You are on page 1of 24


Globalisation and the outsourcing boom have undoubtedly transformed India. From a developing country, we are today an emerging economy and a super power in the making. Over the last few years, India has clearly moved up the offshoring value chain - from being a low-cost destination we are today known as a knowledge hub to the world. The outsourcing boom has already begun to play a large role in India's growth process. In the financial year 2006-07, the IT/ITES sector recorded export revenues to the tune of $39.6 billion, contributing 5.2 per cent of India's GDP. The sector is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 24 to 27 per cent and is poised to record exports of $60 billion by 2010. But where do we go from here? Clearly, the growth paradigm of the developed world requires fuel of another kind - they need knowledge workers and skilled professionals. The developed world's requirement of skilled professionals is only going to increase with time. By 2020, the developed world will have a shortage of 40 million working people, says a report, India's New Opportunity - 2020, brought out by the All India Management Association, the Boston Consulting Group, the High Level Strategic Group and the CII. The developed world is already finding it difficult to find talent. A recent study undertaken by global HR consultancy Manpower Inc, Talent Shortage Survey; 2007 Global Results, says 41 per cent of employers worldwide are having difficulty filling positions due to a lack of suitable talent available in their markets. The countries hit by this acute talent shortage are Costa Rica (93 per cent), the US (62 per cent), Japan (61 per cent), New Zealand (62 per cent) and EMEA (31 per cent). Talent shortage appears to be the least problematic in India (9 per cent), Ireland (17 per cent) and China (19 per cent), points out this survey. For the developed world, this is a serious matter. Manpower shortage can cripple economic growth. It can escalate wage rates, thereby reducing the competitiveness of these countries. For India, the workforce shortages in the developed world pose a humongous opportunity. Despite the increase in jobs, educated unemployment in India is on the rise.

By 2012, India could have an unemployed population anywhere in the range of 19 to 37 million, the largest share of which will be educated youth. By 2020, India is estimated to have a surplus working population of 45-50 million people.

With this surplus working population, it may appear that India has all it takes to bag the '40-million-jobs' opportunity. However, the reality is far divorced from that. India is facing a peculiar manpower paradox while it is a young country (over 50 per cent of its population is below the age of 25 years), even domestically it is facing a shortage of skilled manpower. The manpower crunch in India is more serious than we think. The reason - while urban India has witnessed a stupendous growth in jobs, in much of India children still drop out from school, girls are still not sent to school and youngsters are forced to take up jobs instead of completing their graduation. Despite 60 years of independence, our system does not ensure 'education for all'. Out of the 200 million children in the age group of six to 14 years, 59 million children are not attending school in India. Even those who get educated are often not employable. Every year, 300,000 engineering graduates and approximately 2 million graduates pass out of colleges. But only 10-15 per cent of graduates are suitable for employment in offshore IT and BPO industries. Nearly two-thirds of the 300,000 engineering graduates need to be GNIIT, way back in 1992. Even those who find jobs need to undergo training and be re-skilled. Today, India needs to skill/re-skill 1 million working executives. Emerging sectors such as retail, banking, financial services and insurance are facing acute shortage of manpower. The banking industry, which currently employs 900,000 people, is expected to add 600,000 more over the next five years. But it's unclear how this increased demand will be met. The shortage of skilled talent threatens to slow down the Indian IT and ITES industry, if the education system does not keep pace with the rising talent needs. As per estimates, by 2010 the industry will need approximately 850,000 additional skilled manpower. re-skilled, so that they can get

jobs in the IT industry. This lacuna in the education system had prompted us to launch programmes like

India needs a sharp focus on global talent development. several initiatives on the part of the industry. British Prime Minister Gordon Brown has said that the total Englishspeaking population in China will outnumber the native speakers in the rest of the world in two decades. While India has some natural advantages . particularly China and Russia. If the education system does not transform itself. Given our vast pool of qualified manpower. a concrete action plan is needed to convert it into reality. At NIIT. . At NIIT. This can be done by making education and vocational training more market-driven. Clearly. A fifth of the Chinese population is learning English. In terms of sheer numbers. We need to begin from the primary schools in villages and cities. India appears poised to cash in on the 40-million-jobs opportunity. As per estimates. This can be done by mapping the demand for professionals today and by projecting future demand and working towards enhancing the skill-sets needed for these jobs. insurance and so on. The task of developing global talent can be approached in two ways . the opportunity lost can be huge. NGOs and industry associations are required to convert the opportunity into reality. we are working on both these models of global talent development. remote services could bring in $133-315 billion of additional revenue into the country every year and create an additional 10-24 million jobs (direct and indirect) by 2020. work with underprivileged children and encourage them to get educated. the existing education and training infrastructure cannot meet all the manpower needs. track records in service delivery in sectors like IT. we have tied-up with the ICICI Bank to train people for the banking sector and with IIMs to hone managerial talent (NIIT Imperia). we may lose out to other BRIC economies. such as retail. We now plan to take this approach forward to other sectors. Education and vocational training need to be aligned with market demand. government. companies/training institutes going global in order to develop talent in those nations. and lower costs. has the world's largest English speaking population countries like China are working overtime to cash in on the global labour crunch. We need to change our education system and focus on job-oriented courses. while there is a big opportunity knocking at India's door.Therefore. and by developing talent indigenously.

