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“Progress towards the Attainment of MDGs in Bangladesh”

Submitted To Md. Tanvir Pavel
Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Business ASA University Bangladesh

Submitted By
Serial No. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Tanveer Islam Rumana Mollik Reazul Islam Shaiful Islam Sumia Sultana ID No. 081-12-0154 081-12-0080 081-12-0137 081-12-0142 081-12-0118

Date of Submission: 22th October, 2009

Letter of Transmittal
20th December, 2009 Md. Tanvir Pavel Lecturer, Faculty of Business ASA University Bangladesh.

Subject: Submission of research paper on “Progress towards the attainment of MDGs in Bangladesh”

Sir, We would like to inform you that by the grace of almighty Allah we have completed our research work according to your direction. We have gathered a lot of knowledge by collecting information to prepare this assignment. We think that, this research work will help us in our personal, corporate and our student life. We believe that a clear & complete concept about Progress towards the attainment of MDGs in Bangladesh is so important for every person. So, lots of thanks to you, for giving such informational research work.

We, therefore, hope that you would kindly accept our research work paper. Yours Faithfully MD. Tanveer Islam On behalf of Group A Section 3D, 3rd Batch Faculty of business ASA University Bangladesh.

Acknowledgement At first we would like to thank our honorable course teacher MD. Tanvir Pavel for assigning us such kind of topic and his co-ordination and supervision for conducting us this assignment. Special recognition also goes to ASA University for giving us this chance to make this assignment. This assignment is required for the BBA degree and also for increasing our knowledge about the progress and the chance of attaining the MDG in Bangladesh. .

.Progress toward the attainment of MDGs in Bangladesh.

are a set of quantified and time-bound goals to reduce extreme poverty.Abstract The Millennium Development Goals. While Bangladesh seems to be on track to achieve some of the MDGs such as universal primary education and gender parity. and deprivation of the world’s poorest people. . disease. This paper highlights these goals and assesses Bangladesh’s achievements in the first five years after the adoption of the Declaration and its prospects to reach the goals by the 2015 deadline. International cooperation in the form of greater aid flows and trade liberalization by richer nations to allow greater market access for the country’s exports will be needed to accelerate the country’s economic growth. which is crucial to the attainment of the MDGs. set forth in the UN Millennium Declaration 2000. the prospects in other areas appear doubtful.

sustainable environment and strengthening inter country co-ordination for development.23 percent.Introduction Millennium Development Goals are made for develop the socio-economic condition. and invest in their people through health care and education. Mid-way through to the 2015 target of MDGs attainment. gender equality. Set for the year 2015. already bringing down the poverty gap ratio to 9 against 2015 target of 8 with the rate of poverty reduction being 1. maternal health. and aim at combating child mortality. containing the spread and fatality of malaria and tuberculosis.34 percent in relation to the required rate of 1. Responding to the world's main development challenges and to the calls of civil society. With regard to targets such as expansion of primary and secondary education. A midterm review of progress at the aggregate level shows that Bangladesh is making progressive strides in reducing poverty. Bangladesh has covered significant grounds and can safely be said to be on track in relation to most of the targets. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147 heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000. through aid. gender equality. Bangladesh’s advancement towards MDGs is evident in human development. for example attainment of gender parity in primary and secondary school enrolment. debt relief. health. education. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have been adopted by the United Nations. access . Rich countries have pledged to support them. In order to achieve 8 pre determined targeted progress in poverty. the MDGs are an agreed set of goals that can be achieved if all actors work together and do their part. education. Poor countries have pledged to govern better. The MDGs represent a global partnership that has grown from the commitments and targets established at the world summits of the 1990s. which contain a set of development activities agreed upon during a series of global conferences over the preceding decade. AIDS and other diseases. the MDGs promote poverty reduction. reforestation. and fairer trade. infant and child mortality rate. Bangladesh is committed to fulfill the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015.

