent Seychell of the University of Malta titled: “La Traduction Professionnelle aux Multiples Visages: FrançaisMaltais” aiming at raising the standard of Franco-Maltese translators and interpreters. This paper exposes the multiple strategies proposed by Prof Seychell in his attempt to contribute to the increased professionalisation of this art. Dr Anthony Licari Lecturer in Extralinguistics at the University of Malta anthonyl@maltanet.net

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Ad Backus (University of Tilburg) A toolkit for transnational communication in Europe
European integration has proceeded along with transnational processes that challenge the traditionally established mode of monolingual communication. Transnationalism results when multiple ties and interactions link people or institutions across the borders of nation states. This requires a reappraisal of multilingual communication, figuring out in which contexts strategies such as English as lingua franca (ELF), regional linguae francae (RELF), Lingua Receptiva (LARA) (each speaker uses his/her mother tongue in multilingual communication) and code-switching (CSW) are appropriate. While these modes are available, they have never been integrated into a coherent set of communicative strategies that match their strengths with particular features of the communicative setting. A new project called “Toolkit”, coordinated by researchers in The Netherlands, brings together research groups and their expertise in order to systematically compare the strengths and weaknesses of the various strategies. A toolkit for transnational communication in Europe will be prepared that takes into account the various actors, settings and languages encountered in modern Europe. It will help future users to decide what communicative mode appears to be the most appropriate under the given circumstances. In my contribution, I will consider the issues involved from the viewpoint of sociolinguistics. Questions that will be examined include how norms of language choice get established and how successful communication requires there be enough common ground between interlocutors. It will be argued that the degree of common ground is often overestimated, jeopardizing efficient communication.

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Kasper Juffermans and Jinling Li (Tilburg University, Netherlands) Multilingual Europe 2.0: Dutch-Chinese youth identities in the era of globalisation and super-diversity
Multilingualism in Europe has reached a next level since we have entered the era of globalisation and super-diversity. Super-diversity is essentially a term to capture the post-1989 changing dynamics of immigration that has caused “a transformative “diversification of diversity” in terms of ethnicities and countries of origin, but also with respect to a variety of significant variables that affect where, how and with whom people live” (Vertovec 2006: 1). Because relations between ethnicity, citizenship, residence, origin, language, profession, etc. have become more complex and less predictable than before, it is no longer descriptively adequate to talk about languages and cultures in plural as coterminous with nation states. Super-diversity may thus replace the old term of multiculturalism which assumes fixed relations between the above categories of identity and carries in it the problematic assumption of the countability of cultures, languages, identities, etc. Hence the notions of languaging and polylingualism (e.g., Jorgensen 2008). This contribution draws on ongoing ethnographic fieldwork in and around a Chinese complementary school in the Netherlands and is part of a larger HERA-funded project investigating discourses of identity and heritage in four European settings. This paper focuses on the self-reported ethnic and linguistic identities of Dutch-Chinese youngsters on the “Asian and Proud” section of the social networking site Hyves (the Dutch alternative for Facebook and MySpace, http://asian-and-proud.hyves.nl/). It is shown that Dutch-Chinese youngsters constitute a super-diverse (rather than
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multicultural) group in itself and engage in creative languaging on the net while reflecting on their ethnic and linguistic identities. Kasper Juffermans Affiliated as a postdoctoral researcher Deparment of Culture Studies & Babylon Centre Tilburg University PO Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg Netherlands +31 13 466 2692 k.c.p.juffermans@uvt.nl Jinling Li Deparment of Culture Studies & Babylon Centre Tilburg University PO Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg Netherlands +31 13 466 2692 j.li@uvt.nl

Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Árpád Papp-Váry and Gábor Rekettye (Budapest College of Communication and Business) City-brand Models and Rankings
The competition between cities is growing more than ever due to cheaper and easier travel opportunities, international investors, a growing free labour force flow and of course due to the Internet. Besides the capabilities of the cities, the emphasis is also on how well they can brand themselves. As a consequence the number of tourists, investors, new inhabitants, or the products of the city depend on the success of this. These also affect the locals and how proud and content they are living in the city. Fortunately for the cities, more and more brand models and rankings are available to assess their stand among others in respect to image as well as pointing out the shortcomings that need developments and generally direct them on a specific route of branding. Although these models use different methodology, the rankings show the same cities finishing in the top.

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Árpád Papp-Váry and Gábor Rekettye Hungarian “Borats” – The image of Hungary in Hollywood movies
The television-series Sex and the City helped a great deal in motivating tourists to return to New York City after the events of September 11. The Australian “country-image center” supported the campaign of the movie “Australia” with 20% of its annual budget, 6 million dollars. On the other hand, no one asked Borat to “popularize” Kazakhstan, in fact their president protested directly at George Bush. But what is with Budapest, Hungary and the Hungarians? Not so many people worked on this question yet, while it significantly contributes to our country-image. This essay collects and analyses the effects of Hungary’s appearance in international movies. The analysis is divided into five groups: 1. When the film was shot here, but Budapest appears as Berlin, Rome, Paris, Moscow, or Buenos Aires (Spy Game, Munich, Red Heat, Evita, Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam) 2. When the shooting and the story also took place in Hungary (I Spy) 3. When Hungary appears in the movie, although it was not shot here (MacGyver – Thief of Budapest, The Transporter 3.) 4. When none of the previous cases happens, but one of the characters is Hungarian (Casablanca, The Whole Nine Yards, Iron Man, Die Hard 3.) 5. When the characters speak Hungarian, but it sounds as a nonsense language (Blade Runner). After all this, the essay is looking for an answer to exploit all this: on one hand on the level of the “film-tourists”, on the other hand from the point of view of the film-investors. At last it provides an answer to the question: why shoot a film in Hungary?

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Árpád Papp-Váry and Gábor Rekettye The Vodka Globalisation: Competitors From All Over The World
For a long time we thought that good vodka comes from Russia, Poland or Scandinavia. It was also a well know that vodka is not among the expensive drinks. Contradictory to this the market, which experienced the highest growth rate in the past years is the ultra-premium segment of vodkas consisting of bottles priced at 25 or more US dollars. And surprising as it is the winner in this category was France! There are other prestige vodkas from Scotland, Ireland, Switzerland, Austria, and even from New-Zealand and Japan. The most intriguing is that, while in the past even non-Russian vodka brands tried to be a little Russian with their labels such as Gorbatschow, from Germany, the new and ambitious brands are particularly proud of their origins. This changing world order can only be accomplished along with the openness of customers. They are the ones intentionally looking for “exotic vodka brands”. The case of vodka clearly shows that today being different and new can mean much more than traditions even in the case of the most traditional markets.

