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The International Authority on Air System Components

AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL
ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL, INC.
AMCA
Standard 300-05
Reverberant Room Method for
Sound Testing of Fans
AMCA Standard 300 - 05
Reverberant Room Method for
Sound Testing of Fans
AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL
30 WEST UNIVERSITY DRIVE
ARLINGTON HEIGHTS, IL 60004-1893 U.S.A.
PHONE: (847) 394-0150
fax: (847) 253-0088
web: WWW.AMCA.ORG
ii
© 2005 by Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 and 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is
unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Executive Director,
Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Forward/Authority
AMCA Standard 300-05 was adopted by the membership of the Air Movement
and Control Association International, Inc. on 30 July 2005. The effective date of
this standard is 01 November 2005.
Tung Nguyen (Chair) Emerson Ventilation Products
Dr. John Cermak Acme Engineering & Manufacturing Corporation
Joseph Langford American Coolair Corp.
David Wolbrink Broan-Nutone LLC
Jeff Hill Cleanpak International
Dr. W.T.W. Cory Flakt Woods Ltd.
Iain Kinghorn (Alt.) Flakt Woods, Ltd.
Pete Neitzel Greenheck Fan Corporation
Max Clarke (Alt.) Greenheck Fan Corporation
Thomas Gustafson Hartzell Fan, Inc.
Ralph Sussey Howden Buffalo, Inc.
Dr. John Murphy JOGRAM, Inc.
Tan Tin Tin Kruger Ventilation Industries Pte. Ltd.
Ralph Sexton Matthews & Yates
Boyd Kunze The New York Blower Company
Scott Hausmann The Trane Co.
Scott Williamson Twin City Fan Companies, Ltd.
Disclaimer
AMCA International uses its best efforts to produce standards for the benefit of the
industry and the public in light of available information and accepted industry prac-
tices. However, AMCAdoes not guarantee, certify or assure the safety or perform-
ance of any products, components or systems tested, designed, installed or oper-
ated in accordance with AMCA standards or that any tests conducted under its
standards will be non-hazardous or free from risk.
Objections
Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc. will consider and decide
all written complaints regarding its standards, certification programs, or interpreta-
tions thereof. For information on procedures for submitting and handling com-
plaints, write to:
AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL
30 WEST UNIVERSITY DRIVE
ARLINGTON HEIGHTS, IL 60004-1893 USA
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Foreward
This standard was originally developed in response to the need for a reliable and
accurate method of determining the sound power levels of fan equipment. The
original document was written by the AMCA P158NB Sound Test Code
Committee. Where possible, it was based on ASHRAE Standard 36-62, and com-
bined state-of-the-art with practical considerations. It was first published as a
Recommended Practice in February 1962, and adopted as a Standard Test Code
in October 1963. The sound power reference level now used in this standard was
changed in January 1965, from 10-13 watts to 10-12 watts. The third edition
(January 1967) AMCA 300-67 Test Code for Sound Rating included minor revi-
sions. In 1974, minor editorial changes were made, and size-speed conversions
were transferred to AMCA 301 Methods for Calculating Fan Sound Ratings From
Laboratory Test Data. The 1985 edition continued the original philosophy of com-
bining the theoretical and the practical. The 1996 edition was improved by
increasing the accuracy of Reference Sound Source values through improve-
ments in calibration requirements and procedure, and where appropriate, calling
for units of measure in SI (I-P) sequence. Where there have been successful
improvements in state-of-the-art, full advantage has been taken. This latest edi-
tion refines the duct end correction factors to values whose source can be traced
to its origin.
Introduction
This standard establishes a method of determining the sound power levels of a
fan. The method is reproducible in all laboratories that are qualified to the require-
ments of this standard.
The method employs standard sound measurement instrumentation, applied to
rooms that are restricted to certain acoustic properties. The test setups are
designed generally to represent the physical orientation of a fan as installed, fol-
lowing ANSI/AMCA 210 Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Aerodynamic
Performance Rating. Sound is defined as radiant mechanical energy that is trans-
mitted by pressure waves in air; it is the objective cause of hearing. Sound pres-
sure level is described mathematically as a logarithmic quantity derived from
sound pressure. The unit of sound pressure level is the decibel, referenced to a
base of 20 micropascals, or 20 microbar. The sound pressure level at any given
point in space depends on the distance between the source and the receiver,
reflection if in an enclosed room, proximity of the source to other sound sources,
etc.
Sound in a room is the result of one or more active sound power sources within
that room. Sound power is the total sound energy radiated per unit time. Sound
power level is described mathematically as a logarithmic quantity derived from the
sound power. The unit of sound power level is the decibel referenced to 1 picow-
att (1.0E-12 watt). Sound power levels determined through use of this standard
are useful for comparison between fans and in acoustical design.
Since sound power is independent of acoustic environment, two or more fans pro-
posed for a specific aerodynamic performance condition may be evaluated by
comparison to determine whether one is more suitable for an application than
another. Moreover, fan sound power levels establish an accurate base for esti-
mating the acoustical outcome of the fan installation in terms of sound pressure
levels. Asuccessful estimate of sound pressure levels requires extensive informa-
tion on the fan and the environment in which it is to be located.
It is often advantageous for the fan equipment user to employ acoustical consul-
tation to ensure that all factors that affect the final sound pressure levels are con-
sidered. Additional information on the complexity of this situation may be found in
other documents available elsewhere.
Contents Page
1. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
2. Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
3. Definitions / units of measure / symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
3.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
3.2 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
4. Instruments / methods of measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
4.1 Sound level meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
4.2 Microphone system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
4.3 Frequency analyzer and weighting system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
4.4 Data recording equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
4.5 Reference sound source (RSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
4.6 Test method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
4.7 Accuracy of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
5. Equipment / setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
5.1 Reverberant room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
5.2 Setup categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
5.3 Aerodynamic performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
5.4 Mounting methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
5.5 Duct length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
5.6 Microphone travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
5.7 Calibration of system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
5.8 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
6. Observations and conduct of test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
6.1 Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
6.2 Information to be recorded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
7. Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
7.1 Background correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
7.2 Sound power level (Lw) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
8. Results and report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
8.1 Test subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
8.2 Laboratory and instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
8.3 Acoustical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Annex A (normative) Room qualification: full and one-third octave . . . . . . . . . .15
A.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
A.2 Instruments and quipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
A.3 Test procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
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A.4 Computation procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
A.5 Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Annex B (informative) Room qualification: pure tones / narrow-band . . . . . . .17
B.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
B.2 Instruments and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
B.3 Test procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
B.4 Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
B.5 Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Annex C (informative) Uncertainties analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
C.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
C.2 Uncertainties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
C.3 Room response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
C.4 Fan operating points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
C.5 Instrument error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
C.6 Reference sound source (RSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
C.7 Estimated standard deviation for determination of sound power levels 24
C.8 Duct end reflection corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
C.9 Octave band vs. One-third octave band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
C.10 Accuracy of the 63 hz octave band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Annex D (informative) Alternative procedure for reference sound source calibra-
tion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
D.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
D.2 Equipment and facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
D.3 Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
D.4 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
D.5 RSS sound power levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Annex E (normative) Duct end reflection correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
E.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
E.2 End reflection curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Annex F (informative) Filter-weighted measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Annex G (informative) Radiation of sound by fan casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
G.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
G.2 Instruments and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
G.3 Setup and test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
G.4 Observations and calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Annex H (informative) Total fan sound testing with attached ducts . . . . . . . . . .36
Annex J (informative) References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
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AMCA INTERNATIONAL INC.
AMCA 300-05
REVERBERANT ROOM
METHOD
FOR SOUND TESTING
OF FANS
1. Scope
This standard applies to fans of all types and
sizes. This standard is limited to the
determination of airborne sound emission for the
specified setups. Vibration is not measured, nor
is the sensitivity of airborne sound emission to
vibration effects determined.
The size of a fan that can be tested in
accordance with this standard is limited only by
the practical aspects of the test setups.
Dimensional limitations, test subject dimensions,
and air performance will control the test room
size and power and mounting requirements for
the test subject.
The test setup requirements in this standard
establish the laboratory conditions necessary for
a successful test. Rarely will it be possible to
meet these requirements in a field situation.
This standard is not intended for field
measurements.
2. Normative references
The following standards contain provisions that,
through specific reference in this text, constitute
provisions of this American National Standard.
At the time of publication the editions indicated
were valid. All standards are subject to revision,
and parties to agreements based on this
American National Standard are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the most
recent editions of the standards listed below.
ANSI/AMCA 210-99 / ANSI/ASHRAE 51-1999
Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for
Aerodynamic Performance Rating, Air
Movement and Control Association
International, Inc., 30 W. University Drive,
Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1893 U.S.A, 1999
ANSI S1.4-1983; S1.4A-1985 Specification for
Sound Level Meters, Acoustical Society of
America, 120 Wall St., 32
nd
Floor, New York, NY
10005-3993 U.S.A., 1985 (AMCA #2315-83-AO)
ANSI S1.11-2004 Specification for Octave Band
and Fractional Octave Band Analog and Digital
Filters, Acoustical Society of America, 120 Wall
St., 32
nd
Floor, New York, NY 10005-3993
U.S.A., 1986 (AMCA #1727-86-AO)
ANSI S1.40-1984 Standard Specification for
Acoustical Calibrators, Acoustical Society of
America, 120 Wall St., 32
nd
Floor, New York, NY
10005-3993 U.S.A., 1984 (AMCA #1895-84-AO)
ANSI S12.5-1990 Requirements for the
Performance and Calibration of Reference
Sound Sources, Acoustical Society of America,
120 Wall St., 32
nd
Floor, New York, NY 10005-
3993 U.S.A., 1990 (AMCA #1863-90-AO)
ANSI S12.12-1992 Engineering Method for the
Determination of Sound Power Levels of Noise
Sources Using Sound Intensity, Acoustical
Society of America, 120 Wall St., 32
nd
Floor,
New York, NY 10005-3993 U.S.A., 1992 (AMCA
#1850-92-AO)
ANSI/IEEE/ASTM SI 10-1997 Standard for Use
of the International System of Units (SI): The
Modern Metric System, Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers, 345 east 47
th
Street, New
York, NY 10017 U.S.A., 1997 (AMCA #2924-97-
AO)
3. Definitions / units of measure /
symbols
3.1 Definitions
3.1.1 Blade Passage Frequency (BPF): The
frequency of fan impeller blades passing a
single fixed object, per the following formula:
BPF = (number of blades)(fan rotational
speed, rev/min) / 60, in Hz.
3.1.2 Chamber: An enclosure used to
regulate airflow and absorb sound; it may also
conform to air test chamber conditions given in
ANSI/AMCA 210.
3.1.3 Decibel (dB): A dimensionless unit of
AMCA 300-05
2
level in logarithmic terms for expressing the ratio
of a power, or power-like, quantity to a similar
reference quantity. (See 3.1.13 and 3.1.14)
3.1.4 Ducted Fan: A fan having a duct
connected to either its inlet, its outlet, or to both.
3.1.5 End Reflection: A phenomenon that
occurs whenever sound is transmitted across an
abrupt change in area, such as at the end of a
duct in a room. When end reflection occurs
some of the sound entering the room is reflected
back into the duct and does not escape into the
room.
3.1.6 Frequency: The number of times in
one second that a periodic function repeats
itself.
3.1.7 Informative: A term that indicates that
the referenced material is provided as advice to
the reader but does not constitute a mandatory
requirement.
3.1.8 Non-ducted Fan: A fan without a duct
connected to either its inlet or outlet.
3.1.9 Normative: A term that indicates that
the referenced material, if applied, constitutes a
mandatory requirement.
3.1.10 Octave Band: The interval between
any two frequencies having a ratio of two. Fan
sound power levels are reported in eight
standardized octave bands shown in Table 1.
Fan sound power levels may also be reported in
one-third octave bands, also shown in Table 1.
3.1.11 Reverberant Room: An enclosure
meeting the requirements of Annex A, or Annex
A and Annex B.
3.1.12 Shall and Should: The word shall is to
be understood as mandatory; the word should
as advisory.
3.1.13 Sound Power Level: The value,
expressed in decibels (dB), of ten times the
logarithm (base 10) of the ratio of the sound
power W to the reference sound power W
ref
,
according to:
L
W
, in dB = 10 log
10
( W / W
ref
) (3-1)
3.1.14 Sound Pressure Level: The value,
expressed in decibels (dB), of twenty times the
logarithm (base 10) of the ratio of the sound
pressure p to the reference sound pressure p
ref
,
according to:
Table 1 - Standardized octave and one-third octave bands [5]
Octave Bands
Band no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ANSI Band no. 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39
Center frequency f, Hz 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
One-Third Octave Bands
Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
ANSI Band no. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Center freq. f, Hz 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630
Band 5 Band 6 Band 7 Band 8
ANSI Band no. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Center freq. f, Hz 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 5000 6300 8000 10000
AMCA 300-05
3
L
p
, in dB = 20 log
10
( p / p
ref
) (3-2)
3.1.15 Wavelength: The distance between
two points having the same phase in two
consecutive cycles of a periodic wave, along a
line in the direction of propagation [5].
Wavelength (ì) is determined by frequency and
the speed of sound in the air through which the
wave propagates:
ì = c / f (3-3)
where:
f = frequency, Hz
c = 343 m/s @ 20°C (1125 ft/s @ 68°F)
The value for c is acceptable for use in this
standard within the limits of ± 5°C (9°F) for
standard air.
3.1.16 Standard Air: Air having a density of
1.2 kg/m
3
(0.075 lb
m
/ft
3
). Standard air has a
ratio of specific heats of 1.4 and a viscosity of
1.8185E-03 Pa•s (1.222E-05 lb
m
/ft-s). Air at
20°C (68°F), 50% relative humidity, and 101.325
kPa (14.696 lb
m
/in.
2
, 29.92 in. Hg) barometric
pressure has these properties, approximately).
3.2 Symbols
(See Table 2.)
4. Instruments / methods of
measurement
4.1 Sound level meter
The sound level meter shall meet the
requirements of ANSI S1.4 and S1.4A. The
sound level meter should be capable of
accepting a microphone extension cable.
4.2 Microphone system
The microphone system (transducer and any
associated components and cable) shall meet
the requirements for use in a Type 1 precision
sound level meter according to ANSI S1.4 and
S1.4A. A microphone with a nominal diameter
of 13 mm (0.5 in.) is recommended.
4.3 Frequency analyzer and weighting
system
An octave band or one-third octave band filter
set is required and shall meet the Order 3 Type
3-D requirements of ANSI S1.11. An A-
weighting network shall meet the requirements
of ANSI S1.4 and S1.4A. Other weighting
networks may be used to improve the accuracy,
as outlined in Annex F.
4.4 Data recording equipment
This standard does not attempt to set limitations
on data recording equipment. Considerations
include long-term stability, ease of use, and the
method of averaging the sound pressure signal.
Modern integrating-type analyzers that comply
with IEC 804 are recommended because they
produce L
p
values eliminating any need for
visual averaging. Graphic level recorders can
be used to make permanent records and ease
the problem of making visual averages from
sound level meter indications.
4.5 Reference sound source (RSS)
The reference sound source should comply with
the requirements of ANSI S12.5.
4.5.1 The RSS shall be a small, modified, direct-
driven centrifugal fan having maximum overall
dimensions of 610 mm (2 ft) or less.
4.5.2 The RSS shall produce steady broad-
band sound over at least the frequency range
from 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz. It shall comply in all
respects with the performance requirements of
ANSI S12.5.
4.5.3 The RSS shall be equipped with vibration
isolators that minimize transmitted vibration.
The degree of isolation should be 20 dB or
more. If metal springs are used as vibration
isolators, rubber pads shall be used between the
isolator and the structure of the reverberant
room.
4.5.4 To ensure compliance with the stability
requirements of ANSI S12.5, all operating parts
of the RSS shall be rigidly and permanently
AMCA 300-05
4
Table 2 - Symbols
UNIT OF MEASURE
SYMBOL DESCRIPTION SI I-P