flexible work schedules may be an option that can meet the needs of both the department and the employee. Although the late arrival might still be considered tardiness and subject to . in allowing for alternative work schedules when it is determined to be in the best interests of the employee and the University. From an outsourcing hub. or sporadic event. Flexible work hours are temporary changes in an employee's regular work schedule in order to adjust for a planned or unplanned. but must continue to offer full services during the core business hours of the university (8:00 AM to 5:00 PM Monday through Friday). short-notice. there is a pressing need to act fast. Departments may be as flexible as possible. DEFINITION OF A FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULE There are three major types of work schedule flexibility . the employee arrived one hour late to work. and as a result. We need to focus on global talent development. The flexibility helps the employee to avoid working more than 40 hours in a work week or to avoid having to take paid or unpaid time off for an absence.flexible work hours. The manager then adjusted the employee's schedule later in the week to allow the employee to leave work two hours early on Thursday so that the employee did not work more than 40 hours in the work week. FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULES INTRODUCTION With the changing demographics of our workforce. Any flexible work hour adjustment is at the total discretion of management and is not grievable. we have all it takes to meet the world's global talent needs. such as BPOs and KPOs. so that an increasing number of Indians can find jobs overseas or in off-shoring outfits. and flexible work locations. y An employee got stuck in traffic behind an accident on the way to work. volatile fuel prices. and transportation challenges for employees. Two examples of flexible work hours might include the following: y An employee (with management's approval) worked an additional two hours on Monday in order to complete a report due by Tuesday.Therefore. Given India's track record. economic challenges. India needs to transform itself into a repository of talent that can feed global demands for skilled workforce. flexible work schedules.

and must be home to receive the delivery. 7:30 am . Three examples of a flexible work schedule might be: y An employee carpools with two other University employees.4:30 pm. As a result." according to the delivery company. The alternate location schedule must continue to support the needs of the organization and allow for appropriate oversight of the employee's work. The supervisor allows an adjustment in the employee's work schedule. Each employee takes the role of driver one week at a time. y An employee must pick up his child from daycare on the way home from work (his wife drops the child off in the morning because she must work until later in the evening. Saturday and Sunday each week from mid-June through mid-August. Flexible work location adjustments may be revised or revoked by management at any time. her start time is 8:15 am rather than 8:00 am and her lunch break is reduced to 45 minutes rather than her regular 60 minutes. Flexible work schedules are adjustments to the employee's regular work schedule on a recurring or occasional basis to respond work/life needs of an employee or operational needs of the department or university. it is difficult for the employee to arrive at work by 8:00 am the week that she drives the carpool. the employee needs to leave work earlier than 5:00 pm each day in order to avoid paying late pick-up penalties from the daycare. the employee could. decides to adopt a 4-10 work schedule for the summer months while the faculty and most of the students are off campus. The revised schedule must be in writing and continue to support the operational needs of the organization and allow for appropriate oversight of the employee's work. With advance approval from her supervisor. she works from home that day while awaiting the delivery. work an additional hour that evening (or sometime that work week) to make up the time. Employees work from 7:00 am until 6:00 pm Monday through Thursday and take off on Friday. y A University department. Flexible work schedule adjustments may be revised or revoked by management at any time. . Flexible work locations are adjustments to the employee's regular worksite on short-notice or on a recurring basis to respond work/life needs of an employee and/or operational needs of the organization. with management's approval. Two examples of a flexible work location might be: y An employee is expecting a furniture delivery at her home "sometime Friday. to respond to the transportation needs of the employee's family. with Vice Chancellor approval. The supervisor allows an adjustment to the employee's schedule so that on her carpool driving discipline.) As a result.

