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1

**Op-Amp Circuits
**

Zack Phillips and Jenna Rock

gain circuits are located in Figures 5, 6, and 7. For Figures 2, 3, and 4 the input is shown in red and the output is shown in green.

Abstract—This lab illustrates the function of an inverting, differentiating, and integrating Op-Amp circuit.

I. INTRODUCTION HIS lab demonstrates the operation characteristics of an inverting, differentiating, and integrating Op-Amp circuit. The frequency effects of these Op-Amps are also analyzed. II. PROCEDURE A. Equations The equations used for the lab preparation were as follows:

T

RA −1 2. Vo = sR1C2

3. Vo = VC −

1. Av = −

Rf

Figure 2: Gain of -1

1 v1(t ' )dt ' R1C 2 ∫ 0

1

These equations provided values to compare the simulation and hands-on measurements to. B. Inverting Op-Amp Circuit. The circuit shown in Figure 1 was the circuit used to build the inverting amplifier. The tool used to simulate the circuit was National Instrument’s Multisim software package.

3

7 1 5

Figure 3: Gain of -10

U1

6

0

R3 1k

2 11

3

2

1

V2 12 V

4

1k R1 0.2 Vpk 500 Hz 0° 0 Vsig

741

4

12 100k R2

Figure 4: Gain of -100 Figure 1: Inverting Op-Amp The inverting Op-Amp circuit in Figure 1 was designed and tested with three different gains. The first gain was -1, the second was -10, and the last was -100. The corner frequencies for each circuit were calculated and recorded in Table 1. The resistor values for each gain are also located in Table 1. A plot of the gain for the -1, -10, and -100 are located in Figures, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Bode plots for the -1, -10, and -100

Figure 5: Bode plot for gain of -1

To get a non clipped wave form on the 100 gain circuit shown in Figure 10. the input voltage had to be decreased 0. The differentiating Op-Amp circuit is located in Figure 11. Theses were the same settings for Figure 10. Figure 10: Gain of -100 As expected. the input is shown in red and the output is shown in green. but the output was set to five volts per division. A differentiating Op-Amp was constructed that accepts a triangular wave and outputs a square wave.394MHz Freq. Table 1: Inverting Op-Amp Values The output plots of the physically built circuits are contained in Figures 8.Op-Amps Applications 2 Figure 6: Bode plot for gain of -10 Figure 7: Bode plot for gain of -100 Gain -1 -10 -100 Rf 1K 1K 1K Ra 1K 10K 100K Corner 488. and the physical circuit output is located in figure 13. Differentiating Op-Amp Circuit. VCC 15V VCC 0 R2 7 1 5 1k C1 XFG1 4.6KHz 1. and 10. The input was one volt per division. the values for the computer simulation closely followed the results of the physical circuit. C. 9.1 V. In order to be able to see all of the output for Figure 9. Figure 9: Gain of -10 Figure 12: Differentiator Simulation Output . The output plot generated by the simulation is located in Figure 12.273MHz 1.7nF Vin 1 3 3 U1 6 2 4 R1 1k VDD 741 Vout Figure 8: Gain of -1 0 VDD -15V Figure 11: Differentiating Op-Amp. the setting had to be altered slightly. For Figure 12.

An integrating Op-Amp was designed such that an input square wave was converted to a triangular wave. VDD -15V Figure 14: Integrating Op-Amp circuit The output from the computer simulation is located in Figure 15.Op-Amps Applications 3 Figure 16: Integrator Circuit Output Figure 13: Physical Differentiator Output. 1k R1 XFG1 Vin 1k 1 3 3 U1 6 2 4 741 Vout C1 0 4. This drop in voltage resolved the distortion issue. the input voltage was reduced to 1V peak to peak. For Figure 15. D. Integrating Op-Amp. the input is shown in green and the output is shown in red. To fix this problem. and the physical circuit output is located in Figure 16. It also showed how accurately a computer simulation tool can model the operation of real-world Op-Amp circuits. and the new output is shown in Figure 17. VCC 15V VCC 0 R2 7 1 5 As shown in the results of the physical circuit. Figure 15: Integrator Circuit Simulation Results . the given parameters of a 10V peak to peak square wave causes a distortion in the top of the output triangular wave. CONCLUSION This lab demonstrated how versatile the Op-Amp can be. III.7nF VDD Figure 17: Corrected circuit output. The integrating Op-Amp circuit is located in Figure 14.

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