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Tamás Magyarics (Hungarian Institute of International Affairs) The extended notion of (national) security in the post-Cold War era: The blending of external and internal security
The collapse of the Soviet Union and Communism in Europe did not make the world safer despite expectations to the contrary. The dispersion of power had already started earlier; it was mainly state actors that had broken up the bipolar world into a multipolar one. The 1990s saw a proliferation of non-state transnational and “subnational’actors which took advantage of such benefits of globalization as a “revolution” in communication technology, easier access to information of all sorts, highly improved means of transportation, etc. These ethnic, religious, political, etc. groups started to push their agenda in an increasingly aggressive manner and, on the sides, challenged existing written and unwritten international laws and norms. The introductory remarks intend to take stock of these phenomena and some of the attempts to deal with them either on a national or on an international level. Tamás Magyarics Director Hungarian Institute of International Affairs 1016 Budapest Bérc utca 13–15. Hungary 36 1 279 5702 magyaricst@gmail.com

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

László J. Kiss The ambivalent effects of globalization and transnationalization on international security in 21st century
The lecture attempts to identify the complex and diverse effects of security challenges provided by the three ”defining moments” in the post-Cold-War period related to 11/9, 9/11 and 15. 9. 2008 (the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers). The new ”turbulent” world of international relations and politics is characterized by three overarching trends: the supersession of geopolitics by geoeconomics, the mutations of international security ”problematique” which is increasingly shifting from the interstate level to security threats within societies encompassing the rapid increase in transnational (intersocietal) spaces and non-state actors being influential in shaping the international environment and the foreign and security policies, and the growing importance and intensity of conflicts between different value systems and ideologies between integrationist and particularistic ideologies which are conducive to erosion of states both from above and below. The general impact of these trends is a diffusion of power and influence, and the disintegration of existing structures of international order, a shift from West to East, and thus increasing difficulties shaping the evolution of international relations through political actions.

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Péter Marton Transnationalization in the field of counter-terrorism
The presentation will focus on the transnationalization of security through the study of transnational security linkages and the transnationalization of securitization. It will do so by focusing on transnational actors of terrorism and counter-terrorism. It will look at both “networked” and “transnational” actors on both sides, to show that counter-terrorism is not the clash of centralised versus networked actors that it is often, simplistically, portrayed to be. Instead, the comments will demonstrate that both loosely networked and more formal/hierarchical transnational actors play an important role in counter-terrorism, as well as the governance of transnational security linkages, including transnational securitization processes.

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

István Balogh Thinking about strategy and security in the age of globalization – A conceptual framework
The contribution wishes to elaborate on whether the old tenets of strategic thinking still apply in a globalized world where everything changes daily. The following questions will be addressed: Can we still use the traditional conceptual framework of strategic thinking or does it need to be changed? If so, to what extent? What are the implications of a constantly changing strategic environment for great powers such as the United States? On the other hand, what are the consequences of such an environment for relatively smaller states, such as Hungary? Where is the place of Hungary in the global environment and what could be the basis of a strategy for Hungary in the next 20 years?

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Prof.dr. Ruud Janssens (University of Amsterdam) Europe and the End of American Hegemony: Future Planning and International Security
In 2008 and 2009, the Dutch government set up a policy survey for the Dutch Defense Department and its position in 2020. I led a group of researchers who studied the relations between major powers in 2020, and how these major powers are preparing for the near future. The nations we studied included the United States, Japan, Brazil, Russia, India, and China. In my presentation I want to analyze how the future of international relations and security can be analyzed and predicted. One of the key findings was that the role of Europe in the international community will seriously decline in the near future. I want to present the various policy options for Europeans. The transatlantic ties will most probably become weaker in the coming years, which will pose Europe and European governments for new strategic challenges.

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Max-Stephan Schulze (London School of Economics) and Nikolaus Wolf (Humboldt-Universität Berlin; CEPR, London) Economic nationalism and economic integration: the Austro-Hungarian empire in the late nineteenth century
This paper seeks to square two seemingly contradictory strands in the literature on economic development in the late nineteenth century Habsburg Empire. On the one hand there is an extensive historiography stressing the rise of nationalism and its close correlate of growing efforts to organise economic life along ethnolinguistic lines. On the other, there is a substantial body of research that emphasizes significant improvements in market integration across the empire as an outcome of diffusing industrialisation and an expanding railway network among other factors. We argue that the process of market integration was systematically asymmetric, shaped by intensifying intra-empire nationality conflicts. While grain markets in Austria-Hungary became overall more integrated over time, they also became systematically biased: regions with a similar ethno-linguistic composition of their population came to display significantly smaller price gaps between each other than regions with different compositions. The emergence and persistence of this differential integration cannot be explained by changes in infrastructure and transport costs, simple geographical features, asymmetric integration with neighbouring regions abroad or communication problems. Instead, differential market integration along ethno-linguistic lines was driven by the formation of ethno-linguistic networks due to intensifying conflict between groups – economic nationalism mattered.

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Žaneta Ozoliņa (University of Latvia, Department of Political Science) Human Security as a universal concept
Human Security (HS) is one of the concepts which have been embraced by academic and political community. Majority of concepts are developed by and inside the academic community and after discussions and applications in political discourse, transform into policies in order to land again on the field owned by scholars for their further scrutiny. HS concept developed at more rapid pace than others because of its inclusive character. It has been supported by international organizations, individual countries, communities, NGOs. Despite the progress that has been achieved in the domain of HS concept since 1992, the question remains unanswered – why only few countries and international organizations draft its policies based on the concept; why HS concept is applied more on developing countries, while developed world looks like a HS-free zone; why the EU and NATO, two institutions significantly contributing to HS in conflicting areas, are hesitant to incorporate the concept in their policies. Those questions lead to necessity to re-consider the concept and to introduce universal understanding of HS in the globalized world of the XXIst century. Žaneta Ozoliņa Affiliated as a professor to the Department of Political Science of the faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Latvia in Riga Lomonosva street 1A Riga, LV-1019, Latvia +371 67140533 zaneta.ozolina@lu.lv

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Sona Margaryan The EU conflict transformation policy in the South Caucasus. Where are the conflicts inside the EU?
Conflict resolution studies in the South Caucasus are connected with highly fragile towards conflicts role of the region, where all three countries of the region – Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia are considered as sides of severe conflicts. In this research I will be developing a new concept of European Model of World-System. Marian Borg in Conflict Management in the Modern World-System is analyzing the place of conflict management globally in correlation with the status of the states in the modern world-system according to the framework of Wallerstein’s world-system theory.1 The argument of Borg is that the status of the nations in the world-system is correlated with the primary mode of conflict management they use at a given time.2 The principles of “variable geometry” and “concentric circles” are the best concepts describing the division within the EU. R1: Where are the Ethnic Conflicts of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh situated within the EU Model of World System? The three countries of the South Caucasus fall into the category of peripherical countries for the European model of world-system. The EU as a sui generis entity can become a credible player for the conflict management to the extent it is interested in the security of its borders, prosperity and development. H1:The impossibility for the EU to bias itself in the conflict transformation process leads to beneficial for the EU manipulation with the conflicts. The EU is unlikely to offer membership to the countries of the region even in a medium or long-term perspective but it does not have credible means to impose conditionality in the region: a problem that has to be addressed and a solution has to be designed to innovatively address the issue.3 H2: The lack of credible means to address the conflicts weakens the EU role in the region. From 2003 the EU has become a more significant player in the region, especially in terms of security considerations appointing a Special Representative (EUSR) for the South Caucasus under the ESDP mission.4 ENP became another tool for the EU, involving the three countries of the region and then deepened under the Eastern Partnership, to address the region with allocating finances for the economic development building programs in the region.