Some examples are: y y y y y The "4-10" (or "4-40") work week (4 days at 10 hours per day) The "4-9-4" work week (4 days at 9 hours per day.y An employee's regular commute is an hour each morning and evening in congested traffic.. The supervisor allows the employee a teleworking schedule.e. REASONS FOR AND TYPES OF FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULES A flexible work schedule may be implemented for a variety of reasons that benefit both the employee and management. number of commutes) to and from work each week Attending classes for a degree program or academic enrichment Transporting children to/from day care or school Accommodating a mild illness that is not severe enough to inhibit work productivity but would otherwise prevent an employee from coming to his/her regular workplace y y y y y y y y y y y Matching employee work hours to peak productivity time periods Increasing flexible use of time-sharing or to offset peak use of centralized offices or equipment Extending customer service hours Seasonal schedule for a university department Scheduling options may include shifting the start/stop hours of the regular (8 hour) work day. This reduces the employee's weekly commuting time and expense by 20% without sacrificing employee productivity. and one 4-hour day) Working 7:00 am to 4:00 pm or 9:00 am to 6:00 pm Working from home one or more days per week Working off site on a semi regular or sporadic basis . that adheres to the OSP Teleworking Policy (. so that the employee may work from home one day a week.pdf). The employee's work allows for a great deal of independence and most of his communication with other employees is achieved through email. Some common examples include: Adjusting for a long commute to/from work by starting (or ending) the work day earlier (or later) Offsetting peak traffic to reduce an employee's time on the road Matching work schedules to time schedules for mass transit or other commuting alternative programs Reducing the number of days (i. or making a "compressed" work schedule (40 hours of work in less than 5 regular work days). shifting the work site to a location off the UNCG campus.

Disadvantages: Some flexible work schedules may not be the best solution for particular work/life needs. Disadvantages that should be considered include the following: y y y y y y y y y Reduced face-to-face time may cause a loss of work unit cohesion Some employees may feel distanced from the social aspects of working in a central location Working from home may result in greater distractions and lowered productivity Working from home may blur the boundary of work time and personal time Some employees may feel "dumped on" in accommodating the flexible schedules of other employees in the work unit Conflicting requests by multiple employees make some requests difficult to accommodate Tracking employee work time becomes more complex Direct observation by supervisor of employee work becomes more difficult Management of time worked for wage-hour non-exempt employees becomes more difficult .Flexible work schedules can also occur regularly but less frequently than every work week. For example. Some benefits of a flexible work schedules may include: y y y y y y y y y y y y Reduced commuting fuel costs Increased transportation options and parking availability Reduced stress through the ability to better balance work and personal responsibilities Improved morale and productivity resulting from matching work time and employee work style Longer blocks of time away from the office without reduction to employee leave balance Extended service hours with minimal to no increase in budget or overtime expense Reduced absences and tardiness through finding a more agreeable start/stop time Reduced loss of work product due to mild illness Enhanced recruitment and retention through "family-friendly" management practices Greater flexibility in available office space or equipment due to shifts in peak use Increased opportunities for cross-training due to some shared job duties and coverage adjustments Longer blocks of personal time when the university may not be holding classes or reduced number of classes. An example might include: a teleworking schedule for a receptionist may not meet operational needs of a department. This would allow for one "day off" each biweekly rather than each week. BENEFITS AND DISADVANTAGES OF A FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULE Benefits: Flexible schedules tend to be more successful when they meet both the employee s personal needs in balancing work and life and department operational needs in providing efficient and effective services. such as a summer 4-10 work schedule. need to be accessible to the public or UNCG stakeholders. eight hours each day of the first week of the biweekly. an employee could work. or scheduling needs of the department. with management approval. then work a 4-10 the second week of the biweekly. or optimal achievement of the universities strategic goals and objectives or for particular positions due to deadlines.

and the employee. department or work unit. FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN APPROVING A FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULE In reviewing requests for flexible work schedules. or decreased commuting costs Increases cost of workers compensation claims since the numbers of off campus worksites increase to include the home or other off campus locations. communications) may not be offset by increased productivity. supervisors need to consider the overall needs of the university. not by the individual employee. ADMINISTRATIVE OVERSIGHT FOR FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULES University administration must establish a flexible work arrangement according to operational needs and the university strategic plan. Divisional management is responsible for adhering to the flexible work schedule policy and setting work assignments and work schedules for employees based on the operational needs and resources of the division. Managers are encouraged to be as flexible as possible in accommodating the work/life needs of employees. the supervisor. A review of the following considerations will assist management in making the appropriate decision regarding a request for a flexible work schedule: y y y y y What are the operational needs of the university? What are the customer needs of the university? What are the work/life needs of the employee? Are there restrictions on when and where work must be performed? Does the employee function as part of a team that would require a matching schedule of all team members or significant face-to-face communication? y Is the work unit able to provide coverage for functions handled by the employee in his/her absence without undue burden on other employees in the unit? y y Are requests for flexible schedules being handled equitably? Does management have sufficient budget to provide necessary office supplies and equipment for alternate work locations? . reductions in central work location resource requirements.y y Direct costs of some teleworking schedules (furnishings. Management is expected to apply flexible work schedules fairly and equitably. but the decision to develop and/or adjust employee work schedules is made by management.