Yet another challenge that Bangladesh faces is in addressing certain pockets of poverty that are lagging far behind with respect to the national averages and where the benefits of MDGs attainment need to be specifically reached. They are also basic human rights-the rights of each person on the planet to health. the environment and human rights . education.essential steps for the advancement of humankind. the hill tracts. These areas include the urban slums. higher living standards and new opportunities. education. although currently on track. committing their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty and setting out a series of time-bound targets. a series of collective priorities for peace and security. and environmental sustainability. the convened leaders set down the Millennium Declaration. hunger. However. should be focused on more. poverty reduction. particularly in the backdrop of recent flood and cyclones. Maternal mortality. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the world's time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty. and security. for bio-diversity. as well as for the immediate . improving maternal health is a major concern. specially the wet lands. To begin addressing these crises back in 2000. The nations were interconnected as never before. with increased globalization promising faster growth. disease.to safe drinking water and sanitation latrines especially in urban areas. and exclusion-while promoting gender equality. lack of adequate shelter. Bangladesh has done remarkably and may well reach several of these targets before the stipulated time. shelter. Access to safe drinking water and sanitary latrines particularly in the rural areas is also an aspect where focus is required. among the challenges that Bangladesh faces. coastal belts and other ecologically vulnerable areas. The country is also struggling in terms of maintaining protected areas. The country has already achieved gender parity in primary and secondary education and in the wage employment in the non-agriculture sector. Background of the Study At the Millennium Summit in September 2000 the largest gathering of world leaders in history adopted the UN Millennium Declaration. with a deadline of 2015 that have become known as the Millennium Development Goals.

We can also know the economic condition of Bangladesh and impact of MDGs towards it. In June 2005. and halving the number of people without access to safe drinking water. They offer a set of concrete targets that can be used to assess the integrity of the political commitment made through the Declaration. .survival for a significant portion of it. because it help us to determine how and what way should be appropriate for remaining work. determined “to create an environment – at the national and global levels alike – which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty.” Bangladesh is committed to fulfill the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 and it is imperative to understand the concept by the mass people. they agreed. At the same time. as well as contributing to global security. which will help us to take part to complete the remaining work of MDGs. Objectives of the Study The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the expression of the strong commitment to universal development and poverty eradication made by the International Community in the UN Millennium Declaration in September 2000. is the key to sustaining social and economic progress in all countries. the Declaration called for a new partnership between the developed and the developing countries. Scope of study By this research we can know the objective of MDGs of Bangladesh as well as other country of the world. a field survey conducted by the UNDP Bangladesh communications unit shows that less than 3% people knows about the MDGs. Human development. In this way we can also learn about our position and we become experience in the real life situation of MDGs. Their coverage is quite wide and includes halving world poverty and hunger by 2015. reducing under-5 and maternal mortality by two thirds. Achievement and its experience are very much important for remaining work. as well as reaching universal primary education.

And as a rich country. the United . As a part of the secondary source. If any country can fulfill the goals of MDG. To know the process and progress of our country we select the topic. some of the relevant information will be collected from different sources like article of national (an article on MDGs. Bangladesh has already fulfilled some of the MDGs goals. The information will be collected mainly from the secondary sources. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147 heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000. So as a poor country MDGs is very important track to reduce the poverty because MDGs covers the entire development requirement that is needed for a country. As the global campaign to achieve the Millennium Development Goals gains momentum. Some online information will be used from different website. Importance of MDGs Poverty reduction with the target of reducing poverty by three quarters between 1990 and 2015 is the Millennium Development Goals. Methodology Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to conduct this research. it can easily say that that country is not a poor country. Bangladesh would be able to fulfill all those goals within 2015 if all sectors are handled by skilled persons.We select the topic “Progress toward the attainment of MDGs in Bangladesh. Books on Quantitative issues and reports from Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS). An Overview on MDG and its Progress The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges. others problems can be easily solved. MDGs were set basically for the reduction of poverty of Bangladesh. published from BRAC University) and international journals.” Bangladesh is very country but by the Millennium development goal our country can be developed.

predictable. will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education. the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Ensure that by 2015 children everywhere. and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally. By 2020 to have achieved a significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Develop further an open. the first Bangladesh MDG progress report was launched. Combat HIV/AIDS. and what areas need attention in order for the nation to meet these goals. Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.Nations Development Program (UNDP) in Bangladesh is working on promoting the goals in a number of ways. Achieve universal primary education 3. and to all levels of education no later than 2015 Reduce by two-thirds. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources. Improve maternal health 6. between 1990 and 2015. The aim of this report is to help policy makers and other decision makers to understand where Bangladesh stands in terms of the goals. nondiscriminatory. boys and girls alike. Reduce child mortality 5. Includes a commitment to good governance. Trading and financial system. Address the special needs of the least developed 1. In 2005. development. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. rule-based. the maternal mortality ratio. between 1990 and 2015. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Millennium Development Goals Halve. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. between 1990 and 2015. Develop a global partnership for Development . the under five mortality rate Reduce by three quarters. Among the eight goals of MDG we select five goals. between 1990 and 2015. the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day. malaria and other diseases 7. preferably by 2005. Halve.

provide access to affordable. make available the benefits of new technologies.countries. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term. especially information and communications . In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies. In cooperation with the private sector. essential drugs in developing countries. an enhanced program of debt relief for HIPC and cancellation of official bilateral debt. This includes: tariff.and quota-free access for least developed countries’ exports. In cooperation with developing countries. and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction. Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing states (through the Program of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly). develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth.

Poverty reduction in the first half of the current decade was also somewhat faster than in the 1990s.From the Eight MDGs goals. MDG 1: Eradicating Poverty and Hunger Bangladesh has made reasonably good progress in its effort at reducing poverty. 3.5% 33% 14% . between 1990 and 2015. Poverty gap ratio. Share of poorest quintile in national income 4. The decline in poverty was more rapid in the 1990s than during earlier decades. Halve. Halve. Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age 5. we have worked on Five MDGs goals. Proportion of population below Base Year (1991) Current Status Target Year (2015) 59% 40% 29% Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 17 6. In the following the progress of those five MDGs are described. Proportion of population below national poverty line (2221 kcal) 2.3% 8 67% 28% 40% 19. the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day 2. between 1990 and 2015. Fig: People under national poverty line MDG 1 Status Goal 1 Targets 1. the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Indicators 1.5% 9 5.

Bangladesh risks missing the target of 14. in order to ensure “education for all”. 2: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (Household Expenditure Survey). and 3: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (Household Income and Expenditure Survey) Challenges Ahead Bangladesh is on schedule to achieving MDG 1 by 2015. the Parliament enacted the Primary Education (Compulsory) Act 1990. This program will continue as long as it is necessary to achieve the education-related MDG. 2. But its economic growth process has not sufficiently benefited the extreme poor. Also. Increasing the share of the poorest quintile in national consumption/income is a major challenge for the country and will require the benefit of economic growth to be more directed towards the poor. Fig: Net primary enrolment ratio . the government has introduced a program called “Reaching Out-of-School Children”.minimum level of dietary energy consumption (1800 kcal) Source: Base year indicator 1a.0 per cent in 2015 if it fails to sustain the present trend of economic growth or if the extreme poor continue to get lesser benefit from economic growth. to be implemented between July 2004 and June 2010. Current status indicator 1a. Indicator 3 shows that the share of poorest quintile in national income has reduced over the years. MDG 2: Achieving Universal Primary Education In order to ensure universal primary education. and the compulsory primary education program was started in 1993.

Bangladesh has made tremendous . boys and girls alike. more resources need to be given to primary schooling through.MDG 2 Status Goal 2 Achieve universal primary education Targets 3. impacts adult literacy negatively. The global target of education-related MDG is to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005 and in all levels of education by 2015. At the current rate of progress. by 2015. Net enrolment ratio in primary education 7. Bangladesh is unlikely to achieve its adult literacy target by 2015. monetary and material benefits for students. should improve the chances of Bangladesh meeting its MDG 2 target by 2015. 8: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics Challenges Ahead Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in increasing net enrolment in primary education. But the ultimate achievement of MDG 2 is threatened by poor performance in primary school completion rate. for example. the target of 100 per cent primary school enrolment by 2012 is attainable. If the present trend continues. and its achievement is essential for attaining the goal of poverty reduction. Significant building of the educational system’s capacity. both formal and informal. in turn. That. It is a development objective in its own right. Secondary level education also demands policy makers’ attention. will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Indicators 6. Proportion of pupils starting Grade 1 who reach Grade 5 8. children everywhere. To increase the number of children completing their primary education. MDG 3: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women Gender equality and women empowerments are a core MDG. Ensure that. Current status indicators 6 and 7: Ministry of Primary and Mass Education. Adult Literacy rate of 1 + years old Base year (1991) 60% Current Status 87% Target 2015 100% 43% 53% 100% 37% 54% 100% Source: Base year indicator 6: Ministry of Primary and Mass Education. parents and teachers. 8: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education. . However.8% Source: Base year indicator 9a: Ministry of Primary and Mass Education. Those policy interventions may consist of further amendments to laws. Current status indicator 9a: Ministry of Primary Education. 11: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (LDS). and in wage employment in the non-agriculture sector. 20-24 years old 11. 9c: BANBEIS (BES).3% 14. 12: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics Challenges Ahead MDG 3 aims for gender equality and the empowerment of women by promoting gender equality in education. preferably by 2005. 11: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (LDS). 9b. 9b. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 45:55 34:66 25:75 42:58 53:47 50:50 36:64 46:54 50:50 50:50 50:50 100:100 Base year (1992) Current Status Target 2015 41% 59% 10. Ratio of girls to boys in primary.progress in achieving the first target of removing gender disparity in schooling. secondary and tertiary education: Primary Secondary Tertiary 10. 9c: BANBEIS (BES). 12: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. labor market and in politics. Ratio of literate women to men. Share of women in wage employment in the nonagricultural sector 12. Bangladesh has already achieved gender parity in primary and secondary education. The female-male ratio of students in primary schools has steadily increased. 10: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (Census). the progress of gender parity in tertiary education and the share of women in political leadership remain sluggish and will need far-sighted and challenging policy interventions for this goal’s targets to be met. and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Indicators 9. MDG 3 Status Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower women Targets 4. 10: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (Census).

000 live births) 14. MDG 4: Reducing Child Mortality Child mortality not only represents an enormous waste of human resources. Under five mortality rate (per 1.000 live births) 15. Infant mortality rate (0-1 year per 1. Bangladesh has made significant progress in reducing the child mortality rate although it is far below the related MDG target. Proportion of 1 year old children immunized against measles Base year (1991) 151 Current Status 62 Target 2015 50 94 45 31 54% 87% 100% . the under-five child mortality rate Indicators 13. The MDG for Bangladesh is to reduce the under-five mortality rate from about 94 per thousand live births in 1990 to 32 by 2015. between 1990 and 2015. Fig: Under Five mortality rate MDG 4 Status Goal 4 Reduce child mortality Targets 5. Reduce by two thirds.incentives for female students at the tertiary level and electoral reforms promoting the nomination of woman candidates by political parties. it is also a major cause of suffering in the population.

It is also committed to achieving the MDG of combating HIV/AIDS and other killer diseases. must ensure that its efforts reach all Bangladeshi people. recognized in the constitution.5% . Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.Source: Base year indicator 13. There are. coastal belt regions and other ecologically vulnerable areas are falling behind. Indicators Base year Current (1991) Status Target 2015 18. malaria and other diseases Targets 7. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate (among currently married women 15-49 years old) n/a 2. Current status indicator 13. 15: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (MICS). 14: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (SVRS). Malaria and other Diseases Health is a fundamental right of the people. MDG 6 Status Goal 6 Combat HIV/ AIDS. MDG 6: Combating HIV/AIDS. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 8. 14: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (SVRS). and that the excellent progress to date is sustained. 15: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (MICS) Challenges Ahead Bangladesh’s progress in all the three MDG 4 indicators is particularly encouraging. if recent trends are maintained. Urban slums. with the support of its development partners.5% 5. the Chittagong Hill Tracts. It is likely to meet all targets before 2015. The government. The Government of Bangladesh therefore considers health as a high priority sector. distinct regional variations that need to be addressed. however. HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 years 19.