1 Marian J. Borg, Conflict Management in the Modern World-System, Sociological Forum, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Jun., 1992), p. 261. 2 Ibid. 3 International Crisis Group, Conflict Resolution in the South Caucasus: the EU’s Role, Europe Report N°173 – 20 March 2006. 4 Ibid.
6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Bibliography Borg, J. Marian. Conflict Management in the Modern World-System. Sociological Forum, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Juni 1992), pp. 261–282. International Crisis Group, Conflict Resolution in the South Caucasus: the EU’s Role, Europe Report, N°173 – 20 March 2006. Sona Margaryan Affiliated as a Research Assistant at the Civilitas Foundation and graduated Political Science Department of Central European University in 2009–2010 in Budapest, Hungary. 52 Leningradyan str., apt. 92, Yerevan, Armenia +37493213988 margaryan.sona@yahoo.com

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Rajkovchevski Rade, MSc The Phenomenon of Security versus Europeanization, Globalization and Other Transnational Phenomena
In history, for Europe and the world were not unknown the transnational phenomena. Disparate in the past when the power and interests of the great empires defined the map of the world, today the globalization is motivated by the rapid social development of countries, from their desires for international cooperation in all areas and by the efforts to maintain peace and stability. Thus, in relatively peaceful Europe, Europeanization and globalization have become part of integration processes. That, in last decade had strengthened the initiatives of regional and global connectivity of countries on political, security, economic and other social basis. The motives for regional and international unification could be interpreted in multiple ways, i.e. in order to: achieve free movement of people and goods; united economic, political and security action in Europe in the case of EU; ensuring a high degree of security, dispersion of the national interests and domination in the international space through the most sophisticated collective security system – NATO; to accelerate democratic processes; enabling the rule of law; strengthening the fight against all forms of organized crime, and maybe (subconsciously) because of the release of historical barriers existed on the old continent and beyond. The paper is devoted to the analysis of security in Europe and beyond, as the phenomenon of globalization within existing instruments that offer security strategies of EU and NATO, memberships in regional security initiatives and anti-terrorist coalition. It also addresses the reasons that impose the need for joint security activities of the countries. Rade Rajkovchevski, MSc Affiliated as a Senior Fellow to the Faculty of Security from Skopje of the University “St.Kliment Ohridski” from Bitola in the Republic of Macedonia st. Idrizovo bb P.Box 103 1000 Skopje Republic of Macedonia +38970280075 raderaj@fb.uklo.edu.mk raderaj@yahoo.com

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Olexia Basarab The prospects of Transnistrian conflict resolution through Europeanization
Research paper is designed to examine the relevance of European integration for conflict settlement and resolution in Transnistria. Core questions are: what is the impact of European integration process in the region on conflict settlement and? How mediation efforts by EU and international organization influenced the region’s perspectives of European integration? What are the ways for further Europeanization of the resolution process? Working Hypothesis: Research hypothesis supposes that European integration policies can contribute to sustainable solutions to Transnistrian conflict resolution. EU approaches proved to be effective in Western Balkans, Transnistrian conflict differs: its ethnic component is weak, while important is third country’s role – Russia. However, the dynamics of political developments in Moldova, the effects of EU membership of Romania and European aspirations of Ukrainian political elites may facilitate the Europeanization of conflict resolution. The necessity of compliance of perspective EU entrants with Union’s requirements will impact on Europeanization on domestic politics, what is the major factor of normalization of the region. Europeanization is seen as a “processes of construction, diffusion and institutionalization of formal and informal rules, procedures, policy paradigms, styles, “ways of doing things” and shared beliefs and norms which are first defined and consolidated in the making of EU decisions and then incorporated in the logic of domestic discourse, identities, political structures and public policies”.5 This process was associated only with EU member states, but further the evidence of Europeanization processes was proved in neighbourhood states declared their European aspirations as well. Olexia Basarab Research Director Strategic and Security Studies Group Kyiv, Ukraine O.basarab@gmail.com basarab@gsbs.org.ua

5 Radaelli Claudio, Whither Europeanization? Concept stretching and substantive change, 2000. 24
Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

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Vanya Ivanova (Kardzhali Branch of Plovdiv University) Something about changing semanticsof a border, regional identity – Torlak – in the ideological contexts of europeanization and globalisation
A fundamental change in a semantics of word “Torlak”/”Turlak” caused by extra-linguistic factors is a main object of research here. Now-a-days “Torlak” means regional identification with geographically determined borders (mainly in North-Western Bulgaria and South Serbia) verified in linguistic and ethnologic works. From the beginning of 21st century the intensified popularizing of Torlak identity begins through highly-varied activities – regional folk fairs; museum expositions; poems written in Torlak dialect (transitional vernacular between Bulgarian and Serbian literary norms); local NGOs and choirs named “Torlak” or with similar derivative titles; “Torlaks” culture” is enlisted in a local municipalities” strategy for regional politics concerning cultural heritage (2007–2013) and others. In fact, these are strong, myth-creating activities that present Torlaks as an “imagined community” of brave, purposeful, practical, hospitable highlanders with a unique cuisine and dialect. At the same time, for “the others” – non-highlanders, “Torlak” is a mocking nickname for “poor, boor and narrow-minded man”. The last statement can be found in all one lingual dictionaries of Bulgarian literary language and many scientific and popular publications from the end of 19th century till now.

Among the extra-linguistic factors that play an important role in the above cited process of semantic change are: • improved bilateral diplomatic relations between Bulgaria and Serbia after 2001; • new opportunities given by European funds in the sphere of transnational cooperation in border regions with respective requirements for approaching to EU practices; • broader entering and using of new communication technologies (Internet, GSM) that intensified and make easier the movement of information; • “open borders” between both countries resulted mainly in movement of persons and better wished than real movement of merchandise and money that had to intensify cross-border trade contacts. At the same time national identities are not really damaged – above their regional identity Torlaks put Bulgarian or Serbian national identity. Also EU funding usually reaches its direct beneficiaries through institutions organized on a national level.