including overtime and leave use. Offsite use rules for University-owned equipment. state and federal policies. and finding strategies to implement employee requests based on the department's operational needs and university. y y y y y . Issues that should be addressed in requesting a flexible schedule include: The organizational and/or work/life benefits of the proposed schedule A plan for continued fulfillment of work expectations. including: o y y How communications with co-workers. assuring compliance with OSP policies and procedures regarding teleworking. the employee and his/her supervisor must ensure that the teleworking schedule adheres to all University policies that would also apply to the employee at a University work location. PROCESS FOR AN EMPLOYEE TO REQUEST A FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULE Different work units may have different procedures for requesting adjustments to work schedules. customers. make any necessary changes. Human Resource Services is available to assist both management and employees in identifying possible flexible schedules.y Can management continue to monitor effectively employee work that occurs outside the supervisor's regular schedule or work location? y Can management continue to adhere effectively to federal wage-hour regulations regarding work that occurs outside the supervisor's regular schedule? y Does the schedule result in continued or increased worker productivity for the employee. the manager. Specifically. and/or the work unit? Human Resource Services can assist managers in reviewing requests for flexible work schedules. teleworking schedules must comply with: Teleworking Policy Teleworking Agreement Wage-hour rules. and the manager will occur during work hours outside the regular schedule o y How customer or organizational needs that arise during the employee's absence will be handled Willingness to be flexible. Purchasing rules for office equipment and supplies. or consider alternative proposals to ensure the success of a flexible schedule For teleworking.

In the case of caring for a sick child. especially for flexible work hours or work schedules due to child care drop-off and pick-up and other child-related events. a supervisor or appropriate university official (example: representative from the University Safety Department) may request to visit the worksite during the employee's regularly scheduled work hours (approved in advance by the employee) to ensure that the home office environment meets work and safety requirements. a teleworking schedule might be beneficial to the employee. The employee must receive approval from his/her supervisor in advance for such a temporary schedule. Ergonomic and other safety requirements of home office environment. but are not limited to: y y y y y y y business needs or coverage needs change valid negative customer feedback occurs performance or attendance deteriorates departmental staff shortages occur becomes too disruptive to work unit employee is dissatisfied or his/her needs have changed funding availability or equity concerns make such schedules prohibitive . Additional tweaks to the schedule may be needed. Personal use rules for University-owned resources. or the flexible schedule may be terminated. Dependent care needs are a common reason for a flexible work schedule to occur. the child must not require the employee's primary attention during work hours or significantly detract from the employee's ability to perform his or her work duties. PROCESS TO REVIEW AND TERMINATE A FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULE It is recommended that any approved flexible work schedule begin as a "pilot program" to be re-assessed after 4-6 weeks to see if the department's and employee's needs are being met through the adjustment in work schedule.y y y y y Reimbursement rules for work-related expenses. If the home is being used as a teleworking location. Possible reasons for a supervisor to modify or discontinue a flexible work schedule include. Security rules for information and equipment. However. and Any other workplace policies/procedures of significance to the effective execution of the employee's job duties.

Some green HRM initiatives also make use of employee volunteering to support environmental charities and projects and to . promoting and incentivizing more sustainable means of travel to work (e. Green HRM What is Green HR and how can we implement it effectively in an organisation? Green HR is one which involves two essential elements: environmentally friendly HR practices and the preservation of knowledge capital. cycling. etc. Companies are quick to layoff when times are tough before realizing the future implications of losing that knowledge capital. unnecessary provision of a high powered company car).g. Human Resource Services can provide assistance to management and employees in evaluating the effectiveness of flexible work schedules. resolution. video conferencing and interviews. work layoff]. Green HR involves reducing your carbon footprint via less printing of paper. The kinds of action taken within green HRM initiatives include educating employees about climate change and other environmental issues. The Flexible Work Schedule Policy and all parts thereof is not grievable and is at the sole discretion of management. car sharing.g.All efforts should be made between the supervisor and employee to reach an equitable. etc. more generally. Green initiatives within HRM are increasing as a result of mounting concern over global warming and the adverse effect of much business activity on the natural environment. public transport). furloughs[Leave from duty. grant of leave. Green HRM Green HRM is the use of HRM policies to promote the sustainable use of resources within business organizations and. however the final decision is at management's discretion. promote the cause of environmentalism. training in working methods that reduce the use of energy and other resources. They often form part of wider programmes of corporate social responsibility. part time work. Green HR initiatives help companies find alternative ways to cut cost without losing their top talent. and auditing employee benefits to eliminate those that are environmentally damaging (e.