A
min
Minimum distance to reverberant field m ft
c Speed of sound m/s ft/s
D Duct diameter m ft
E
o
End reflection factor, at duct outlet dB dB
E
i
End reflection factor, at duct inlet dB dB
E
W
End reflection factor, adjustment to sound power level dB dB
f Frequency Hz Hz
J
1
Bessel function of the first kind, first order
k Wave number
K
1
Modified Bessel function of the second kind, first order
L
p
Sound pressure level, re 20 ȝPa (20 ȝbar) dB dB
L
pc
Corrected fan sound pressure level dB dB
L
pb
Sound pressure level of room background, measured over the
normal microphone path
dB dB
L
pm
Sound pressure level of fan + room background, measured over
the normal microphone path
dB dB
L
pq
Sound pressure level of the RSS, corrected dB dB
L
pqm
Sound pressure level of RSS + room background, measured
over the normal microphone path
dB dB
L
W
Sound power level re 1 picowatt (1.0E-12 W) dB dB
L
Wi
Sound power level; transmitted to inlet duct from fan dB dB
L
Wm
Sound power level measured at the open inlet and outlet of the
fan
dB dB
L
Wmi
Sound power level measured at the open inlet of the fan dB dB
L
Wmo
Sound power level measured at the open outlet of the fan dB dB
L
Wo
Sound power level transmitted to the outlet duct from fan dB dB
L
Wr
Sound power level of RSS dB dB
p Sound pressure Pa bar
p
ref
Sound pressure reference level, 20 ȝPa Pa bar
P
s
Fan static pressure Pa in. wg
P
t
Fan total pressure Pa in. wg
r Ratio (of Duct area / Orifice area) dimensionless
R Reflection coefficient dimensionless
s Standard deviation dB dB
W Sound power (in watts) W W
W
ref
Reference sound power (1 picowatt) W W
Z
M
Mechanical impedence Ns/m
o Ratio of transmitted to reflected sound dimensionless
¸ Ratio of specific heats dimensionless
ì Wavelength m ft
e Angular frequency rad/s rad/s
AMCA 300-05
5
attached. No rubber or wearing parts shall be
permitted (except lubricated bearings) and
protection against corrosion shall be provided.
4.5.5 The RSS calibration shall consist of a
determination of the sound power level radiated
by the RSS (including vibration isolators) when it
is in operation on a reflecting plane with
radiation into a free field above that plane. The
calibration shall be in accordance with ANSI
S12.5 or as provided in Annex D. The maximum
time interval since calibration shall not exceed
that specified by the manufacturer or three
years, whichever is shorter.
4.6 Test method
The test method is based on a Reference Sound
Source (RSS) substitution for the determination
of sound power. The reference document for
this method is ANSI S12.51.
Application of the test method requires that the
test subject fan be set in position in a test room
that is qualified according to the requirements of
Section 5.1.
Once the test room has been qualified, sound
pressure levels are recorded with the RSS
operating. The fan is then operated, without the
RSS in operation, at various performance points
of interest for the given test speed and the
sound pressure levels are recorded. Since the
sound power levels of the RSS are known, the
substitution method is used to determine the
sound power levels of the fan for each operating
point.
Current ANSI and ASA documents on sound
testing, facilities and equipment are useful
references. See Annex J.
4.7 Accuracy of results
Accuracy of test results is addressed in Annex C
and depends upon several variables, including
the room qualification and the type of test setup
utilized.
5. Equipment/setups
5.1 Reverberant room
An enclosure meeting the requirements of
Annex A is mandatory for the purposes of this
standard. An enclosure meeting the
requirements of Annex B is recommended for
broad-band sound testing and is mandatory for
the purpose of investigating pure tones and
narrow bands.
5.2 Setup categories
A number of specific fan test setups are allowed.
They are determined by the airflow direction
and the particular mounting arrangement of the
test subject. The test setups fall into two
general categories.
The first category is for a free-standing unit that
would be placed entirely in the test room (see
Figure 1). Results of this arrangement yield total
sound power L
W
of the test subject, non-ducted.
For the total sound power of a ducted test
subject located entirely in the test room, see
Annex H.
The second category includes those fans that
would be tested on a chamber or two-room
system where only the inlet or outlet terminate in
the test room (see Figures 2 and 3). These
arrangements result in the determination of inlet
(L
Wi
) or outlet (L
Wo
) sound power. Section 5.6
discuses the limitations that must be imposed
on the test room for determining the position of
the test subject and the location of the
microphone. The choice of test setup for a
specific test will depend on the way the fan is
expected to be applied in the field.
5.3 Aerodynamic performance
Where an aerodynamic performance test is
necessary to determine the point of operation of
a test subject, the test shall be performed in
accordance with ANSI/AMCA 210 or other fan
aerodynamic performance test standard having
a demonstrated accuracy equivalent to
ANSI/AMCA 210.
AMCA 300-05
6
5.4 Mounting methods
The method of mounting a test subject, or
connecting it to a non-integral driver, or
connecting it to an airflow test facility is not
specified. Any conventional method may be
used including vibration isolation devices and
short flexible connectors. Other than these,
sound and vibration absorptive material may not
be incorporated in the test subject unless it is a
standard part of the fan. Ducts shall be of metal
or other rigid, dense non-absorptive material
and have no exposed sound absorption material
on the interior or exterior surfaces.
The driving motor and drive, when not an
integral part of the test subject, may be damped
or enclosed in any manner that does not expose
sound absorption material to the test room.
When a driving motor and drive are an integral
part of the test subject, they may not be treated
in any manner, and normal belt tensions,
bearings, and lubricants shall be used. When a
fan and its drive are both in the reverberant
room, the test results may contain sound
contributions from flanking paths as well as
mechanical and/or electrical sound from the
drive system.
5.5 Duct length
On a chamber or two-room setup, the length of
duct shall be consistent with acceptable practice
per ANSI/AMCA 210 necessary to accurately
establish the point of rating.
The length of duct shown in Figures 2 and 3 is
consistent with the procedures of ANSI/AMCA
210. Care must be exercised to ensure that no
duct resonances exist in close proximity to
specific frequencies of interest such as the
Blade Pass Frequency.
5.6 Microphone traverse and room
requirements
When using the substitution method, the
minimum distance between the sound source
and the nearest microphone position may be
calculated from:
( )
A C
L L
Wr pq
min
/
=
÷
2
20
10 (5-1)
Where:
A
min
= the minimum distance between the
sound source and the microphone,
m(ft),
C
2
= 0.61 (if using SI units), (2.0 if using
IP units), and
(L
Wr
-L
pq
) = is the maximum value for
Octave Bands 2 to 7.
If the test room and test setup have been
qualified in accordance with Annex A, the
continuous microphone traverse used for the
qualification shall also be used for the sound
pressure measurements.
If a microphone traverse is used, it shall meet
the following requirements:
a) no point on the traverse shall be any
closer than A
min
from the sound source;
b) no point on the traverse shall be any
closer than 1.0 m (3.333 ft) to any
surface of the test room;
c) no point on the traverse shall, at any
time, be closer than 0.5 m (1.67 ft) to any
surface of a rotating diffuser;
d) the microphone traverse should not lie in
any plane within 10° of a room surface;
e) the microphone shall swing or move on a
normal path of an arc or straight line with
a minimum distance of 3 m (10 ft)
between the extreme points of travel;
f) the maximum air velocity over the
microphone shall be 1 m/s (200 fpm);
g) room volume is not specified but the
room must be large enough in volume
such that the volume of the test fan and
associated ductwork does not exceed
1% of the room volume;
h) neither the RSS nor fan shall be within
300 mm (1 ft) of any room centerline.
AMCA 300-05
7
5.7 Calibration of system
Before each sound power determination, the
following calibration checks shall be performed.
A calibration check shall be made of the entire
measurement system at one or more
frequencies within the frequency range of
interest. An acoustical calibrator conforming to
ANSI S1.40 and with an accuracy of ± 0.5 dB
shall be used for this purpose. In conformance
with ANSI S1.40, the calibrator shall be checked
at least once every year to verify that its output
has not changed. In addition, an electrical
calibration of the instrumentation over the entire
frequency range of interest shall be performed
periodically, at intervals of not more than one
year.
The microphone and its associated cable shall
be chosen so that their sensitivity does not
change by more than 0.2 dB over the
temperature range encountered during the
measurement. If the microphone is moved, care
shall be exercised to avoid introducing
acoustical or electrical noise (for example, from
gears, flexing cables, or sliding contacts) that
could interfere with measurement.
The frequency response of the instrument
system shall be flat over the frequency range of
interest within the tolerances given in Table 3,
and applied as outlined in ANSI S12.51.
Table 3 - Tolerances for the instrument
system
One-third Octave Band
Center Frequency (Hz)
Tolerance
(dB)
40-80 ±1.5
100-4000 ±1.0
5000-8000 ±1.5
10000 ±2.0
12500 ±3.0
SOUND POWER CALCULATIONS
Installation Type L
W
Equation
A: Free Inlet L
Wm
=L
pc
+(L
Wr
-L
pq
)
Free Outlet
This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following assumptions:
1. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant room and the microphone location is
such that it is sensing total averaged sound pressure levels.
2. No resonances are present on either the fan structure, supporting devices, or driving devices
that provide any significant pure tones that may add to the fan recorded sound pressure
levels.
Section 5, Figure 1 - Fan total sound testing
AMCA 300-05
8
1 to 3D
*May require acoustical treatment.
SOUND POWER CALCULATIONS
Installation Type L
W
Equations
A or B: Free Inlet L
Wmi
=L
pc
+(L
Wr
-L
pq
)
C or D: Ducted Inlet L
Wi
=L
pc
+(L
Wr
-L
pq
)+E
i
This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following assumptions:
Acoustical energy in an outlet duct which terminates in a second room or chamber does not
contribute to fan test sound pressure levels. This requires adequate transmission loss between
adjourning rooms and the addition of absorptive material within a chamber to absorb this energy.
1. Adequate absorption takes place at the discharge of a duct in a second room or chamber so
that any energy passing down that duct is adequately attenuated.
2. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant room and the microphone location is
such that it is recording total averaged sound pressure levels.
3. Duct construction is such that the transmission loss through the duct wall is large enough to
eliminate any addition to measured room sound pressure levels.
4. No resonances are present on either the fan structure, supporting devices, or driving devices
that provide any significant pure tones that may add to the recorded fan sound pressure
levels.
5. Inlet orifices to control the operating point are not permitted, unless integral to the fan.
Section 5, Figure 2 - Fan inlet sound testing
AMCA 300-05
9
2 to 3D
*May require acoustical treatment.
SOUND POWER CALCULATIONS
Installation Type L
W
Equations
A or C: Free Outlet L
Wmo
=L
pc
+(L
Wr
-L
pq
)
B or D: Ducted Outlet L
Wo
=L
pc
+(L
Wr
-L
pq
)+E
o
This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following assumptions:
1. Acoustical energy in an inlet duct that terminated in a second room or chamber does not
contribute to fan test sound pressure levels. This requires adequate transmission loss
between adjoining rooms and the addition of absorptive material within a chamber to absorb
this energy.
2. Adequate absorption takes place at the inlet of a duct in a second room or chamber so that
any energy passing down that duct is adequately attenuated.
3. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant room and the microphone location is
such that it is recording total averaged sound pressure levels.
4. Duct construction is such that the transmission loss through the duct wall is large enough to
eliminate any addition to measured room sound pressure levels.
5. No resonances are present on either the fan structure, supporting devices, or driving devices
that provide any significant pure tones that may add to the recorded fan sound pressure
levels.
6. Outlet orifices to control the operating point are not permitted, unless integral to the fan.
Section 5, Figure 3 - Fan outlet sound testing
AMCA 300-05
10
5.8 Equations
The type of fan and its test setup determine the
calculations required to determine the sound
power levels (L
W
, L
Wm
, L
Wi
, L
Wmi
, L
Wo
, L
Wmo
) of
the test subject. Equations for each test setup
are included under the specific arrangement
along with any qualifying statements or
limitations. Also included are any assumptions
that were made regarding these specific setups.
End reflection factors (E
i
) and (E
o
), when
required, shall be calculated from Annex E Duct
End Reflection Correction, using the appropriate
duct and orifice size.
It cannot be assumed that the inlet and outlet
sound powers are always equal. Therefore,
total sound power levels shall not be used to
derive inlet or outlet sound power levels.
6. Observations and conduct of test
6.1 Observations
6.1.1 Point of operation
Although the acoustical observations necessary
to determine sound power output are the same
for all types of fans, the non-acoustical
observations necessary to determine the
aerodynamic point of operation differ. This
standard provides different test setups for the
testing of various fan types. Regardless of the
test setup, the point of operation shall be
determined. If the sound test setup also
conforms to one of the test setups in
ANSI/AMCA 210, then the point of rating can be
established with sufficient accuracy. If the
sound test setup does not conform to one of the
test setups in ANSI/AMCA 210, steps must be
taken to ensure that the fan rotational speed is
known within ± 1% and the point of operation
can be established within ± 5% along a system
curve.
6.1.2 Sound pressure levels
6.1.2.1 Sound pressure levels, background
(L
pb
)
Background sound pressure levels are those
measured in the test room with the test subject
and the RSS off. The background noise
includes all noise sources not directly
associated with fan sound. Examples of
background noise sources are: noise due to the
motion of the microphone and noise due to any
other external source. Efforts should be made
to keep the background noise level at a
minimum. For a test, or set of determinations, at
various points of test subject operation,
background sound pressure levels need to be
observed once.
6.1.2.2 Sound pressure levels, RSS (L
pqm
)
RSS sound pressure levels are those measured
in the test room with the RSS operating and the
test subject off. RSS sound pressure levels
include background sound pressure levels. For
a test, or set of determinations, at various points
of test subject operation, RSS sound pressure
levels need to be observed once.
6.1.2.3 Sound pressure levels, fan (L
pm
)
Fan sound pressure levels are those measured
in the test room with the test subject operating
and the RSS off. Fan sound pressure levels
include background sound pressure levels. Fan
sound pressure levels must be observed for
each operating point.
Note: The observations above are valid only
when taken in a room that is qualified per the
procedures defined in Annex A or B.
6.1.3 Test conditions
The test conditions shall, as nearly as possible,
be the same for all sound pressure level
measurements. Operation of the microphone
traverse and any rotating vanes shall be the
same for all measurements. Observers and
operators should not be in the test room during
measurements, but if it is absolutely necessary
for them to be present, they shall be away from
the test subject and remain in the same position
during the test. Readings should be a time
weighted average over an integral number of
microphone swings. The time span used shall
be sufficient to provide a stable value and shall
be a minimum of 30 seconds for frequency
AMCA 300-05
11
bands ” 160 Hz, and 15 seconds for frequency
bands • 200 Hz.
6.2 Information to be recorded
As applicable, the following information shall be
compiled and recorded for all observations
made in accordance with this standard.
6.2.1 Test subject
A) Description of the test subject
1) Manufacturer
2) Model
3) Nominal size
4) Impeller diameter, mm (in.)
5) Number of impeller blades
6) Blade angle setting (adjustable or
variable pitch fans only)
7) Number of stator vanes
8) Inlet area, m
2
(ft
2
)
9) Outlet area, m
2
(ft
2
)
B) Operating conditions
1) Fan rotational speed, rev/min
2) Fan airflow rate, m
3
/s (ft
3
/min)
3) Fan static pressure or total pressure
at actual test conditions, Pa (in. wg)
4) Fan air density, kg/m
3
(lb
m
/ft
3
)
C) Mounting conditions
1) Test figure per this standard
2) Test Installation Type
3) Sketch showing the test room setup,
including the dimensional locations
of the test subject and points or path
of acoustical measurements
6.2.2 Test environment
A) Barometric pressure, kPa (in. Hg)
B) Ambient dry-bulb temperature, °C (°F)
C) Ambient wet-bulb temperature, °C (°F)
D) Fan inlet dry-bulb temperature, °C (°F)
E) Static pressure at the fan inlet, Pa (in.
wg)
6.2.3 Laboratory and instruments
A) Laboratory name
B) Laboratory location
C) Technician(s) conducting test
D) List of test equipment used, with
calibration information
E) Scope of room qualification. Data shall
indicate whether the room is qualified for
full octaves or one-third octaves, and in
the case of pure tone testing, the one-
third octaves for which the qualification
applies.
6.2.4 Acoustical data
A) Background sound pressure levels L
pb
B) RSS sound pressure levels L
pqm
C) Background corrections for the RSS
D) Fan sound pressure levels L
pm
E) Background corrections for the fan
F) Un-weighted fan sound power levels
L
Wmi
or L
Wmo
G) End reflection correction data
1) End reflection correction values E
i
or E
o
2) Duct length
3) Flush or non-flush mounting of the
duct into the test room
4) Orifice plate inside diameter, m (ft)
H) Test date
7. Calculations
Calculations are affected by the Installation Type
and setup. See Section 5.8 in addition to the
following.
AMCA 300-05
12
7.1 Background correction
The observed RSS or test subject sound
pressure levels include both the sound source
and background noise. The effect of
background noise level is termed background
correction and must be subtracted from the
observed sound pressure level. Background
correction values depend on the difference
between the observed sound pressure levels
and the background noise levels.
When the difference between the observed
sound pressure levels (RSS – background) in a
frequency band is less than 6 dB, the
corresponding sound pressure level from the
source cannot be determined accurately by this
standard. For any band for which the difference
between the background and the (background +
source) sound pressure level is less than 6 dB,
L
pc
shall be reported as 1.3 dB less than L
pm
.
The data for each such band shall be clearly
marked as upper boundary levels.
A sound pressure level reading shall be
corrected for background noise level by
logarithmic subtraction using the following
formulae:
Test subject (fan) sound pressure level:
L
pc
L L
pm pb
= ÷
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
10 10 10
10
10 10
log (7-1)
RSS sound pressure level:
L
pq
L L
pqm pb
= ÷
|
\

|
.
|
|
10 10 10
10
10 10
log (7-2)
Example: The sound pressure level of a fan in a
given frequency band is observed to be 58 dB.
The background sound pressure level in the
same band is observed to be 51 dB. The
background value is subtracted logarithmically
from the fan sound pressure level using
Equation 7-1, which results in 57 dB (rounded).
7.2 Sound power level (L
W
)
A sound power level is calculated using
equations given in Section 5. The equations
vary with product type and test setup. The
sound power level of a full octave band may be
calculated from one-third octave band values by
using the formula:
L
W
L L L
W W W
= + +
|
\

|
.
|
|
10 10 10 10
10
10 10 10
1 2 3
log (7-3)
Where:
L
W1
, L
W2
, and L
W3
are one-third octave sound
power level values.
8. Results and report
Test results are presented as the sound power
level, in dB, in each of the eight full octave
bands for each fan test speed and point of
operation. Full octave bands are given in Table
1. The report shall also include data defined in
Sections 8.1 through 8.3. This standard does
not require that pure tone effects be isolated
from broad-band sound. However, a laboratory
equipped with suitable instrumentation is
encouraged to investigate and report pure tones
separately.
8.1 Test subject
A) Description of the test subject
1) Manufacturer
2) Model
3) Nominal size
4) Impeller diameter, mm (in.)
5) Number of impeller blades
6) Blade angle setting (adjustable or
variable pitch fans only)
B) Operating conditions
1) Aerodynamic performance test
standard
2) Fan rotational speed, rpm
3) Fan airflow rate, m
3
/s (ft
3
/min)
AMCA 300-05
13
4) Fan static pressure or total pressure
at actual test conditions, Pa (in. wg)
5) Fan air density, kg/m
3
(lb
m
/ft
3
)
C) Mounting conditions
1) Test Figure per this standard
2) Installation Type
8.2 Laboratory and instruments
A) Laboratory name
B) Laboratory location
8.3 Acoustical data
A) Un-weighted fan sound power level, in
each reported band, reported to the
nearest whole decibel
B) Test date
C) Background sound pressure level in
each reported band
D) Background correction for the RSS for
each reported band
E) RSS sound pressure level in each
reported band
F) Background correction for test subject,
in each reported band
G) Test subject sound pressure level, in
each reported band
AMCA 300-05
14
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AMCA 300-05
15
Annex A
(normative)
Room qualification: full and one-third octave
A.1 General
This annex covers the procedures for a broad-band qualification of a test room for full and one-third
octave bands. If pure tone qualification is required, refer to Annex B Room Qualification: Pure Tones /
Narrow Band.
A.2 Instruments and equipment
The instruments and microphone traverse shall be the same as those used during the actual testing of a
fan. The instruments shall conform to the requirements given in Sections 4.1. through 4.4, inclusive. The
microphone traverse shall conform to the requirements of Section 5.6. The test procedure given in this
annex requires the use of a Reference Sound Source (RSS) having the characteristics specified in
Section 4.5.
A.3 Test procedure
Eight or more measurements shall be made of the reverberant field sound pressure levels in the room,
each with the RSS placed at a different location within the room, under the following conditions:
A.3.1 Each location for the RSS shall be selected on the floor and shall not be closer than 1 m (3 ft)
from a wall and not closer to any microphone than permitted by equation A
min
(Section 5, Figure 4). The
distance between any two RSS locations shall be greater than 0.9 m (3 ft). No source location shall lie
within ± 300 mm (1 ft) of a room centerline. The RSS locations shall be in the general vicinity of the
locations intended for the test subject as seen in a plan view of the test room.
A.3.2 With the RSS at each of the eight (or more) above locations, determine the average sound
pressure levels in accordance with the procedures of Section 6.
A.3.3 The microphone traverse, sound diffuser (if any), instruments and observation times shall be
identical to those to be used for a test subject.
A.4 Computation procedure
For each frequency band for which the test room is to be qualified, the standard deviation s, in dB, shall
be computed using the formula:
( )
s
n
L L
RSS
RSS
pq
j
pq
j
n
=
÷
÷