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Jan Mansvelt Beck (University of Amsterdam) Post-Sovereignty: Reframing the Basque Borderland?
Post-sovereignty implies the transfer of powers from the state to supra and sub-state levels. In the spheres of economy and security the loss of state sovereignty has resulted in the creation of new powerful supra-state entities, an increase in cross-border interaction and a decline of state power. Here the consequences of an emerging post-sovereign regime for the Basque borderland are described. The Basque case illustrates that despite the increase of cross-border interaction, the devolution of cultural powers has not resulted in new powerful politico-cultural entities. A greater Basque Country as imagined in Basque nationalist circles has not emerged. Instead the reality of a politically and culturally fragmented Basque society continues to exist. The root causes of cultural and political fragmentation of the Basque realm are longterm processes of state-centered cultural homogenization and a Basque nationalism lacking ideological and supra-local cohesion. Paradoxically the Basque cultural revival that takes place on both sides of the state border is the result of a widely supported interest in language revitalization. Although cross-border ethnonationalism exists, Basque cultural revival cannot be reframed as a transnational phenomenon because it is a result of devolution of powers within Spain and French top-down policies to promote regional languages. Dr Jan Mansvelt Beck Affiliated as a lecturer to the Department of Geography, Planning and International Development Studies at the University of Amsterdam Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam The Netherlands +31205254184 j.mansveltbeck@uva.nl

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Virginie Mamadouh (University of Amsterdam) Global tools for Europeanization: EU Tube
English and Internet are the emblematic tools of communication in present day globalization. This paper explores how they are deployed to serve Europeanization with an analysis of the forms and contents of the communication policy of the European Commission through the popular video sharing website YouTube. Mid2007 the European Commission launched a channel on YouTube dedicated to the European Union, called EU Tube, with the ambition to use the popularity of the YouTube site as a new mean of communication to reach a young audience among EU citizens. The site was originally trilingual – English, French and German – but it retains a strong bias towards the English page (more than ten times more hits than the French and German ones) and the announced introduction of other official EU languages has yet failed to materialize. The analysis focuses on issues related to the articulation of transnational integration, Europeanization and globalization, and more specifically on language and communication issues. The site also enables us to look at reactions of users to relevant videos. Virginie Mamadouh Affiliated as Associate Professor of Political and Cultural Gepgraphy to the Department of Geography, Planning and International Development Studies of the University of Amsterdam, in The Netheralands AISSR-GoG, Department of Geography, Planning and International Development Studies University of Amsterdam Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130 1018 VZ Amsterdam The Netherlands +31-20-525 4129 +31-20-525 4051 v.d.mamadouh@uva.nl http://virginiemamadouh.socsci.uva.nl/

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Ioana Raluca Balas (Babeş-Bolyai University, History and Philosophy, Security Studies student) Romania in the EU in 21st Century
The EU politics and policies tend to have the effect within the EU member states as the globalization has over the world. The effects and crisis are spreading with a ripple effect, proving how interrelated the EU states are. Despite these, there are scholars who consider that we can talk about a two speeds EU, with developed member states and those developing ones and with two etalons. Therefore, we can consider the migration policy one of it. The free movement of the persons it is one of the free movement principle. Schengen agreement was included within the EU policies. Because there are doubts that Romania will join Schengen in March, how it was scheduled, we can consider that there is a qualitative difference on its level of development, or it is just considered to be one. My paper will focus on that qualitative difference that differentiate Romania by the other EU countries. The introduction will present the progresses made by Romania in 21st century. In the second part, I will analyze the progresses made toward the implementation of the Schengen principles, in accordance with the European norms. In the third part, I will make an assessment in order to see of the European standards were adopted and respected and if Romania is ready to fully become a member one of the most sensitive European policies. The conclusion will present the effects of the Europeanization on the Romanian policies, and how this affected the internal and the external policy.

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

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Olga Kantokoski (University of Helsinki) Governing transnational policing? The European Union as a comprehensive external policing actor
The proposed paper purports at assessing the enabling and constraining factors intrinsic to the progressive construction of the European Union’s external dimension of police cooperation. The paucity of literature concerned with the EU external police and law enforcement collaboration suggests that scholars do not consider the EU be an important policing actor, even despite the fact that already in 1997 the Treaty of Amsterdam endowed the Union proper with implicit competence to conclude international treaties in the area of police and criminal justice cooperation. Traditionally, the EU has deployed its international actorness through its second pillar, or the Common Security and Defence Policy, alongside with its actions in the area of development, trade, or humanitarian projects, whereas external relations under the third pillar were researched merely as an outcome of the individual member states” interests channeled collectively – after the protracted bargaining process – through the Council. At the same time, contemporary practices in the EU policing increasingly include a missing foreign policy facet. It therefore appears essential to provide a more holistic overview of the process of institutionalization of the European Union’s police and law enforcement competence and to understand, first, whether the latter brings the added-value for the external relationship of the Union as an actor in the international affairs; second, to grasp whether the EU has managed to play any complementary role in external police cooperation apart from one enjoyed by the individual member states. It is claimed that the European Union has undertaken tangential but indispensible function in complementing the isolated bilateral initiatives by its member states with an additional layer of action via setting and streamlining the common strategic agenda in the international anti-crime agreements with the third states. Consequently, three major issues will be addressed throughout the course of the paper. The first part will start up with evaluating the cognitive and explicable potential of the major theoretical findings in the field of transnational law enforcement. Herewith the proposition is to be put forward that the state-centric perspective, albeit serving as credible theoretical starting point for explaining both strong emphasis on national sovereignty and the strong instrumental rationality inherent in such traditional international policing cooperative as Interpol, is not anymore sufficient for accounting for the “high political” variables intrinsic in dynamics of police cooperation at the European continent, and therefore needs to be complemented by interventions from the wider constructivist and governance approaches. The second part of the paper proceeds to the ambivalence of the EU internal policing model as a complicated policy universe deriving not only from intergovernmental, but gradually more from supranational elements of policy-making in the Union. Here the role and degree of engagement of the EU institutions wielding a supranational competence, namely the European Commission and the European Parliament, will be addressed in the framing of European internal
6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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policing identity. The third part will concentrate on the extent of integration of police cooperation into the EU external action. Police collaboration with the third parties will be considered as part and parcel of the EU’s ambition to build up the broader Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, in certain ways comparable to one that propelled the creation of Single market. Three forms of institutionalization of the EU external police cooperation – the Eastern enlargement policy, the European Neighbourhood Policy, and Common Space of Freedom, Security and Justice (Russia) – will be addressed as examples of the Union’s strategy to decentralize to the “near abroad” the management of criminal threats. Olga Kantokoski Affiliated as a part-time lecturer and a doctoral student to the Department of Economics and Political Science of the University of Helsinki Unioninkatu 37, PL 54, 00014, Helsinki olga.kantokoski@helsinki.fi