while the other says it is of specialist character. HR generalist holds higher position than HR specialist. In medium sized organization.e. Generalist style as well as Specialist style. revenue & profit generation.7 years in any organization. Difference based on proficiency: .Size of organization is an important factor for the nature of job such as generalist or specialist. so they have generalist as well as specialist. If it deals with 500 to 2. Some of the jobs of HR Specialist are: . To perform the Human Resources job successfully.Based on the position of the HR manager in the hierarchy of the organization. both of them can not exist without each other. The area could be of recruitment. Human Resources Specialist is delegated with a specific set of duties pertaining of HR operations of the firm and this becomes more identified in big organizations where the functional classification is done more professionally. One school of thought says HR management is of generalist character. it is considered to be as medium-sized. The size of the organization depends upon the number of employees. HR Specialist . It is related to skill development.develop green initiatives at work. Where Trade Unions are present. HR GENERALIST & HR SPECIALIST Introduction: . A small organization does not require big hierarchy of HR to handle few people. an individual must be able to perform each essential responsibility satisfactorily. Whenever we talk about these two functions. Difference based on position: . training & development etc. green HRM may involve consultation and joint working with union environmental representatives (i. Difference based on size of Organisation: . So they keep only HR generalist who does specialist as well as generalist jobs.000 employees. Big organization has a separate hierarchy of HR. there is a hue and cry about the role and functions of HR professional. On the other hand. Actually. A specialist also has some generalist characterization and a generalist also does a specific kind of specialist jobs. his job is considered to be as a HR specialist job. His role & responsibility have diversified after such a long tenure in any organization. the entire scenario becomes debate. if the same HR has spent 5. So let us discuss how their jobs can be differentiated. and organization employing more than 2. the job differs from being a generalist to specialist. union representatives who are trained to promote a green agenda at work) to advance sustainable business practice.000 employees is called big organization. If an organization has 500 employees or less than that . we consider it is to be as small organization.In the changed scenario of market -driven business administration. When a HR professional does this job in the entry level. more people are required to be handled. He is focused on a particular area.Proficiency refers to the area in which the HR person is specialized and proficiency comes with the duration of working in the organization. then he may be called as generalist because of his/her expertise in different area.As per the theoretical underpinnings. Generally. They follow two kinds of style.

HR Generalists have more responsibilities as compared to HR Specialist. A HR Specialist takes care of that to make them competitive for future prospects. Employee Relationship: . their core competency level. It polishes the core competency level of employees. implementing. The role of HR Generalist keeps on changing as per the directions set by the management. the working styles of generalist do not acquire any identity that is widely perceived in specialist context. they forecast the demand. and resolving workplace disputes. They embarked their ideas & implement it with the market condition.Hr Generalist is a link between management class and employees segment.HR Generalists balance the demand & supply of human resource of an organization.Recruitment is a process to attract a pull of candidates. HR Generalist also helps in financial well being of the company. T&D is a specific job. performing ongoing evaluation of it. state and local laws and regulations. ensuring that relations with employees comply with applicable federal. HR Generalist .According to the definition of Employee Relationship. A proper recruitment increases organization s brand value. basic qualification & experience. Training and Development: Training and Development is an important part of any Organisation.This job analysis is also done by HR Generalists. As such.Recruitment: . managing employee performance. their physical & mental stability based on the types of job. The instruction & guidelines are given by HR Generalist. They control the entire human resource and maintain the harmony between employees. They decide the number of employees required to perform specific jobs. It is his/her job to recruit a right candidate at the right time at the right places. the Employee Relations Discipline concerns the relationship of employees with the organization and with each other. Based on all these factors. It helps employees to enhance their skills. Job Analysis: . It is the job of HR specialist to go to different places or use different techniques to recruit suitable candidate for a particular position. . All above mentioned activities are done by HR Specialist. administering and analyzing the employer-employee relationship. along with the organizational goals. They play a vital role in job description & job specification. Some of the jobs of HR Generalist are: 1) Forecasting 2) Job Analysis 3) Employee Relationship 4) Compensation Management Forecasting: . economic stability etc. They are the persons who bridge the gap between HR demand & HR supply. It includes the processes of developing.

Through job design. they make a team for handling the employee grievances. They make the strategies to retain employees. Job design makes the job highly specialized and well designed jobs are important in attracting and retaining a motivated work force. duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives. This is one of the most important jobs of HR Generalists. where they plan all the schemes related to employees. maintain harmony with the peer group as well as management." FACTORS AFFECTING JOB DESIGN . fringe benefit etc. They focus in the planning of compensation of the human resource working at different level of organizational hierarchy.Compensation management is a vast area in HR. and job simplification are the various techniques used in a job design exercise. on the methods to be used in carrying out the job. "Job Design is the process of deciding on the contents of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities. job enrichment. job rotation. For example. Compensation Management: . Conclusion: After taking analysis into consideration. Both of them are valuable assets in an organization. Job design integrates the work content and qualifications required for each job that meets the needs of employee and the organization. According to Michael Armstrong. basic salary. Job enlargement. =========================================================================================== JOB DESIGN Definition . HR Specialist perform specific task based on proficiency whereas HR Generalist act as an intermediary between the management & the employees.HR Generalists act as employee relationship manager also. incentives. Job design involves systematic attempts to organize tasks. in terms of techniques. and on the relationships that should exist between the job holder and his superior subordinates and colleagues. organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work.Employee Relationship: . it can be concluded that both HR Generalists & HR Specialist are equally important & they have their own role & responsibility at their respective positions. Introduction: Job design is next to job analysis. They take care of fixed pay. variable pay.Work arrangement (or re-arrangement) aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. systems and procedures.

