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PART 1 Parasite Hosts Organism on or in which the parasite lives One host parasites - Entamoeba histolytica causing dysentery

(man only) More than one host: - Plasmodium sp. causing malaria (man & mosquito) - Wuchereria bancrofti causing filariasis (man & mosquito) - Schistosoma japonicum causing schistosomiasis (snail& man) Vector – transmits infection from one host to another (mosquito, snails, sandflies) Biological vector – parasite undergoes development in it before transmission to another host (malaria, schistosomes, Leishmania) Mechanical vector – no development of parasite in it. Definitive Host Also known as final host Sexual maturation and reproduction of parasite occurs in it Humans may serve as final or intermediate host for a particular parasite May be asymptomatic or symptomatic Intermediate Hosts: Snails Parastrongylus cantonensis – slug/snail (eosinophilic meningoencephalitis) Sachistosoma sp. – snails ( schistosomiasis) Some Other Host Definitions: Reservoir host – source of infection for transmission Paratenic host – allows larval parasite to survive but not develop further - parasite develops further if paratenic host eaten by final host e.g. sparganum (larval cestode) in frogs.

.Gastrointestinal Parasites: Nematode parasitic infections (Round worms) – ascariasis. Hymenolepis spp.Ancylostoma braziliense (dog or cat hookworm – CLM) Muscle – Sarcocystis spp. blastocystis. saginata.Cysticercus cellulosae (T. Trichinella spiralis.. Fasciolopsis buski – Protozoon infections (Single cell or Unicellular ) – amoebiasis. . strongyloidiasis Cestode infections (Tape worms) – Taenia solium. hookworms.Sparganum (larval form Spirometra spp. T. (blood vessels) Central Nervous System – Angiostrongylus cantonensis – Cysticercus cellulosae – Plasmodium falciparum – Toxoplasma gondii .Loa loa (African Eye Worm –calabar swelling). trypanosomes – Schistosoma spp..). – Trematode infections ( Flat worms) – Echinostoma spp. solium – Bladder worm). Toxocara canis (VLM) Parasites in Other Tissues Blood and blood vessels – malaria.Onchocerca volvulus – Nodular worm – Onchocercomas – river blindness) .Dracunculus medinensis – guinea worm . trichuriasis. Toxoplasma gondii. . cryptosporidiosis Tissue Dwelling Parasites Subcutaneous tissues .

filariasis – Hymenolepis spp. Parasites with Complex Life Cycles Life cycles needing arthropod hosts – malaria. opisthorchiasis) – crustacean and fish (Diphyllobothrium latum) – another vertebrate . Life cycles with two intermediate hosts – snails and fish (clonorchiasis. strongyloidiasis) air (enterobiasis) Control through case detection. cryptosporidiosis) soil (hookworms.Parasites with Direct Cycles Transmitted from one host to another without need of intermediate host – – – – – direct contact (scabies) sexually transmitted (trichomoniasis) water (amoebiasis. treatment and prevention of infection through above media.