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

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Ana Pavlović (University of Belgrade, Faculty of Political Sciences) Standardization of National Legal Systems in the EU Realm: Path Towards One Superstate?
In the introduction of the paper, author is bringing forward some historical examples of social globalization in European history. Some of the examples of this globalization dimension are exchange of ideas, migrations, growing number of the democracies in the world and, consequently, the increasing importance of the international law regulation. The main part of the work is focused on the explanation of the complex interaction between the European Union and national legal systems of its actual and potential members. Could these changes de jure lead us eventually to the alteration de facto and create single European identity, one EU state? Author will discuss about this possibility, argument pro et contra reasons of this oldnew phenomena. In addition, she is stressing some positive aspects of this Europe-wide equalizations of laws and jurisprudences. Nevertheless, some controversies of the globalization will also be pointed out to, especially in the security issues, such are illegal migrations, the gulf between some EU members. In the conclusion, the EU question is placed between two important theories of international relations – liberal institutionalism and (neo) classic realism, proceeding with the prospective of this unique transnational institution.

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Robin de Bruin (University of Amsterdam) European Integration as a Cause for Change of Dutch Domestic Politics, 1948–1958.
Between the congress in The Hague for a united Europe in May 1948, and 1954, when the European Political Community (EPC) and the European Defense Community were withdrawn from the political agenda in Western Europe, many Dutch politicians seemed to expect the quick realisation of a united Europe or (after 1950) even a federal Europe. The experience with the horrors of totalitarianism during the Second World War had spawned enthusiasm for the European cause. Nevertheless, the motivation for this enthusiasm varied strongly. The spokesmen of the Dutch Labour Party drew the conclusion that socio-economic justice provided by a European socio-economic policy could prevent future attraction to totalitarian ideologies like Communism. However, within the Orthodox Protestant ARP freedom was conceived as freedom from state power. Many politicians of the „anti-statist” ARP regarded the integration of Europe as a means to increase welfare without having to create a (national) „totalitarian welfare state”. Most Dutch political parties presented European integration more or less as a means for achieving their respective ideological aims. But at the same time, the expectation of „Europe” caused ideological restraint in Dutch domestic politics, which became an article of faith for many Dutch politicians. The Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) was strongly reproached by Dutch Labour politicians for its „stubborn Socialism” and its objections to the Schuman Plan, which SPD-leader Kurt Schumacher saw as a Catholic plan for the creation of a capitalistic “Europe”. My paper compares the reasoning in support of European integration by Dutch politicians, as well as the images of the future “Europe” these politicians imagined. Secondly, this paper will deal with the subject of “Europeanisation” as a cause for change of Dutch domestic politics.

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

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Csaba Máté Sarnyai (PhD Associate Professor at Károli Gáspár University, Budapest) and Tibor Pap (PhD Candidate University of Szeged) Integration, anti-discrimination, assimilation? – Aspects of the Sarazzin-case in minority politics
The political “still water” of this summer was – not a little – stirred by a book from this member of the Executive Board of the Deutsche Bundesbank. The work,6 visioning the self-destruction of Germany not only led the German best-selling chart in August, but the addressed problem also shaped the daily political debate by the end of the month. According to what the author and his critics have communicated, it can be summed up as follows: insufficient integration of immigrants and the striking birth rate differences (the latter increasing the proportion of immigrants) leads to the dulling of Germany. Our wish is neither to join the war of numbers about the quite simplifying utterance or to enter the theoretical discourse about it being politically correct or not. Rather, the point is the (to us) locally relevant discussion of the socio-theoretical context which defines the integration of minorities Europe-wide. In minority politics, the issue of modes of integration is of central importance, concerning either “historical” minorities or “immigrants’. To look beyond this formal distinction: in both cases, the institutional opportunities of communities with a non-majority identity is at stake. Basically, the question is: if such institutions, taken for granted by the majority, as the educational system are escalating the general differences between communities, or the state is able to mitigate or eliminate these disadvantages – with aimed and deliberate effort. As to the solution/treatment of the problem, the question who arrived and when did arrive at a given area is irrelevant. The “critical discourse” based on fundamental human rights (human rights approach for short) is quite embedded in Western European publicity. It assumes that the ideas of the majority societies concerning minorities can be shaped by aggressive persuasion, it also assumes that it is the responsibility of the state to create the conditions for integration. The ripples in publicity around the Sarrazin-case show that it is not that simple, even in Germany, where the affinity toward the human rights approach is quite high. According to the recent Politbarometer-survey (ZDF, 10.09.2010.) 38% of the Germans think that the state should do more to further the integration (while 21% believes it already takes on to much). A more important data: according to 68%, the immigrants should also do more for the issue (and only 24% thinks that immigrants” efforts are sufficient). These may be Chancellor Merkel’s reasons for rephrasing her views after having previously refused the Sarrazin-theses and today she is for the “supervising the integration questions without taboos” in this – reader discretion is advised. In order to achieve the latter goal, the framework for establishing the so-called “additive bilingualism” must be created. (The other,

6 Deutschland schafft sich ab. Wie wir unser Land aufs Spiel setzen – Germany Does Away with Itself. How We Put our Country on the Line, DVA, 2010.
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more common practice is pursuing the so-called subtractive bilingualism: let them speak Turkish (or Hungarian) at home, but in order to prevail in the job market, they have to master the majority language already in school. This practice is what the human rights approach calls – rightfully – linguistic genocide, a quite sharp way to put it, similarly to the Sarrazin dictum. Yet, the mode of the expression, even if somewhat exaggerating/crooked, does not nullify its truth). Yet, the majority is rarely susceptible to any merely theoretically based, fierce “dosage of truth” if it supports a lessthan-positive general result for them. Instead, it tends to adopt and attempt to divert some particular pessimistic scenario. How can Germany avoid dulling? For example, if Germans and non-Germans in Germany (i.e. Muslims, Turkish, Russians, Serbians, Arabs) can create (schaffen) the new integrative perspective cooperatively, with institutionalized state guarantees, retaining own identities (i.e. languages, cultures) and synchronizing it with the given social conditions. Only this way will be Germany, and Europe too, able to protect itself from internal social challenges. The non-27 rest of Europe can only hope for this to happen as soon as possible and to appear among the so-called democracyconditions of the expansion perspectives. It is expected of new Europeans to be more European than Europeans. And this would prove beneficial not only for the minority communities.