¦
´
¦
¹
¦
¹
`
¦
)
¦ =
¯
1
1
2
1
1 2 /
(A.4-1)
Where:
(L
pq
)
j
= the sound pressure level, in dB, averaged over all microphone positions, when the RSS is in the
j
th
location
___
L
pq
= arithmetic mean of (L
pq
)
j
values, in dB, averaged over all RSS locations
AMCA 300-05
16
n
RSS
= number of RSS locations, a minimum of eight
A.5 Qualification
For each frequency band, the test room qualifies for the measurement of broad-band sound if the
computed standard deviation s, in dB, does not exceed the limits given in Table A1.
Table A1 - Maximum allowable standard deviation S, (dB)
Octave
Band
Center
Frequencie
s (Hz)
One-Third
Octave Band
Center
Frequencies
(Hz)
Maximum
Allowable
Standard
Deviation (dB)
s
63 50 to 80 3.0
125 100 to 160 1.5
250 and 500 200 to 630 1.0
1000 and
2000
800 to 2500 0.5
4000 and
8000
3150 to 10000 1.0
AMCA 300-05
17
Annex B
(informative)
Room qualification: pure tones / narrow-band
B.1 General
This annex covers the procedure for the qualification of a test room to investigate pure tones. The
reference document for this procedure is ANSI S12.51. Qualification testing applies only to those one-
third octave bands having mid-frequencies from 100 Hz to 2500 Hz, inclusive, as shown in Table B1.
Qualification excludes those bands having mid-frequencies below 100 Hz and is not required for those
bands having a mid-frequency greater than 2500 Hz. The qualification testing applies to a specific
location in the test room and determines which of the one-third octave bands the test room location is
qualified for. A sound test based on such qualification must state the mid-frequency of the one-third
octave band(s) qualified for the test by this procedure.
B.2 Instruments and equipment
The instruments shall be as specified in Section 4 with the following substitutions / additions.
a) The signal analyzer shall be a one-third octave band analyzer conforming to ANSI S1.11.
b) The sound source will consist of:
1) A loudspeaker / horn: one or more, each having a sufficiently smooth frequency response
within the range of frequencies to be qualified.
2) A frequency generator, tunable to and meeting the tolerances given for the frequencies given
in Table B1. A digital frequency synthesizer is recommended for ease of setting frequency.
3) A frequency counter accurate within ± 0.05 Hz over the pertinent frequency range.
4) A power amplifier of suitable power and having an output impedance compatible with the
loudspeaker(s) / horn(s).
5) A voltmeter capable of monitoring within ± 0.05% of the voltage across the loudspeaker(s) /
horn(s) at all test frequencies.
B.3 Test procedure
Qualification testing consists of two sections, the first being concerned with the near-field characteristics
of the loudspeaker / horn and the second with the test room itself. In both sections, measurements are
made for each of the discrete frequencies associated with the one-third octave band being qualified. The
same test equipment must be used for both sections of the qualification testing.
B.3.1 Loudspeaker / horn test
The loudspeaker / horn shall be located on the horizontal surface of a hemi-anechoic field with the open
cone facing upward. A microphone with diaphragm horizontal is located over the center of the
loudspeaker / horn 10 to 20 mm (0.375 to 0.75 in.) above the plane of the loudspeaker / horn rim. The
input voltage to the loudspeaker / horn must be sufficient to overcome background noise but must in no
case be permitted to cause physical distortion of the loudspeaker / horn components. The sound
pressure levels for the discrete frequencies of a one-third octave band are then measured. The
loudspeaker / horn is suitable only if the sound pressure levels at adjacent frequencies do not differ by
more than 1 dB. This test determines the near-field characteristics of the loudspeaker / horn and gives
calibration sound pressure levels for the loudspeaker / horn.
B.3.2 Room test
The loudspeaker / horn shall be positioned in the room at the horizontal and vertical coordinates intended
AMCA 300-05
18
for the test subject and placed so that the open cone faces away from the nearest room surface. Using
the same input voltage to the loudspeaker(s) / horn(s) as for the loudspeaker / horn test, space and time
averaged sound pressure levels L
ps
are measured for the discrete frequencies of the one-third octave
band.
B.4 Computation
The room test sound pressure level is then corrected to remove the effect of the loudspeaker’s / horn’s
near-field characteristic by subtracting the loudspeaker / horn test sound pressure level. The arithmetic
mean for the room sound pressure level is then calculated, and the standard deviation s of the difference
between the average sound pressure level and the arithmetic mean sound pressure level is determined
by:
( )
( )
| |
s
n
L L
ps
k
ps
k
n
=
÷
÷
¦
´
¦
¹
¦
¹
`
¦
)
¦
=
¯
1
1
2
1
1 2 /
(B.4-1)
Where:
(L
ps
)
k
= the corrected sound pressure level, in dB, averaged over all microphone positions, of the k
th
discrete frequency,
___
L
ps
= the arithmetic mean of (L
ps
)
k
values averaged over all n test frequencies within the one-third
octave band,
n = the number of discrete frequencies within the one-third octave band.
B.5 Qualification
A test room is accepted as qualified for pure tone testing within a given one-third octave band if the
standard deviation s, in dB, for that band does not exceed the values given in Table B2. If a one-third
octave band does not qualify, some modification will be required to the microphone location, to the test
position, or to the room absorption [7] [8].
AMCA 300-05
19
Table B1 - Test frequencies for alternative qualification of reverberant room facility for measuring
sound power levels of noise sources containing significant discrete frequency components (from
ANSI S12.51-2002)
Center frequency of one-third octave bands, Hz
100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500
--
--
--
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
--
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
--
--
--
180
182
184
186
188
190
192
194
196
198
--
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240
242
244
246
248
--
--
--
285
288
291
294
297
300
303
306
309
312
361
364
367
370
373
376
379
382
385
388
391
394
397
--
--
445
450
455
460
465
470
475
480
485
490
495
--
--
564
570
576
582
588
594
600
606
612
618
624
--
--
712
720
728
736
744
752
760
768
776
784
792
--
--
--
900
910
920
930
940
950
960
970
980
990
--
1130
1140
1150
1160
1170
1180
1190
1200
1210
1220
1230
1240
1470
1480
1490
1500
1510
1520
1530
1540
1550
1560
1570
1580
1590
--
--
--
1800
1820
1840
1860
1880
1900
1920
1940
1960
1980
--
2260
2280
2300
2320
2340
2360
2380
2400
2420
2440
2460
2480
100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
--
--
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
216
218
220
222
--
--
252
254
256
258
260
262
264
266
268
270
272
274
276
318
321
324
327
330
333
336
339
342
345
348
--
--
403
406
409
412
415
418
421
424
427
430
433
436
439
505
510
515
520
525
530
535
540
545
550
555
--
--
636
642
648
654
660
666
672
678
684
690
696
702
--
808
816
824
832
840
848
856
864
872
880
888
--
--
1010
1020
1030
1040
1050
1060
1070
1080
1090
1100
1110
--
--
1260
1270
1280
1290
1300
1310
1320
1330
1340
1350
1360
1370
1380
1610
1620
1630
1640
1650
1660
1670
1680
1690
1700
1710
1720
1730
2020
2040
2060
2080
2100
2120
2140
2160
2180
2200
2220
--
--
2520
2540
2560
2580
2600
2620
2640
2660
2680
2700
2720
2740
2760
Increment,
Hz
Tolerance of
Increment,
Hz
Number of
test
frequencies,
n
1
±0.3
22
1
±0.3
26
1
±0.3
27
2
±0.5
22
2
±0.5
26
3
±1
22
3
±1
27
5
±1.5
23
6
±2
24
8
±3
23
10
±3
22
10
±5
26
10
±5
23
20
±5
22
20
±5
26
Table B2 - Maximum allowable sample standard deviation, s
One-third Octave
Band Center
Frequencies (Hz)
Maximum
Allowable
Standard
Deviation s (dB)
100 to 160
200 to 315
400 to 630
800 to 2500
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
AMCA 300-05
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AMCA 300-05
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Annex C
(informative)
Uncertainties analysis
C.0 General
The analysis of the uncertainty associated with measurements made in accordance with this standard
provides identification of certain critical points so as to recognize the limitations of the results.
Furthermore, it provides an approximation, in real values, of the imprecision in the recorded results.
C.1 Definitions
Precision error is an error that causes readings to take random values on either side of some mean
value.
Systematic error is an error that persists and cannot be considered as due entirely to chance.
Uncertainty is an estimated value for error, i.e., what we think an error would be if we could and did
measure it by calibration. Although uncertainty may be the result of both precision and systematic errors,
only precision errors can be treated by statistical methods.
The uncertainty in a researched value is described by specifying the measured value followed by the
uncertainty interval at the desired confidence level:
L
W
= m ± w at P confidence level (C.1-1)
Where:
m = measured value
w = uncertainty
P = percent
C.2 Uncertainties
The uncertainties associated with the determination of sound power levels through measurements
performed in accordance with this standard are room response (C.3), fan operating points (C.4),
instrument error (C.5), and RSS (C.6). Uncertainties associated with duct end reflection corrections
involve the accuracy of estimating the losses from orifice plates (C.8). Other areas of interest involve the
use of octave or one-third octave bands (C.9) and the problems associated with testing in the 63 Hz band
(C.10).
C.3 Room response
A reverberant room is an appropriate place for determining the acoustical power of a source, such as a
fan, that emits a steady sound power. The reverberant room must be diffuse enough to produce a
reverberant field.
When a sound source is operated inside a reverberant room, the sound waves are reflected by the walls
and are propagated in all directions. If the paths of all the waves could be seen, we would notice a
number of repetitions, (e.g., the path followed by a wave between two parallel walls). These paths are
called normal modes. The greater the number of normal modes, the better the sound dispersion in the
room. The modes must be sufficiently numerous in any measurement band so that the microphone
traverse will serve to average the sound pressure. The number of normal modes in a given space
AMCA 300-05
22
increases with frequency. Hence, it is usually more precise to measure higher frequencies. When the
number of modes are few, it helps to measure the sound in many locations and average the results. Two
important sources of error may affect the measurements made in a reverberant room: 1) the error
introduced by measuring the sound field at a limited number of points, and 2) variations in sound power
due to the location of the sound source. Many sources radiate sound that is not entirely broad-band, but
contains significant discrete-frequency components, or pure tones. Some fans generate a pure tone at
the blade passage frequency and sometimes at harmonic frequencies.
In a reverberant room, a pure tone tends to excite certain modes that will dominate all others. This
noticeably increases the variability of the pressure field due to an insufficient dispersion of the sound field.
Due to the consequent inaccuracy of sound pressure averaging, the precision of the results is reduced.
C.3.1 Broad-band measurement in a reverberation room
Broad-band sound is uniformly distributed in frequency with relatively steady levels and with no prominent
discrete-frequency or narrow-band components. Measurement of broad-band sound may be made in a
test room qualified per Annex A.
C.3.2 Pure-tone measurement in a reverberation room
When a discrete-frequency component is present in the sound spectrum of a source, the spatial
variations in sound pressure level usually exhibit maxima separated by minima having an average
spacing of approximately 0.8 ì, where ì is the wavelength corresponding to the discrete frequency of
interest.
The presence of a significant discrete-frequency component in the sound produced by a source can often
be detected by a simple listening test. If such a component is audible, or detectable by narrow-band
analysis, the qualification procedure described in Annex B is recommended.
If the test room is not qualified for pure-tone measurement, the measurement uncertainty will most
probably be higher in the bands containing the blade passage frequency and its harmonics than if
measured in a qualified test room.
Discrete-frequency components may be present in the sound spectrum even when these components
are not audible. A conclusion that no discrete-frequency components are present can only be reached by
performing the test described in C.3.3.
C.3.3 Test for discrete-frequency components
The following procedure can be used to estimate the spatial standard deviation of the sound pressure
levels produced by the test subject in the test room.
Select an array of six fixed microphones (or a single microphone at six positions) spaced at least ì/2
apart, where ì is the wavelength of the sound corresponding to the lowest band mid-frequency of interest
and meeting all the requirements for microphone positions in Annex A. Locate the sound source at a
single position in the test room in accordance with Annex A.
Obtain the time-averaged sound pressure level L
pj
at each microphone position according to the
techniques described in Annex A.
For each one-third octave band within the frequency range of interest, calculate the standard deviation s,
in dB, from the following equation:
AMCA 300-05
23
( )
s
n
L L
m
pcj p
j
j
n
m
=
÷
÷