1.Work practices are the set methods of performing work. This product usually suggests the sequence and balance between jobs if the work is to be completed efficiently. 4. B] Environmental Factors: Environmental factors affect job design. The various factors affecting job design are the following: A] Organizational Factors: The organizational factors that affect job design are characteristics of task.Job design is affected by organizational. C] BEHAVIORAL FACTORS: . Social and Cultural Expectations: . If a job fails on this count. it must be redesigned based on the feedback. 1. Environmental factors include employee abilities & availability and Social & Cultural expectations. Characteristic of task: . work flow. 2. employees are now more aware and only perform jobs that are to their liking and matches their profile. A properly designed job will make it more productive and satisfying. This can affect the job design as there is little flexibility in designing the job especially if the work practices are approved by employee unions. 2. namely. planning. Due attention needs to be given to the employee who will actually perform the job. Employee Abilities & Availability: . Due to increase in literacy rate and knowledge. Workflow: .Abilities and availability of people plays an important role while designing jobs. Ergonomics: . executing and controlling. All these characteristics of jobs are taken into consideration for job design. A job may require an employee to perform a variety of connected task.Each task consist of 3 elements.Ergonomics is concerned with the designing and shaping of jobs as per the physical abilities and characteristics of individuals so that they can perform their jobs effectively. ergonomics and work practices. 3. Job design involves the assembly of a number of task into a job or a group of jobs.Jobs should be designed keeping the employees in mind.The flow of work in an organization is strongly influenced by the nature of the product. environmental and behavioral factors. Work Practices: .

Job simplification is introduced when job designers feel that the jobs are not specialized enough. Feedback: .Employee should be given proper autonomy required to perform the work.Job enrichment means making the job rich in its contents. Job Enrichment: . Behavioral elements include the following: 1.Job rotation implies systematic movement of employees from one job to the other. This will enable the employee to improve his performance and complete the job in a proper manner.Absence of variety in the job assigned may lead to boredom.In the job simplification technique. It is opposite to job simplification. Variety: . Job enrichment means upgrading of responsibility.The job should be designed in such a manner that an employee will be able to use his abilities fully and perform the job effectively. 4.Employee should be given proper feedback about his job performance. Job Enlargement: . 2. 3. Many tasks and duties are aggregated and assigned to a single job. With job rotation. The absence of autonomy may lead to poor performance on the part of employees. A given job is divided into small sub-parts and each part is assigned to one individual employee. scope and challenge. . an employee is given an opportunity to perform different jobs. 2. Adequate scope to variety factor should be given while designing a job. 4.Behavioral factors are related to human needs and they need to be satisfied properly. the job is simplified or specialized. 3. TECHNIQUES OF JOB DESIGN 1. Autonomy: . which enriches his skills.Job enlargement means expanding the scope of the job. experience and ability to perform different jobs. Job Simplification: . Use Of Abilities: . Job Rotation: . so that an employee will get more satisfaction while performing that job. Job remains unchanged but employees performing them shift from one job to the other.

seminars.500 2. Advertising for job opening = $2. Exit interview = cost for salary and benefits of both interviewer and departing employee duding the exit interview = $30 + $30 = $60 2. Department of Labor: .850 Total turnover costs = $90 + $3. Booklets. the method most frequently used is that recommended by the U. One-to-one coaching = ($240/day/new employee + $240/day/staff coach or job expert) × 20 days of one-to-one coaching = $9.080 Computing Absenteeism Rates Managers should determine the extent of the absenteeism problem. Salary and benefits of new employee until he or she gets up to par = $240/day for salary and benefits × 20 days = $4.$16. Administrative and record-keeping action = $30 Separation costs =$60+$30 =$90 Replacement costs 1.500 + $100 + $250 + $40 + $250 ~ $3. Pre-employment administrative functions and record-keeping action = $100 3. Although there is no universally accepted definition of absence nor a standard formula for computing absenteeism rates.400 + $9. manuals. if any by maintaining individual and departmental attendance records and by computing absenteeism rates.140 + $16.800 Training costs = $50 + $2.800 -.S. Education = $240/day for new employee s salary and benefits × 10 days of workshops.600 + $4.850 = $20. and reports = $50 2. Selection interview = $250 4.COMPUTING TURNOVER OF ABSENTEEISM Turnover costs = Separation costs + Replacement costs + Training costs Separation costs 1. or courses = $2.140 Training costs 1.400 3.600 4. Employment tests = $40 5. Meetings to discuss candidates (salary and benefits of managers while participating in meetings) = $250 Replacement costs = $2.

whether or not such failure to report is excused. holidays. Organizations with computerized . their usefulness in HR planning is often limited. Department of Labor receives data on job absences from the Current Population Survey of Households conducted by Bureau of the Census.If 300 worker-days are lost through job absence during a month having 25 scheduled working days at an organization that employs 500 workers. occupations. These analyses permit the identification of problem areas--those industries. the absenteeism rate for that month is: The Department of Labour deles job absence as the failure of employees to report to work when their schedules require it. Scheduled vacations. Comparison with other organizations may be made by referring to Bureau of Labor Statistics data reported in the Monthly Labor Review or by consulting such reporting services as the Bureau of National. Prentice-Hag. To accentuate the impact of absenteeism on organizational performance. and analyses of these data are published periodically.S. Consequently. Affairs. managers should translate the data into dollar costs. A system for computing absenteeism costs for an individual organization is available. or groups of workers with the highest incidence of absence or with rapidly increasing rates of absence. Comparing Absenteeism Data The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U. Costs of Absenteeism Traditional accounting and information systems often do not 8enarate data that reflect the costs of absenteeism. and Commerce Clearing House. and prearranged leaves of absence are not counted as Job absence.

the cost per employee is $4~7.5 percent in a twentyfive-month period. while others in a different area may be absent frequently. and incidental costs. progressive discipline procedures might be used with employees having a record of recurring absenteeism.886.In a human resources context.) Absenteeism and HR Planning While an employer may find that the overall absenteeism rate and costs are within an acceptable range. For example. begin planning ways to resolve or improve the underlying causes. incentives could be provided for perfect attendance. The cost of each person-hour lost to absenteeism is based on the hourly weighted-average salary. has 78. Excessive and/or avoidable absenteeism places unfair burdens on co-workers and increases the company's cost of doing business by disruption of work schedules.4]. Allen-Bradley cut absenteeism 83. terns in the data. If an employer is said to have a high turnover relative to its competitors.000 person-hours lost to absenteeism. supervisory costs. When this figure is divided by 1. By monitoring these differential attendance records. (In this example. XYZ Company. [creating] inefficiency and waste. Each employee is performing an important set of tasks or activities. Simple ways to describe it are "how long employees tend to stay" or "the rate of traffic through the revolving door. managers can assess where problems might exist and. TURNOVER (EMPLOYMENT) INTRODUCTION: . By establishing a comprehensive absenteeism policy. This reduced the strain on labor costs and increased productivity. turnover or staff turnover or labor turnover is the rate at which an employer gains and loses employees. with 1. more important. Alternatively.absence-reporting systems should find this additional information easy and inexpensive to generate." Turnover is measured for individual companies and for their industry as a whole. it means that . we are assuming the absent workers are paid. Part of the company's attendance policy reads: It is important to the successful operation of the Motion Control Division that employees be at work each scheduled workday. delays. the total absence cost is $560. job pressures and customer complaints.200 employees. It is vow likely that employees ~n one area (or occupational group) may have nearly perfect attendance records. their salary figures are omitted from the computation. For example. If absent workers are not paid.200 employees. it is still advisable to study the statistics to determine if there are pat. costs o~ employee benefits. costly overtime. Rarely does absenteeism spread itself evenly across an organization.

In the U. Unskilled Employees: Unskilled positions often have high turnover. Internal turnover involves employees leaving their current positions and taking new positions within the same organization. Direct costs relate to the leaving costs.3%. unnecessary overtime and low morale. Internal turnover might be moderated and controlled by typical HR mechanisms. In a healthcare context. during the same period the Leisure and Hospitality sector experienced an average annual rate of 74.S. for the period of December 2000 to November 2008. Both positive (such as increased morale from the change of task and supervisor) and negative (such as project/relational disruption. and also opportunity costs. such as lost productivity). staff turnover has been associated with worse patient outcome. replacement costs and transitions costs. and therefore.employees of that company have a shorter average tenure than those of other companies in the same industry. reduced performance levels. External Turnover Like recruitment. Costs: When accounting for the costs (both real costs. during the period 2001-2006. it may be equally important to monitor this form of turnover as it is to monitor its external counterpart. For example. The ease of replacing these employees provides little incentive to . There are both direct and indirect costs. and indirect costs relate to the loss of production. However rates vary widely when compared over different periods of time or different job sectors.6%. or the Peter Principle) effects of internal turnover exist.. High turnover can be harmful to a company's productivity if skilled workers are often leaving and the worker population contains a high percentage of novice workers. the annual turnover rate for all industry sectors averaged 39. Internal Vs. such as time taken to select and recruit a replacement.6% before seasonal adjustments. the cost of employee turnover to for-profit organizations has been estimated to be up to 150% of the employees' remuneration package. and employees can generally be replaced without the organization or business incurring any loss of performance. such as an internal recruitment policy or formal succession planning. the average total non-farm seasonally adjusted monthly turnover rate was 3. turnover can be classified as 'internal' or 'external'. Skilled Vs.

management's recognition. salary. as well as resulting in a competitive disadvantage to the business. Therefore. initiated at the choice of the employee. healthy and safe. or employer-initiated termination). but it can also indicate unsafe or unhealthy conditions. controlled) by the construct of turnover intent. and eventually find. and those involuntary instances where the employee has no choice in their termination (such as long term sickness. Typically. death. voluntary turnover can be predicted (and in turn. and a comfortable workplace seem to impact employees' decision to stay with their employer.employers to offer generous employment contracts. Aside from the fore-mentioned career opportunities. Involuntary Turnover Practitioners can differentiate between instances of voluntary turnover. Low turnover indicates that none of the above is true: employees are satisfied. Voluntary Vs. due to the human capital (such as skills. corporate culture. and their performance is satisfactory to the employer. turnover of these individuals incurs both replacement costs to the organization. contracts may strongly favour the employer and lead to increased turnover as employees seek. more favorable employment. Causes of high or low turnover High turnover often means that employees are unhappy with the work or compensation. However. training. high turnover rates of skilled professionals can pose as a risk to the business or organization. conversely. However. and knowledge) lost. these employees are likely to be re-employed within the same industry by a competitor. should minimise external voluntary turnover. However. Notably. dissatisfaction with the job-scope or conflict with the management have been cited as predictors of high turnover. in turn. moving overseas. the predictors of low turnover may sometimes differ than those of high turnover. Examples include . The lack of career opportunities and challenges. Many psychological and management theories exist regarding the types of job content which is intrinsically satisfying to employees and which. the characteristics of employees who engage in involuntary turnover are no different from job stayers. given the natural specialization of skilled professionals. or that too few employees give satisfactory performance (due to unrealistic expectations or poor candidate screening).

providing the individual with the necessary skills to perform their job is important. training and decreased productivity when colleagues depart. it is important the interview and hiring process expose new hires to an explanation of the company. motivated and empowered individuals. which fosters happy. The Employment Policy Foundation states it costs a company an average of $15. as well as introducing new employees to the employees who have . competitive. Employers can keep their employees informed and involved by including them in future plans. profitable growth and the company well-being . Providing a stimulating workplace environment. and Hackman & Oldham's Job Characteristics Model. It is also important to motivate employees to focus on customer success. How to prevent turnover Employees are important in any running of a business.Hertzberg's Two factor theory. interview time. which would be lost upon resignation (e.[Networking and strategizing within the company provides ongoing performance management and helps build relationships among co-workers. unemployment. relocation. so the effects are felt company wide. policy changes. including overtime or temporary employees and replacement costs including advertisement. etc. including separation costs.g. more and more employers today are finding that employees remain for approximately 23 to 24 months. new purchases. health insurance. McClelland's Theory of Needs. paperwork. according to the 2006 Bureau of Labor Statistics. However. redundancy packages. Continual training and reinforcement develops a work force that is competent. Before the first day. Promoting a work environment that fosters personal and professional growth promotes harmony and encouragement on all levels. effective and efficient. Such employees would be expected to demonstrate lower intent to leave than if such 'side bets' were not present. low turnover may indicate the presence of employee 'investments' (also known 'side bets') in their position: certain benefits may be enjoyed while the employee remains employed with the organization. without them the business would be unsuccessful. discounted home loans. lowers employee turnover and absentee rates. so individuals know whether the job is their best choice. consistent. vacancy costs. Investments Alternatively. Thomas suggests that there tends to be a higher level of stress with people who work with or interact with a narcissist.). Beginning on the first day of work. which in turn increases absenteeism and staff turnover.000 per employee.

work spaces. When companies hire the best people. and in due course several models of employee turnover have been promulgated. and repeated tasks. was put forward in 1958 by March & Simon. Taking the time to listen to employees and making them feel involved will create loyalty. Since 1958 the following models of employee turnover have been published. new talent hired and veterans are enabled to reach company goals. divided by the average total number of employees. For example.Labour turnover is equal to the number of employees leaving. Calculation . y y y y March and Simon (1958) Process Model of Turnover Porter & Steers (1973) Met Expectations Model Price (1977) Causal Model of Turnover Mobley (1977) Intermediate Linkages Model ERGONOMICS Meaning: Ergonomics is the scientific study of people at work. tools. displays. This is derived from (21/300)*100. in a business with an average of 300 employees over the year. . in turn reducing turnover allowing for growth. and equipment to fit the employee´s physical capabilities and limitations. lighting. The number of employees leaving and the total number of employees are measured over one calendar year. The goal of ergonomics is to reduce stress and eliminate injuries and disorders associated with the overuse of muscles. After this model there have been several efforts to extend the concept. shows employees they are valuable through information or recognition rewards. This is accomplished by designing tasks. 21 of whom leave. Early engagement and engagement along the way. controls. multiplied by 100 (in order to give a percentage value). making them feel included. bad posture. labour turnover is 7%. The first model and by far the one attaining most attention from researcher. Models of turnover Over the years there have been thousands of research articles exploring the various aspects of turnover. maximizing the investment of each employee.gone above and beyond in meetings.