Csaba Mate Sarnyai PhD. Affiliated as an Associate Professor at the Department of General Humanities Faculty of Art of the Karoli Gaspar University of Hungarian Reformed Church in Budapest 6726 Szeged Korondi street 4/A. +36 70 376 5479 sarnyaim@rel.u-szeged.hu

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

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Batizán Emese Emőke Parallel society? Expatriates in Hungary
In the focus of my research are all those individuals who live in Hungary, mainly in Budapest and belong to the category of expatriates. Expatriates can be considered those individuals who “live for a longer period far away from their place and country of birth and have a very important role in assuring the flow of international business” (Rédei, 2007). One of my first research questions is whether these individuals can be categorized as one expatriate community or conform to the ethnic/national/linguistic/religious belonging of each individual we have to differentiate more expatriate communities in Hungary that are mainly centralized in Budapest. In which circumstances do they form one community, and in which circumstances is this community broken to more subgroups? Moreover, we need to answer the question: who is an expatriate today in Hungary? What kind of financial sources do expatriates mainly have? What kind of norms and values do they follow? What kind of cultural codes do they acquire and use? What kind of languages do they use in their everyday life and where are they emotionally and economically connected in a higher degree: to their emissive or to their host societies. Given the fact that expatriate individuals can be entitled very often transmigrants as well (however, these two categories do not overlap each other) the emissive society and host society terminology needs to be changed to the country of origin and country of actual settlement phrases. This differentiation is very important, given the fact that life trajectories of transmigrants cannot be imagined on a linear continuum from A point to B, but rather there are created transnational social spaces where several locales and several actors are included. (Nina Glick Schiller, Blanc Szanton, Basch in Portes, 1999.) References Portes, Alejandro (1999) Conclusion: Towards a New Model: the Origins and Effects of Transnational Activities. In Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22 (4): 463–477. Rédei Mária (2007) Hazautalások Kelet- és Közép-Európába. In Statisztikai Szemle, Volume 85. Nr. 7. p. 587.

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Lia Versteegh (University of Amsterdam) Feature of modern Europeanization: Trafficking in Human Beings
The crime of trafficking in human being proves to be a major challenge for law enforcement and the Courts in Europe. The recent treaty on the European Union, the so-called Lisbon treaty makes the concept of human rights to a cornerstone for European Union policy. The Council of Europe has given definitions of Trafficking in Human Beings; recently in the European Union laws on trafficking and exploitation have been issued. However, the European Union does not give real definitions of the terms trafficking and exploitation and the law doesn’t provide for enforceability powers. The judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 7 January 2010 in case Rantsev versus Cypres and Russia7 that deals with the breach of Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights which provision prohibits slavery, servitude, and compulsory labor is more clear on the very topic. As the European Union is supposed to adhere to the European Convention of Human Rights in 2010 and in doing so will be subjected to the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights the question will whether the European Union should place the topic of trafficking in human beings under the heading of the protection of human rights ( as the Council of Europe does) and it should guarantee enforceability powers to the victims of trafficking in human beings. Dr C.R.M. Lia Versteegh Europese Studies University of Amsterdam Spuistraat 134 1012 VB Amsterdam

7 Judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 7 January 2010, Rantsev versus Cyprus and Russia (application no. 25965/04). 36
Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

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F. J. Companjen (VU University Amsterdam) Globalization and NGOs in Georgia
In a nutshell, in the literature NGOs are generally depicted as mediators and/or intermediary organizations8 between global donors and local inhabitants with specific needs, between the State and the individual, as a “third sector” between the first governmental and second market sector. In the practice of development projects in Georgia, Western donors generally also assume9 that NGOs mediate between local actors and governmental and/or foreign structures. The goal of this article is to show that this Western donor assumption on the place of Georgian NGOs in social space and on the assumed role of mediator, was inaccurate before the Revolution of Roses.
Global regimes and actors Governmental Structures/actors (1st sector) post-Soviet period (promies of democracy)

NGOs NGOs (3rd sector)

(pre-)Soviet legacy

voters, groups, social movements

Local (labour)market (2nd sector), needs, traditions

Figure 1: Western donor assumption of NGOs located in social space and time.

8 Put (1993) claims NGOs are “intermediary organizations involved in the development activities”. 9 E.g. ISAR (Institute for Soviet American Relations).
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The work of NGOs is also often framed in the actor-structure debate. This debate has been rekindled under the influence of globalization.10 Social actors are now not exclusively related to national structures and institutions, but are also in some way caught up in transnational advocacy networks.11 Some of the donor and development aid organizations whose mission is to enhance democracy and human rights in the world (UN, USAID, NDI, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, GTZ) are examples of such transnational institutions. These transnational organizations are fully present in the Georgian context as well. In view of these arguments and since the transition of Georgia entails reforming and creating institutions along democratic lines, through the work and effort of social actors, we frame this process in the actor-structure debate.12 The article is based on about 200 open interviews held in Georgia in the period 1997–2002 and on a survey held in 2007.

Dr Francoise Companjen Affiliated as a lecturer to the Faculty of Social Sciences of the VU University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam + 31 20 5986723 f.j.companjen@vu.nl

10 Trouillot (2001): “The Individual and the State in the age of Globalization’ 11 See M. Keck & K. Sikkink (1998) on transnational advocacy networks. 12 This debate is also referred to as agency and structure, or the actor-institution debate. 38
Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

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Andra-Mirona Dragotesc (Babeş-Bolyai University) The EUropean politics of addressing violence against women
As international/ transnational politics focuses increasingly on the issue of violence against women, the European Union is no exception. During the last two decades the politics and policies of the EU have brought violence against women on the EUropean political agenda. From responses to wartime violence against women worldwide or even inside the European continent, to the initiation of transnational laws regarding domestic violence, the European Union has focused increasingly on this issue. This paper aims firstly at providing a historical perspective over transferring the matter of violence against women from the private to the public (European) sphere. In doing so it will position the EU in the global framework of political action regarding this issue and aim to describe and analyze its role within it. Thus, the EUropean politics of addressing violence against women will be analyzed in an interdisciplinary theoretical framework combining European studies and international relations by focusing on the acquis communautaire, EU officials” declarations and positiontaking in various situations, EU institutions work, European transnational non-governmental organizations actions, the relations between EUropean ways of addressing violence against women and other such instances worldwide. Eventually, this will allow for a problematization of potential processes of identity construction within this political framework. Does tackling the matter of violence against women involve the definition of EUropean citizenship in connection to this issue? Does it bring about questions of political, but also socio-cultural membership and, furthermore, of constructing europeanness by relating it to the politics of addressing violence against women? If so, what are the consequences of these constructions from a theoretical perspective intersecting notions of feminist critical theory, political sociology and post-nationalism? Thus, my research firstly focuses on describing the framework of an EUropean politics of addressing violence against women in order to subsequently pursue an analysis of this politics in terms of identity construction processes. Andra Mirona Dragotesc Affiliated as a PhD candidate in Sociology to the Faculty of European Studies of the Babeş-Bolyai University Gender Studies Center, Cladirea Sinagoga a Universitatii Babeş-Bolyai Croitorilor street, nr. 13, room 9, 400162 Cluj-Napoca Romania +40 723158191 andra.dragotesc@ubbcluj.ro andra.mirona@gmail.com