=
¯
1
1
2
1
1 2 /
(C.3-1)
Where:
L
pcj
= sound pressure level, corrected for the background sound level in accordance with the procedures
of Section 6.2.1 for the j
th
microphone position, dB
__
L
pj
= arithmetic mean of (L
pc
)
j
values, averaged over all microphone positions, dB
n
m
= number of microphone positions = 6
The magnitude of s depends upon the properties of the sound field in the test room. These properties are
influenced by the characteristics of the room as well as the characteristics of the sound source (i.e.,
directivity and spectrum of the emitted sound). In theory, a standard deviation of 5.57 dB corresponds to
a spectral component of zero bandwidth, i.e., a discrete tone.
Table C1 - Characterization of the presence of discrete-frequency or narrow-band components,
based upon the spatial variation of the sound field
Standard
Deviation, s
(dB)
Characterization
s<1.5 Assume broad-band source (use
procedures of Annex A).
1.5<s<3 Assume that a narrow-band of
noise is present. Recommend use
of the qualification procedure in
Annex B.
s>3 Assume that a discreet tone is
present. Test room must qualify
per Annex B.
C.4 Fan operating points
When the sound power levels of a fan are determined, each measurement must relate to one point of
operation of the fan. Uncertainty in identifying this point thus affects the global uncertainty of the results.
Therefore it is recommended that the procedures of ANSI/AMCA 210 or other recognized fan
aerodynamic performance test standard be used as a guideline in identifying the test subject’s operating
points. The sensitivity of the sound levels to a change in point of operation is a function of the test
subject’s performance characteristics, and this will dictate how accurately the point of operation must be
determined. A fan that exhibits a large change in sound power level as airflow is changed (at a given fan
rotational speed) is of more concern than one that shows a small change in sound power level for the
same airflow change.
C.5 Instrument error
The frequency response of the instrument system shall be flat over the frequency range of interest to
within the tolerances given in Table C2.
AMCA 300-05
24
Table C2 - Tolerances for the instrument system
Frequency
(Hz)
Tolerance
(dB)
100 to 4000
5000 to 8000
10000
±1.0
±1.5
±2
C.6 Reference sound source (RSS)
The sound power produced by the RSS shall be determined in octave and one-third octave bands within
the tolerances specified in Table C3.
Table C3 - Calibration accuracy for RSS
One-Third
Octave Band
Center
Frequency (Hz)
Tolerance
(dB)
100 to 160
200 to 4000
5000 to 10000
±1.0
±0.5
±1.0
C.7 Estimated standard deviation for determination of sound power levels
The determination of sound power levels through measurements made in accordance with this standard
will result, with very few exceptions, in standard deviations that are less than or equal to those given in
Table C4. The standard deviations in Table C4 take into account the cumulative effects of all causes of
measurement uncertainty noted in C.3 through C.6 above, except for duct end reflection corrections and
the testing in an unqualified test room of fans containing pure-tones.
Table C4 - Estimated deviation of sound power level determinations
Octave
Band
Center
Frequency
(Hz)
One-Third
Octave Band
Center
Frequency
(Hz)
Standard
Deviation
(dB)
125
250
500 to 4000
8000
100 to 160
200 to 315
400 to 5000
6300 to 10000
3.0
2.0
1.5
3.0
C.8 Duct end reflection corrections
Table C5 gives the uncertainties for duct end reflection correction E for various 0.5 kD and r values.
AMCA 300-05
25
Table C5 - Uncertainties in duct end reflection correction E
Uncertainty in E (dB)
Range of 0.5 kD
Duct
Configuration
r
<0.25 0.25-1 >1
Flush 1 ±3 ±2 ±0.5
Free Space 1
1-2
2-5
±3
±3
±4
±2
±2
±3
±0.5
±0.5
±1
Note: When pure tones are present, uncertainties will be substantially greater.
C.9 Octave band vs. one-third octave band
According to this standard, the frequency analysis of sound may be performed either in full octave bands
or in one-third octave bands. Qualification of a reverberant test room for pure tones can only be effected
in the one-third octave bands. Full octave band analysis takes less time because fewer numerical values
are treated. However, this analysis supplies little information on the shape of a sound spectrum.
Furthermore, full octave band analysis does not allow isolation of pure tones in a spectrum; the poor
resolution of an octave band gives little information about a steeply sloping spectrum. The pure-tone
value produced by a test subject may be reduced by 1 to 2 dB without changing the octave band reading.
For certain test conditions, this standard uses a duct end reflection correction factor that is frequency
dependent. Because of this dependence, analysis in full octave bands instead of one-third octave bands
may cause an error of up to ± 2 dB.
Example:
Test Conditions: A fan having a 508 mm (20 in.) diameter inlet, no orifice plate, and low airflow.
There is a significant difference between the two methods of determining the octave band values. This
difference is a function of two things:
1) The shape of the sound spectrum determined by one-third octave band analysis, and
2) The slope of the duct end reflection attenuation curve at the point where the attenuation value is
evaluated.
The error made in using octave band analysis can overestimate or underestimate the real values.
Therefore, the use of one-third octave band analysis is recommended. Refer to Figure C1.
If full octave band analysis is performed, a precaution would be to adjust the fan rotational speed to
caused the blade passage frequency to fall in the central one-third octave band of any full octave band.
Care should also be taken to keep the blade passage frequency from falling on the border between
bands, thus avoiding the problems associated with the characteristics of filter skirts.
Table C6 - Example using full octave band analysis
1/3 Octave
Center
Frequency,
(Hz)
L
p
Measured
Combined +E = (L
p
+E)
dB
50
63
80
80
65
64
80.2 +10.2 =90.4
AMCA 300-05
26
Table C7 - Example using one-third octave band analysis
1/3 Octave
Center
Frequency,
(Hz)
L
p
Measured
Combined +E =(L
p
+E)
dB
50
63
80
80
65
64
+12.1
+10.2
+8.3
=92.1
=75.2
=72.3
=92.2
C.10 Accuracy of the 63 Hz octave band
At low frequencies, the sound power output of a source depends upon its position in the test room. At
low frequencies, very few modes are excited, and because of reflections from test room surfaces, the
reflected pressure at the source combines with the direct sound pressure field produced by the source.
This affects the radiation impedance seen by the source, and therefore its sound power output. This is
particularly true of the 63 Hz octave band. Most standards do not discuss this band, although it is
important to fan manufacturers and users alike. Measurements in this band must be reported. However,
the measured sound pressure values, and therefore the determined sound power level values, have an
uncertainty of ± 6 dB at best.
NO ERROR
OCTAVE
BAND
OCTAVE
BAND
OCTAVE
BAND
OVER ESTIMATION UNDER ESTIMATION
Figure C1 - Effect of summing one-third octave bands
AMCA 300-05
27
Annex D
(informative)
Alternative procedure for reference sound source calibration
D.1 General
Calibration of a Reference Sound Source (RSS) in conformance with the requirements of ANSI S12.5
requires a hemi-anechoic room qualified for measurements over the entire frequency range of interest.
Laboratories that otherwise would be able to perform the required calibration but which are not qualified
for measurements in the first octave band may use the alternative procedure of this Annex. This
alternative procedure is based on sound intensity measurements per ANSI S12.12.
D.2 Equipment and facilities
Equipment and facilities shall be as required for RSS calibration in conformance with ANSI S 12.5, with
the exception that the hemi-anechoic chamber need not be qualified below the 125Hz full octave band
(100 Hz one-third octave band). Sound intensity measuring equipment shall comply with the
requirements of ANSI S 12.12.
Additional RSS units may be sound power level calibrated by comparing the sound power levels of the
source to another unit that was calibrated in accordance with Sections D.1 through D.5. It is not
necessary that each and every reference sound source be calibrated directly in accordance with the
procedures described below. It may be possible to transfer a calibration from one unit to another by
using a simpler type of test. For example, the Substitution Method of the present standard might be used
to calibrate (secondary calibration) one reference sound source relative to another, similar, reference
sound source that has been calibrated as described below (primary calibration). In order that such a
secondary calibration does not result in an unacceptable degradation of accuracy, it normally will be
necessary to use more source locations and microphone positions than the minimum requirements of the
present standard and to exercise additional caution in carrying out the measurements.
D.3 Qualification
The RSS calibration procedure of ANSI S12.5 shall be carried out over the 50 Hz through 10,000 Hz one-
third octave band frequency range and 63 Hz through 8000 Hz full octave band frequency range. If the
calibration is in conformance with ANSI S12.5 in all respects except for the qualification of the test facility
below the 100 Hz one-third octave band, the alternative calibration procedure below may be used. If the
calibration is not in complete conformance with ANSI S12.5 for any other reason, the alternative
calibration procedure is not applicable.
D.4 Procedure
The requirements of ANSI S12.5 are duplicated in the lowest three full octave (nine one-third octave)
bands, with the substitution of sound intensity level measurements, made in compliance with ANSI
S12.12, for the sound pressure level measurements required by ANSI S12.5. For all measurements,
sound intensity shall be measured in the outward radial direction. The sound power levels determined
from these measurements shall be compared with those determined from the corresponding sound
pressure level measurements. If in all frequency bands the determined sound power levels differ by no
more than the tolerances given in Table D1, the calibrated sound power levels for the RSS are reported
as specified in Section D.5. The directivity index is not calculated from the intensity measurements.
AMCA 300-05
28
Table D1 - Tolerance for measured sound power level difference
Octave Band
(Hz)
One-third
Octave
Band (Hz)
Tolerance
(dB)
63
125-250
50-80
100-315
±4.0
±1.0
D.5 RSS sound power levels
The reported RSS sound power levels and directivity index shall be as determined by the ANSI S12.5
procedure for the 100 Hz through 10,000 Hz one-third octave bands and the 125 Hz through 8,000 Hz full
octave bands. For the 50 Hz through 80 Hz one-third octave bands and the 63 Hz full octave band, the
reported RSS sound power level(s) shall be as determined from the sound intensity measurements, and
the directivity index is not to be reported. The calibration report shall be marked to indicate the levels
determined from sound intensity measurements, and shall indicate whether the calibration was performed
in full compliance with this Annex.
AMCA 300-05
29
Annex E
(normative)
Duct end reflection correction
E.1 General
Conditions at the end of a test duct will prevent some of the sound energy from being transmitted into the
test room. Therefore, the sound power measured in the room will be less than the true sound power in a
duct. Unless an anechoic termination is used, correction factors must be added to the fan sound
pressure measured in the test room in order to account for the reduction caused by end reflection.
The prediction of the duct end reflection is difficult. Theoretical solutions exist only for round ducts with
highly idealized end conditions and are based on the assumption that the frequency is low enough that
only plane waves exist (which implies that ka<t). Actual fan test setups rarely, if ever, conform to the
conditions under which the theoretical solutions are valid. Using the methods suggested in this Annex
will result in predicted values that are reasonably close to the actual values. Nonetheless, the test setup
should be selected to minimize the potential error by using components that most closely reproduce the
theoretical conditions.
For open ducts (i.e., no orifice) theoretical solutions exist for two cases: a thin-walled round duct
terminating in an infinite space [On the Radiation of Sound from an Unflanged Circular Pipe, Levine,
H., and Schwinger, J. – Physical Review, Vol. 72, No. 4, February 15, 1948] and a round duct terminating
in an infinite wall [Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3
RD
Edition, Kinsler, Frey, Coppens and Sanders, Wiley,
New York, 1982 , equations 9.13 and 9.14]. Most test setups incorporate terminations that use a flanged
duct terminating in a large space, which would make the solution provided by Levine & Schwinger more
appropriate, assuming no orifice is used.
For ducts with orifices, no theoretical solution exists for the case of a duct terminated in infinite space.
For the flush-mounted duct (duct terminated in an infinite wall) the effect of an orifice plate with a round,
centrally located hole can be calculated [Acoustics, Beranek, L., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950, Section
5.2].
For most test setups, when the test is conducted using an orifice on the tested end, there is no theory to
predict the end correction values.
E.2 End reflection curves
It is strongly recommended that, whenever possible, sound test setups be chosen so that there is no
requirement to apply duct end correction. In the event that circumstances require a setup indicating the
presence of a duct end correction there are four cases to be considered. The four cases are considered
separately below.
E.2.1 Open ducts in a large space
To determine the end reflection values, it is necessary to first calculate the reflection coefficient R, which
gives the fraction of the energy reflected back into the duct. Levine and Schwinger reduced the exact
solutions to manageable forms, one for ka<1 and one for ka>1. Note: k = e/c = 2ʌ/ì, a = D/2, and
e = 2 tf.
The two equations are:
AMCA 300-05
30
( ) ( )
R
ka ka
ka
ka =
÷

+
|
\

|
.
| +
|
\

|
.
|

exp log
2 4
10
2
1
6
1 19
12 ¸
for <1 Eq. E-1
( )
( )
R ka ka
ka
ka = ÷ +

t exp( ) 1
3
32
1
2
for >1 Eq. E-2
The ratio between the transmitted sound and the reflected sound is o = 1 - |R|
2
and thus the end
correction (in dB) is E 10 log
10
= o . These equations shall be used to calculate E as a function of ka
(0.5kD). The resulting curve is shown for illustrative purposes in Figure E1 (r=1). Values are presented
up to ka = 4, even though the equations are strictly limited to ka < 3.832.
r=5
r=2
r=1
Figure E1 - End correction for open ducts in large space
AMCA 300-05
31
E.2.2 Open ducts terminated in a wall
For the case of a round duct terminated at a large wall, the end correction can be determined using
equations 9.13 and 9.14 from Kinsler, Frey, Coppens and Sanders with the impedence calculated
using equations 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 from Beranek. It should be noted that there is no transition at the wall-
duct interface. The equations to be used to calculate E as a function of ka are given below.
( ) Z
M
a c
J ka
ka
j
c
k
K ka = ÷

+ t p
tp
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
( )
Eq. E-3
( ) J W
W W W W
1
3
2
5
2 2
7
2 2 2
2 2 4 2 4 6 2 4 6 8
= ÷

+

÷

Eq. E-4
( ) K W
W W W
1
3 5
2
7
2 2
2
3 3 5 3 5 7
= ÷

+


|
\

|
.
|
t
Eq. E-5
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
R
B
A
Z a c
Z a c
M
M
= =
÷
+
t p
t p
2
2
1
1
Eq. E-6
o = ÷ 1
2
R Eq. E-7
E = 10
10
log o Eq. E-8
The series for the Bessel functions J
1
and K
1
converge rapidly (at least for values of ka < 3.6), so the
computation of E vs. ka is straightforward. The resulting curve for illustrative purposes is shown in Figure
E2 (r=1). As before, values are shown up to ka = 4, but for ka >3.6, the value of o is defined to be 1.
E.2.3 Orificed ducts terminated in a large wall
If a round duct terminating into a large wall is fitted with an orifice plate with a centrally located round
hole, the equations in Section E.2.2 may be easily modified to predict the end reflection. Continuing with
the assumption of plane wave propagation, the end reflection may be calculated by calculating R using ka
based on the orifice radius, and calculating the transmission coefficient Į by assuming that the orifice
reduces the transmission coefficient by a factor of 1/r, where r is the ratio of duct area to orifice area. End
reflection values for r = 2 and r = 5 are shown for illustrative purposes in Figure E2.
The curves in Figure E2 are drawn to ka = 4, even though their range of applicability may be limited to
much lower values. For the open duct (r = 1) the end reflection is clearly seen to be zero for all values of
ka > 3 since the failure to meet the plane wave criteria is not critical. For the orificed cases, the end
correction values for ka>1 are questionable due to the failure to meet the plane wave criteria, and are
very suspect for ka > (tr)
0.5
since for these values of ka the wave length is smaller than the orifice
diameter.
AMCA 300-05
32
r=5
r=2
r=1
Figure E2 - End correction for open ducts terminated in a large wall
E.2.4 Orificed ducts terminating in a large Space
Although there is no theory applicable to these cases, it is reasonable to argue on physical grounds that
the effect of the orifice must be reasonably similar to the flush-mounted case. Adopting this approach,
the curves for r = 2 and r = 5 have been added to Figure E1 by merely adding the orifice effect
determined from Figure E2. The same qualifications to the accuracy at ka > t apply here also. Values
can be found in Table E1
AMCA 300-05
33
Table E1 – End corrections for orificed ducts terminating in a large space
ka r=2 r=5 ka r=2 r=5
0.14 18 18.6 1.5 3.9 7.4
0.15 17.4 18 1.6 3.7 7.4
0.16 16.9 17.5 1.7 3.6 7.3
0.17 16.5 17.1 1.8 3.5 7.3
0.18 16 16.7 1.9 3.5 7.3
0.19 15.6 16.3 2.0 3.4 7.3
0.20 15.2 15.9 2.1 3.3 7.2
0.25 13.5 14.3 2.2 3.3 7.2
0.30 12.2 13.1 2.3 3.3 7.2
0.35 11.1 12.1 2.4 3.2 7.2
0.40 10.2 11.3 2.5 3.2 7.2
0.45 9.4 10.6 2.6 3.2 7.1
0.50 8.8 10.1 2.7 3.2 7.1
0.55 8.2 9.6 2.8 3.2 7.1
0.60 7.7 9.2 2.9 3.1 7.1
0.65 7.3 8.9 3.0 3.1 7.1
0.70 7 8.6 3.1 3.1 7.1
0.75 6.7 8.4 3.2 3.1 7.1
0.80 6.4 8.2 3.3 3.1 7.1
0.85 6.1 8.0 3.4 3.1 7.0
0.90 5.9 7.9 3.5 3.1 7.0
0.95 5.7 7.8 3.6 3.1 7.0
1.0 5.4 7.7 3.7 3.0 7.0
1.1 4.8 7.6 3.8 3.0 7.0
1.2 4.5 7.5 3.9 3.0 7.0
1.3 4.52 7.5 4.0 3.0 7.0
1.4 4 7.4
AMCA 300-05
34
Annex F
(informative)
Filter-weighted measurements
In certain sound measurement situations, the presence of high amplitude sound at frequencies ” 45 Hz
can reduce the effective dynamic range of the analyzer in the measurement frequency range of interest
for this standard (45 Hz to 11,200 Hz). While use of an analyzer with a large dynamic measurement
range can solve this problem, it may sometimes be necessary to use another approach.
Sound pressure level readings may be made with the sound level meter or signal amplifier set for a well-
defined filter weighting effect in order to improve the dynamic range and measurement quality, provided
that any effect in the frequency range 45 Hz to 11,200 Hz is compensated and the equipment satisfies all
the requirements of Section 4 of this standard. The weighting filter shall be the same for all
measurements (background, RSS, and fan).
AMCA 300-05
35
Annex G
(informative)
Radiation of sound by fan casing
G.1 General
The sound radiated by a fan casing may be determined by the following method. Except as provided for
below, all the requirements of this standard apply.
G.2 Instruments and equipment
Shall be as required in Section 4.
G.3 Setup and test
The fan inlet and fan outlet shall be ducted to termination points outside the test room. Ducts and
connections should be constructed and secured such that the acoustic energy radiated through this
equipment is no more than 10% of the total energy radiated by the fan casing into the test room. The test
room sound pressure levels may be affected by sound radiating from the inlet and discharge ductwork
connected to the test subject, causing measured sound pressure levels to be somewhat higher than the
true casing radiated sound pressure levels. This effect can be minimized by using internally lined round
ductwork. No correction for duct-radiated sound power is allowed. NOTE: If there is any doubt
concerning the contribution of extraneous sound transmitted by ductwork, the importance of same can be
checked by increasing the transmission loss of the ductwork.
G.4 Observations and calculations
Sound pressure levels L
pq
and L
pk
shall be observed as provided for in Section 6. The sound pressure
levels L
pq
and L
pk
are observed and subject to the provisions for L
p
in Section 6. For possible pure tones
and additional testing, the results of the test of a fan casing are subject to the same requirements as the
test of a fan.
L
Wk
= L
pk
+ (L
Wr
- L
pq
) in each frequency band (G.4-1)
Where:
L
Wk
= sound power radiated through the fan casing,
L
pk
= fan casing sound pressure level.
AMCA 300-05
36
Annex H
(informative)
Total fan sound testing with attached ducts
It is intended that the fan sound power levels determined by this standard reflect the sound produced at a
known fan operating point. The length of test ducts used to determine sound power would, therefore, be
identical to the duct length defined an ANSI/AMCA 210. It has been determined that shorter duct lengths
are also acceptable and may be used. Care must be taken to ensure that for the actual duct lengths
used, no duct resonances exist in close proximity to specific frequencies of interest, e.g., the blade
passage frequency.
Although it is recognized that the inlet and outlet sound power levels of a fan are generally not equal, it is
necessary to make some assumptions about the relationship between these levels to apply duct end
reflection correction. The equations in Figure H1 are based upon the assumption that the inlet and outlet
sound power levels of a fan are equal.
AMCA 300-05
37
FAN
FAN
FAN
OPTIONAL
ORIFICE
B: FREE INLET
DUCTED OUTLET
C: DUCTED INLET
FREE OUTLET
D: DUCTED INLET
DUCTED OUTLET
Installation Type L
W
Equations
B: Free Inlet, L
W
= L
p
+ (L
Wr
– L
pq
) + [3 – 10 log
10
(1 + 10
(Eo/10)
)] + E
o
Ducted Outlet
C: Ducted Inlet, L
W
= L
p
+ (L
Wr
– L
pq
) + [3 – 10 log
10
(1 + 10
(Ei/10)
)] + E
i
Free Outlet
D: Ducted Inlet, L
W
= L
p
+ (L
Wr
– L
pq
) + E
i
+ E
o
+ [3 – [10 log
10
(10
(Eo/10)
+ 10
(Ei/10)
)]]
Ducted Outlet
This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following:
1. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant test room and the microphone location is such that it is
sensing total averaged sound pressure levels.
2. Duct construction is such that the transmission loss through the duct wall is large enough to eliminate any addition
to the measured sound pressure levels.
3. No resonances are present on either the fan structure, supporting devices or driving devices that provide any
significant pure tones that may add to the measured sound pressure levels.
4. The factor of 3 in the above equations is based on the assumption that fan sound power is equally distributed
between inlet and outlet.
Figure H1 - Fan total sound testing with ducts attached
AMCA 300-05
38
Annex J
(informative)
References
[1] AMCA Standard 300-67 Test Code for Sound Rating, Air Movement and Control Association
International, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL, 1967.
[2] AMCA Standard 301-90 Methods for Calculating Fan Sound Power Levels from Laboratory Test
Data, Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL, 1990.
[3] Harris, C.M., Editor, Handbook of Noise Control, 2
nd
Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1979
[4] Parker, S.P., Dictionary of Scientific and Engineering Terms, 4
th
Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York,
NY, 1989
[5] ANSI S1.6-1984 (R1990) Preferred Frequencies, Frequency Levels and Band Numbers for
Acoustical Measurements, Acoustical Society of America, New York, NY, 1990
(AMCA #1108-84-AO)
[6] Sepmeyer, L.W., Computed Frequency and Angular Distribution of the Normal Modes of
Vibration in Rectangular Rooms, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, New York, NY,
Vol. 37 – No. 3, March, 1985 (AMCA #1891-65-AO)
[7] AMCA #1901-85-A1 List of References on Room Calibration, Air Movement and Control
Association International, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL, 1985.
[8] Crocker, M. J., w/ Pande, L. and Sandbakken, R., Investigation of End Reflection Coefficient
Accuracy Problems with AMCA 300-67, Herrick Laboratories Report HL 81-16, Purdue
University, West Lafayette, IN, 1981. (AMCA #1184-81-A6)
[9] Noise Control Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2, Noise Measurement Facilities, and ANSI S1.21-1972,
Methods for the Determination of Sound Power Levels of Small Sources in Reverberant Rooms.
[10] ANSI S12.11-1987 (R1993) Methods for the Measurement of Noise Emitted by Small Air Moving
Devices, Acoustical Society of America, New York, NY, 1993.
[11] Baade, P.K., 1977, Effects of acoustic loading on axial flow fan noise generation, Noise Control
Engineering, 8(1):5-15
[12] ANSI S12.51-2002 Nationally Adopted International Standard (NAIS Standard), Acoustics –
Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound pressure – Precision method
for reverberation rooms, Acoustical Society of America, New York, NY, 1993.
AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL
ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL, INC.
30 West University Drive
Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1893 U.S.A.
E-Mail : info@amca.org Web: www.amca.org
Tel: (847) 394-0150 Fax: (847) 253-0088
The Air Movement and control Association International, Inc. is a not-for-profit international association of the
world’s manufacturers of related air system equipment primarily, but limited to: fans, louvers, dampers, air
curtains, airflow measurement stations, acoustic attenuators, and other air system components for the industrial,
commercial and residential markets.