all ages 22.a Notified cases of malaria per 100.000 population 21. Current status indicator 19. Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures 23.35 n/a n/a n/a n/a 34% 84% 406 47 71% 91% 100% 100% Sources: Base year indicator 19.a Tuberculosis detection rate under DOTS 24. 21b: Calculated from IEDCR data. Contraceptive prevalence rate 20.19. 24b: IEDCR. The country also needs to develop strong mechanisms to monitor outbreaks of malaria in high-risk districts and to develop effective treatments for drug resistant malaria strains. 19c: NIPORT (BDHS). 23a. 24a. Challenges Ahead Although the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh is very low.a Tuberculosis prevalence rate per 100. 21a.b Tuberculosis death rate per 100.000 population 24. Simultaneous increases in detection and cure rates.c.b Tuberculosis treatment success rate under DOTS n/a n/a n/a 38 40% 58% n/a n/a 42 34 0.b Per cent of population aged 15. 21a. 23b.24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 19. along with improvements in .a Condom use at the last high-risk sex 19. 19c: NIPORT (BDHS).b Malaria death rate per 100. effective surveillance of the potential sources is essential. 19b: Calculated from BDHS. 24a.000 population 23. 24b: IEDCR. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non orphans aged 10-14 years 21.000 population.

the quality of diagnostic services. The growth elasticity of poverty reduction for rural areas is estimated at -0. while the figure for urban areas are –0. The ratio of male and female in primary and secondary education is almost same. HIV/AIDS and others diseases is lowering day by day. Child mortality rate is also significantly decreased. Maternal health is also improving in rural area. Result and Decision: In our research we experience that most of our MDGs are achieved or nearby achieving position.  If different types of private organization like NGOs will help the government.73. We think Progress towards the attainment of MDGs in Bangladesh is very much near to be fulfilled and it will be fully achieved within 2015.64. the results show that the attainment of the Millennium goal of reducing the incomepoverty level by half by 2015 will require significant additional efforts. which would be better for achieving the MDGs goals. particularly in communicable disease prevention and control mechanisms. Recommendation  There has some problem regarding achievement of MDGs but the problem will be removed if government of Bangladesh who come into the power with the voice of making digital Bangladesh  Government can inform more people about MDGs so that people can understand the importance of MDGs. Using these elasticity’s. Women are now involved in many sectors. Many kinds of broadcasting help them to take necessary steps in the time of pregnancy. But till now it is not as same as male. This demands stronger and improved governance of the health sector. will continue to pose a major challenge for the country. .

Conclusion Bangladesh seems to be on track to achieve some of the UN millennium development goals such as universal primary school enrollment and gender parity. . A recent UNDP report says that Bangladesh could be a role model for UNDP by showing that sustained improvement in human development is possible even in poor countries at relatively modest levels of income growth.

The Millennium Development Goals Report. Department of the United Nations secretariats. Planning Commission.References 1. 2006. The Millennium Development Goals: Bangladesh progress Report. jointly prepared by the Government of Bangladesh and United Nations Country team of Bangladesh. The Millennium Development Goals: Bangladesh progress Report. Statistics Division. The Millennium Development Goals: Bangladesh progress Report. 3. General Economic Division. 2. peoples Republic of Bangladesh. 4. Ministry of Planning. 2005. Dhaka 2006. 2007. jointly prepared by the Government of Bangladesh and United Nations Country team of Bangladesh. GOB.2008 . 5. BBS.