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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Cornelia Hülmbauer (University of Vienna) Speaking globally: beyond boundaries with English as a lingua franca
In a society which is characterised by transnational cooperation, extensive mobility and new media we are often faced with high linguistic diversity. This brings about the need for intercultural modes of communication. A wide-spread and frequently chosen option these days is English as a lingua franca (ELF) – the use of English as a common communicative means between participants who do not share a primary lingua-cultural background. The main focus of this paper is on how ELF forms part of Europeans’ plurilingual repertoires and how it is actually being used in multicultural contexts. Extracts of naturally-occurring talk are taken to illustrate that ELF usage does not just mean making use of “the English language” as conventionally conceived, but realising its potential as a communicative resource. The paper addresses ways in which the lingua franca constitutes a move beyond linguistic boundaries: on the one hand, through strategic adaptation of the language according to individual communicative purposes, and on the other hand, through flexible exploitation of plurilingual elements within ELF. In other words, ELF usage highlights general processes such as accommodation, hybridisation and integration of linguistic resources which are at work when people “speak globally”. In conclusion, it is argued that in ELF communication globalisation processes do not only bring to light the arbitrary nature of geographical/political borders but also reveal the artificiality of assumed (national) language boundaries. Ultimately thus, the
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phenomena observed in ELF talk are likely to have crucial implications for future conceptualisations of the nature of ‘languages’ as a whole. Cornelia Hülmbauer Affiliated as a researcher to the Department of English and American Studies of the University of Vienna in the European FP6 project DYLAN (Language Dynamics and Management of Diversity) Department of English, University of Vienna University Campus AAKH Hof 8 Spitalgasse 2-4, A-1090 Vienna, Austria (+431) 4277 424 68 cornelia.huelmbauer@univie.ac.at

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Prof. dr. Mustafa Ibrahimi and Amra Alik (SEE University Tetevo, Macedonia) Global processes’ influence on national languages’ international status
Historically, multilingualism has been and continues to be present in many parts of world and various period, such as, medieval eastern and central Europe, which was linked to trade, religion, education etc. In many cases multilingualism was limited to a certain group in one language population. But the international exchange of all types and establishing modern supranational institutions like the European Union, was not possible without relying on language for extensive communication. In this situation one of the international languages – English, as the leading language worldwide – but also French, German, Spanish, Russian, Arabic and Chinese – in one or another way – preserved their relevance. With the strengthening of global processes other national languages somehow lost their international status, and some regional and local languages have long been under the threat of extinction, while some of them are on the brink of it. Does globalization of English poses a threat to many languages that are in contact with it? In our assignment we present four models of linguistic ecology: hyper-central, super-central, central and peripheral languages. Does this trigger a conflict between globalization and preservation of the existing diversity? This will be the biggest challenge for the Europeans themselves and for their languages.

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Nóra Schleicher Global English
My paper focuses on an important phenomenon of globalization, the spread of the English language. The number of people speaking English increases day by day, just as the number of areas where English becomes the exclusively used language. English is the language in which the highest number of books is published; it is the language of the leading scientific papers as well as of most international conferences. Increasingly, it is becoming the language of higher education in many countries. It is the language of pop music, of air-navigation, of the financial world, English is the organizational language at many multinational companies, even in those where none of the owners comes from English speaking countries, and we could continue the list. Of course, such a widespread use of one language at the expense of others is not unprecedented. In Europe Latin played this role in the Middle Ages and, to a lesser extent, French at the end of the 18th century. However, the spread of English poses many important questions to address. The paper discusses arguments for and against the spread of English in the world, and more closely within the European Union. It examines the debated theory of linguistic imperialism by presenting arguments from both proponents and opponents of the theory. I also discuss counter effects of localisation, by looking at the question of minority and lesser used languages within the context of the EU’s language policy.
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Finally, the paper offers a short analysis of one concrete example taken from a larger empirical research which shows how the strategic use of elements of the English language within Hungarian served special, identity building functions. Through the example I would like to call attention to the analytical importance of force v. choice in analysing the language situation in any given context. Dr. Nóra Schleicher received her PhD in sociology at the University of ELTE. She is assistant professor at Budapest College of Communication and Business. Her main research interest is focused on the relationship of language, power and identity. She has researched and published in the area of bilingualism and gender and language. She teaches courses in media sociology, qualitative research methods, gender and media and gender and language, both in Hungarian and in English.

Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Blagojka Zdravkovska-Adamova and Natasha Zdravkovska-Stojanovska (South East Europe University, Macedonia) Theoretical perspectives on the relationship between linguistic functions and socio-cultural framework
Communicative values are also included in the contemporary linguistic research throughout its qualification. In addition, every text has its own surrounding, and, quite frequently, a text cannot be fully understood on its own, outside of its surrounding which explains it to a larger or smaller extent. The text surrounding is referred to as context. As a result, when answering the question: What makes a text a text?, the seven standards of textuality are included – cohesion, coherence, intentionality, acceptability, informativity, situationality and intertextuality. Out of these seven, only the first two are directly related to the text, whereas the rest refer to the relations between the language and the relevant features of the speaker or listener: material, socio-logical, social and ideological surrounding. Therefore, the following conditions: the interlocutor, i.e. all the participants (both direct and indirect), the relationship between them, their pragmatic experience, and the overall social framework in which the interaction takes place, influence the final meaning of a linguistic utterance. Another important concept when qualifying the text is texture. It is a result of the combination of semantic configurations that are typically related to the situational context and qualify the content of the text, including all the components of its meaning: social, expressive, communicative etc. Cohesion is a sum of relations related to meaning which are general to all text types and which differentiate a text from a non-text and which mutually relate the text elements related to meaning.