AMCA Standard 300 - 05

Reverberant Room Method for Sound Testing of Fans

AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL 30 WEST UNIVERSITY DRIVE ARLINGTON HEIGHTS, IL 60004-1893 U.S.A. PHONE: (847) 394-0150 fax: (847) 253-0088 web: WWW.AMCA.ORG

© 2005 by Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Executive Director, Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc. ii

Forward/Authority
AMCA Standard 300-05 was adopted by the membership of the Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc. on 30 July 2005. The effective date of this standard is 01 November 2005. Tung Nguyen (Chair) Dr. John Cermak Joseph Langford David Wolbrink Jeff Hill Dr. W.T.W. Cory Iain Kinghorn (Alt.) Pete Neitzel Max Clarke (Alt.) Thomas Gustafson Ralph Sussey Dr. John Murphy Tan Tin Tin Ralph Sexton Boyd Kunze Scott Hausmann Scott Williamson Emerson Ventilation Products Acme Engineering & Manufacturing Corporation American Coolair Corp. Broan-Nutone LLC Cleanpak International Flakt Woods Ltd. Flakt Woods, Ltd. Greenheck Fan Corporation Greenheck Fan Corporation Hartzell Fan, Inc. Howden Buffalo, Inc. JOGRAM, Inc. Kruger Ventilation Industries Pte. Ltd. Matthews & Yates The New York Blower Company The Trane Co. Twin City Fan Companies, Ltd.

Disclaimer
AMCA International uses its best efforts to produce standards for the benefit of the industry and the public in light of available information and accepted industry practices. However, AMCA does not guarantee, certify or assure the safety or performance of any products, components or systems tested, designed, installed or operated in accordance with AMCA standards or that any tests conducted under its standards will be non-hazardous or free from risk.

Objections
Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc. will consider and decide all written complaints regarding its standards, certification programs, or interpretations thereof. For information on procedures for submitting and handling complaints, write to: AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL 30 WEST UNIVERSITY DRIVE ARLINGTON HEIGHTS, IL 60004-1893 USA

iii

Where possible. proximity of the source to other sound sources. it was based on ASHRAE Standard 36-62. The sound pressure level at any given point in space depends on the distance between the source and the receiver. The third edition (January 1967) AMCA 300-67 Test Code for Sound Rating included minor revisions. It was first published as a Recommended Practice in February 1962. calling for units of measure in SI (I-P) sequence. iv . Additional information on the complexity of this situation may be found in other documents available elsewhere. The 1996 edition was improved by increasing the accuracy of Reference Sound Source values through improvements in calibration requirements and procedure. reflection if in an enclosed room. two or more fans proposed for a specific aerodynamic performance condition may be evaluated by comparison to determine whether one is more suitable for an application than another. Sound power level is described mathematically as a logarithmic quantity derived from the sound power. The unit of sound pressure level is the decibel. and where appropriate. The method employs standard sound measurement instrumentation. Sound pressure level is described mathematically as a logarithmic quantity derived from sound pressure. full advantage has been taken. The test setups are designed generally to represent the physical orientation of a fan as installed. Where there have been successful improvements in state-of-the-art.0E-12 watt). following ANSI/AMCA 210 Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Aerodynamic Performance Rating. and size-speed conversions were transferred to AMCA 301 Methods for Calculating Fan Sound Ratings From Laboratory Test Data. referenced to a base of 20 micropascals. This latest edition refines the duct end correction factors to values whose source can be traced to its origin. The unit of sound power level is the decibel referenced to 1 picowatt (1. The 1985 edition continued the original philosophy of combining the theoretical and the practical. Sound is defined as radiant mechanical energy that is transmitted by pressure waves in air. Sound power levels determined through use of this standard are useful for comparison between fans and in acoustical design. fan sound power levels establish an accurate base for estimating the acoustical outcome of the fan installation in terms of sound pressure levels. minor editorial changes were made. applied to rooms that are restricted to certain acoustic properties. Introduction This standard establishes a method of determining the sound power levels of a fan. The method is reproducible in all laboratories that are qualified to the requirements of this standard. A successful estimate of sound pressure levels requires extensive information on the fan and the environment in which it is to be located.Foreward This standard was originally developed in response to the need for a reliable and accurate method of determining the sound power levels of fan equipment. The sound power reference level now used in this standard was changed in January 1965. etc. and combined state-of-the-art with practical considerations. It is often advantageous for the fan equipment user to employ acoustical consultation to ensure that all factors that affect the final sound pressure levels are considered. Since sound power is independent of acoustic environment. Moreover. and adopted as a Standard Test Code in October 1963. Sound power is the total sound energy radiated per unit time. from 10-13 watts to 10-12 watts. In 1974. Sound in a room is the result of one or more active sound power sources within that room. or 20 microbar. it is the objective cause of hearing. The original document was written by the AMCA P158NB Sound Test Code Committee.

. . .12 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Sound level meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Annex A (normative) Room qualification: full and one-third octave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Test subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Laboratory and instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Page 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Acoustical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results and report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Data recording equipment . . . . . . . . . .10 6. . . . Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . .8 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . .15 v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Microphone travel . . . . . Equipment / setups . . . . . . . . . .3 Aerodynamic performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . . . .12 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5.11 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Test procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Symbols . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Duct length . . . . .10 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Sound power level (Lw) .2 Microphone system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Reverberant room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. .1 Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Frequency analyzer and weighting system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Information to be recorded . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . Instruments / methods of measurement . . . . . .1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5.12 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Instruments and quipment . . . .11 7. . .5 Reference sound source (RSS) . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Setup categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 A. . . Definitions / units of measure / symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Test method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Mounting methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normative references . .10 6. .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . .7 Accuracy of results . . .1 3. . . . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 A. . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Observations and conduct of test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Calibration of system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Uncertainties . . . .27 D. . . .35 G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Annex F (informative) Filter-weighted measurements . . . . . .16 Annex B (informative) Room qualification: pure tones / narrow-band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Annex C (informative) Uncertainties analysis . . .4 Observations and calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Accuracy of the 63 hz octave band . . . . . . . . . . . .21 C. . . . . . . . . .4 Computation . . . . .21 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Room response . . . . . .35 G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Setup and test . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 B. . . . . . .7 Estimated standard deviation for determination of sound power levels 24 C. . . . . .29 E. . . . .38 vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Octave band vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Reference sound source (RSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Definitions . . . . . . One-third octave band .17 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 C. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Instrument error . . . . . . . . . .24 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Annex E (normative) Duct end reflection correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 B. . . . . . . . . . . .27 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 C. .25 C. . . . . . . . . .27 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Annex J (informative) References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Equipment and facilities . . . . . .35 G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Test procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 RSS sound power levels .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Instruments and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Annex G (informative) Radiation of sound by fan casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 B. . . .4 Fan operating points . . . . . . .26 Annex D (informative) Alternative procedure for reference sound source calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Duct end reflection corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 E. .5 Qualification . . . . . . . . .2 End reflection curves . . . . .4 Computation procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Annex H (informative) Total fan sound testing with attached ducts . . . . . .5 Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Instruments and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 D. . . . . .

5-1990 Requirements for the Performance and Calibration of Reference Sound Sources. Acoustical Society of America. S1. New York. Acoustical Society of America.4A-1985 Specification for Sound Level Meters. Vibration is not measured. Arlington Heights. Normative references The following standards contain provisions that.. This standard is not intended for field measurements. ANSI/AMCA 210-99 / ANSI/ASHRAE 51-1999 Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Aerodynamic Performance Rating. America..S. 32nd Floor. All standards are subject to revision.3 Decibel (dB): A dimensionless unit of . 1997 (AMCA #2924-97AO) 2. 32nd Floor.A. 120 Wall St.A. NY 10005-3993 U. Dimensional limitations. NY 100053993 U.A. nor is the sensitivity of airborne sound emission to vibration effects determined.1 Definitions 3. Inc. and air performance will control the test room size and power and mounting requirements for the test subject.S.A. 32nd Floor.12-1992 Engineering Method for the Determination of Sound Power Levels of Noise Sources Using Sound Intensity. test subject dimensions.11-2004 Specification for Octave Band and Fractional Octave Band Analog and Digital Filters. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.S. 120 Wall St. NY 10005-3993 U.S. 32nd Floor.A. constitute provisions of this American National Standard. NY 10017 U. Rarely will it be possible to meet these requirements in a field situation. 3.4-1983.. 120 Wall St. in Hz.1..A. 1999 ANSI S1. The test setup requirements in this standard establish the laboratory conditions necessary for a successful test. New York..1 Blade Passage Frequency (BPF): The frequency of fan impeller blades passing a single fixed object...S. NY 10005-3993 U. 345 east 47th Street.40-1984 Standard Specification for Acoustical Calibrators. NY 10005-3993 U. New York. Acoustical Society of America. 1985 (AMCA #2315-83-AO) ANSI S1. This standard is limited to the determination of airborne sound emission for the specified setups.A. At the time of publication the editions indicated were valid. rev/min) / 60. 1992 (AMCA #1850-92-AO) ANSI/IEEE/ASTM SI 10-1997 Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System. 32nd Floor. through specific reference in this text.S.1.AMCA INTERNATIONAL INC. 30 W. per the following formula: BPF = (number of blades)(fan rotational speed.1.. 120 Wall St. 1990 (AMCA #1863-90-AO) ANSI S12. it may also conform to air test chamber conditions given in ANSI/AMCA 210.S. Scope This standard applies to fans of all types and sizes. New York. University Drive. Acoustical Society of 3. 1986 (AMCA #1727-86-AO) ANSI S1. IL 60004-1893 U.2 Chamber: An enclosure used to regulate airflow and absorb sound. AMCA 300-05 REVERBERANT ROOM METHOD FOR SOUND TESTING OF FANS 1. 120 Wall St.. 1984 (AMCA #1895-84-AO) ANSI S12. New York. 3. Acoustical Society of America. New York. and parties to agreements based on this American National Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards listed below.. The size of a fan that can be tested in accordance with this standard is limited only by the practical aspects of the test setups.. Definitions / units of measure / symbols 3. Air Movement and Control Association International..

When end reflection occurs some of the sound entering the room is reflected back into the duct and does not escape into the room.4 Ducted Fan: A fan having a duct connected to either its inlet. Hz One-Third Octave Bands Band 1 ANSI Band no.AMCA 300-05 level in logarithmic terms for expressing the ratio of a power. of ten times the logarithm (base 10) of the ratio of the sound power W to the reference sound power Wref.6 Frequency: The number of times in one second that a periodic function repeats itself.Standardized octave and one-third octave bands [5] Octave Bands Band no.1. in dB = 10 log10 ( W / Wref ) (3-1) 3.1. f. the word should as advisory.1. Center freq.13 and 3. its outlet.13 Sound Power Level: The value. 3.11 Reverberant Room: An enclosure meeting the requirements of Annex A.1. (See 3.9 Normative: A term that indicates that the referenced material.1.1. or power-like.1. constitutes a mandatory requirement.1. quantity to a similar reference quantity. 3.1. 3. 3. Hz 29 800 30 1000 31 1250 32 1600 Band 6 33 2000 34 2500 35 3150 Band 7 36 4000 37 5000 38 6300 Band 8 39 8000 40 10000 2 .14) 3. or Annex A and Annex B. of twenty times the logarithm (base 10) of the ratio of the sound pressure p to the reference sound pressure pref.1. 3. 3. Hz 17 50 18 63 19 80 20 100 1 18 63 2 21 125 3 24 250 4 27 500 5 30 1000 6 33 2000 7 36 4000 8 39 8000 Band 2 21 125 22 160 23 200 Band 3 24 250 25 315 26 400 Band 4 27 500 28 630 Band 5 ANSI Band no. f. Fan sound power levels are reported in eight standardized octave bands shown in Table 1. Fan sound power levels may also be reported in one-third octave bands.1. Center frequency f. 3. ANSI Band no.14 Sound Pressure Level: The value. such as at the end of a duct in a room.10 Octave Band: The interval between any two frequencies having a ratio of two.5 End Reflection: A phenomenon that occurs whenever sound is transmitted across an abrupt change in area.1. according to: Table 1 . also shown in Table 1. according to: LW. or to both. expressed in decibels (dB).12 Shall and Should: The word shall is to be understood as mandatory.8 Non-ducted Fan: A fan without a duct connected to either its inlet or outlet. 3. 3. expressed in decibels (dB). Center freq. if applied.1.7 Informative: A term that indicates that the referenced material is provided as advice to the reader but does not constitute a mandatory requirement.

4A.325 kPa (14.075 lbm/ft ).AMCA 300-05 Lp. A microphone with a nominal diameter of 13 mm (0. 4.4 and S1.4A.5 Reference sound source (RSS) The reference sound source should comply with the requirements of ANSI S12.2 Symbols (See Table 2. Standard air has a ratio of specific heats of 1.5. as outlined in Annex F. Considerations include long-term stability. 4.16 Standard Air: Air having a density of 3 3 1.4 and S1. Other weighting networks may be used to improve the accuracy.696 lbm/in. all operating parts of the RSS shall be rigidly and permanently 3.4 Data recording equipment This standard does not attempt to set limitations on data recording equipment.2 The RSS shall produce steady broadband sound over at least the frequency range from 50 Hz to 10. ease of use. Graphic level recorders can be used to make permanent records and ease the problem of making visual averages from sound level meter indications. 29. and 101. 3 . It shall comply in all respects with the performance requirements of ANSI S12.000 Hz.4 and S1.3 The RSS shall be equipped with vibration isolators that minimize transmitted vibration.) is recommended. The degree of isolation should be 20 dB or more.1.92 in.5. Hg) barometric pressure has these properties.11. 3. 3. Hz c = 343 m/s @ 20°C (1125 ft/s @ 68°F) The value for c is acceptable for use in this standard within the limits of ± 5°C (9°F) for standard air.5. If metal springs are used as vibration isolators. An Aweighting network shall meet the requirements of ANSI S1. in dB = 20 log10 ( p / pref ) (3-2) 4. directdriven centrifugal fan having maximum overall dimensions of 610 mm (2 ft) or less.2 kg/m (0.2.4 To ensure compliance with the stability requirements of ANSI S12. Modern integrating-type analyzers that comply with IEC 804 are recommended because they produce Lp values eliminating any need for visual averaging.5. 4. 50% relative humidity. modified.1 Sound level meter The sound level meter shall meet the requirements of ANSI S1. Air at 20°C (68°F).2 Microphone system The microphone system (transducer and any associated components and cable) shall meet the requirements for use in a Type 1 precision sound level meter according to ANSI S1.1 The RSS shall be a small. along a line in the direction of propagation [5]. 4.5. and the method of averaging the sound pressure signal.5. 4.15 Wavelength: The distance between two points having the same phase in two consecutive cycles of a periodic wave. 4.5. Wavelength ( ) is determined by frequency and the speed of sound in the air through which the wave propagates: =c/f where: f = frequency.4 and a viscosity of 1.3 Frequency analyzer and weighting system An octave band or one-third octave band filter set is required and shall meet the Order 3 Type 3-D requirements of ANSI S1.4A. Instruments / methods of measurement 4.5 in. rubber pads shall be used between the isolator and the structure of the reverberant room.1. The sound level meter should be capable of accepting a microphone extension cable.) (3-3) 4.222E-05 lbm/ft-s). 4. approximately).8185E-03 Pa•s (1.

first order Sound pressure level. 20 Pa Fan static pressure Fan total pressure Ratio (of Duct area / Orifice area) Reflection coefficient Standard deviation Sound power (in watts) Reference sound power (1 picowatt) Mechanical impedence Ratio of transmitted to reflected sound Ratio of specific heats Wavelength Angular frequency dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB Pa bar Pa bar Pa in. wg dimensionless dimensionless dB dB W W W W N s/m dimensionless dimensionless m ft rad/s rad/s 4 .Symbols UNIT OF MEASURE SI I-P m m/s m dB dB dB Hz ft ft/s ft dB dB dB Hz SYMBOL Amin c D Eo Ei EW f J1 k K1 Lp Lpc Lpb Lpm Lpq Lpqm LW LWi LWm LWmi LWmo LWo LWr p pref Ps Pt r R s W Wref ZM DESCRIPTION Minimum distance to reverberant field Speed of sound Duct diameter End reflection factor. transmitted to inlet duct from fan Sound power level measured at the open inlet and outlet of the fan Sound power level measured at the open inlet of the fan Sound power level measured at the open outlet of the fan Sound power level transmitted to the outlet duct from fan Sound power level of RSS Sound pressure Sound pressure reference level. adjustment to sound power level Frequency Bessel function of the first kind. at duct inlet End reflection factor. measured over the normal microphone path Sound pressure level of the RSS. first order Wave number Modified Bessel function of the second kind.AMCA 300-05 Table 2 . wg Pa in.0E-12 W) Sound power level. corrected Sound pressure level of RSS + room background. at duct outlet End reflection factor. measured over the normal microphone path Sound pressure level of fan + room background. re 20 Pa (20 bar) Corrected fan sound pressure level Sound pressure level of room background. measured over the normal microphone path Sound power level re 1 picowatt (1.

The first category is for a free-standing unit that would be placed entirely in the test room (see Figure 1). 5.5 or as provided in Annex D.6 discuses the limitations that must be imposed on the test room for determining the position of the test subject and the location of the microphone.1.3 Aerodynamic performance Where an aerodynamic performance test is necessary to determine the point of operation of a test subject.2 Setup categories A number of specific fan test setups are allowed. The second category includes those fans that would be tested on a chamber or two-room system where only the inlet or outlet terminate in the test room (see Figures 2 and 3). The maximum time interval since calibration shall not exceed that specified by the manufacturer or three years. The reference document for this method is ANSI S12. see Annex H. without the RSS in operation.7 Accuracy of results Accuracy of test results is addressed in Annex C and depends upon several variables. facilities and equipment are useful references.1 Reverberant room An enclosure meeting the requirements of Annex A is mandatory for the purposes of this standard. sound pressure levels are recorded with the RSS operating. Since the sound power levels of the RSS are known. the test shall be performed in accordance with ANSI/AMCA 210 or other fan aerodynamic performance test standard having a demonstrated accuracy equivalent to ANSI/AMCA 210. Equipment/setups 5. An enclosure meeting the requirements of Annex B is recommended for broad-band sound testing and is mandatory for the purpose of investigating pure tones and narrow bands. Current ANSI and ASA documents on sound testing. Results of this arrangement yield total sound power LW of the test subject. See Annex J. 4. 5.5 The RSS calibration shall consist of a determination of the sound power level radiated by the RSS (including vibration isolators) when it is in operation on a reflecting plane with radiation into a free field above that plane. Section 5. The choice of test setup for a specific test will depend on the way the fan is expected to be applied in the field. Once the test room has been qualified. 4.6 Test method The test method is based on a Reference Sound Source (RSS) substitution for the determination of sound power. including the room qualification and the type of test setup utilized. For the total sound power of a ducted test subject located entirely in the test room. Application of the test method requires that the test subject fan be set in position in a test room that is qualified according to the requirements of Section 5. These arrangements result in the determination of inlet (LWi) or outlet (LWo) sound power. The fan is then operated. at various performance points of interest for the given test speed and the sound pressure levels are recorded. the substitution method is used to determine the sound power levels of the fan for each operating point. 5. 5 . They are determined by the airflow direction and the particular mounting arrangement of the test subject. The test setups fall into two general categories. No rubber or wearing parts shall be permitted (except lubricated bearings) and protection against corrosion shall be provided.5.51. whichever is shorter. The calibration shall be in accordance with ANSI S12.AMCA 300-05 attached. 4. non-ducted.

when not an integral part of the test subject. the length of duct shall be consistent with acceptable practice per ANSI/AMCA 210 necessary to accurately establish the point of rating. When a driving motor and drive are an integral part of the test subject. If the test room and test setup have been qualified in accordance with Annex A. they may not be treated in any manner. f) the maximum air velocity over the microphone shall be 1 m/s (200 fpm). may be damped or enclosed in any manner that does not expose sound absorption material to the test room. m(ft). bearings. the test results may contain sound contributions from flanking paths as well as mechanical and/or electrical sound from the drive system. the continuous microphone traverse used for the qualification shall also be used for the sound pressure measurements. b) no point on the traverse shall be any closer than 1. Ducts shall be of metal or other rigid. and normal belt tensions. Care must be exercised to ensure that no duct resonances exist in close proximity to specific frequencies of interest such as the Blade Pass Frequency.61 (if using SI units).0 if using IP units). be closer than 0. When a fan and its drive are both in the reverberant room. The length of duct shown in Figures 2 and 3 is consistent with the procedures of ANSI/AMCA 210. the minimum distance between the sound source and the nearest microphone position may be calculated from: Amin C210 LWr Lpq / 20 Where: Amin = the minimum distance between the sound source and the microphone. or connecting it to a non-integral driver.AMCA 300-05 5. 5. sound and vibration absorptive material may not be incorporated in the test subject unless it is a standard part of the fan.6 Microphone traverse and room requirements When using the substitution method. Other than these. (2. C2 = 0.5 m (1. e) the microphone shall swing or move on a normal path of an arc or straight line with a minimum distance of 3 m (10 ft) between the extreme points of travel. at any time. 5. 6 . but the volume fan and exceed (5-1) h) neither the RSS nor fan shall be within 300 mm (1 ft) of any room centerline. or connecting it to an airflow test facility is not specified. it shall meet the following requirements: a) no point on the traverse shall be any closer than Amin from the sound source. Any conventional method may be used including vibration isolation devices and short flexible connectors. c) no point on the traverse shall. g) room volume is not specified room must be large enough in such that the volume of the test associated ductwork does not 1% of the room volume. d) the microphone traverse should not lie in any plane within 10° of a room surface.67 ft) to any surface of a rotating diffuser. The driving motor and drive. and (LWr-Lpq) = is the maximum value for Octave Bands 2 to 7.0 m (3.333 ft) to any surface of the test room. and lubricants shall be used. dense non-absorptive material and have no exposed sound absorption material on the interior or exterior surfaces.4 Mounting methods The method of mounting a test subject. If a microphone traverse is used.5 Duct length On a chamber or two-room setup.

No resonances are present on either the fan structure. In conformance with ANSI S1. In addition. from gears. A calibration check shall be made of the entire measurement system at one or more frequencies within the frequency range of interest. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant room and the microphone location is such that it is sensing total averaged sound pressure levels. care shall be exercised to avoid introducing acoustical or electrical noise (for example. supporting devices.Fan total sound testing 7 2.0 SOUND POWER CALCULATIONS Installation Type A: Free Inlet Free Outlet LW Equation LWm=Lpc+(LWr-Lpq) This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following assumptions: 1. Table 3 .40 and with an accuracy of ± 0.5 ±2. or sliding contacts) that could interfere with measurement.0 ±1.7 Calibration of system Before each sound power determination. The frequency response of the instrument system shall be flat over the frequency range of interest within the tolerances given in Table 3. and applied as outlined in ANSI S12. or driving devices that provide any significant pure tones that may add to the fan recorded sound pressure levels. an electrical calibration of the instrumentation over the entire frequency range of interest shall be performed periodically.AMCA 300-05 5.51.2 dB over the temperature range encountered during the measurement.40. Figure 1 . If the microphone is moved. at intervals of not more than one year. . The microphone and its associated cable shall be chosen so that their sensitivity does not change by more than 0.Tolerances for the instrument system One-third Octave Band Center Frequency (Hz) 40-80 100-4000 5000-8000 10000 12500 Tolerance (dB) ±1. flexing cables.5 ±1. the calibrator shall be checked at least once every year to verify that its output has not changed.5 dB shall be used for this purpose.0 ±3. the following calibration checks shall be performed. Section 5. An acoustical calibrator conforming to ANSI S1.

or driving devices that provide any significant pure tones that may add to the recorded fan sound pressure levels. unless integral to the fan. Section 5. Inlet orifices to control the operating point are not permitted. 3. This requires adequate transmission loss between adjourning rooms and the addition of absorptive material within a chamber to absorb this energy.Fan inlet sound testing 8 . 1. Figure 2 . 5. No resonances are present on either the fan structure. Adequate absorption takes place at the discharge of a duct in a second room or chamber so that any energy passing down that duct is adequately attenuated. 4. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant room and the microphone location is such that it is recording total averaged sound pressure levels. 2. supporting devices.AMCA 300-05 1 to 3D *May require acoustical treatment. SOUND POWER CALCULATIONS Installation Type A or B: Free Inlet C or D: Ducted Inlet LW Equations LWmi=Lpc+(LWr-Lpq) LWi=Lpc+(LWr-Lpq)+Ei This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following assumptions: Acoustical energy in an outlet duct which terminates in a second room or chamber does not contribute to fan test sound pressure levels. Duct construction is such that the transmission loss through the duct wall is large enough to eliminate any addition to measured room sound pressure levels.

Adequate absorption takes place at the inlet of a duct in a second room or chamber so that any energy passing down that duct is adequately attenuated.AMCA 300-05 2 to 3D *May require acoustical treatment. 4. 5. No resonances are present on either the fan structure. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant room and the microphone location is such that it is recording total averaged sound pressure levels. SOUND POWER CALCULATIONS Installation Type A or C: Free Outlet B or D: Ducted Outlet LW Equations LWmo=Lpc+(LWr-Lpq) LWo=Lpc+(LWr-Lpq)+Eo This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following assumptions: 1. Duct construction is such that the transmission loss through the duct wall is large enough to eliminate any addition to measured room sound pressure levels. 3. Section 5. supporting devices. 2. or driving devices that provide any significant pure tones that may add to the recorded fan sound pressure levels. unless integral to the fan. Acoustical energy in an inlet duct that terminated in a second room or chamber does not contribute to fan test sound pressure levels.Fan outlet sound testing 9 . This requires adequate transmission loss between adjoining rooms and the addition of absorptive material within a chamber to absorb this energy. 6. Outlet orifices to control the operating point are not permitted. Figure 3 .

Fan sound pressure levels must be observed for each operating point. then the point of rating can be established with sufficient accuracy.1. For a test. RSS sound pressure levels need to be observed once. LWi. LWmo) of the test subject. 6.2 Sound pressure levels 6.3 Sound pressure levels.8 Equations The type of fan and its test setup determine the calculations required to determine the sound power levels (LW. steps must be taken to ensure that the fan rotational speed is known within ± 1% and the point of operation can be established within ± 5% along a system curve. total sound power levels shall not be used to derive inlet or outlet sound power levels. Equations for each test setup are included under the specific arrangement along with any qualifying statements or limitations. Also included are any assumptions that were made regarding these specific setups.2. background sound pressure levels need to be observed once.1. If the sound test setup also conforms to one of the test setups in ANSI/AMCA 210. Observations and conduct of test 6. 6. they shall be away from the test subject and remain in the same position during the test. Operation of the microphone traverse and any rotating vanes shall be the same for all measurements. background Background sound pressure levels are those 10 . or set of determinations. using the appropriate duct and orifice size.1 Observations 6. Efforts should be made to keep the background noise level at a minimum.2.AMCA 300-05 5. the point of operation shall be determined. Note: The observations above are valid only when taken in a room that is qualified per the procedures defined in Annex A or B. For a test.1 Point of operation Although the acoustical observations necessary to determine sound power output are the same for all types of fans. Examples of background noise sources are: noise due to the motion of the microphone and noise due to any other external source. measured in the test room with the test subject and the RSS off. shall be calculated from Annex E Duct End Reflection Correction. End reflection factors (Ei) and (Eo). It cannot be assumed that the inlet and outlet sound powers are always equal. Readings should be a time weighted average over an integral number of microphone swings. Fan sound pressure levels include background sound pressure levels. fan (Lpm) Fan sound pressure levels are those measured in the test room with the test subject operating and the RSS off. Observers and operators should not be in the test room during measurements. Therefore. The background noise includes all noise sources not directly associated with fan sound. RSS (Lpqm) RSS sound pressure levels are those measured in the test room with the RSS operating and the test subject off.1. as nearly as possible. If the sound test setup does not conform to one of the test setups in ANSI/AMCA 210.1. at various points of test subject operation.2 Sound pressure levels. The time span used shall be sufficient to provide a stable value and shall be a minimum of 30 seconds for frequency 6. LWo. LWm. RSS sound pressure levels include background sound pressure levels.1. 6. be the same for all sound pressure level measurements.3 Test conditions The test conditions shall.1. at various points of test subject operation. or set of determinations. the non-acoustical observations necessary to determine the aerodynamic point of operation differ. but if it is absolutely necessary for them to be present.1 (Lpb) Sound pressure levels. Regardless of the test setup. when required.2. LWmi. 6. This standard provides different test setups for the testing of various fan types.

m3/s (ft3/min) 3) Fan static pressure or total pressure at actual test conditions. 11 .8 in addition to the following. °C (°F) D) Fan inlet dry-bulb temperature. See Section 5. 6.2 Information to be recorded B) Laboratory location As applicable. mm (in. and in the case of pure tone testing. °C (°F) C) Ambient wet-bulb temperature. wg) 4) Fan air density.4 Acoustical data A) Background sound pressure levels Lpb B) RSS sound pressure levels Lpqm C) Background corrections for the RSS D) Fan sound pressure levels Lpm E) Background corrections for the fan F) Un-weighted fan sound power levels LWmi or LWmo G) End reflection correction data B) Operating conditions 1) Fan rotational speed.1 Test subject A) Description of the test subject 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Manufacturer Model Nominal size Impeller diameter. wg) 7.2 Test environment 1) End reflection correction values Ei or Eo 2) Duct length 3) Flush or non-flush mounting of the duct into the test room 4) Orifice plate inside diameter.AMCA 300-05 bands bands 160 Hz. m (ft ) 2 9) Outlet area. Calculations Calculations are affected by the Installation Type and setup.3 Laboratory and instruments A) Laboratory name 6.2.2. Data shall indicate whether the room is qualified for full octaves or one-third octaves. 6.) Number of impeller blades Blade angle setting (adjustable or variable pitch fans only) 7) Number of stator vanes 2 2 8) Inlet area.2. Pa (in.2. 6. including the dimensional locations of the test subject and points or path of acoustical measurements 6. the onethird octaves for which the qualification applies. and 15 seconds for frequency 200 Hz. °C (°F) E) Static pressure at the fan inlet. m (ft) H) Test date A) Barometric pressure. with E) Scope of room qualification. Hg) B) Ambient dry-bulb temperature. Pa (in. the following information shall be compiled and recorded for all observations made in accordance with this standard. kg/m3 (lbm/ft3) C) Mounting conditions 1) Test figure per this standard 2) Test Installation Type 3) Sketch showing the test room setup. rev/min 2) Fan airflow rate. m (ft2) C) Technician(s) conducting test D) List of test equipment calibration information used. kPa (in.

The equations vary with product type and test setup. The background value is subtracted logarithmically from the fan sound pressure level using Equation 7-1. Lpc shall be reported as 1. A sound pressure level reading shall be corrected for background noise level by logarithmic subtraction using the following formulae: Test subject (fan) sound pressure level: 7.2 Sound power level (LW) A sound power level is calculated using equations given in Section 5.1 through 8. LW2. The sound power level of a full octave band may be calculated from one-third octave band values by using the formula: LW 1 LW 2 LW 3 LW 10 log10 10 10 10 10 10 10 (7-3) Where: LW1.AMCA 300-05 7. For any band for which the difference between the background and the (background + source) sound pressure level is less than 6 dB.3 dB less than Lpm. in dB.) Number of impeller blades Blade angle setting (adjustable or variable pitch fans only) Example: The sound pressure level of a fan in a given frequency band is observed to be 58 dB. The effect of background noise level is termed background correction and must be subtracted from the observed sound pressure level. The data for each such band shall be clearly marked as upper boundary levels. Results and report Test results are presented as the sound power level. and LW3 are one-third octave sound power level values. Background correction values depend on the difference between the observed sound pressure levels and the background noise levels. the corresponding sound pressure level from the source cannot be determined accurately by this standard. 8. in each of the eight full octave bands for each fan test speed and point of operation. Full octave bands are given in Table 1. However. 8. This standard does not require that pure tone effects be isolated from broad-band sound. a laboratory equipped with suitable instrumentation is encouraged to investigate and report pure tones separately. The report shall also include data defined in Sections 8. When the difference between the observed sound pressure levels (RSS – background) in a frequency band is less than 6 dB. The background sound pressure level in the same band is observed to be 51 dB. B) Operating conditions 1) Aerodynamic performance standard 2) Fan rotational speed.1 Background correction The observed RSS or test subject sound pressure levels include both the sound source and background noise. which results in 57 dB (rounded). mm (in. rpm 3 3 3) Fan airflow rate.3. m /s (ft /min) test 12 .1 Test subject A) Description of the test subject Lpm Lpb Lpc 10 log10 10 10 10 10 (7-1) RSS sound pressure level: Lpqm Lpb Lpq 10 log10 10 10 10 10 (7-2) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Manufacturer Model Nominal size Impeller diameter.

in each reported band. in each reported band 13 .2 Laboratory and instruments A) Laboratory name B) Laboratory location 8. reported to the nearest whole decibel B) Test date C) Background sound pressure level in each reported band D) Background correction for the RSS for each reported band E) RSS sound pressure level in each reported band F) Background correction for test subject. in each reported band G) Test subject sound pressure level.3 Acoustical data A) Un-weighted fan sound power level.AMCA 300-05 4) Fan static pressure or total pressure at actual test conditions. Pa (in. kg/m3 (lbm/ft3) C) Mounting conditions 1) Test Figure per this standard 2) Installation Type 8. wg) 5) Fan air density.

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4.1 Each location for the RSS shall be selected on the floor and shall not be closer than 1 m (3 ft) from a wall and not closer to any microphone than permitted by equation Amin (Section 5. sound diffuser (if any).4-1) Where: (Lpq)j = the sound pressure level.6. under the following conditions: A. A.3 The microphone traverse. If pure tone qualification is required. refer to Annex B Room Qualification: Pure Tones / Narrow Band. The RSS locations shall be in the general vicinity of the locations intended for the test subject as seen in a plan view of the test room. The instruments shall conform to the requirements given in Sections 4.4 Computation procedure For each frequency band for which the test room is to be qualified. The distance between any two RSS locations shall be greater than 0. averaged over all microphone positions.3 Test procedure Eight or more measurements shall be made of the reverberant field sound pressure levels in the room. through 4.3. determine the average sound pressure levels in accordance with the procedures of Section 6.1. inclusive. in dB. the standard deviation s. The microphone traverse shall conform to the requirements of Section 5.1 General This annex covers the procedures for a broad-band qualification of a test room for full and one-third octave bands. each with the RSS placed at a different location within the room. in dB. Figure 4). instruments and observation times shall be identical to those to be used for a test subject.2 Instruments and equipment The instruments and microphone traverse shall be the same as those used during the actual testing of a fan. when the RSS is in the jth location ___ Lpq = arithmetic mean of (Lpq)j values.9 m (3 ft). A.AMCA 300-05 Annex A (normative) Room qualification: full and one-third octave A. A. averaged over all RSS locations 15 .2 With the RSS at each of the eight (or more) above locations. in dB.3.5.3. A. No source location shall lie within ± 300 mm (1 ft) of a room centerline. A. The test procedure given in this annex requires the use of a Reference Sound Source (RSS) having the characteristics specified in Section 4. shall be computed using the formula: s 1 nRSS 1 nRSS 2 1/ 2 Lpq j 1 j Lpq (A.

(dB) Octave Band Center Frequencie s (Hz) 63 125 250 and 500 1000 and 2000 4000 and 8000 One-Third Octave Band Center Frequencies (Hz) 50 to 80 100 to 160 200 to 630 800 to 2500 3150 to 10000 Maximum Allowable Standard Deviation (dB) s 3.0 1.5 1. Table A1 .AMCA 300-05 nRSS = number of RSS locations.Maximum allowable standard deviation S. does not exceed the limits given in Table A1. a minimum of eight A. in dB.5 1.0 0. the test room qualifies for the measurement of broad-band sound if the computed standard deviation s.5 Qualification For each frequency band.0 16 .

B.1 Loudspeaker / horn test The loudspeaker / horn shall be located on the horizontal surface of a hemi-anechoic field with the open cone facing upward.05% of the voltage across the loudspeaker(s) / horn(s) at all test frequencies. inclusive.3. The sound pressure levels for the discrete frequencies of a one-third octave band are then measured. B. The loudspeaker / horn is suitable only if the sound pressure levels at adjacent frequencies do not differ by more than 1 dB. Qualification excludes those bands having mid-frequencies below 100 Hz and is not required for those bands having a mid-frequency greater than 2500 Hz. This test determines the near-field characteristics of the loudspeaker / horn and gives calibration sound pressure levels for the loudspeaker / horn.51. A microphone with diaphragm horizontal is located over the center of the loudspeaker / horn 10 to 20 mm (0. The qualification testing applies to a specific location in the test room and determines which of the one-third octave bands the test room location is qualified for. B. 4) A power amplifier of suitable power and having an output impedance compatible with the loudspeaker(s) / horn(s). tunable to and meeting the tolerances given for the frequencies given in Table B1.05 Hz over the pertinent frequency range.3. The input voltage to the loudspeaker / horn must be sufficient to overcome background noise but must in no case be permitted to cause physical distortion of the loudspeaker / horn components. 2) A frequency generator. A digital frequency synthesizer is recommended for ease of setting frequency.) above the plane of the loudspeaker / horn rim. a) b) The signal analyzer shall be a one-third octave band analyzer conforming to ANSI S1. each having a sufficiently smooth frequency response within the range of frequencies to be qualified. In both sections.AMCA 300-05 Annex B (informative) Room qualification: pure tones / narrow-band B. A sound test based on such qualification must state the mid-frequency of the one-third octave band(s) qualified for the test by this procedure. as shown in Table B1. the first being concerned with the near-field characteristics of the loudspeaker / horn and the second with the test room itself. The sound source will consist of: 1) A loudspeaker / horn: one or more.3 Test procedure Qualification testing consists of two sections.2 Room test The loudspeaker / horn shall be positioned in the room at the horizontal and vertical coordinates intended 17 .375 to 0. The reference document for this procedure is ANSI S12. B.75 in.1 General This annex covers the procedure for the qualification of a test room to investigate pure tones. measurements are made for each of the discrete frequencies associated with the one-third octave band being qualified. 3) A frequency counter accurate within ± 0. 5) A voltmeter capable of monitoring within ± 0. Qualification testing applies only to those onethird octave bands having mid-frequencies from 100 Hz to 2500 Hz.2 Instruments and equipment The instruments shall be as specified in Section 4 with the following substitutions / additions. The same test equipment must be used for both sections of the qualification testing.11.

n = the number of discrete frequencies within the one-third octave band.4-1) Where: (Lps)k = the corrected sound pressure level. for that band does not exceed the values given in Table B2. space and time averaged sound pressure levels Lps are measured for the discrete frequencies of the one-third octave band. to the test position. Using the same input voltage to the loudspeaker(s) / horn(s) as for the loudspeaker / horn test. ___ = the arithmetic mean of (Lps)k values averaged over all n test frequencies within the one-third Lps octave band. B.5 Qualification A test room is accepted as qualified for pure tone testing within a given one-third octave band if the standard deviation s. some modification will be required to the microphone location. and the standard deviation s of the difference between the average sound pressure level and the arithmetic mean sound pressure level is determined by: s 1 n 1 n 2 1/ 2 Lps k 1 k Lps (B.AMCA 300-05 for the test subject and placed so that the open cone faces away from the nearest room surface. or to the room absorption [7] [8]. of the kth discrete frequency. B.4 Computation The room test sound pressure level is then corrected to remove the effect of the loudspeaker’s / horn’s near-field characteristic by subtracting the loudspeaker / horn test sound pressure level. averaged over all microphone positions. If a one-third octave band does not qualify. in dB. The arithmetic mean for the room sound pressure level is then calculated. 18 . in dB.

3 ±0.5 1.0 1.Test frequencies for alternative qualification of reverberant room facility for measuring sound power levels of noise sources containing significant discrete frequency components (from ANSI S12.AMCA 300-05 Table B1 . Hz Number of test frequencies.3 ±0. Hz 100 ---90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 --1 125 -113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 1 160 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 1 200 ---180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 --2 250 -226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 258 260 262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 2 315 ---285 288 291 294 297 300 303 306 309 312 315 318 321 324 327 330 333 336 339 342 345 348 --3 400 361 364 367 370 373 376 379 382 385 388 391 394 397 400 403 406 409 412 415 418 421 424 427 430 433 436 439 3 500 --445 450 455 460 465 470 475 480 485 490 495 500 505 510 515 520 525 530 535 540 545 550 555 --5 630 --564 570 576 582 588 594 600 606 612 618 624 630 636 642 648 654 660 666 672 678 684 690 696 702 -6 800 --712 720 728 736 744 752 760 768 776 784 792 800 808 816 824 832 840 848 856 864 872 880 888 --8 1000 ---900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 --10 1250 -1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1310 1320 1330 1340 1350 1360 1370 1380 10 1600 1470 1480 1490 1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 1660 1670 1680 1690 1700 1710 1720 1730 10 2000 ---1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 2120 2140 2160 2180 2200 2220 --20 2500 -2260 2280 2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 2480 2500 2520 2540 2560 2580 2600 2620 2640 2660 2680 2700 2720 2740 2760 20 Increment.0 19 .Maximum allowable sample standard deviation. Hz Tolerance of Increment.51-2002) Center frequency of one-third octave bands.5 ±1 ±1 ±1.3 ±0. n ±0.5 ±0.0 2.5 ±2 ±3 ±3 ±5 ±5 ±5 ±5 22 26 27 22 26 22 27 23 24 23 22 26 23 22 26 Table B2 . s One-third Octave Band Center Frequencies (Hz) 100 to 160 200 to 315 400 to 630 800 to 2500 Maximum Allowable Standard Deviation s (dB) 3.

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Furthermore. These paths are called normal modes. i. The uncertainty in a researched value is described by specifying the measured value followed by the uncertainty interval at the desired confidence level: LW = m ± w at P confidence level Where: m = measured value w = uncertainty P = percent C.5). and RSS (C.9) and the problems associated with testing in the 63 Hz band (C. the better the sound dispersion in the room. C.2 Uncertainties The uncertainties associated with the determination of sound power levels through measurements performed in accordance with this standard are room response (C.1 Definitions Precision error is an error that causes readings to take random values on either side of some mean value. such as a fan. instrument error (C. If the paths of all the waves could be seen..3). Uncertainties associated with duct end reflection corrections involve the accuracy of estimating the losses from orifice plates (C.6). Although uncertainty may be the result of both precision and systematic errors. Systematic error is an error that persists and cannot be considered as due entirely to chance.8). we would notice a number of repetitions. in real values. Uncertainty is an estimated value for error.1-1) 21 .0 General The analysis of the uncertainty associated with measurements made in accordance with this standard provides identification of certain critical points so as to recognize the limitations of the results. The greater the number of normal modes. that emits a steady sound power.e. (e. When a sound source is operated inside a reverberant room. only precision errors can be treated by statistical methods.g..10). C. the path followed by a wave between two parallel walls). The number of normal modes in a given space (C. The modes must be sufficiently numerous in any measurement band so that the microphone traverse will serve to average the sound pressure. the sound waves are reflected by the walls and are propagated in all directions.AMCA 300-05 Annex C (informative) Uncertainties analysis C. of the imprecision in the recorded results. it provides an approximation. The reverberant room must be diffuse enough to produce a reverberant field. Other areas of interest involve the use of octave or one-third octave bands (C. what we think an error would be if we could and did measure it by calibration. fan operating points (C.4).3 Room response A reverberant room is an appropriate place for determining the acoustical power of a source.

calculate the standard deviation s.3.3. or pure tones. Two important sources of error may affect the measurements made in a reverberant room: 1) the error introduced by measuring the sound field at a limited number of points. or detectable by narrow-band analysis. Hence. Locate the sound source at a single position in the test room in accordance with Annex A. If the test room is not qualified for pure-tone measurement. Obtain the time-averaged sound pressure level Lpj at each microphone position according to the techniques described in Annex A.3 Test for discrete-frequency components The following procedure can be used to estimate the spatial standard deviation of the sound pressure levels produced by the test subject in the test room. the measurement uncertainty will most probably be higher in the bands containing the blade passage frequency and its harmonics than if measured in a qualified test room. the spatial variations in sound pressure level usually exhibit maxima separated by minima having an average spacing of approximately 0. Some fans generate a pure tone at the blade passage frequency and sometimes at harmonic frequencies. where is the wavelength of the sound corresponding to the lowest band mid-frequency of interest and meeting all the requirements for microphone positions in Annex A. If such a component is audible. the precision of the results is reduced. Many sources radiate sound that is not entirely broad-band. A conclusion that no discrete-frequency components are present can only be reached by performing the test described in C. This noticeably increases the variability of the pressure field due to an insufficient dispersion of the sound field.1 Broad-band measurement in a reverberation room Broad-band sound is uniformly distributed in frequency with relatively steady levels and with no prominent discrete-frequency or narrow-band components. where is the wavelength corresponding to the discrete frequency of interest. but contains significant discrete-frequency components. Measurement of broad-band sound may be made in a test room qualified per Annex A. and 2) variations in sound power due to the location of the sound source. it is usually more precise to measure higher frequencies.3. the qualification procedure described in Annex B is recommended. Due to the consequent inaccuracy of sound pressure averaging. from the following equation: 22 . in dB. C.8 . it helps to measure the sound in many locations and average the results. Select an array of six fixed microphones (or a single microphone at six positions) spaced at least /2 apart. For each one-third octave band within the frequency range of interest. C.3. Discrete-frequency components may be present in the sound spectrum even when these components are not audible. C.AMCA 300-05 increases with frequency. a pure tone tends to excite certain modes that will dominate all others.3.2 Pure-tone measurement in a reverberation room When a discrete-frequency component is present in the sound spectrum of a source. When the number of modes are few. The presence of a significant discrete-frequency component in the sound produced by a source can often be detected by a simple listening test. In a reverberant room.

23 .. dB nm = number of microphone positions = 6 The magnitude of s depends upon the properties of the sound field in the test room. In theory.1 for the jth microphone position.4 Fan operating points When the sound power levels of a fan are determined. based upon the spatial variation of the sound field Standard Deviation. Assume that a discreet tone is present.5 Instrument error The frequency response of the instrument system shall be flat over the frequency range of interest to within the tolerances given in Table C2.. A fan that exhibits a large change in sound power level as airflow is changed (at a given fan rotational speed) is of more concern than one that shows a small change in sound power level for the same airflow change. Therefore it is recommended that the procedures of ANSI/AMCA 210 or other recognized fan aerodynamic performance test standard be used as a guideline in identifying the test subject’s operating points. each measurement must relate to one point of operation of the fan. corrected for the background sound level in accordance with the procedures of Section 6.Characterization of the presence of discrete-frequency or narrow-band components. a standard deviation of 5.5 1.AMCA 300-05 s 1 nm 1/ 2 2 nm 1 j Lpcj 1 Lp j (C. i. s (dB) s<1. a discrete tone.e. dB __ Lpj = arithmetic mean of (Lpc)j values. and this will dictate how accurately the point of operation must be determined.57 dB corresponds to a spectral component of zero bandwidth. directivity and spectrum of the emitted sound).5<s<3 Characterization s>3 Assume broad-band source (use procedures of Annex A).2.3-1) Where: Lpcj = sound pressure level.e. C. Recommend use of the qualification procedure in Annex B. Table C1 . The sensitivity of the sound levels to a change in point of operation is a function of the test subject’s performance characteristics. Test room must qualify per Annex B. Assume that a narrow-band of noise is present. These properties are influenced by the characteristics of the room as well as the characteristics of the sound source (i. Uncertainty in identifying this point thus affects the global uncertainty of the results. averaged over all microphone positions. C.

6 above. except for duct end reflection corrections and the testing in an unqualified test room of fans containing pure-tones.5 ±2 C.Tolerances for the instrument system Frequency (Hz) 100 to 4000 5000 to 8000 10000 Tolerance (dB) ±1.AMCA 300-05 Table C2 .6 Reference sound source (RSS) The sound power produced by the RSS shall be determined in octave and one-third octave bands within the tolerances specified in Table C3.0 C. Table C4 .Calibration accuracy for RSS One-Third Octave Band Center Frequency (Hz) 100 to 160 200 to 4000 5000 to 10000 Tolerance (dB) ±1.5 ±1.5 3.5 kD and r values. with very few exceptions.3 through C.0 1.0 C.0 ±1.8 Duct end reflection corrections Table C5 gives the uncertainties for duct end reflection correction E for various 0.Estimated deviation of sound power level determinations Octave Band Center Frequency (Hz) 125 250 500 to 4000 8000 One-Third Octave Band Center Frequency (Hz) 100 to 160 200 to 315 400 to 5000 6300 to 10000 Standard Deviation (dB) 3.0 ±0. Table C3 . The standard deviations in Table C4 take into account the cumulative effects of all causes of measurement uncertainty noted in C. 24 .0 2.7 Estimated standard deviation for determination of sound power levels The determination of sound power levels through measurements made in accordance with this standard will result. in standard deviations that are less than or equal to those given in Table C4.

2 =90.9 Octave band vs.4 25 .5 2-5 ±4 ±3 ±1 Note: When pure tones are present. uncertainties will be substantially greater.) diameter inlet. This difference is a function of two things: 1) The shape of the sound spectrum determined by one-third octave band analysis. Table C6 . Refer to Figure C1. For certain test conditions. Care should also be taken to keep the blade passage frequency from falling on the border between bands. thus avoiding the problems associated with the characteristics of filter skirts. this standard uses a duct end reflection correction factor that is frequency dependent. one-third octave band According to this standard. this analysis supplies little information on the shape of a sound spectrum. full octave band analysis does not allow isolation of pure tones in a spectrum.5 1-2 ±3 ±2 ±0.5 Free Space 1 ±3 ±2 ±0. the frequency analysis of sound may be performed either in full octave bands or in one-third octave bands. (Hz) 50 63 80 Lp Measured Combined +E = (Lp+E) dB 80 65 64 80.Example using full octave band analysis 1/3 Octave Center Frequency. r Duct Configuration C.25-1 >1 Flush 1 ±3 ±2 ±0. analysis in full octave bands instead of one-third octave bands may cause an error of up to ± 2 dB. the poor resolution of an octave band gives little information about a steeply sloping spectrum. If full octave band analysis is performed. Example: Test Conditions: A fan having a 508 mm (20 in. Furthermore. the use of one-third octave band analysis is recommended. Therefore. Because of this dependence. and low airflow. Full octave band analysis takes less time because fewer numerical values are treated. There is a significant difference between the two methods of determining the octave band values.5 kD <0. The error made in using octave band analysis can overestimate or underestimate the real values. a precaution would be to adjust the fan rotational speed to caused the blade passage frequency to fall in the central one-third octave band of any full octave band.2 +10. no orifice plate. and 2) The slope of the duct end reflection attenuation curve at the point where the attenuation value is evaluated. The pure-tone value produced by a test subject may be reduced by 1 to 2 dB without changing the octave band reading. Qualification of a reverberant test room for pure tones can only be effected in the one-third octave bands. However.Uncertainties in duct end reflection correction E Uncertainty in E (dB) Range of 0.25 0.AMCA 300-05 Table C5 .

10 Accuracy of the 63 Hz octave band At low frequencies.Example using one-third octave band analysis 1/3 Octave Center Frequency.2 C. Measurements in this band must be reported.2 =72. However.2 +8.1 +10.3 =92. very few modes are excited.Effect of summing one-third octave bands 26 .1 =75. and therefore the determined sound power level values.3 =92. the reflected pressure at the source combines with the direct sound pressure field produced by the source. This is particularly true of the 63 Hz octave band.AMCA 300-05 Table C7 . OCTAVE BAND OVER ESTIMATION OCTAVE BAND OCTAVE BAND UNDER ESTIMATION NO ERROR Figure C1 . and therefore its sound power output. although it is important to fan manufacturers and users alike. the measured sound pressure values. Most standards do not discuss this band. This affects the radiation impedance seen by the source. the sound power output of a source depends upon its position in the test room. (Hz) 50 63 80 Lp Measured Combined +E =(Lp+E) dB 80 65 64 +12. At low frequencies. have an uncertainty of ± 6 dB at best. and because of reflections from test room surfaces.

This alternative procedure is based on sound intensity measurements per ANSI S12.4 Procedure The requirements of ANSI S12.5 in all respects except for the qualification of the test facility below the 100 Hz one-third octave band.5.5 requires a hemi-anechoic room qualified for measurements over the entire frequency range of interest. made in compliance with ANSI S12. sound intensity shall be measured in the outward radial direction. D. Sound intensity measuring equipment shall comply with the requirements of ANSI S 12. the alternative calibration procedure below may be used. D. it normally will be necessary to use more source locations and microphone positions than the minimum requirements of the present standard and to exercise additional caution in carrying out the measurements. For all measurements. with the substitution of sound intensity level measurements. with the exception that the hemi-anechoic chamber need not be qualified below the 125Hz full octave band (100 Hz one-third octave band). similar.12.000 Hz onethird octave band frequency range and 63 Hz through 8000 Hz full octave band frequency range.12.1 General Calibration of a Reference Sound Source (RSS) in conformance with the requirements of ANSI S12. D.5 shall be carried out over the 50 Hz through 10. the Substitution Method of the present standard might be used to calibrate (secondary calibration) one reference sound source relative to another. The sound power levels determined from these measurements shall be compared with those determined from the corresponding sound pressure level measurements. for the sound pressure level measurements required by ANSI S12. If the calibration is in conformance with ANSI S12. The directivity index is not calculated from the intensity measurements.3 Qualification The RSS calibration procedure of ANSI S12.AMCA 300-05 Annex D (informative) Alternative procedure for reference sound source calibration D.1 through D. reference sound source that has been calibrated as described below (primary calibration).5. Laboratories that otherwise would be able to perform the required calibration but which are not qualified for measurements in the first octave band may use the alternative procedure of this Annex.5 for any other reason. the alternative calibration procedure is not applicable.2 Equipment and facilities Equipment and facilities shall be as required for RSS calibration in conformance with ANSI S 12. the calibrated sound power levels for the RSS are reported as specified in Section D. If in all frequency bands the determined sound power levels differ by no more than the tolerances given in Table D1.5 are duplicated in the lowest three full octave (nine one-third octave) bands.5. For example.5. It is not necessary that each and every reference sound source be calibrated directly in accordance with the procedures described below. In order that such a secondary calibration does not result in an unacceptable degradation of accuracy. If the calibration is not in complete conformance with ANSI S12. 27 . It may be possible to transfer a calibration from one unit to another by using a simpler type of test. Additional RSS units may be sound power level calibrated by comparing the sound power levels of the source to another unit that was calibrated in accordance with Sections D.12.

000 Hz one-third octave bands and the 125 Hz through 8. 28 .AMCA 300-05 Table D1 .5 RSS sound power levels The reported RSS sound power levels and directivity index shall be as determined by the ANSI S12. The calibration report shall be marked to indicate the levels determined from sound intensity measurements. For the 50 Hz through 80 Hz one-third octave bands and the 63 Hz full octave band.000 Hz full octave bands. and the directivity index is not to be reported.0 D.0 ±1. the reported RSS sound power level(s) shall be as determined from the sound intensity measurements.Tolerance for measured sound power level difference Octave Band (Hz) 63 125-250 One-third Octave Band (Hz) 50-80 100-315 Tolerance (dB) ±4.5 procedure for the 100 Hz through 10. and shall indicate whether the calibration was performed in full compliance with this Annex.

Beranek. H. 72. E. whenever possible. and Schwinger. Note: k = /c = 2 / . February 15. Vol. the test setup should be selected to minimize the potential error by using components that most closely reproduce the theoretical conditions.. one for ka<1 and one for ka>1.13 and 9. – Physical Review. New York. no theoretical solution exists for the case of a duct terminated in infinite space. 4.2. a = D/2.AMCA 300-05 Annex E (normative) Duct end reflection correction E. assuming no orifice is used. Frey. McGraw-Hill. Kinsler. when the test is conducted using an orifice on the tested end. In the event that circumstances require a setup indicating the presence of a duct end correction there are four cases to be considered. 1982 . For the flush-mounted duct (duct terminated in an infinite wall) the effect of an orifice plate with a round. The four cases are considered separately below. The prediction of the duct end reflection is difficult. correction factors must be added to the fan sound pressure measured in the test room in order to account for the reduction caused by end reflection.1 General Conditions at the end of a test duct will prevent some of the sound energy from being transmitted into the test room. Levine and Schwinger reduced the exact solutions to manageable forms. Nonetheless. Therefore. Actual fan test setups rarely. New York.1 Open ducts in a large space To determine the end reflection values. For open ducts (i. The two equations are: 29 . it is necessary to first calculate the reflection coefficient R.2 End reflection curves It is strongly recommended that. J. L. 1948] and a round duct terminating in an infinite wall [Fundamentals of Acoustics.14].e. the sound power measured in the room will be less than the true sound power in a duct. Coppens and Sanders.. no orifice) theoretical solutions exist for two cases: a thin-walled round duct terminating in an infinite space [On the Radiation of Sound from an Unflanged Circular Pipe.2]. which would make the solution provided by Levine & Schwinger more appropriate. Unless an anechoic termination is used. and = 2 f. 3RD Edition. Levine. centrally located hole can be calculated [Acoustics. sound test setups be chosen so that there is no requirement to apply duct end correction. there is no theory to predict the end correction values.. conform to the conditions under which the theoretical solutions are valid. For ducts with orifices. Wiley. if ever. equations 9. Section 5. which gives the fraction of the energy reflected back into the duct. E. Most test setups incorporate terminations that use a flanged duct terminating in a large space. For most test setups. 1950. Theoretical solutions exist only for round ducts with highly idealized end conditions and are based on the assumption that the frequency is low enough that only plane waves exist (which implies that ka< ). Using the methods suggested in this Annex will result in predicted values that are reasonably close to the actual values. No.

5kD).End correction for open ducts in large space 30 . Values are presented up to ka = 4. E-1 R ka exp( ka) 1 3 1 32 ka 2 for ka > 1 Eq. E-2 = 1 . r=5 r=2 r=1 Figure E1 .R 2 and thus the end The ratio between the transmitted sound and the reflected sound is correction (in dB) is E 10 log10 . These equations shall be used to calculate E as a function of ka (0.832. The resulting curve is shown for illustrative purposes in Figure E1 (r=1). even though the equations are strictly limited to ka < 3.AMCA 300-05 R exp ka 2 2 1 ka 6 4 log10 1 ka 19 12 for ka < 1 Eq.

1. Continuing with the assumption of plane wave propagation. the end reflection may be calculated by calculating R using ka based on the orifice radius. The resulting curve for illustrative purposes is shown in Figure E2 (r=1). E-7 Eq. the equations in Section E.2. Frey.6. E-4 K1 W 2 W3 3 ZM ZM 2 W5 32 5 a2 c a2 c 1 W7 32 5 2 7 Eq. E-5 R B A Eq.3 from Beranek. Coppens and Sanders with the impedence calculated using equations 5.13 and 9. 31 . ZM a2 c 1 J1(2ka) ka j c K 2ka 2 1 2k Eq. E-3 J1 W W 2 W3 22 4 W5 2 2 42 6 22 W7 4 2 62 8 Eq. E-8 E 10 log10 The series for the Bessel functions J1 and K1 converge rapidly (at least for values of ka < 3.2.AMCA 300-05 E.2 may be easily modified to predict the end reflection. values are shown up to ka = 4. even though their range of applicability may be limited to much lower values. It should be noted that there is no transition at the wallduct interface.2 and 5.2. the end correction values for ka>1 are questionable due to the failure to meet the plane wave criteria. ka is straightforward. but for ka >3. As before. and calculating the transmission coefficient by assuming that the orifice reduces the transmission coefficient by a factor of 1/r. E-6 1 1 R Eq.5 very suspect for ka > ( r) since for these values of ka the wave length is smaller than the orifice diameter. For the open duct (r = 1) the end reflection is clearly seen to be zero for all values of ka > 3 since the failure to meet the plane wave criteria is not critical. so the computation of E vs.3 Orificed ducts terminated in a large wall If a round duct terminating into a large wall is fitted with an orifice plate with a centrally located round hole. and are 0. The curves in Figure E2 are drawn to ka = 4. 5.6).2 Open ducts terminated in a wall For the case of a round duct terminated at a large wall. where r is the ratio of duct area to orifice area. The equations to be used to calculate E as a function of ka are given below. the end correction can be determined using equations 9. E. End reflection values for r = 2 and r = 5 are shown for illustrative purposes in Figure E2.14 from Kinsler. the value of is defined to be 1. For the orificed cases.

End correction for open ducts terminated in a large wall E. The same qualifications to the accuracy at ka > apply here also. Values can be found in Table E1 32 .AMCA 300-05 r=5 r=2 r=1 Figure E2 .2. Adopting this approach. it is reasonable to argue on physical grounds that the effect of the orifice must be reasonably similar to the flush-mounted case. the curves for r = 2 and r = 5 have been added to Figure E1 by merely adding the orifice effect determined from Figure E2.4 Orificed ducts terminating in a large Space Although there is no theory applicable to these cases.

0 r=2 3.6 10.2 3.0 3.45 0.8 3.55 0.AMCA 300-05 Table E1 – End corrections for orificed ducts terminating in a large space ka 0.6 3.1 11.70 0.7 3.50 0.95 1.6 9.4 7.1 10.2 7.1 5.9 2.9 5.4 ka 1.1 3.1 7.9 3.0 33 .4 16.3 3.20 0.1 3.2 7.2 8.0 r=5 7.65 0.1 3.1 9.8 1.90 0.6 2.8 7.9 4.3 15.2 2.3 3.1 7.3 7.2 1.2 3.9 8.60 0.9 7.19 0.3 1.5 2.4 3.5 17.18 0.15 0.3 7.7 3.9 3.5 16 15.75 0.6 8.16 0.9 16.2 3.30 0.3 3.1 7.2 7.5 12.7 2.3 3.0 3.8 4.0 7.40 0.3 10.2 8.4 8.1 7.1 7.5 4.0 2.8 2.80 0.5 1.4 6.85 0.8 8.2 3.0 3.7 1.52 4 r=5 18.4 7.6 18 17.7 6.3 13.0 7.0 7.1 12.1 7.1 1.6 1.3 7 6.1 3.3 2.5 7.14 0.35 0.1 7.17 0.2 11.3 7.1 3.0 7.2 7.1 3.4 r=2 18 17.2 9.0 1.3 7.2 3.2 3.6 3.4 4.6 15.7 7.7 16.2 13.1 3.2 7.2 7.4 2.0 7.1 2.25 0.1 7.7 7.4 8.0 7.5 3.5 3.6 7.0 7.5 3.1 3.5 7.7 5.9 14.1 16.4 3.1 3.0 3.

RSS. the presence of high amplitude sound at frequencies 45 Hz can reduce the effective dynamic range of the analyzer in the measurement frequency range of interest for this standard (45 Hz to 11. provided that any effect in the frequency range 45 Hz to 11. 34 .200 Hz is compensated and the equipment satisfies all the requirements of Section 4 of this standard. it may sometimes be necessary to use another approach.AMCA 300-05 Annex F (informative) Filter-weighted measurements In certain sound measurement situations. The weighting filter shall be the same for all measurements (background. Sound pressure level readings may be made with the sound level meter or signal amplifier set for a welldefined filter weighting effect in order to improve the dynamic range and measurement quality.200 Hz). and fan). While use of an analyzer with a large dynamic measurement range can solve this problem.

4-1) 35 . G.1 General The sound radiated by a fan casing may be determined by the following method. This effect can be minimized by using internally lined round ductwork.2 Instruments and equipment Shall be as required in Section 4.Lpq ) in each frequency band Where: LWk = sound power radiated through the fan casing. The test room sound pressure levels may be affected by sound radiating from the inlet and discharge ductwork connected to the test subject. causing measured sound pressure levels to be somewhat higher than the true casing radiated sound pressure levels. G. LWk = Lpk + (LWr . The sound pressure levels Lpq and Lpk are observed and subject to the provisions for Lp in Section 6.4 Observations and calculations Sound pressure levels Lpq and Lpk shall be observed as provided for in Section 6. Except as provided for below.AMCA 300-05 Annex G (informative) Radiation of sound by fan casing G. Ducts and connections should be constructed and secured such that the acoustic energy radiated through this equipment is no more than 10% of the total energy radiated by the fan casing into the test room. the importance of same can be checked by increasing the transmission loss of the ductwork. Lpk = fan casing sound pressure level. No correction for duct-radiated sound power is allowed. NOTE: If there is any doubt concerning the contribution of extraneous sound transmitted by ductwork.3 Setup and test The fan inlet and fan outlet shall be ducted to termination points outside the test room. (G. all the requirements of this standard apply. the results of the test of a fan casing are subject to the same requirements as the test of a fan. G. For possible pure tones and additional testing.

. 36 . The length of test ducts used to determine sound power would.AMCA 300-05 Annex H (informative) Total fan sound testing with attached ducts It is intended that the fan sound power levels determined by this standard reflect the sound produced at a known fan operating point. it is necessary to make some assumptions about the relationship between these levels to apply duct end reflection correction. be identical to the duct length defined an ANSI/AMCA 210. Care must be taken to ensure that for the actual duct lengths used. It has been determined that shorter duct lengths are also acceptable and may be used. e. no duct resonances exist in close proximity to specific frequencies of interest. therefore. the blade passage frequency. The equations in Figure H1 are based upon the assumption that the inlet and outlet sound power levels of a fan are equal. Although it is recognized that the inlet and outlet sound power levels of a fan are generally not equal.g.

The factor of 3 in the above equations is based on the assumption that fan sound power is equally distributed between inlet and outlet. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant test room and the microphone location is such that it is sensing total averaged sound pressure levels.Fan total sound testing with ducts attached 37 . Duct construction is such that the transmission loss through the duct wall is large enough to eliminate any addition to the measured sound pressure levels. Ducted Outlet LW Equations LW = Lp + (LWr – Lpq) + [3 – 10 log10 (1 + 10(Eo/10))] + Eo LW = Lp + (LWr – Lpq) + [3 – 10 log10 (1 + 10(Ei/10))] + Ei LW = Lp + (LWr – Lpq) + Ei + Eo + [3 – [10 log10 (10(Eo/10) + 10(Ei/10))]] This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following: 1. supporting devices or driving devices that provide any significant pure tones that may add to the measured sound pressure levels. 4. 3.AMCA 300-05 FAN FAN OPTIONAL ORIFICE FAN B: FREE INLET DUCTED OUTLET C: DUCTED INLET FREE OUTLET D: DUCTED INLET DUCTED OUTLET Installation Type B: Free Inlet. No resonances are present on either the fan structure. Figure H1 . 2. Ducted Outlet C: Ducted Inlet. Free Outlet D: Ducted Inlet.

New York. Methods for the Determination of Sound Power Levels of Small Sources in Reverberant Rooms. C. 1977. Air Movement and Control Association International.K. NY. 8(1):5-15 ANSI S12.. IN. Arlington Heights. L. Dictionary of Scientific and Engineering Terms. Inc. R. Harris. 4th Edition.51-2002 Nationally Adopted International Standard (NAIS Standard). 1993. L.11-1987 (R1993) Methods for the Measurement of Noise Emitted by Small Air Moving Devices. 1990 (AMCA #1108-84-AO) Sepmeyer. 3. ANSI S12. Vol. NY. Arlington Heights. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] 38 . Baade.. New York. Effects of acoustic loading on axial flow fan noise generation. Crocker. 1979 Parker.6-1984 (R1990) Preferred Frequencies.AMCA 300-05 Annex J (informative) References [1] AMCA Standard 300-67 Test Code for Sound Rating.. Handbook of Noise Control. Herrick Laboratories Report HL 81-16. AMCA Standard 301-90 Methods for Calculating Fan Sound Power Levels from Laboratory Test Data. and ANSI S1. 7. IL.. Frequency Levels and Band Numbers for Acoustical Measurements. NY. NY. Editor... Acoustics – Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound pressure – Precision method for reverberation rooms. Investigation of End Reflection Coefficient Accuracy Problems with AMCA 300-67. 2nd Edition.M. IL.W. 1967.21-1972. Acoustical Society of America. New York. Noise Measurement Facilities. 1989 ANSI S1. 1993. Inc. 37 – No. J. Air Movement and Control Association International. Acoustical Society of America. McGraw-Hill.. 2. 1985 (AMCA #1891-65-AO) AMCA #1901-85-A1 List of References on Room Calibration. 1990. Arlington Heights. Purdue University. Inc. Noise Control Engineering. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. New York. Computed Frequency and Angular Distribution of the Normal Modes of Vibration in Rectangular Rooms. Air Movement and Control Association International. w/ Pande. 1985. and Sandbakken. P.P. New York. 1981. M. (AMCA #1184-81-A6) Noise Control Engineering.. No. New York.. March. Vol. Acoustical Society of America. McGraw-Hill. IL. NY. NY. West Lafayette. S.

louvers. dampers. . acoustic attenuators.amca. INC. Tel: (847) 394-0150 E-Mail : info@amca. and other air system components for the industrial. but limited to: fans. airflow measurement stations. air curtains. commercial and residential markets.org The Air Movement and control Association International.A. is a not-for-profit international association of the world’s manufacturers of related air system equipment primarily.S. 30 West University Drive Arlington Heights.AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL. Inc.org Fax: (847) 253-0088 Web: www. IL 60004-1893 U.