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Sanda Lucija Udier (University of Zagreb) Croatian Language in the Process of Globalisation
The aim of this speech will be to show the influence of globalisation and europeanisation on the development of the Croatian language over the past 20 years. Globalisation has brought about the unification of languages and cultures and because of that fact, these processes impact big languages differently from smaller. According to some estimates, in just 100 years approximately 90% of the world’s languages will die out due to globalisation. Because of that, many nations have developed different strategies to protect and preserve their national languages. Croatian belongs to a group of small languages (approximately 4.500.000 speakers in Croatia) and it has been affected in a similar manner to that of other languages of comparable size. By this, we see that English is especially influential, dissemination of a lexical system, development of terminology, especially in regards to legal, political and technical terminology, as well as the development of „bad“ language in media and on Internet etc. But Croatian case also has its specifics. Croatia gained its independence from the former Yugoslavia 20 years ago and Croatian as a separate language became an overriding political issue and vital for Croatia’s sense of national identity. Croatian is very similar to both Serbian and Bosnian and because they were previously presented as one language, the socalled Serbo-Croatian language in both the former Yugoslavia and abroad, Croatian has started to develop its own strategies to highlight its difference from both Serbian and Bosnian and has fought to be denoted as its own separate language.
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Dr. sc. Sanda Lucija Udier Affiliated as a senior langauge instructor to the Department od Croatian Studies of Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciencies of the University of Zagreb in Zagreb, Croatia Sanda Lucija Udier, Odsjek za kroatistiku, Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Ivana Lučića 3, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia +38 599 230 3115 sanda-lucija.udier@zg.t-com.hr

Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Nadiya Trach (National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Kyiv, Ukraine) Language policy in contemporary Ukraine: National identity vs multilingualism
The problem of language policy in Ukraine has been analyzed by numerous scholars: linguists (J. Besters-Dilgers, B. Azhniuk, L. Masenko, O. Kalynovs’ka, Yu. Shimeki, H. Shevchuk), sociologists (H. Zalizniak), lawyers (V. Vasylenko, B. Baurring), political scientists (V. Kulyk, S. Shumliansky, O. Medvedev), and anthropologists (V. Skvirska) etc. Nevertheless, the problem is still urgent – political changes in the country influence not only the sphere of economics and international relations, but also the fields of language, culture, and history. This paper attempts to describe the language situation in Ukraine, which is recognized as one of the most sophisticated in the PostSoviet region. In the country, critics often call the language problem the pre-election toy in the politicians’ hands. Bilingualism, and problems associated with it, has been increasingly prevalent since Victor Yanukovych became the President of Ukraine. In contrast, the policy of ex-President Victor Yuschenko and his team was oriented to European traditions and values: the practice of majority of European states provides national language with state status and gives linguistic rights to ethnic minorities. Ukraine as a typical postcolonial Post-Soviet state is under the strong influence of the Russian media; the majority of mass-media in Central, East, and South Ukraine are broadcasted and published in Russian. Most notably in the educational sphere, the new-comer politicians (Party of Regions) are intensifying Russian influence through their draft law on language, among other political decisions. This new draft law on languages that proposes widening of Russian language functions has caused numerous protests by NGO movements. Cultural leaders also criticized the draft law as a way to relegate Ukrainian as “a language imprisoned in a folklore-ghetto,” as compared to language policy of previous Ukrainian presidents that provided “compromises for European perspective”. The paper describes the language policy not only synchronically, but also demonstrates some diachronic aspects; especially for comparison with previous Ukrainian power (Victor Yuschenko and his team, Yulia Tymoshenko and her team). It applies different methods: functional, policy-modeling, discourse-analysis, systematic method and so on. The paper is interdisciplinary, describing both the aspects of political sciences and lingual situation. Finally, it implies a number of practical recommendations about language planning and language policy. Nadiya Trach Affiliated as a Senior Lecturer to the Department of Ukrainian Language, Faculty of Humanities of the National University of ”KyivMohyla Academy” in Kyiv, Ukraine. Post address: 04070, b.2, 3-304, Skovorody str., Kyiv, Ukraine +38 096 683 9876 krasiya@yahoo.com

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Anikó Beregszászi and Viktória Ferenc Multilingualism at a minority university – one of the projection of globalization
Nowadays universities supposed to transmit not only knowledge in a classical sense, but also practical skills which are easily convertible in the labour market. Commands of different languages are definitely among these skills. Keywords of modern education like horizontal mobility, life long learning, competitiveness demand good command of languages. That is why, teaching foreign languages or use another language than the national one as a medium of instruction is quite common in higher education worldwide. In case of a minority university (like the Transcarpathian Hungarian Collage in Ukraine) the linguistic aims are more complex. First of all education in the mother tongue (the minority language) is very important from the point of keeping identity and language maintenance. Nevertheless the language of the majority and one/ or two foreign language is also required in order to realize integration to the wider society. In the ‘borderless’ Europe teaching intellectuals through the medium of only one (and not a world) language is an out-of-date idea. If minority universities was organised in order to make minority people to integrate than there is no other option then joining European trends by organising multilingual degree programmes. In our presentation we would like to show how the Transcarpathian Hungarian College handles the mentioned challenges. Anikó Beregszászi Affiliated as a lecturer to the Department of Hungarian Philology, Faculty of Arts of the Transcarpathian Hungarian College named after Ferenc Rákóczi II. of Berehovo in Ukraine. Berehovo, Lehoczky str. 39. Ukraine, 90200 +38 050 580 3991 baniko@kmf.uz.ua Viktória Ferenc Affiliated as a PHD-student to the PhD programme of Applied Linguistics, Doctoral School of Linguistics, Faculty of Arts of the University of Pécs in Hungary Pallo, Main street 1. Ukraine, 89430 +38 097 793 2451 fevikt@gmail.com

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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Arundhati Bhattacharya (Erasmus Mundus Scholar) The Two Phases of Entwining of Globalisation and Europeanisation in the Arena of Higher Education (HE) Policy Making in Europe: Continuity or Quantum Leap?
The paper looks at the two phases (Post World War till early 60s and late 90s to present) of entwining of the two colossal forces of globalisation and Europeanisation in the field of HE policy making in Europe. The first phase saw the beginnings of institutional Europeanisation while globalisation was slowly finding its space. The scourge of war along with the new circumstances created by globalisation called for the European states to come together. It was also important to refurbish the HE policy according to the need of the hour. However, in this phase a “European” HE policy was unconceivable. Back to the present (late 90s onward) one can see a more aggressive form globalisation with global monetary flows, global market and global labour forces. All of which can strive only with high technology and a high skilled labour. Therefore in the new era the economy started to dictate the labour competences and the education framework thus marrying education with economy. The Bologna Declaration made in 1999 (later Bologna Process) witnessed the idea of European Higher Education Area, a concept “unconceivable” in the earlier post World War phase. The paper attempts to find out, through the prism of the European HE policy, if the two phases of globalisation were a continuous trajectory where the former phase developed into the later or if there was a quantum leap between globalisation before and after its watershed “modern conceptualisation” (Nye and Keohane, 1971)

6–7 May 2011 • Budapest College of Communication and Business

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BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

BUDAPESTI KOMMUNIKÁCIÓS ÉS ÜZLETI FÔISKOLA

Budapest College of Communication and Business H-1148, Budapest, Nagy Lajos király útja 1-9. +36 (1) 273 3095
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Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations