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Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

Responsible Committee: Rotating Equipment 31 March, 1999

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Table of Contents Covering Letter.................................................... 2 Part I - Introduction.............................................. 9 Part II - Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lubricants........... 14 Part III - Lubricant Classification Systems.......... 27 Part IV - Saudi Aramco SAMS 26 Lubricants..... 36 Part V - Guide To Equipment Lubrication.......... 85 Part VI - Oil Inspection, Analysis And Conditioning................................... 161 Part VII - Storage, Handling And Application Of Lubricants............... 177 Part VIII - Tables And Glossary Of Terms..….. 200 Part IX - Brand Comparisons....................….... 249 Part X - Attachment: OCM Program..........…... 255
Previous Issue 23 April, 1993 Next Planned Update: 1 April, 2002 Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin Contact Person: R.E. Robins on 873-0498

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Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March, 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April, 2002

Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

COVERING LETTER To All Users of the Lubrication Manual: This Manual replaces the issue of April 23, 1987, in its entirety. The old Manual is now obsolete and should be destroyed. The intent of this book is to provide field operators with a guide to lubricants and lubrication, especially as practiced in the Saudi Aramco system. Herein you will find convenient references to the questions most frequently asked and the lubrication problems most frequently encountered. Many things clearly are beyond the scope of this Manual. When questions arise which are not covered, they should be referred to the Lubrication Engineers of the Consulting Services Department. It is their function to provide guidance in all matters related to equipment lubrication and lubricants. In the past, confusion existed in the field from the use of oil company brand names, many of which were confusing in themselves and others of which simply did not follow a consistent pattern. The Saudi Aramco Material System (SAMS), Class 26 designations for lubricants, were developed to ease this confusion. Properly used, they should help eliminate errors in ordering, misapplication in the field, machine damage and product waste. The reader should recognize that SAMS 26 covers chemicals and fuels, in addition to lubricants. This manual refers only to subclasses 001 to 011, lubricants and allied products. Special attention is directed to Section C of Part VI and Part X which is devoted to the Saudi Aramco Oil Condition Monitoring Program. This program was introduced in 1983 to supplement conventional lubricant maintenance practices. It has been highly successful, identifying equipment problems in time to prevent failures and unscheduled shutdowns. Other lubrication-related subjects, covered in the earlier editions of the Lubrication Manual, are updated in this version. The changes reflect new equipment, revised maintenance procedures and modern technology. The Lubrication Engineers, as part of their ongoing responsibility, will issue new or revised pages for this book, as they are required. Comments and suggestions from users of the Manual are encouraged and welcome.

Sincerely, ORIGINAL SIGNED BY Manager,Consulting Services Department

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Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March, 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April, 2002

Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I - INTRODUCTION A. The Need For Lubrication 1. In General 2. As Applied to Saudi Aramco B. Role of the Lubrication Engineer C. How To Use The Manual 1. Equipment Oriented Information 2. Lubricants and Lubrication 3. General Information PART II - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LUBRICANTS A. History and Sources of Lubricants B. Properties of Lubricating Oils 1. Density (Gravity) 2. Flash And Fire Points 3. Pour, Cloud And Floc Points 4. Viscosity 5. Viscosity Index 6. Sulphated Ash 7. Demulsibility 8. Foam Characteristics 9. Air Separability 10. Total Acid Number (TAN) 11. Total Base Number (TBN) 12. Corrosion Rating 13. Oxidation Resistance 14. Rotating Bomb Oxidation Test (RBOT) 15. Dielectric Strength C. Properties of Greases 1. Penetration 2. Dropping Point 3. Structural Stability 4. Oxidation Stability

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Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March, 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April, 2002

Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

D. Additives for Lubricants 1. Pour Point Depressants 2. Viscosity Index Improvers 3. Defoamants 4. Emulsifiers 5. Anti-Oxidants 6. Corrosion Inhibitors 7. Detergent/Dispersants 8. Anti-Rust Compounds 9. Anti-Wear And Extreme Pressure Additives E. Proprietary Additives

PART III - LUBRICANT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS A. Automotive Lubricants 1. SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) Crankcase Viscosity Grades 2. API (American Petroleum Institute) Classification System 3. CCMC (Comite des Constructeurs d'Automobiles du Commun) Approvals 4. API Gear Oil Viscosity Grades 5. SAE Viscosity Classifications For Gear Oils 6. Automatic Transmission Fluids Classifications B. Industrial Lubricants 1. ISO (International Standards Organization) Grades 2. STLE (Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers) Standards For Machine Tools 3. AGMA (American Gear Manufacturers Association) Lubricant System C. Greases 1. NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) Classification System PART IV - SAUDI ARAMCO SAMS 26 LUBRICANTS A. Graphic Guide to Saudi Aramco SAMS 26 Catalogue Numbers for Lubricants B. SAMS 26-001 Circulating Oils, Turbine Oils C. SAMS 26-001 Circulating Oils, Machine Oils D. SAMS 26-002 Gear Lubricants, Auto Gear Lube140

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Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March, 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April, 2002

Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

E. F.

SAMS 26-002 Gear Lubricants, Gear Lube 90 SAMS 26-003 Gear Lubricants, Gear Lubes EP

G. SAMS 26-003 Power Transmission and Hydraulic Oils, Transmission Oil D-II H. SAMS 26-003 Power Transmission and Hydraulic Oils, Hydraulic Oil AW 68 I. SAMS 26-004 Greases (All Purpose Greases EP 1 and EP 3, Ball Bearing Grease 2, Polyethylene Grease 1 (Coupling Grease) SAMS 26-004 Greases, Rack and Pinion Grease

J.

K. SAMS 26-004 Greases, High Temperature Grease L. SAMS 26-005 Engine and Combustion Turbine Oils, Diesel Engine Oil CD

M. SAMS 26-005 Engine and Combustion Turbine Oils, Diesel Engine Oil 15W/40 N. SAMS 26-005 Engine and Combustion Turbine Oils, Diesel Engine Oil EMD O. SAMS 26-005 Engine and Combustion Turbine Oils, Gas Turbine Oil 32 P. SAMS 26-005 Engine and Combustion Turbine Oils, Synthetic Gas Turbine Oil 5

Q. SAMS 26-005 Engine and Combustion Turbine Oils, Diesel Engine Oil SAE 50 R. SAMS 26-006 Insulating and Refrigeration Oils, Insulating Oil S. T. SAMS 26-006 Insulating and Refrigeration Oils, Refrigeration Oil WF 68 SAMS 26-006 Insulating and Refrigeration Oils, Refrigeration Oil HFC-134a

U. SAMS 26-007 Preservative Oils, Penetrating Oil V. SAMS 26-007 Preservative Oils, Rust Preventive W. SAMS 26-007 Preservative Oils, Open Gear and Wire Rope Lubricant X. SAMS 26-007 Turbine Oil Vapor Space Inhibitor Y. SAMS 26-008 Metal Working Fluids, General Purpose Cutting Oil

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Synthetic Grinding Fluid DD. SAMS 26-011 Special Lubricants . Bearings C.Miscellaneous PART V . SAMS 26-009 Valve Lubricants SAMS 26-010 Instrument Lubricants GG. SAMS 26-011 Special Lubricants . SAMS 26-008 Metal Working Fluids. Pumps H. Electric Motors I.Solids HH.Anti-Seize JJ. FF. SAMS 26-011 Special Lubricants .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. F. Honing Oil SAMS 26-008 Metal Working Fluids.GUIDE TO EQUIPMENT LUBRICATION A. Heavy Duty Cutting Oil AA. SAMS 26-008 Metal Working Fluids. SAMS 26-008 Metal Working Fluids. Way Oil EE. Other Electrical Equipment Machine Tools Page 6 of 255 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Z. CC. Gas Turbines E. SAMS 26-008 Metal Working Fluids. Steam Turbines Compressors G. General Practices B. Soluble Oil BB. J. Gears D. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. HANDLING AND APPLICATION OF LUBRICANTS A. Valves N. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual K. Viscosity Equivalents .STORAGE. Viscosity Conversion (2) D. ANALYSIS AND CONDITIONING A.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. On-Site Lubrication System Maintenance C. Viscosity Conversion (1) C. Oil Condition Monitoring (OCM) PART VII . Oil and Grease Application Methods PART VIII . Hydraulics L. Mobile Equipment (Except Engines) P. and 68 Turbine Oils) Page 7 of 255 . Marine Equipment (Except Engines) Q.OIL INSPECTION. Storage and Handling (Including Safety) B.TABLES AND GLOSSARY OF TERMS A. Internal Combustion Engines O.Chart E. Miscellaneous Equipment R. Flexible Couplings M. 32. Preservation of Idle Equipment PART VI . ASTM Standard Viscosity Temperature Chart (ISO VG. 46. Quality Control B. Temperature Conversion B.

1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. SI Multiples and Submultiples S.Reyns and Centipoises) H.Attachment: OCM PROGRAM Page 8 of 255 . Viscosity . P. Gravity for Liquids at 60 °F J. The Cost of Leaks Glossary of Terms PART IX . ASTM Standard Viscosity Temperature Chart (ISO VG 150. 320 and 460 Machinery Oils) G. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual F. Mass Conversion Table L.Temperature Chart (Absolute Viscosity . Length Conversion Table Q. Volume Conversion Table M. I. Equivalents of A. Table of Mass . Area Conversion Table R. Pressure Conversion Table N.BRAND COMPARISONS PART X .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Power Conversion Table P. T.Petroleum Products K.

friction is still present and energy is dissipated.INTRODUCTION A. knees and elbows don't bend efficiently unless they are lubricated. The high ambient temperatures and persistent airborne abrasive sand combine to create an atmosphere distinctly hostile to machines. Friction is a physical force without which life could not continue. When two surfaces in a machine are brought into moving contact. make the difference. one must first understand friction. it is a major detriment to the operation of machinery. The Need For Lubrication Without lubrication. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual PART I . at the same time. Friction develops heat and heat is a form of energy. For purposes of this brief explanation. It isn't that these mechanisms will not function without lubrication. trains and automobiles could not run. Page 9 of 255 . They will.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. properly applied. whether in human joints or in mechanical devices. Yet. They move more readily but. that the requirements of individual machines are recognized and that the lubricants themselves are familiar to the end users. more essential that they do. imagine two perfectly dry metal surfaces. In Saudi Aramco operations. ships could not sail and hills would slide down into valleys. Without the force of friction between the soles of our shoes and the ground. For that matter. Vast amounts of energy would be required and wear rates would be accelerated beyond all reasonable levels. In the first. imagine that a film of lubricating fluid has been introduced between the surfaces.wheels don't turn efficiently. Friction in machines is an obstacle to be overcome. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. pistons don't move efficiently in their cylinders. one upon the other. conditions are exacerbated. power is lost. To understand lubrication. This is "fluid" friction. The right lubricants. shafts don't rotate efficiently in their bearings. as important as friction is to our lives. The force required to move one over the other is not hard to picture and results from this "dry" friction. some of the energy involved in the movement is converted to heat and. This Manual and it's predecessor editions all have been written for a series of very important purposes: to provide the kind of guidance which is needed to assure that the function of lubrication is understood. as opposed to "dry" friction. but only at tremendous cost. as a result. These conditions make it more difficult for lubricants to function and. there is no efficient work -. we could not walk. Now. we will look at two types of friction: "dry" (or "solid") and "fluid". Without friction. even though the surfaces are separated.

at B. as it relates to a plain bearing. they are separated and there is no contact. There they show pronounced asperities. are seldom of any value. The selection of the proper lubricant grade and type depends on speed. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. when sufficient force is applied. separating the metallic surfaces and permitting free movement. followed by weld breakage. Friction still is present but only as fluid friction. there is welding of surface asperities. However.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. More lubrication fundamentals will be covered in succeeding sections of this Manual and the Glossary at the end is a reference to the terminology used in the science of lubrication. tooth-like peaks and valleys. The second can be pictured as a ship sliding down the launching ways or a piston moving up and down in a cylinder. 4. Figure 1 shows this condition graphically. low numbers mean it is harder or less fluid. In practice. The first is demonstrated by a ball rolling on a table or a roller bearing in a race. 2. the harder shaft material breaks off sections of the softer bearing material. low numbers mean lighter or thinner. for purposes of establishing a basic familiarity with the subject. When a lubricant is interposed between the surfaces. All metal surfaces. quite rough when examined under a microscope. which cause the surfaces to resist when one is moved counter to the other. load and temperature and is based on a series of technical calculations. The effort required to overcome "sliding" friction is greater than for "rolling" friction. The basic descriptive property of fluid lubricants is "viscosity" -. and are literally torn away. All moving elements of machinery require lubrication. Heavy rubbing is present at Point A. thus no wear.a high penetration number means the grease is softer or more fluid. in fact. There is still friction present but it is fluid friction.wear achieved at a very high cost in energy. So-called "proprietary additives" added to oil already in service in machinery and claiming to reduce friction or otherwise improving the lubricant. 5. The basic descriptive property of greases is "penetration" -. no matter how smooth they may feel.high numbers mean heavier or thicker. these points are worth remembering: 1. Additives are used by manufacturers of lubricants to impart specific properties to their products. are. Page 10 of 255 . "fluid" friction requires less energy than either. 3. Point D represents the introduction of a lubricating film. one to the other. at Point C. the high points weld. This is wear -. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Another differentiation separates "rolling" friction and "sliding" friction.

Point B shows softer material breaking away. 7. to contend with the local conditions. Point A shows heavy rubbing. of many types. Point C shows welding of the surface asperities. all of which require lubrication. For example. ranging from small pumps to gas turbines. This equipment is spread over thousands of miles and accessibility can be limited. Since most heavy equipment is imported. mention was made of the adversity of the climatic conditions under which Saudi Aramco equipment must operate. It must be replaced when chemical changes occur or heavy contamination loads accumulate. Point D represents the introduction of a lubricating film. rendering it unfit for further service. Costs are high because many items must be purpose-built. is kept clean and at the proper temperature. generally at lower speeds and high temperatures.and that starts with lubrication. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 6. The sum of these negative influences is a greater than normal reliance on proper maintenance -. there are both time and cost penalties. Page 11 of 255 . Figure 1: Metal Surfaces in Contact. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Thicker oils (higher viscosities) provide the heavier oil films needed to withstand heavy loads. or modified. Thinner oils (lower viscosities) reduce fluid friction and are preferred where load speed and temperature conditions permit.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. sheer numbers: there are thousands of items of equipment. Other actors compound the problem. The best lubricant cannot serve its function unless it reaches the part to be lubricated. Earlier.

assuring continuity and correctness of lubrication-related information. Establishing and monitoring lubricant quality control procedures and assessing product performance. Providing lubrication instructions and interpreting manufacturer's recommendations to conform to Saudi Aramco conditions. a fully rationalized product line. 5. used product disposal and product safety. Maintaining the Oil Condition Monitoring Program (OCM). Advising on lubrication organization. wherein Lubrication Schedules prepared by Saudi Aramco Plants or contractors for each piece of equipment in each plant are reviewed by the Lubrication Engineers. In addition. Investigating equipment failures and related problems. Page 12 of 255 . 8. recommending corrective actions and assessing system effectiveness. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual B. 4. Equipment operators should be aware of the Lubrication Engineers and their functions. providing interpretation of laboratory findings. They are responsible for the implementation of the SAMSS Class 26 lubricant specifications. Choosing the fewest lubricants needed to properly care for the requirements of Saudi Aramco equipment. The Role of the Lubrication Engineer Much of the responsibility for this maintenance function belongs to the Lubrication Engineers. Providing lubrication-related training guidance and assistance. Their duties include the following: 1. disposal of obsolete stocks. 7. 2. 3. calling upon their services as needed. 6.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. they are in continuing contact with the suppliers of lubricants and equipment. Providing advice to plants on such items as lubricant storage and handling. 9. Recommending lubricating system designs and issuing product application advice. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

Page 13 of 255 . 6. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Lubricants. a Guide to Equipment Lubrication. 4. as practiced in Saudi Aramco operations. and other lube system maintenance techniques. Part III is a reference section. on the other hand. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Oil Condition Monitoring. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual C. Part II. containing the most common of the various lubricant classification systems. is somewhat general. is specifically a guide to Saudi Aramco lubricants. Handling and Application of lubricants.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Part VIII is a Glossary of terms used in the science of lubrication and a series of conversion tables. It contains basic lubrication instructions by equipment type or machine element. Parts II and IV are lubricant oriented. Part VII covers Storage. Part V is equipment oriented. 2. 5. Part VI deals with quality control. Part IV. How To Use The Manual The following comments will provide guidance in the use of this Manual: 1. 3.

the residuum left after the refining process has removed gases. they do not have as much resistance to deterioration as the second type. the socalled mineral oils. gasoline. The crude oil must be responsive to available refining processes. derived from animal or vegetable sources. Therefore. the chemical composition of the crude oil must contain a reasonable amount of material in the proper boiling range. Not all crudes are suitable for lubricant manufacture. when petroleum oils were first determined to have lubricating potential. for purposes of a lube oil discussion it is sufficient to consider only three types: 1. a substantial portion of it from Saudi Arabia. Page 14 of 255 . they tend to thin out more at higher temperatures. HISTORY AND SOURCES OF LUBRICANTS The need for lubrication was recognized early in the history of man. to lubricate wheels and other moving parts. Sometime before 1400 BC the Egyptians are known to have used naturally occurring fats and oils. This practice continued until the mid-1800's. gradually replaced the fats and vegetable oils. comes from many parts of the world. The derived lube base stock must be compatible with available additives and have a high level of natural resistance to deterioration. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. These crudes vary widely in composition: some are light colored and consist mainly of gasoline while others are black and nearly solid asphalts. obtained by refining crude oil. naphthenic oils have lower viscosity indices. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual PART II . While there is not a universally accepted system for classifying crude oils. sources of large-volume crudes are needed and the lower volume crudes. i. Naphthenic. Lube stocks come from the "heavy end" of the crude barrel. Because manufacturing processes were easier to control. lubricants and many chemicals are derived. from which fuels. However. There are several reasons for this: 1. i. It would be uneconomical to have to tailor processes to individual crudes. The crude oil.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.e. It takes approximately 10 barrels of crude to make one barrel of lube base stock. 3.e. making it more suitable for low temperature use. Also. which produces a base stock of low wax content.PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LUBRICANTS A. An additional benefit was a naturally greater resistance to deterioration.. even though they may have superior lube-related qualities. Consequently.. 2. distillates and other "light ends". 4. will be uneconomical and end up mixed in the refinery streams.

Mixed crudes. Petroleum waxes are present in most lubricating oil fractions and cannot be separated from the oil by distillation. Crystalline paraffin wax is present in the lighter lubricating oil distillates and other types are in the residuals. Since high-wax content oils will not flow at moderate or low temperatures. under controlled conditions. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 2. Additives are used to enhance the natural qualities and will be discussed in greater detail later. that which is left. All of these processing measures are for the purpose of producing a lubricant base stock of the highest quality. High quality lube base stocks are decolorized by treatment with naturally occurring clays which adsorb the color agents which are composed of particulate impurities. 3. having largely opposing characteristics. i. greater stability and resistance to deterioration. but the following is a typical progression.. it is necessary that most of the wax be removed. is then passed to a lube refinery. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Paraffinic. non-lube fractions are removed. under vacuum and at very high temperatures. The process used in most cases is another solvent treatment. less tendency to thin out with increasing temperature.. higher wax content. all of which use contact with hydrogen.e. in which the lighter. methyl-ethyl ketone. modern refinery methods can minimize their effects on the end product. one which will possess inherent natural resistance to deterioration. Refining methods differ by company.e. The result is improved color. The residuum. hydro-treating. or catalytic hydro-dewaxing. Page 15 of 255 . in this case. separating the light lube distillates from the heavy residuals. usually. This is followed by solvent treating. The solvents most commonly used are furfural and phenol and they perform the function of removing impurities from the raw base stock. The first step is distillation. The most commonly practiced lube refining method uses a further distillation of the residuum. to remove undesirable material from the base stock. with varying mixtures of the above types.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. stability and odor. Although the above differences in crudes exist and they are significant to the refiner. They have higher viscosity index. Other steps which may be taken are hydro-finishing. i. a distinctly separate facility.

Cloud and Floc Points -. a. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. the higher the API gravity. The fire point is the temperature at which the oil releases a concentration of vapors sufficient to support continued combustion. They are not.These tests define the flow properties of oils under low temperature conditions. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual B. a. 1.gr. paraffinic stocks have higher flash points than naphthenics. the lower the API gravity. b. Pour. They are useful in maintaining uniformity of product or determining degree of change in used oils. Principal uses are in weight/volume conversions and for identification purposes. they can be indicators of contamination with fuels or solvents.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.The density of a substance is the mass of a unit volume at a standard temperature. or relative density. Density or Gravity -. indicators of performance.g. In the petroleum industry. The flash point of an oil is the temperature at which the oil releases a sufficient concentration of vapor at its surface to ignite momentarily when an open flame is passed over the surface. in and of themselves. The pour point of an oil is the lowest temperature at which it will flow when cooled under standard conditions. b. PROPERTIES OF LUBRICATING OILS The following list is made up of tests which help to define the characteristics of finished lubricating oils.. Also. a. In Saudi Aramco operations these properties are of significance mainly in refrigeration and air conditioning equipment.5. distillates have lower flash points than residuals. 2. @ 60/60 °F) . is the ratio of the mass of a given volume of a material at a standard temperature to the mass of an equal volume of water at the same temperature (15 °C or 60 °F). 3. generally are based on these ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) tests which are more or less standard throughout the world. e. density is often expressed as Gravity API (American Petroleum Institute) which is derived from the formula. Page 16 of 255 . The higher the specific gravity. Specific gravity.5/sp. Gr. Saudi Aramco laboratory reports and Saudi Aramco specifications. API=(141.131. Flash and Fire Points -. the lower the specific gravity.These are used by refiners to differentiate between types of oil.

1. 4. Viscosity -. and determines the ease with which machines may be started under cold conditions. e. usually 100. Results are expressed as seconds Redwood No. governs the sealing effect and rate of consumption. time through a given orifice at temperatures of 70.The most important single property of a lubricating oil is its viscosity. Viscosity is the measure of resistance to flow. is used in research applications and bearing design. Page 17 of 255 . Kinematic viscosity. c. Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) units were widely used in the United States. b. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual b. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Figure 2 shows the type of device which is used to measure viscosity. c. Absolute.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. both measured at the same temperature and in consistent units. The floc point is the temperature at which wax separates as a "floc" when a mixture of 10% oil and 90% refrigerant is cooled under standard conditions. Degrees Engler are obsolete European reporting units. It must be stated in terms of specific temperature since oil flows more freely at elevated temperatures and more slowly when cold. or dynamic viscosity. or 210 °F. or internal friction. It is a factor in the formation of lubricating films. is the quotient of its dynamic viscosity divided by its density. derived in a manner similar to the above but at temperatures of 20. called a viscosimeter (or viscometer). 50 or 100 °C. affects heat generation in moving parts. It is determined by measuring the time required for a given quantity of oil to flow through an orifice of specified size at a specified temperature. a. of an oil. The cloud point is the temperature at which a cloud of wax crystals appears when the oil is cooled under standard conditions. d. centipoise or reyn (P. used in all practical applications. The common reporting unit is the centistoke (cSt) at 40 or 100 °C. cP or reyns). 140 or 212 °F. It is reported in poise. See Part VIII. Results are expressed as Saybolt seconds (time) for a given volume of oil to pass through an orifice at a given temperature. Redwood Number 1 units were in limited use in the United Kingdom.

2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 2: Kinematic Viscometer. the oil is then drawn to a head above the first etched line and allowed to flow. This device is used to measure kinematic viscosity. Using a vacuum. Oil is drawn into the tube which is then placed in a bath and allowed to come to the test temperature. Page 18 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The time in seconds for it to pass from upper line to the lower line is recorded and converted to kinematic viscosity.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

an increase in ash content usually means that there has been a build-up of contaminants such as dirt. those that change the most will have steeper lines. Air entrainment is aggravated by siliconecontaining defoamant materials. whereas oils with additives may show residues of their metalloorganic origins. the line will approach the horizontal. wear debris and other contaminating substances. silicone sealing compounds or silicone coatings.The sulfated ash of a lubricating oil is the residue. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5. where water ingress is a relatively frequent occurrence and in hydraulic systems where the resting time for the oil is such that water has little or no chance to separate. the low VI oil gets thinner at high temperatures than the high VI oil. It is an important feature in large systems.All oils thin out as temperature increases and become thicker. Some equipment manufacturers place limits on the amount of ash permitted in products used in their engines. an arbitrary value originally derived by assigning a VI of 0 to a Texas naphthenic stock oil and one of 100 to a paraffinic base stock from Pennsylvania.These describe the ability of an oil to separate from water. as temperature decreases. Air Separability (or Air Release) -. Demulsibility Characteristics -. 8. in a lubricating oil sample under controlled conditions. 7. such as steam turbines. Page 19 of 255 . 6. The low VI oil gets thicker at low temperatures than the high VI oil.This refers to the ability of an oil to continually expel entrained air. remaining after burning the oil and subjecting the percent residue to prescribed treatment. Sulfated Ash -. This change in viscosity can be plotted. In oils which change the least. As a result. The degree to which viscosity varies with temperature is reported as viscosity index. in percent by weight. With used oils. they are still widely used as indicators of product quality. 9. Foam Characteristics -. Thus. New oils. Viscosity Index -. This is done in the belief that. sulfated ash is a rough indication of the amount of such additives in the blended product.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. the selected naphthenic stock was most affected by temperature change. the paraffinic material the least. excessive quantities of some of these materials may contribute to such problems as combustion chamber deposits and top ring wear. and the stability of the produced foam. At the time this was done. The effect of excess air in a system is to make pump action spongy and hydraulic controls erratic. the old numbers have lost some of their mystique. without additives. it is possible to exceed the 100 VI figure through refining techniques and through the use of additives. In modern technology. while the sulfated ash content results from the incorporation of materials intended to improve overall oil performance. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. using two temperatures as points on a line. or more viscous.A method of rating the foaming tendency. contain essentially no ashforming materials. However.

the test now has gained acceptance as a measure of long term oxidation in used oils. including Saudi Aramco. Total base number tests may be carried out on new lubricants as a quality control method. As the TOST test can take from 2000 to 7000 hours to completion this is not a practical test for the Saudi Aramco Oil Condition Monitoring Program (OCM). Most oils have no effect unless their additives are corrosive. calcium compounds etc. which contain very low additive dosages. 13.This test originally was used to assure complete removal of all sulfuric acid from acid treated base oil. or alkalinity. to determine the comparative quality of new turbine oils. the additives have an effect on the total acid number and results must be compared with new oil. or on used engine oils. is an important indication of the presence of alkaline additives. Total Acid Number (TAN) or sometimes referred to as the neutralization number . or oxidize. In oils with high additive contents. to B-13 above and in Part VIII Glossary. such as sodium. Total Base Number (TBN) -. and a measure of useful remaining service life in used turbine oils. Dielectric Strength -. The only such tests which have achieved international acceptance are the so-called TOST Test and the Rotating Bomb Oxidation Test (RBOT). 11. under a given set of conditions. Refer. where they indicate the amount of additive still available to neutralize harmful acids produced during fuel combustion. Dielectric strength is the minimum voltage required to produce an arc through an oil sample under standard conditions. magnesium. As acid treating is no longer widely used.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.There are numerous tests for oxidation resistance. relevance for oils of any other type. also.The base number. The purpose of such tests is to define the extent to which an oil will deteriorate. 15. RBOT (Rotating Bomb Oxidation Test): Test method ASTM D 2272.A value assigned to new oil which represents its relative corrosivity to copper. Measures the time in minutes for the test oil to react with a given volume of oxygen.This is a measure of the insulating value of an electrical insulating medium. Oxidation Resistance/Stability -. particularly steam turbine oils. Since all oils oxidize and deteriorate in service. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. which were developed for steam turbine oils and have little. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 10. Corrosion Rating -. such as transformer or switch gear oils. if any. 12. Page 20 of 255 . 14. The RBOT test is a relatively quick test and is frequently used by the industry. the practice has been to develop a test which will make one oil or another look better than others.

Not stiffen excessively in cold weather. slow surface speeds and restricted or oscillating motion. Protect against corrosion. Most of the greases produced today have mineral oils as their fluid components. Page 21 of 255 . PROPERTIES OF GREASES Grease is defined as: "A solid to semi-fluid product of dispersion of a thickening agent in a liquid lubricant. aluminum. Molybdenum disulfide also is used in greases where the applications involve heavy loads. dripping or throwoff from the lubricated surface. For some very specific applications oils such as silicones or fluorosilicones are used. Provide adequate lubrication to reduce friction and to prevent harmful wear of bearing components. to heavy cylinder oil stocks. 5. lithium and barium. sodium. 3. or the liquid phase such as synthesized hydrocarbon. Still others are made with non-soap bases such as clay and silica gel. extreme pressure agents. 4. Because of their essentially solid nature. Resist leakage." Greases are most often used instead of fluids where a lubricant is required to stay in place or where frequent relubrication is difficult or impossible to accomplish. Some greases are made with metallic soaps and an organic acid. Be compatible with seals and other materials of construction. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2. 6. either in the solid phase. pour point depressants. Oils may range in viscosity from very light distillates. The principal thickeners used are metallic soaps such as calcium. such as polyurea. Resist objectionable change in structure in use.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. similar to penetrating oil. Other ingredients imparting special properties may be included. 8. forming complexes. a suitable grease for a given application will: 1. Finally. Act as a seal to prevent entry of dirt and water. greases do not perform the cooling and cleaning functions associated with the use of a fluid lubricant. 7. Tolerate some water contamination without loss of structure. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual C. lubricity or friction reducing agents and dyes or pigments. Additives and modifiers commonly used in lubricating greases are oxidation or rust inhibitors. Graphite may be used where high temperatures are involved. there are greases made with synthetic materials. However.

none of them have universal acceptance as each measures the effect of a given set of working conditions which may or may not be relevant to the application at hand. volume and temperature.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.000 strokes. When oxidation reaches a given point. depending on the type. the faster the rate of oxidation. a sample of grease under standard conditions of weight. It is a measurement of the depth. an "unworked" penetration. Dropping Point -. Thus. This classification system is contained in Table 6. become acidic and either harden or soften. one which has been agitated in a standard grease worker for a given number of strokes. The penetration change from the original is a measure of structural stability. following.The property most often mentioned in connection with greases is penetration. turn rancid. if so desired.There are many of these and they are all designed to measure the stability of a grease under severe working conditions. Penetration values will fit one of the ranges assigned by the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) of the United States. it is a measure of consistency. additives are used to enhance the natural stability of the oil/thickener blend. 3. Part III. vertically. Penetration -. 4. The test can be performed on an undisturbed sample.000 or 100. that a cone will penetrate. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Structural Stability Tests -. It is not a measure of the maximum service temperature for which a grease is suitable. This is to greases as viscosity is to oils. time. The higher the temperature. the grease will darken. Page 22 of 255 . This property is still mentioned in many grease specifications but it has little to do with actual performance. 2. a and b. greases will oxidize in service. The most generally used method is the aforementioned grease worker which can be set to run 10. or on a "worked" sample. Unfortunately.This is the temperature at which a grease passes from a semisolid to a liquid state under the conditions of the test. The apparatus is shown in Figure 3. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The principal properties of greases are these: 1. Oxidation Stability -.As with oils. The latter is considered to be the most reliable procedure since the disturbance imparted to the sample is controlled and repeatable. in tenths of a millimeter.

after a standard time. Page 23 of 255 . The tip of the cone is placed on the surface of the grease in the cup. This apparatus is used to measure the consistency of greases. is the penetration. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual View A View B Figure 3: Grease Penetrometer. The reading on the dial. in tenths of a millimeter. then released.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

Page 24 of 255 .g. extreme-pressure (EP) agents. e. They can be classed into three main functional subdivisions: 1. which are themselves lubricants. possibly.g. machine damage. The selection of an additive/oil combination involves far more than mixing any base oil with any additive of the functional type required. ADDITIVES Additives are used to impart some new property to a mineral oil or to enhance an existing property.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.. both in the laboratory and in the field. the matching process is further complicated by the potential effect of one additive on another. Where lubricants contain more than one additive. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual D. Additives are complex chemical substances which are used in concentrations varying from a few hundredths of one percent up to 20 or 30%. In the unlikely event that it becomes necessary to add a different type of oil to a running system. the two categories overlap in that the compounded oils can also contain chemical addition agents.. Those which improve lubricant performance. 3. Base oils vary in their chemical characteristics according to the crude oil from which they originate and the refining processes used. Those which protect the lubricant itself. the situation should be reviewed with the Lubrication Engineers. e. Indiscriminate mixing of different types is discouraged as it can lead to incompatibility and. Thus. an additive must be carefully matched with the base stock so that the two are fully compatible and the full effect of the additive is obtained. In practice today. e. The practical effect of this is that an additive may work well with one base oil but not with another. Those which protect the lubricated surfaces. are often referred to as "compounded" oils and blends with chemical agents as "additive" oils.. viscosity index improvers or pour point depressants. anti-oxidants.g. The only real proof of the worth of any finished lubricating product lies in extensive performance testing. Such testing is undertaken by all reputable suppliers of quality lubricants. 2. Animal or vegetable oils tend to fall into the first category and chemical agents into the second. rust inhibitors. Blends of mineral oil with animal or vegetable oils.

4. it is necessary to add corrosion inhibitors to the oil when it is manufactured. such as metals. 6. These usually are materials which either form an absorbed film on the metal or become chemically bonded to it. hence detergent/dispersant. added in minute quantities to oil blends. Detergent-Dispersant Additives -. 3. Defoamants -. Viscosity Index Improvers -.Some steam cylinders and compressor cylinders handling wet air or other gases run best with an emulsion as the lubricant.These lower the rate of change of viscosity with temperature. Page 25 of 255 . Emulsifiers also are used in soluble oils for metal processing. Pour Point Depressants -.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. They modify the wax crystalline structure and can reduce pour points by as much as 10 °C. The types of compound used are long chain. acting as pacifiers. Corrosion Inhibitors -. 2. 5.Since metal parts can be corroded by oxidation products in used oil. oxygen and catalysts. For these applications. Emulsifiers -. Some of them deactivate catalysts in the oil system. a cylinder oil plus an emulsifiable fatty oil (or a synthetic emulsifier) are used. Since the oxidation process comes from the combined effects of heat. Usually they are used as a package.The tendency of oils and greases to oxidize in service requires the addition of chemical inhibitors. others preferentially oxidize themselves instead of the oil and. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Some of the most commonly used additives are the following: 1. They are similar chemically and each tends to do the same job as the other. Anti-Oxidants -. moisture or dirt. these additives are most commonly silicone polymers or polyacrylates. still others. it is only logical that the inhibitors should work on these so-called precursors.Dispersants are used to prevent the formation of engine varnish and sludge by keeping deposit forming materials dispersed as minute particles. 7.These are for oils intended for low-temperature applications.Used to minimize foaming. Detergents act to neutralize deposit forming compounds which form under high temperature conditions or as a result of burning high sulfur fuels. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. high molecular weight polymers which function by increasing the relative viscosity of an oil more at high temperatures than they do at low temperatures. coat the metallic surfaces so the metal cannot function as a catalyst in the oxidation process.

used in automatic transmission fluids. The additives contain compounds of sulfur. machine tool oils and some enclosed gears. Anti-Wear and Extreme Pressure Additives -. Page 26 of 255 . All Saudi Aramco lubricating oils contain anti-rust additives. c. for example.These are intended to reduce frictional wear under thin film and boundary conditions of lubrication. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 8. in cams and tappets in automotive engines. Oiliness additives which are polar fatty materials of natural or synthetic derivation. phosphorous and sometimes chlorine. E. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. b. control engine knock. they are proprietary materials manufactured and sold to end users for addition to oils in use in crankcases. These generally are polar compounds which prevent water from reaching the metallic surface.Where water may contaminate an oil. In the Saudi Aramco system. Generally referred to as EP Lubricants. in the worst case. The problem is that they seldom work. PROPRIETARY ADDITIVES These are not "additives" in the same sense that the above classes of compounds are. Rather. They are claimed to increase power. as in circulating systems for steam turbines and hydraulic systems. They usually are one of three main types: a. Some automotive type rear axle oils should not be used in gearboxes containing yellow metal internal components such as brass. stop leakage. bronze and phosphor-bronze. repair worn surfaces or any of a myriad of other beneficial functions. gear boxes or other machinery. 9. Mild extreme pressure additives to reduce wear and scuffing of rubbing surfaces under moderate pressure conditions. such as in hypoid gears. additives are needed to inhibit the rusting action of the water on ferrous surfaces. Anti-Rust Additives -. and may be harmful. their use is not condoned and it is felt that they accomplish nothing. Extreme pressure additives for high gear tooth pressure conditions. They react with the metal surfaces to form protective films.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. in the best case. stop wear. as the powerful EP additives can cause corrosion damage. free stuck rings. Products containing these additives generally are referred to as "anti-wear" or AW Lubricants.

2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual PART III . Some. They have come from governmental bodies. A "multigrade" oil is one whose low temperature viscosity and borderline pumping temperature satisfy the requirements for one of the W grades and whose 100 °C viscosity is within the range of a higher non-W grade. as well as a minimum viscosity at 100 °C. It classifies engine oils by viscosity grades. Engine Oils Probably the most widely known and used classification system is the SAE J300 (Society of Automotive Engineers) Viscosity Classification. AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT CLASSIFICATIONS 1. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Page 27 of 255 . Oils without the letter W are based on viscosity at 100 °C only. Those shown below are the most commonly used and are internationally accepted. have not been included because of limited relevance and interest in Saudi Aramco operations. In most cases. still in restricted use. The W grades (for winter) are based on a maximum low temperature viscosity and maximum borderline pumping temperature.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. It would be of no value to try and list all of them here as most have come and gone and are now obsolete. they refer to viscosity or to end use category and only rarely is there any quality connotation. A. The purpose of classification systems is to provide end users with ready references to lubricants. SAE Viscosity Classification System. trade groups and technical societies. industrial organizations.LUBRICANT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS There have been many lubricant classification systems developed and promoted over the years.

9 OW 5W 10W 15W 20W 25W 20 30 40 50 2. oils for commercial engines.6 <9. rust and corrosion. and a "C" series. (°C) P Max. usually diesels.8 4.For minimum duty gasoline engine service not requiring more than minimal protection. Oils for this service provide control of high and low temperature deposits.3 <21. They have only antiscuff protection and oxidation and corrosion inhibition. Formerly for utility gasoline and diesel engines under service conditions so mild as to require none of the additive effects found in most oils. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual TABLE 1 . This is for service typical of gasoline engines in 1964 through 1967 models of passenger cars and light trucks.3 <12.6 5.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. SC -.For 1964 gasoline engine warranty maintenance service.5 12. It is possible for an oil to meet more than one classification. wear.5 <16.6 9. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 3.Obsolete. API (American Petroleum Institute) Service Classification This classification was devised to permit a labeling program which would relate to the class of engine service for which an oil is intended. "S" Series SA -. °C Max.3 16. It is divided into an "S" series. for oils used in passenger cars and light trucks.3 5.SAE VISCOSITY GRADES.3 9. Page 28 of 255 .1 5. SB -. -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 Viscosity @ 100 °C cSt Min Max. 3250 @ -30 3500 @ -25 3500 @ -20 3500 @ -15 4500 @ -10 6000 @ -5 Borderline Pumping Temp.8 3. ENGINE OILS SAE J 300 SAE Viscosity Grade Viscosity @ Temp.

They provide increased oxidation stability and improved anti-wear than SE oils and can be used wherever SE. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual SD -. SJ -. Page 29 of 255 . and SH (introduced 1994). SG – For 1989 gasoline engine warranty service. SE -. CB (Obsolete) For service typical of diesel engines in mild to moderate duty with fuels of lower quality which necessitate more protection from wear and deposits. corrosion and wear than Classification SC.As of August 1997 API SJ is the latest API performance category. rust.For 1972 gasoline engine warranty maintenance service. SH – For 1994 gasoline engine warranty service. turbocharged or supercharged engines operated in moderate to heavy duty service and certain heavy duty gasoline engines.For 1980 gasoline engine warranty service. turbocharged or supercharged diesel engines where highly effective control of wear and deposits is vital or where high sulfur fuels are used. Oils for this service have greater protective capability than SC or SD products and may be used wherever they are recommended. They provide protection from high temperature deposits and bearing corrosion. These are for service in cars and light trucks beginning with the 1980 models. API SJ supersedes the previous SG (introduced 1989). SF -. CD (Obsolete) For service typical of certain naturally aspirated. These are for service typical of gasoline engines in vehicles manufactured in 1968 through 1970 and some later models.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Oils for this service have more protection against high and low temperature deposits. performance categories. These are for service typical of gasoline engines in passenger cars and light trucks in the model years beginning in 1972. SD or SC are recommended. CC (Obsolete) For service typical of certain naturally aspirated. "C" Series CA (Obsolete) For service typical of diesel engines in mild to moderate duty with high-quality fuels.For 1968 gasoline engine warranty maintenance service.

Provides excellent control of soot agglomeration. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual CF -. Page 30 of 255 . 3. “G” for gasoline engines. low speed oil thickening and foaming. having been replaced in1990 by a new organization ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Europeens d’Automobiles). CF-4 – A multigrade 15W-40 diesel engine oil suitable for modern turbocharged or supercharged heavy duty engines. D-4 – Defined engine oils utilized in naturally aspirated and turbocharged commercial engines in heavy duty operation. Gives excellent bearing corrosion control. piston deposit formation and wear in new low emission engines. turbocharged and supercharged diesel engines. Gives improved oil consumption relative to API CD oils. The CCMC classification system was divided into three main categories. Suitable for modern turbocharged or supercharged heavy duty engines.Supersedes CD. Note: CCMC classifications are now obsolete.1990. CG-4 – For engines which were designed to meet 1994 US emissions legislation.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. CF-2 – For service typical of modern two stroke engines manufactured since 1994. “D” for heavy duty diesel engines and “PD” for passenger car diesel engines. Introduced Jan. Provides improved protection towards high temperature piston deposits when using high sulfer fuel. Suitable for severe duty in naturally aspirated. CCMC (Comite des Constructeurs d'Automobiles du Commun) Approvals This group was formed by European vehicle manufacturers who felt that the American organizations did not properly represent the requirements of their engines. Exceeds the requirements of API CD-II by providing additional protection against wear and deposit control. reflecting oils which offered improved wear and deposit protection and better evaporative loss characteristics Also added requirements for engine elastomer compatibility. D-5 – As for CCMC D-4 but for extra heavy duty operation. NOTE: In 1990 the CCMC was dissolved and a new organization ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Europeens d’Automobiles) was established. Provides excellent resistance to oil thickening. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. bearing corrosion and wear.

Operation of high offset hypoid gears (above 2. MT-1.S. This classification was abandoned in 1977. typical of hypoid gears. more severe than GL-1. High performance manual transmission lubricant for heavy duty manual gearboxes. calling for a mild EP lubricant. Conditions. bore polish. 4.S. deposits and sludge protection. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual ACEC Oil Service Sequences E1-96 -. GL-7. GL-6. Compared to E1-96: increased wear. calling for added antiwear characteristics. military specification MIL-L-2105 D. Compared to E2-96: increased wear.Oils for heavy duty diesel engines. where straight mineral oil is suitable.0 inches offset and approaching 25% of ring gear diameter) under high speed. GL-3.Oils for heavy duty engines. typical of hypoid gears. Improved oil consumption performance. Service typical of spiral-bevel and manual transmissions operating under moderately severe conditions of speed and load. Conditions. high performance conditions. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The transmission test uses clutch plates as the synchroniser system. GL-4. calling for the performance outlined by U. bore polish. Operation typical of spiral-bevel and worm gears under mild conditions. Also better oil consumption performance and soot handling. GL-1. E3-96 – Oils for heavy duty engines. calling for the performance characteristics outlined by U. military specification MIL-L-2105. GL-5.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. deposits and sludge protection. Page 31 of 255 . API (American Petroleum Institute) Gear Oil System The American Petroleum Institute lubricant service designations for automotive manual transmissions and axles are based on the gear type and the amount of extreme pressure (EP) protection required. E2-96 -. (Proposed) Improved performance over GL-5 for use in hypoid gears in rear axles. Conditions normally associated with worm gears and axles. GL-2.

0 13. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.0 41. TABLE 2 .0 11. It is available worldwide. For Saudi Aramco equipment (Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II) is used. Higher grades are defined by viscosity ranges at 100 °C only. This fluid is an ATF Dexron II fluid.0 < 41. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual NOTE: Saudi Aramco Automotive Gear Lube 140 is recommended for use in conditions described in GL-3. Grades that are better suited for cold weather use are defined by viscosity limits at low temperatures and minimum viscosities at 100 °C. The specification was revised in 1993 but the name was not changed. 5. It was chosen as the grade best suited to the climate and operating conditions found in Saudi Aramco's areas of activity.SAE GEAR OIL VISCOSITY SYSTEM .1 4. The SAE Gear Oil Viscosity Grades do not correspond directly with SAE Crankcase Oil designations.0 - NOTE: In most cases only Saudi Aramco Automotive Gear Lube 140 should be used in Saudi Aramco Equipment. GL-4 and GL-5.1 7. This specification called MERCON. Automatic Transmission Fluids The most widely used of the numerous automatic transmission fluids on the market is the Dexron series fluids (GM 6137-M). °C Viscosity @ 100°C cST Minimum 70W 75W 80W 85W 90 140 250 -55 -40 -26 -12 4. 6.5 24. SAE Viscosity Classifications for Gear Oils SAE viscosity grades are established for gear oils in much the same manner as for engine oils. Ford has five different specifications.J306 SAE Viscosity Grade Maximum Temperature For Viscosity of 150000 cP. Page 32 of 255 . In 1987 Ford introduced a new service fill ATF specification similar to GM Dexron. mimics the licensing procedures of Dexron but requires significantly different friction retention properties.0 Maximum < 24.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

42 3.52 5.12 9.2 90. The classifications and applicable limits are shown in Table 3.2 35. INDUSTRIAL OILS 1.5 19.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.ISO Viscosity Classifications ISO Viscosity Grade 2 3 5 7 10 15 22 32 46 Midpoint cSt @ 40 °C 2. 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 61.2 3.00 13. B.8 10 15 22 32 46 Viscosity cSt @40 °C Min. Max. ISO Viscosities These classifications were developed by the International Organization for Standardization and are widely used by the petroleum and other industries.48 11. There is no attempt to convey any performance or quality information -.88 4.8 41.6 6.only a viscosity range and an end use category.0 135 198 288 414 612 900 1350 74.14 6.2 4.8 110 165 242 352 506 748 1100 1650 NOTE: Only ISO viscosity grades are used to describe industrial oils in Saudi Aramco.8 28.5 24. Table 4 summarizes the data in the standards. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual For certain specific applications a higher viscosity transmission oil is required. The system establishes a series of lubricant viscosity grades based on kinematic viscosities at 40 °C.06 7. for example: Saudi Aramco Grove Cranes models 750BE and AT 880 transmissions.2 50. 1.98 2. This oil is an ISO Viscosity Grade 68 and meets specification JDM-20A for off highway equipment hydraulic systems. * Formally ASLE (American Society of Lubrication Engineers) Page 33 of 255 . automatic transmissions and oil immersed brakes.6 ISO Viscosity Grade 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 Midpoint Viscosity cSt @ cSt @ 40 °C 40 °C Min. are meant to provide machine tool builders and users with a convenient set of viscosity and end-use-related designations.4 2. Max. (STLE*) Standards for Machine Tool Petroleum Fluids These standards. Table 3 . published by the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2.00 16.

ASLE Standards For Machine Tool Fluids ASLE Standard Number 64-1 64-2 64-3 64-4 70-1 70-2 70-3 64-5 64-6 64-7 64-8 64-9 64-1 68-1 68-2 68-3 68-4 ASLE Identification Number H-150 H-215 H-315 H-700 H-150AW H-215AW H-315AW S-32 S-60 S-105 W-150 W-315 W-1000 G-315 G-1000 G-1500 G-2150 Viscosity @l00F (37.2-74. 7EP.8-35. 8A.2 61. 9.2-74.6 61.2 28. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 9EP 10. & Gen'l. Table 5. 10EP 11.4-50.8 1.8-35.2 41. The various types and viscosity grades are identified by a series of numbers.2-74.8-35.4-50.6 61.4-50. 4EP 5.8 °C) SUS cSt 135-165 194-236 284-346 630-770 135-165 194-236 284-346 29-35 54-66 95-115 135-165 284-346 900-1100 284-346 900-1100 1350-1650 1935-2365 28. 8 Comp.& Gen'l.8 90-110 135-165 198-242 288-352 414-506 612-748 900-1100 1350-1650 2880-3520 4140-5060 6120-7480 25000-38400 ISO Viscosity Grade 1 2.2-74.Agma Lubricant Numbers AGMA Lubricant Number Viscosity Range cSt @ 40 °C 41. AGMA Lubricant Numbers The American Gear Manufacturer's Association developed standards for industrial gear oils.8 198-237 288-352 414-506 Description Hydraulic Fld. & Slide Way Lubricant " Extreme Pressure Gear Lubricant " " 3. 3EP 4. covers this system. 8EP.42 9. Purpose Lubricant " " Anti-Wear Hydr.98-2. Fld.8-24. 11EP 12 13 46 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 - Page 34 of 255 .8 135-165 28. 6EP 7. 8. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table 4 .00-11.2 41.0 19. 7 Comp. following.2-74. 5EP 6. 8A Comp. Purpose Lub't. 8A EP.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. " Spindle Lubricant " " Combination Hydr. Fld.8 198-242 61.6 61. Table 5 . 2EP 3.

EP460 and EP1000) are used. It is based solely on consistency. only straight grades 1.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. and 3 are used in Saudi Aramco equipment. discussed earlier. 7 and 8 (Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP220. 2. 4. Page 35 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. are non-compounded mineral oils with non-EP additives EP denotes the use of extreme pressure additives Comp. indicates the presence of fatty compoundings In Saudi Aramco. Table 6 . 320 and 460) and EP grades 5. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Key: Straight grades. Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 150. 6 and 7 (Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46 and 68. 2. GREASES There have been many attempts to categorize greases but the only one which has met with any real success is the system devised by the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) of the U. the worked penetration.NLGI Grease Numbers NLGI Number 000 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ASTM Penetration @ 25 °C 445-475 400-430 355-385 310-340 265-295 220-250 175-205 130-160 84-115 NOTE: Only NLGI numbers 1.S. numbers only. NOTE: C.

field identification and container size selection. GUIDE TO SAUDI ARAMCO SAMS 26 CATALOG NUMBERS (LUBRICANTS) The SAMS numbering system for lubricants. special purpose oils and fuels was organized to simplify product receiving and storage. oil company brand names were used. the field operator. Page 36 of 255 . As mentioned earlier. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. In the past. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual PART IV .SAUDI ARAMCO SAMS (SAUDI ARAMCO MATERIALS SYSTEM) CLASS 26 LUBRICANTS A.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. these names often led to confusion in the field. The primary intent of the new system was to assist the end user. in identification and use of the proper lubricant to suit the needs of his equipment.

Special Lubricants | | | | Solids.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The following chart explains the meaning of the SAMS 26 Numbers: Guide To Saudi Aramco SAMS 26 Catalog Numbers for Lubricants SAMS 26 . sizes.20 liters (5 gal pail.Circulating Oils | | || | Turbine and Machinery | | || | 02 . Special Purpose Oils | Fuels.440 ml (16 oz spray or 1 lb can) | | || || | XX7 .Greases | | || | 05 .5 lb) | | || | |______| 30 .Lubricants.Gear Lubricants | | || | 03 .Insulating and Refrigeration Oils | | | |_________| 07 .Fuels | | | | | |__________Lubricants.Valve Lubricants | | | | 10 . Antisieze.Engine and Combustion Gas Turbine Oils | | || | 06 .0XX . approx 7. Chemicals.XXX | | || || Container Size | | || || | 02 .Bulk truck shipment | | || | | | || |________ Item number within a sub-class | | || | | || | Sub-Class | | || | 01 .Misc. Special Purpose Oils.Instrument Lubricants | | | | 11 . Miscellaneous | | | | 12 . approx 35 lb) | | || | | 40 . approx 400 lb) | | || | | | | || | | 50 .Power Transmission and Hydraulic Oils | | || | 04 .Preservative Lubricants | | | | 08 .Metal Working Fluids and Way Oils | | | | 09 . Fuels | | | |____Class Number . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Stains and | Indicator Solutions |_____Saudi Aramco Materials Systems Page 37 of 255 .4 liters (1 gal can.208 liters (55 gal drum. see note | | || || | 20 .

Package Availability Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 32 Drum . high VI base stocks combined with an optimum additive package. Questions should be referred to the Lubrication Engineers if answers are not found in the equipment section of this manual. This includes oxidation inhibitors which provide resistance to thermal degradation over long periods of time in the presence of oxygen and catalyzing metals.SAMS 26-001-330 Drum .SAMS 26-001-240 Bulk . include electric motors.SAMS 26-001-140 Bulk .SAMS 26-001-340 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 68 Page 38 of 255 . The actual size of the container can be found in the SAMS Class 26 catalog under the specific product description. defoamants. some constant speed drives. 1. In Saudi Aramco. it means that it is not a standard package size. fans with hydrodynamic sleeve bearings or anti-friction bearings. In this case. and metal deactivators to protect against corrosion. B. and non citical hydraulic systems. 2. 46. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.SAMS 26-001-150 Pail . governors. indicates a non-standard package. the fields of use. the first two digits of the three digit number are used to identify the item sequence within the miscellaneous category and the third digit. They also contain rust inhibitors. Description and Application These oils are formulated from premium quality. Selection of the proper ISO Viscosity Grade depends on the speed. load and temperature of the application. in addition to steam and gas turbines.SAMS 26-001-230 Drum . mixers and agitators.SAMS 26-001-250 Pail . pumps. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual NOTE: When the number 7 appears as the last digit of the SAMS number.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 68. demulsifiers. SAMS 26-001 .Circulating Oils. Turbine and Machinery SAUDI ARAMCO TURBINE OILS 32. the 7. centrifugal compressors and pumps . chemically stable.

water and other impurities. Mass % Sludge.8-35.8 Nil 10 ppm Max. ml 25/0 max Seq.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. to NN 2. together with a 1 liter sample against which all deliveries of the subject product must comply within industry accepted tolerances. 46.2 Max 90 Min. ml 50/0 max 2000 Hrs. ASTM D892 32. ASTM D130 Dumulsification. Min. Any One 4. 30 Mins Seq.0 200 minutes min. ASTM D482 Metals. Mass % Rust.0 Max 40 Max. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. ASTM D943 Oxidation. ASTM D665A TAN. Pass 0. II. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3. ml 50/0 max Seq.2-74.4-50. ASTM D1401 Foam. cSt @ 40 °C ISO VG 32 Grade ISO VG 46 Grade ISO VG 68 Grade Ash.2 41. They must meet the following standards: ISO Viscosity Grades Appearance Corrosion. ASTM D974 Viscosity Index Viscosity. Requirements The oils shall be of premium quality. TOST. blended from highly refined distillate base stocks. I. stability (RBOT) ASTM D2272 Oxidation. 28. and shall be free from suspended solids. 68 Clear and Bright 2 Max Separation.6 61. 1. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. III. IP 280 TOP. Qualification The supplier shall provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. Page 39 of 255 .

320. In other words. In the Saudi Aramco system. 46. The application information which follows is intended as a general overview of the fields of use to which these oils will be applied. 250) SAMS 26-001-230 (or 340) C. high VI base stocks. high temperature). 68) the three heavier grades are formulated from premium quality. reciprocating ) Gears (lighter loads) Page 40 of 255 . and 460 are used in applications such as the following: Plain and antifriction bearings (slow speed. SAMS 26-001 -. rust inhibitors. 320. For specific product recommendations.Circulating Oils. chemically stable. Also prevent in the formulated products are defoamants. Compressors (process and air. available oxygen and catalysts. Description and Application As with the lighter grades of SAMS 26-001 (GV 32. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. they are similar to the turbine oils but with heavier (higher viscosity) base stocks. They contain additives which enhance their natural resistance to the oxidizing effects of high temperature. metal deactivators and demulsifiers. Identification Each container must be marked as follows: SAUDI ARAMCO TURBINE OIL 32 SAUDI ARAMCO TURBINE OIL 46 SAUDI ARAMCO TURBINE OIL 68 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number SAMS 26-001-140 (or 150) SAMS 26-001-230 (240. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5. 460 1. Machinery Oils 150. Turbine and Machinery SAUDI ARAMCO MACHINERY OILS 150. refer to the appropriate equipment section in this manual or to the Lubrication Engineers.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

SAMS 26-001-640 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 320 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 460 3. ASTM D-130 Demulsification TOST. Min. to NN 2. 320. together with a one-liter sample against which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 2.0 Pass 0. 460 Clear and Bright 2 Max Report 1000 Hrs. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. They must meet the following standards: ISO Viscosity Grades Appearance Corrosion. Qualification The supplier shall provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. ASTM D-665A TAN. ASTM D-943 Rust.SAMS 26-001-540 Pail . within industry-accepted tolerances. cSt @ 40 °C ISO Viscosity Grade 150 ISO Viscosity Grade 320 ISO Viscosity Grade 460 150. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 150 Pail . ASTM D-974 Viscosity.SAMS 26-001-630 Drum .2 Max 135-165 288-352 414-506 4. Requirements These oils shall be of premium quality.SAMS 26-001-440 Pail . blended from virgin high VI base stocks. Page 41 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.SAMS 26-001-530 Drum .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.SAMS 26-001-430 Drum .

covering hypoid rear axles and some other automotive applications. Identification Each container must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 150 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 320 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 460 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number SAMS 26-001-430 (or 440) SAMS 26-001-530 (or 540) SAMS 26-001-630 (or 640) D. in combination with the naturally high VI base oil. Requirements The oil shall be of premium quality and approved for use against MIL-L-2105D (Amendment 1) and suitable for Service API GL-3. multi-purpose gear lubricant is designed to meet the rigorous service demands imposed by Saudi Aramco conditions. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Automotive Gear Lube 140 3. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5. SAMS 26-002 -. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. It contains additives of the sulfur/phosphorous type which.Gear Lubricants. Automotive and Industrial SAUDI ARAMCO AUTOMOTIVE GEAR LUBE 140 1. Description and Application This heavy duty.SAMS 26-002-130 Drum . It also can be used in axles specifying GL-3 and GL-4 conditions. 2.SAMS 26-002-140 Page 42 of 255 . It must meet the following standards: Viscosity Grade SAE 140 or 85W/140 Pail . 4 and 5. This oil is recommended for API Service GL-5. produce a product of high chemical and thermal stability.

Qualification The supplier shall provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above.Gear Lubricants. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 4. The oil shall meet the requirements of Daimler Benz Specification 235. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Automotive Gear Lube 90 Pail . Requirements The oil shall be premium quality and approved for use as a MIL-L-2105 product and suitable for API Service GL-3. Automotive and Industrial SAUDI ARAMCO GEAR LUBE 90 1.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. SAMS 26-002 -. GL-4. GL-4 Viscosity Grade : SAE 85W-90/SAE 90 Page 43 of 255 . within industry-accepted tolerances.SAMS 26-002-030 Drum SAMS 26-002-040 3.1 This oil is recommended for use as a MIL-L-2105 product and suitable for API Service GL-3. 5. Description and Application This automotive gear lubricant is designed to meet the service demands of manual transmissions and differentials specifying a SAE 90 or 85W-90 gear oil. Identification Each container must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Automotive Gear Lube 140 SAMS 26-002-130 (or 140) Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number E. together with a one-liter sample against which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. 2.

SAMS 26-002-430 Page 44 of 255 . SAMS 26-002 – Gear Lubricants. 2. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.03 Gear Lube EP 220 Gear Lube EP 460 Gear Lube EP 1000 Viscosity. They are made from high quality base oils selected for their natural oxidation stability and water separating ability. including gear motors. 1. ASTM D2782 AGMA 250. Steel Requirement 224 Timken OK Load. Description and Application These premium-quality. 1000 Pass 27 Kg Min. EP 460.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 460. They also are used in some pumps. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual F. The selection of the proper viscosity for each individual application is important and if a recommendation is not found in the equipment section of this manual. the question should be referred to the Lubrication Engineers. AGMA 5EP AGMA 7EP AGMA 8AEP 198-242 414-516 900-1000 Pail . The primary application for these lubricants is in industrial gear boxes. high VI virgin base stocks and formulated with extreme pressure additives to meet the following standards: ISO Viscosity Grades U. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 220 Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 460 Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 1000 3. cSt @ 40 °C Gear Lube EP 220 Gear Lube EP 460 Gear Lube EP 1000 220. fin fan drives and most other enclosed gearing.S. EP 1000. Requirements These oils shall be blended from refined. enhanced oxidation stability and resistance to foaming. extreme-pressure industrial gear oils are intended for use in enclosed gears operating under most service conditions. Gear Lubes EP SAUDI ARAMCO GEAR LUBE EP 220. rust and corrosion inhibition. right angle drives. Additives are incorporated to provide extreme pressure and wear protection. unleaded.SAMS 26-002-330 Pail .SAMS 26-002-230 Pail .

combined with VI improvers. SAMS 26-003 -. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. hard run. within industry-accepted tolerances. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. particularly after a long. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 220 SAMS 26-002-230 Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 460 SAMS 26-002-330 Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 1000 SAMS 26-002-430 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number G. Description and Application This transmission fluid is formulated from special. hydraulic control mechanisms may not function properly in hot weather. 5. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 4. antiwear agents. Qualification The supplier shall provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. antioxidants. high quality distillate base stocks. Correct viscosity properties are vitally important for automatic transmission fluids.Power Transmission and Hydraulic Oils SAUDI ARAMCO TRANSMISSION OIL D-II 1. Frictional properties are equally important as slippage and mechanical friction can generate high temperatures. characteristics. or lubricity. defoamants and special additives which provide controlled frictional. together with a one-liter sample against which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. resulting in rapid fluid degradation. On the other hand too-high viscosity may reduce the efficiency of power transmission in the torque converter or fluid coupling used in some designs.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. detergents. If the fluid is too light. resulting in poor fuel economy and excessive heat generation. Page 45 of 255 .

speed reducers and increasers 2.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual In Saudi Aramco. Requirements This oil shall be a General Motors Corporation-approved fluid meeting the latest revision of the DEXRON II specification which has been assigned a "D" series qualification number. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II Pail . together with a one-liter sample against which all deliveries of the subject product must comply.SAMS 26-003-330 Drum. Transmission Oil D-II is used in all automatic transmissions and also in such miscellaneous applications as: Power steering systems Allison V drives Hydraulic systems requiring ISO 32 Grade Hydraulically operated valves Air operated valves Air line oilers Selected Voith and other fluid couplings.SAMS 26-003-340 3. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 5. (This name DEXRON is copyrighted by the General Motors Corporation. within industry-accepted tolerances.) 4. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II SAMS 26-003-330 (or 340) Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number Page 46 of 255 . Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. Qualification The supplier shall provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above.

ASTM D130 FZG Load Stage Rust. These qualities are imparted by the combination of a stable. 2. Saudi Aramco Hydraulic Oil AW 68 also is used in vane type gas or air starters on some compressors and. anti-wear product made from paraffinic base stocks containing rust. Requirements This oil shall be a premium. oxidation and foam inhibitors. Anti-wear protection is equivalent to that of the best engine oils. may be used in certain air conditioning refrigeration compressors. it is superior to automotive oils in terms of demulsibility. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Hydraulic Oil AW 68 .Power Transmission and Hydraulic Oils SAUDI ARAMCO HYDRAULIC OIL AW-68 1. inhibited. While the principal application area is hydraulic systems.Drum .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. ASTM D2882 TOST. III. Min. Page 47 of 255 . high VI base stock and an additive package developed exclusively for hydraulic oils. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual H. Specific information is available from the equipment section of this manual or from the Lubrication Engineers. SAMS 26-003 -. rust prevention and resistance to deposit formation and to turbine oils in terms of anti-wear protection. In this service. II. ml 50 / 0 max.0 Sequence I. ASTM D943 Foam tendency / stability (ASTM DD892) Clear and Bright 90 Min 2 Max 9 Pass 50 mg Max 2000 Hrs. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. ml 50 / 0 max. ASTM D665A Vane Pump Test. ml 50 / 0 max. It must meet the following standards: Appearance Viscosity ISO VG 68 Viscosity Index Corrosion. in some instances.SAMS 26-003-140 3. to NN 2. Description and Application This is a product specifically designed for severe hydraulic system service.

Rack and Pinion Grease and High Temperature Grease. Ball Bearing Grease 2. are unleaded.Greases 1. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Hydraulic Oil AW 68 SAMS 26-003-140 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number I. capstans and open gears calling for grease lubrication. a) ALL PURPOSE GREASES EP1 AND EP3 The All Purpose Greases. Polyethylene Grease 1 (Coupling Grease). Description and Application There are six major usage greases in the Saudi Aramco system: All Purpose Grease EP1 and EP3. 5. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. extreme pressure. SAMS 26-004 -. good water resistance and a consistency which will remain relatively constant over the recommended temperature range. and winches. in two NLGI Grades. are automotive lubrication. multiservice products designed for normal through heavy duty applications. one relatively soft (EP1) and the other relatively hard (EP3).Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. within industry-accepted tolerances. Page 48 of 255 . together with a one-liter sample against which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. in Saudi Aramco. They are made with a lithium 12 hydroxystearate soap base which ensures good resistance to softening under severe working. mechanical linkages and valve accessories. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 4. Qualification The supplier shall provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. Recommended uses.

1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. turbines.SAMS 26-004-430 Saudi Aramco Ball Bearing Grease 2 Saudi Aramco Polyethylene Grease 1 3. AP EP3 3 Li 220-250 165 Min. 150 Min. Page 49 of 255 . where corrosion is an ever-present threat.SAMS 26-004-230 Drum .SAMS 26-004-202 Pail . Kg.. PE1 1 PE/Li 325 100 Min. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual b) BALL BEARING GREASE 2 Ball Bearing Grease 2 has a synthetic polyurea thickener and is specifically formulated for extremes of operational severity. 100 Min. C. ASTM D217 Dropping Pt. 500 Min. It should not be used for general lubrication. 150 Min.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 2. electric motors. ASTM D-566 Base Oil Viscosity. It is intended for use only in grease-packed gear couplings used on rotating machinery.SAMS 26-004-130 1 lb . It has inhibitors which make it particularly suitable for service in the presence of moisture and salt water. ASTM D2509 AP EP1 1 Li 310-340 165 Min. blowers. ISO VG Base Oil Viscosity. 85 Min. Requirements These greases shall represent the highest quality of the respective suppliers and must meet the following standards: Physical Characteristics of Saudi Aramco Greases (excluding specialty items) Grease NLGI Grade Thickener Penetration..SAMS 26-004-240 Pail . ASTM D3336 Timken OK Load. rust and oxidation inhibitors and a high quality mineral oil component. BRG2 2 Syn 265-295 235 Min. this product is used in all ball and roller bearings (pumps. 18 Min. fin fans. Wkd. Package Availability Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP1 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP3 Pail . 600 Min. Hrs. It has extreme pressure additives. 18 Min. cSt @40 °C Base Oil VI Bearing Test. In Saudi Aramco. mixers and agitators). 18 Min.SAMS 26-004-330 Pail . c) POLYETHYLENE (COUPLING) GREASE 1 Polyethylene Grease 1 is a specialty product made from polyethylene and a lithium soap base.

Identification Each container supplied against one of these specifications must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 1 SAMS 26-004-130 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 3 SAMS 26-004-202 (or 230. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Key: AP EP1 AP EP3 BRG2 PE1 4. Qualification - Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 1 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 3 Saudi Aramco Ball Bearing Grease 2 Saudi Aramco Polyethylene Grease 1 The supplier shall provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. 240) Saudi Aramco Ball Bearing Grease 2 SAMS 26-004-330 Saudi Aramco Polyethylene Grease 1 SAMS 26-004-430 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number Page 50 of 255 . 5. together with a one-pound sample against which all deliveries of the subject product must comply.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. within accepted industry tolerances. The initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency.

rack pinions and jack leg guide shoes.Pail . It shall contain a high viscosity mineral oil and shall incorporate graphite and molybdenum disulfide components. Requirements This grease shall provide good pumpability.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. MASS % 270 50 min 680 min 20 min 3-5 Page 51 of 255 . Description and Application This product meets the requirements for a high viscosity mineral oil grease containing solid lubricants to provide good adhesion.SAMS 26-004-540 3. For use on jack-up barge racks. 2. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Rack and Pinion Grease . It is a special purpose product and should not be used as a general purpose grease. particularly when grease is supplied using a centralized lubrication system. Kg (ASTM D2596) Oil Viscosity at 40 °C Graphite Mass % Molybdenum Disulfide.Greases (Additional products) SAUDI ARAMCO RACK AND PINION GREASE 1. worked at 25 °C Load-Wear Index. for use in centralized greasing systems. NLGI Grade 2 Penetration. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual J SAMS 26-004 -. water resistance and high load bearing characteristics.SAMS 26-004-530 Drum . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

2.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. EXCLUDING EMD. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. necessitates a non-melting type grease. Not suitable for use in grease lubricated electric motor bearings or other equipment containing high speed anti-friction bearings. Description and Application This Specification describes the requirements of an NLGI 2 / 3 grade high temperature non-melting grease for use in plain bearings in sulfur pumps and other applications where high temperatures.SAMS 26-004-415 3. Allison V drives. up to 235 °C continuous operation. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual K SAMS 26-004 -. It shall meet the following: NLGI Grade 2 / 3 Penetration. °C (IP 132) Oil Viscosity Wear Load Index (IP 239) Weld Load Index (IP 239) 250 . Page 52 of 255 . Description and Application This specification describes the requirements of an engine oil to be used in older type diesel engines. SAMS 26-005 -.Greases SAUDI ARAMCO HIGH TEMPERATURE GREASE 1. 50 min. L.Pack . Caterpillar hydraulic systems and other mobile equipment systems where crankcase oils of SAE 30 or 40 grades are required. operating in the Saudi Aramco system. Worked (IP 50) 1 / 10mm Dropping Point. Package Availability Saudi Aramco High Temperature Grease .270 None ISO VG 450 min. and gasoline engines.Engine and Combustion Gas Turbine Oils SAUDI ARAMCO DIESEL ENGINE OIL CD 1. Requirements This grease shall be made with a non-soap inorganic thickener and a highly refined low volatility mineral oil and contains molybdenum disulfide. 316 min. It also may be used in automotive manual transmissions.

be qualified against MILL-2104 C. and formulated to meet the following standards: Viscosity Grade.SAMS 26-005-130 Drum . Qualification The supplier shall provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. %.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. should meet the performance requirements of GMAllison C-3 and Caterpillar TO-2 specifications.SAMS 26-005-140 3. SAE API Service Sulfated Ash. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. although not carried in the Saudi Aramco system. 4. together with a one-liter sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD SAMS 26-005-130 (or 140) Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number Page 53 of 255 . The SAE 40 grade of Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD will be used in these applications..5 Max. ASTM D884 Total Base No. The SAE 30 grade of the approved oil. Requirements This oil shall be blended from high VI virgin base stocks. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD Pail . wt. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 2. 5. ASTM D2896 Note: 40 CD/SF 1.0 Min. 9. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. within industry-accepted tolerances.

water and other impurities and formulated to meet the following: Viscosity Grade For API Service CF-4 MIL-L-2104 E CCMC Sequences D-4. Description and Application This Specification describes the requirements of an engine oil to be used in Caterpillar direct injection diesel engines. It is not suitable for use in EMD engines. It may be used in Allison transmissions requiring C3 / C4 Fluid. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual M SAMS 26-005 – Engine and Combustion Gas Turbine Oils SAUDI ARAMCO DIESEL ENGINE OIL 15W / 40 1.SAMS 26-005-530 3.Drum . PD2 and G4 Sulfated Ash. 2. Page 54 of 255 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. (ASTM D 874 ) m% Total Base Number ( ASTM D 2896 ) SAE 15W / 40 1.5 max. Requirements This oil shall be blended from HVI virgin basestocks free from suspended solids. except 3600 series. Caterpillar hydraulic systems and other mobile or marine systems where a crankcase oil of SAE 15W / 40 Grade is suitable. Package availability Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil 15W / 40 . 10 min.

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. SAMS 26-005 -. even though metals such as steel. water and other impurities. and free from suspended solids. Its detergent/dispersant qualities result in increased filter life and engine cleanliness levels. Note: These additional qualifications are required: a. blended from virgin base stocks. within industry-accepted tolerances. copper and bronze are present. Qualification The supplier shall provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. Description and Application This oil is intended for use in Electromotive Division (General Motors) engines although it is suitable for other large marine and stationary diesel engines calling for high TBN oil. The high initial alkalinity is sustained in service and provides excellent corrosion protection when used with high sulfur fuels. SAE Total Base Number. Also. 2. Requirements This oil shall be of premium quality. The silver bearings in EMD engines are particularly prone to corrosive damage and the oil effectively protects against such attack. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual N.SAMS 26-005-240 3. formulated to meet the following standards: Viscosity Grade. Page 55 of 255 . GM/EMD Specification No.Engine and Combustion Gas Turbine Oils SAUDI ARAMCO DIESEL ENGINE OIL EMD 1. b. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil EMD . Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. GEK-61435A Extra Performance Railroad Lubricants 4. together with a one-liter sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. Marine Engines GE Specification No. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. ASTM D2896 40 20 Min.Drum . MI 1760. it may be used wherever API Service CD oil is recommended.

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. specifically General Electric Frame 7 and above. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5. It must be made from highly refined base oil. formulated with an antioxidant system. by brand name. Requirements The oil is to be free from water. SAMS 26-005 -. sediment and inorganic acids. designed to resist the effects of the high temperatures found in Frame 7 combustion gas turbines. rust and corrosion inhibitors and an antifoam agent. The only grade used by Saudi Aramco is ISO VG 32. It is in this respect that it differs most from conventional steam turbine oils. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The product must meet the General Electric GEK 32568C requirement and have GE approval. This oil is the sole recommendation for GE Frame 7 units. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil EMD SAMS 26-005-240 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number O. Description and Application This specification describes the requirements of an oil for severe service conditions in Saudi Aramco industrial gas turbines.Drum . 2. Page 56 of 255 .Engine and Combustion Gas Turbine Oils SAUDI ARAMCO GAS TURBINE OIL 32 1. Please note that this product is NOT to be used in aircraft-type turbines. the Lubrication Engineers should be consulted. If there is any confusion as to these points. It is an especially compounded oil.SAMS 26-005-340 3. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Gas Turbine Oil 32 .

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March, 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April, 2002

Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

4.

Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above, together with a one-liter sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply, within industry-accepted tolerances. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency.

5.

Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Gas Turbine Oil 32 SAMS 26-005-340 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number

P.

SAMS 26-005 -- Engine and Combustion Gas Turbine Oils SAUDI ARAMCO SYNTHETIC GAS TURBINE OIL 5 1. Description and Application This specification describes the requirements of a synthetic lubricant for use in aircraft-type gas turbines in stationary industrial applications. This product is made from polyol esters and the additivation includes oxidation inhibitors and antiwear compounding. In the Saudi Aramco system, this oil will be the exclusive filling for all aircraft-type power units. In the unlikely case that a substitution should be required, the Lubrication Engineers should be consulted before any action is taken. 2. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Synthetic Gas Turbine Oil 5 Pail - SAMS 26-005-430 Drum - SAMS 26-005-440

Page 57 of 255

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Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

3.

Requirements This lubricant is to be blended from newly manufactured synthetic components and must be free from suspended solids, water and other impurities. It must meet Type II requirements, and be approved under, MIL-L-23699C, be approved by the gas turbine builders and the viscosity shall be 5.0 cSt @ 100 °C, plus or minus 0.5 cSt.

4.

Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above, together with a one-liter sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply, within industry-accepted tolerances. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency.

5.

Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Synthetic Gas Turbine Oil 5 SAMS 26-005-430 (or 440) Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number

Q

SAMS 26-005 – Engine and Combustion Gas Turbine Oils SAUDI ARAMCO DIESEL ENGINE OIL SAE 50 1. Description and Application This lubricant is specified for use in Kenworth Model C500DD deep desert tractors transfer case transmissions. 2 Package Availability Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil SAE 50 - Drum - SAMS 26-005-640

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3

Requirements This oil shall be of premium quality, blended from virgin base stocks, and free from suspended solids, water and other impurities, formulated to meet the following standards: Viscosity Grade, SAE For API Service CD MIL-L-2104 C 50

R.

SAMS 26-006 -- Insulating and Refrigeration Oils SAUDI ARAMCO INSULATING OIL 1. Description and Application This specification describes the requirements of an insulating oil possessing high dielectric strength, chemical stability and excellent water separating properties. Insulating oils are subjected to temperatures ranging from 35 °C to 90 °C with occasional hot spots reaching 100 °C. These high temperatures are conducive to oxidation which can result in the formation of acidic materials and impairment of the insulating properties of the oil. Since additives are not permitted, it is essential that the oil itself shall be resistant to oxidation. This product is intended for use in transformers and oil immersed switchgear, including cathodic protection rectifiers. 2. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Insulating Oil 3. Requirements This product must be a virgin hydrocarbon mineral oil specifically manufactured for use as an electrical insulating oil. It shall contain no additives, shall be certified to be PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) free and shall meet the following requirements: ASTM D3487, Type 1 Drum - SAMS 26-006-140

IEC 296 -- Class 1

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4.

Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above, together with a one-liter sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply, within industry-accepted tolerances. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency.

5.

Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Insulating Oil SAMS 26-006-140 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number

S.

SAMS 26-006 -- Insulating and Refrigeration Oils SAUDI ARAMCO REFRIGERATION OIL WF 68 1. Description and Application This specification describes a high quality naphthenic mineral oil, especially formulated for use in reciprocating refrigeration compressors. It has a low pour point, good demulsibility, oxidation resistance and is resistant to foaming. This oil is characterized by a low Freon floc point (the temperature at which the minute chilled precipitated wax particles join, or agglomerate, to form a visible floc in a refrigerant/oil mixture). Saudi Aramco Refrigeration Oil is intended for use in all refrigeration and air conditioning systems using reciprocating compressors. It also is required in some types of centrifugal refrigeration compressors. 2. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Refrigeration Oil Can - SAMS 26-006-220 Drum - SAMS 26-006-240

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Requirements This oil must be made from special, narrow cut naphthenic base oils refined in such a manner as to be wax-free. It must have a low moisture content and meet the following standards: ISO Viscosity Grade Pour Point, C, ASTM D97 Freon Floc Point, °C, Test Method #971, 1303-T Total Acid Number, ASTM D974 Viscosity Index NOTE: 68 -40 Max. -50 Max. 0.05 Max. 50 Max.

Oil delivered in one-gallon containers shall not have a water content exceeding 30 mg/kg.

4.

Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above, together with a one-liter sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply, within industry-accepted tolerances. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency.

5.

Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Refrigeration Oil SAMS 26-006-220 (or 240) Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order

Page 61 of 255

These oils are HFC-134a compatible and are the only lubricants suitable for use with this refrigerant. Description and Application This Specification describes the requirements of lubricating oils for use in refrigeration and air conditioning systems where the refrigerant in use is HFC134a. 0.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. . Can . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual T.SAMS 26-006-430 York Systems 55 Gal.SAMS 26-006-630 Page 62 of 255 . Requirements These oils must be made from new polyol ester basestocks that have been specifically synthesized to provide excellent miscibility with refrigerant HFC-134a over a wide temperature range.SAMS 26-006-620 19L Can . Package Availability Saudi Aramco Refrigeration Oil HFC-134a Synthetic for:Carrier Systems 6 x 4L can . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. SAMS 26-006 -. 50 ppm typical 490 min. These oils must be specifically formulated for use in air conditioning chiller systems and shall meet the following:Viscosity Grade Viscosity Index Pour Point °C ( ASTM D97 ) Water Content Falex Failure Load Kg ( ASTM D3233 ) Total Acid Number mgKOH / g (ASTM D974 ) ISO VG 68 95 min.40 max.SAMS 26-006-320 Carrier Systems 25L can .SAMS 26-006-330 York Systems…5 Gal.Insulating and Refrigeration Oils SAUDI ARAMCO REFRIGERATION OIL HFC-134a SYNTHETIC 1. 4L Can . Drum .15 max. 2.SAMS 26-006-440 Trane Systems Trane Systems 3.

together with a one-liter reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. within industry-accepted tolerances. 2. not specifications.SAMS 26-007-130. ISO Viscosity Grade Flash Point. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Penetrating Oil SAMS 26-007-130 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number 7 65 Min. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.Preservative Oils SAUDI ARAMCO PENETRATING OIL 1. it also is a good rust preventive and lubricant. SAMS 26-007 -. bolts. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Penetrating Oil . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual U. 3. Requirements The oil is to be made from high viscosity mineral oil. cut back with solvents and a fatty oil type additive to promote penetration. Page 63 of 255 . °C.Pail . The following are typical characteristics. Description and Application This specification describes a low viscosity product suitable for brush or spray application. In addition to its penetrating ability. 5. etc. to be used as an aid in loosening nuts. studs. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. ASTM D92 Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above.

ASTM D217 Diluent. pipe joints. It shall be resistant to flow at ambient temperatures up to 60 °C and physical characteristics shall approximate the following: Penetration. within industry-accepted tolerances. 25 °C. % by wt. Description and Application This specification describes the requirements of a soft film rust preventive. spray or dip. 3. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Rust Preventive Pail .SAMS 26-007-240. unheated. flanges. intended for the protection of iron and steel. together with a five-gallon reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. by brush. SAMS 26-007 -. 2. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Preservative Oils SAUDI ARAMCO RUST PREVENTIVE 1. Unworked. including machine parts.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Page 64 of 255 . This product may be applied. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency.SAMS 26-007-230 Drum . Requirements The basic material of this product has an NLGI consistency of approximately 5 and contains a thinner to facilitate application. NLGI Consistency After Application 250 20 2 4. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual V. Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. valves and other metallic equipment which is exposed to the atmosphere.

brush. It is composed of a residual base stock. a flexible.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. heavybodied. adhesive. drip feed. It has water resistance. This product is intended for use on open gears.SAMS 26-007-540 Wire Rope De-watering Dressing Pail . Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Rust Preventive SAMS 26-007-230 (or 240) Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number W. high-strength protective lubricant film is formed. It may be applied by any one of several methods. including spray. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. cut back with a volatile solvent for ease of application. caulking gun or force-feed lubricator.SAMS 26-007-302 Pail . The solvent is non-flammable. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Open Gear and Wire Rope Lubricant Spray . wire ropes and cables. rust inhibition and mild extreme pressure protection among other characteristics. After evaporation of the diluent. paddle. chains. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5.SAMS 26-007-330 Pail . SAMS 26-007 -.Preservative Oils SAUDI ARAMCO OPEN GEAR AND WIRE ROPE LUBRICANT 1. 2.SAMS 26-007-640 Open Gear Adhesive Grease Page 65 of 255 . black lubricant for use on open gears or wire ropes. Description and Application The product described by this specification is a diluent-type of adhesive.

kg. together with a thirty-five pound reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. within industry-accepted tolerances. the basic material must have the following physical properties: Viscosity. Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. 5. Requirements (SAMS 26-007-302/330) Before the diluent is added. cSt @100 °C Timken OK Load. ASTM D-2509 950 Typical 18 Min. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Open Gear and Wire Rope Lubricant SAMS 26-007-302 (or 330) SAMS 26-007-540 SAMS 26-007-640 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number Page 66 of 255 . 4. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency.

within industry-accepted tolerances. crankcases and other rotating equipment. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil Vapor Space Inhibitor Drum . Requirements The vapor space inhibitor should utilize a highly refined base oil as the carrier which contains the rust and corrosion inhibitors. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual X. together with a one liter reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. 46 Min. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. Page 67 of 255 . The corrosion inhibited concentrate forms a thin film protection on ferrous and non-ferrous surfaces above the liquid level when mixed with the oil in the system. pumps. turbines. aluminum labyrinths and bearing materials. The vapor space inhibitor when mixed to the manufactures recommended concentration does not have any detrimental effect on materials such as seal elastomers. The concentrate formulation should be non-toxic and thermally stable. The product shall meet the following physical properties: Viscosity. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Description and Application The product described by this specification is a lube oil or hydraulic oil vapor space concentrate for the corrosion protection of enclosed systems. 2.Preservative Oils SAUDI ARAMCO TURBINE OIL VAPOR SPACE INHIBITOR 1.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. This product is intended for use in mothballing of compressors. The inhibited oil mixture has the ability to provide corrosion or rust protection against condensation of humid air in a system during standby and long shutdown periods. The product must not precipitate out or contain any suspended solids after it is mixed with the lube oil. 60 °C Min. SAMS 26-007 -.SAMS 26-007-440 3. cSt @ 40 °C Flash Point (PM) ASTM D-93 4. It also must not affect the demulsibility characteristics of the system original oil.

It also can be used in relatively mild cutting operations involving critical surface finishes but should not be used in place of the heavy duty fluid for severe machining operations. 2. ASTM D130 32 180 Min. SAMS 26-008 -. Requirements This product is a blend of mineral oil with additives and fatty materials and must meet the following standards: ISO Viscosity Grade Flash Point.Metal Working Fluids SAUDI ARAMCO GENERAL PURPOSE CUTTING OIL 1.SAMS 26-008-130 3. °C. 4A Max. 3 hrs at 100 °C. Description and Application This specification describes the requirements of a general purpose non-corrosive. transparent cutting oil for the machining of metals and alloys where an active sulfur (corrosive) type might cause staining or other undesirable side effects. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil Vapor Space Inhibitor SAMS 26-007-440 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number Y. Page 68 of 255 . Package Availability Saudi Aramco General Purpose Cutting Oil Pail . ASTM D92 Corrosion. copper strip. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

In particular.SAMS 26-008-230 Page 69 of 255 . Care must be exercised because the high level of activity which makes it so effective may also cause it to stain nonferrous metals and some steels. Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. this highly sulfurized product will facilitate the machining of high alloy steels. Description and Application The cutting oil described by this specification is intended to cover a wide range of severe machining operations. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 4.Metal Working Fluids SAUDI ARAMCO HEAVY DUTY CUTTING OIL 1. together with a one-liter reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. 5. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco General Purpose Cutting Oil SAMS 26-008-130 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number Z. SAMS 26-008 -. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. within industry-accepted tolerances. 2. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Heavy Duty Cutting Oil Pail .

2.Pail . Description and Application This specification describes the requirements of a soluble oil for use in metal working operations where a water emulsion type of product is required. 4. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. SAMS 26-008 -. °C.) 65 Min. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Soluble Oil . ASTM D-92 32 (Approx.SAMS 26-008-330 Page 70 of 255 . together with a five-gallon reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. 5. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Heavy Duty Cutting Oil SAMS 26-008-230 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number AA. Requirements This product shall be a highly sulfurized mineral oil containing fatty acids and other additives and must meet the following standards: ISO Viscosity Grade Flash Point.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.Metal Working Fluids SAUDI ARAMCO SOLUBLE OIL 1. Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. within industry-accepted tolerances.

as calcium carbonate). rust and oxidation inhibitors. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. 5. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3. 4. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. wetting agents and other appropriate compounding. blended from mineral oil containing emulsifiers and stabilizers. SAMS 26-008 -. together with a one-liter reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. within industry-accepted tolerances.Pail . Description and Application The product described by this specification is a light viscosity mineral oil containing appropriate additives to make it suitable as a coolant and lubricant in honing operations. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Honing Oil . provide effective rust and corrosion protection and contain an effective and approved disinfectant.Metal Working Products SAUDI ARAMCO HONING OIL 1. Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. Requirements The soluble oil shall be of premium quality. 2.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. It must form a stable emulsion with hard water (1000 ppm minimum. be stable in Saudi Aramco storage. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Soluble Oil SAMS 26-008-330 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number BB.SAMS 26-008-430 Page 71 of 255 .

Package Availability Saudi Aramco Synthetic Grinding Fluid . a specialty item of premium quality. Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 5.SAMS 26-008-530 Page 72 of 255 . synthetic base coolant. surface finish and freedom from wheel loading are required. Requirements The oil shall be a proprietary type of product.Metal Working Products SAUDI ARAMCO SYNTHETIC GRINDING FLUID 1. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Honing Oil SAMS 26-008-430 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number CC.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. specifically designed for use in high speed grinding operations where optimum cooling. Description and Application This specification describes an aqueous.Pail . blended from mineral oil base stocks and such additives as will provide the following characteristics: Optimum lubrication of honing stones Good surface finish Minimum hone loading 4. within industry-accepted tolerances. SAMS 26-008 -. together with a five-gallon reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. 2. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3.

Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Synthetic Grinding Fluid SAMS 26-008-530 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number Page 73 of 255 . Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. Requirements This concentrate shall be of a proprietary type. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. together with a one-liter reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. diluted with water on-site to produce a finished coolant having the following performance characteristics: Non-staining Rust and corrosion inhibited Minimum wheel loading Optimum finish High alloy steel capability No separation in storage or in service Free from residues on workpieces or machines Contains effective and approved biocides 4. 5. within industry-accepted tolerances.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

It has superior frictional properties to reduce stick-slip.Pail . 2. within industry-accepted tolerances. Qualification The supplier must provide evidence of qualification as stipulated above. Description and Application This specification describes a lubricant developed specifically to meet the exacting conditions which occur in the lubrication of machine tool slideways. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual DD. Also. 220 Pass Controlled Stick-Slip Page 74 of 255 . properly compounded to provide the following characteristics: ISO Viscosity Grade Cincinnati Milacron P-50 Coefficient of Friction 4. especially where conditions of heavy load and low feed rate apply. Package Availability Saudi Aramco Way Lubricant .Metal Working Fluids SAUDI ARAMCO WAY OIL 1. additives are incorporated which protect against wear and corrosion and eliminate staining problems. the erratic stop-and-start action which causes poor finish.SAMS 26-008-630 3. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Requirements The product shall be a mineral oil. together with a one-liter reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. SAMS 26-008 -. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Saudi Aramco Way Lubricant is intended for use in horizontal and vertical slideways of machine tools.

In every case.S “J”. Page 75 of 255 . 2. sour crudes. see SAMS catalogue. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Saudi Aramco Way Lubricant SAMS 26-008-630 Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number EE. SAMS 26-009-017 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Package Availability Miscellaneous small sizes. For hydraulic high pressure gun. Part V. these are single source recommendations.Gate Valve Lubricant. gases. hydrogen sulfide and CO2. Any questions concerning the lubricants or their use should be directed to the Lubrication Engineers. for sour gases. alkalis) b. 3.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Chemola Corporation . Further application information will be found in the Guide to Equipment Lubrication.Valve Lubricants VARIOUS TYPES 1 Description and Application These products are proprietary materials. especially chosen for the lubrication of individual types of valves in the presence of specific liquids or gases. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5. Desco H. Suppliers and product names are subject to change.P-77 M&J Valve Company For high temperature hydrocarbons (liquids.Ball Valve Lubricant. SAMS 26-009-027 . strong acids. No. SAMS 26-009 -. Requirements The following list comprises all of the valve lubricants carried in the Saudi Aramco system as well as a basic application guide: a.

j.BTR 654 “G” BTR Valve Lubricants For solvent treated lubricating oils. glycol. h.K. gasoline.Valve Stem Lubricant. d.Ball Valve Compound. k.) For water and all aqueous solutions including caustic SAMS 26-009-047 . alkalis. SAMS 26-009-037 .Desco-Polymell 422 Hi-Port Ind. g. water and steam SAMS 26-009-077 . Val-Tex No. lubricating oils and crude distillates SAMS 26-009-097 . 555 Gun Pack BTR Valve Lubricants For gas. f. oil and water SAMS 26-009-067 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 555SS BTR Valve Lubricants For gas. 909 “DD” Edwards Valve Company.BTR No. Grease for hydraulic valves (Sub-surface valves) In Khuff Gas Wells. chlorine and aqueous chemical solutions. kerosene. 80 “K” Cameron Iron Works Incorporated Multi-purpose hydrocarbon valve lubricant and sealant SAMS 26-009-240 . 950 “J” BTR Valve Lubricants For gasoline. lubricating oils and crude distillates SAMS 26-009-057 .BTR No. SAMS 26-009-106 . 421 “D” BTR Valve Lubricants For acids. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Inc. kerosene.2 Masoneilan International Incorporated For gasoline.BTR No.Valve Stem Lubricant No. i. Chemola Div. asphalt. Masoneilan No. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual c. kerosene.Plug Valve Lubricant 731 Serck-Audco (U. l Page 76 of 255 . e. hot and compressed gas SAMS 26-009-087 . gasoline. petroleum oils and natural gas SAMS 26-009-107 .BTR No.

S. Page 77 of 255 . 2. SAMS 26-010 -. within industry-accepted tolerances. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. Package Availability Miscellaneous small sizes. chosen especially for individual applications. Identification Each container supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Manufacturer's Product Name Saudi Aramco SAMS Number (See List Above) Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number FF.Instrument Lubricants VARIOUS TYPES 1. see notes below and the SAMS catalogue. R. Qualification The supplier must provide a specification and a reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. Clare Valve Sealant 180kg n 4. Suppliers and product names are subject to change.Lubchem Formasil CO2 HD for McEvoy well head valves. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual m SAMS 26-009-095 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 5. Valve Sealant SAMS 26-009-090 . In every instance they are single source items and any questions related to use or emergency substitution should be referred to the Lubrication Engineers.Khuff gas well heads. Description and Application These products are proprietary materials.

200cSt Dow Corning Corporation For general instrument lubrication SAMS 26-010-047 . d. tube for instruments and valves in oil and gas service SAMS 26-010-027 . Requirements The following list comprises the total of the instrument lubricants carried by Saudi Aramco.Instrument Oil (Oil GE 66X727) General Electric Company One oz. for relay dashpots SAMS 26-010-057 . c. bottle. SAMS 26-010-017 .Silicone Fluid MS 550 Dow Corning Corporation One pint container.3 Oz.Silicone Fluid 200. Initial qualification and any subsequent changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. f.3 Oz. tube for high and low temperatures SAMS 26-010-037 . within industryaccepted tolerances. 44 Dow Corning Corporation 5. Page 78 of 255 . for jeweled bearings in relays in watt-hour meters SAMS 26-010-077 . e. 74440) Brown Instrument Division.Compound 111 Dow Corning Corporation 5.Instrument Oil (Brown No. Qualification The supplier shall provide a specification for the product and submit a suitably sized reference sample with which all deliveries must comply. a. 50 cSt Dow Corning Corporation One gallon can. for recording instruments SAMS 26-010-067 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. g. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Honeywell Corporation For immersion of slide wires on potentiometers b.Silicone Fluid 200.Silicone Grease No. In every case the package sizes have been chosen to accommodate the specific application. 4. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3.

Package Availability Miscellaneous small sizes. Identification Each container or carton supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Manufacturer's Brand Name Saudi Aramco SAMS Number Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number GG. see SAMS catalogue. Description and Application The solid lubricants described here are proprietary products for special applications and are packaged in suitably sized containers. 2. 3. 635 Colonial Hardware Corporation b. Requirements The following list comprises the solid lubricants stocked by Saudi Aramco: a. Suppliers and product names are subject to change. SAMS 26-011-017 . SAMS 26-011 -. Page 79 of 255 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5.Medium Flake Graphite Ticonderoga No. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Fine Powdered Graphite Colonial Hardware No. 1 Dixon -Ticonderoga Company SAMS 26-011-027 .Large Flake Graphite Ticonderoga No.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. c. 2 Dixon -Ticonderoga Company SAMS 26-011-037 .Specialty Lubricants SOLIDS 1.

Package Availability Miscellaneous small sizes. within industry-accepted tolerances. see SAMS catalogue.Molybdenum Disulfide Powder Molykote Z Dow Corning Corporation 4. Description and Application These anti-seize lubricants are proprietary products chosen for specific applications and available in suitably sized containers.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 2. 5. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. SAMS 26-011 -. Suppliers and product names are subject to change. Page 80 of 255 . SAMS 26-011-047 . Identification Each container or carton supplied against this specification must be marked as follows: Manufacturer's Product Name Saudi Aramco SAMS Number (See List Above) Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number HH.Specialty Lubricants ANTI-SEIZE 1. Qualification The supplier shall provide a suitable specification and a reference sample with which all deliveries of the subject product must comply. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual d.

Page 81 of 255 . g. c. aluminum and high temperature alloys. copper-based anti-seize lubricant for studs. calcium fluoride formulation for use on gas turbine threads. f. Inert to 980 °C SAMS 26-011-077 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Inert to 1350 °C SAMS 26-011-087 . to prevent seizure and for high and low temperature service (-183 °C to 1200 °C) SAMS 26-011-117 . flanges and fittings. SAMS 26-011-057 . inert to 204 °C SAMS 26-011-107 . stainless steel. Requirements The following list comprises the anti-seize compounds stocked in the Saudi Aramco system: a. Not recommended for aluminum or magnesium SAMS 26-011-097 .Fel-Pro C-102 (Anti-seize Thread Compound) Fel-Pro Incorporated Graphite. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3.Kopr-Kote (Anti-seize) Drill Collar Compound Jet-Lube Incorporated.Servco Plate Anti Gall (SP Anti Gall Thread Compound) Servco Company Dry film solid lubricant containing molybdenum disulfide b.Never Seez Compound (Anti-seize Thread Compound) Never Seez Compound Corporation (Emhart Fastening Systems Group) For general lubrication of threads and flanges for tight fits. bolts.Goop Silver (Anti-seize Thread Goop Silver) Crawford Fitting Company For threaded parts of stainless steel and super alloys at temperatures up to 816 °C.Fel-Pro C-5A (Anti-seize Thread Compound) Fel-Pro Incorporated Multi-purpose.Goop High Purity (Anti-seize Thread Goop High Purity) Crawford Fitting Company For titanium. e. For lubricating mobile drilling platform leg racks and final drive gears SAMS 26-011-067 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. d. steel. lead free.

within industry-accepted tolerances. Page 82 of 255 . b.. or equivalent. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 4. Qualification The supplier shall provide a suitable specification and a reference sample of the subject product with which all deliveries must comply. of Borg-Warner Corporation SAMS 26-011-127 . Description and Application The lubricants in this catch-all group are proprietary products intended for specialized uses. Inc. SAMS 26-011 -. 93050-002) Boekel Industries. 3.B-J Submersible Pump Oil (400/440/600 HP) Byron Jackson Pump Div. see SAMS catalogue.Vacuum Pump Oil (Boekel Hyvac No. Identification Each Container or carton sold against this specification must be marked as follows: Manufacturer's Product Name Saudi Aramco SAMS Number Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number JJ. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Requirements The following list comprises the products in the miscellaneous category which are stocked by Saudi Aramco: a. Package Availability Miscellaneous sizes. Suppliers and product names are subject to change.Specialty Lubricants MISCELLANEOUS 1. 5. Initial qualification and any subsequent formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. SAMS 26-011-140 .

e.Soap Liquid F (Asbestos Cement Soap Liquid Lubricant) Eternit AG SAMS 26-011-197 . SAMS 26-011-280 .Dry Film Anti Scuffing Spray Rocol DFSM Anti Scuffing Spray SAMS 26-011-240 .Home Lubricant (Caltex Home Lubricant No. k.PSP Pipe Lubricant (GHP No. SAMS 26-011-137 . 6374) Gifford Hill Pipe Company SAMS 26-011-147 .White Oil (Primol 352) Exxon Corporation. Amber Potash Soap of Vegetable Oil Murphy Phoenix Oil Company SAMS 26-011-187 . or equivalent. g. Yellow Grade Pureline Jelly NF SAMS 26-011-217 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual c. SAMS 26-011-375 Battery Terminals No-oxide Grease p Page 83 of 255 . f. m.Easing Oil (Castrol Easing Fluid) Castrol Limited. or equivalent SAMS 26-011-157 . 743) Caltex Petroleum Corporation.Petroleum Jelly.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Domestic GP Grease Stick (Door-Ease) American Grease Stick Company SAMS 26-011-177 . j.Soap. or equivalent.Wire Rope Spray Rocol Wire Rope Spray d.Ultrasonic Gaging Lubricant. or equivalent SAMS 26-011-167 . n o. SAMS 26-011-340 . i. l.Fuel Injector Calibration Fluid (Mentor 28) Exxon Corporation. h.Neats Foot Oil Elko Chemical Works SAMS 26-011-207 . Type A Outboard Marine Corporation SAMS 26-011-235 .

Gulftherm 46. Identification Each container or carton must be marked as follows: Manufacturer's Product Name Saudi Aramco SAMS Number (See List Above) Supplier's Filling Date and Location Supplier's Batch Number Blender's Name or Other Identification Saudi Aramco Purchase Order Number Page 84 of 255 . r 4. 5. For Broach NGL Fuel Gas Systems. Qualifications The supplier shall provide a specification and a reference sample of the subject product with which all deliveries must comply.. Gulf Oil.Steam Cylinder Oil ISO VG 680 For Steam Driven Pile Drivers.or equivalent.Heat Transfer Oil ISO VG 68. SAMS 26-011-540 . Initial qualification and any formulation changes must be approved by the Responsible Standardization Agency. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual q SAMS 26-011-440 . Caltex Vanguard 680. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. or equivalent. within industry-accepted tolerances.

Part V is devoted to equipment lubrication. I. F. when questions arise and the answers are not to be found. Part V is divided into 18 separate sections. For ease of reference. it is now time to discuss the various types of equipment found in Saudi Aramco operations. General Practices Bearings Gears Combustion (Gas) Turbines Steam Turbines Compressors Pumps Electric Motors Other Electrical Equipment (Except Motors) Machine Shop Equipment Hydraulic Systems Flexible Couplings Valves Internal Combustion Engines Mobile Equipment (Except Engines) Marine Equipment (Except Engines) Miscellaneous Equipment Preservation of Idle Equipment As has been mentioned earlier. as follows: A. E. C.there is no efficient motion without lubrication. you are urged to refer to the Lubrication Engineers. J. N. P. G. Page 85 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. O. Recognizing that as fact and accepting the premise that the local environment can be a detriment to the efficient functioning of machinery. K. it is impossible to cover every contingency in a manual of this type. that maintenance function which does most to prolong equipment life and to permit efficient operation. L. B. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual V .GUIDE TO EQUIPMENT LUBRICATION Earlier in this Manual. H. Q. They are the resident experts on all matters related to equipment lubrication. Therefore.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. D. the relationship between machine efficiency and lubrication was made clear -. M. R.

3. a. Fill oil cans from taps or drum pumps. Clean grease fittings thoroughly before greasing. foaming. gearboxes. b. If in doubt as to a lubricant's condition. g. particularly with atmospheric conditions such as are found in Saudi Aramco areas. Inspect and. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual A. etc. 7. Fill grease guns from an air operated pump mounted on the container. Cleanliness is essential to good lubrication. 6. Monitor pressure drop across oil filters and change when indicated. reservoirs. c. take a sample and look at it. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Clean drain plugs and vents. Too low leads to oil starvation and wear. f. d. overheating and power loss. Drum bungs and pail covers should be resealed after use and protected when in use. GENERAL PRACTICES Sound lubrication practices play a major part in minimizing equipment downtime and the purpose of the following check list is to act as a reminder of some of the more obvious areas of sound practice. overheating. when needed. such as oil leaks. listen and look for signs of trouble. wherever possible oil levels should be checked and oil added when the machine is idle. 1. Maintain correct levels. before servicing. Constant level oilers are useful to maintain correct levels and should be utilized wherever possible. abnormal noise. Keep cans and guns clean. etc. Use separate oil cans or grease guns for each grade in use. If there is still a question discuss it with the Lubrication Engineers. e. clean or renew filter elements (both air and oil) on a regular schedule. 4. Investigate causes of overheating in bearings. 2. and the area around them. When performing lubrication functions. Too high a level will lead to churning. 5. Page 86 of 255 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

In circulating systems. Page 87 of 255 . Never overgrease anti-friction bearings. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Never spin-dry anti-friction bearings by hand or with compressed air. be certain that they are correctly set and operated to purify or clarify the circulating oil.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. g. Oil in sight glasses should be clean and bright. 12. They are precision parts and should be treated as such. Keep all pipe joints. Drain water and sludge from bottom tank cocks on a regular schedule. unions and seals tight. Avoid getting fingerprints on anti-friction bearings or other precision parts after cleaning as they may cause corrosion. e. Where centrifuges are installed. 14. d. Galvanized coatings can react with oil additives and will deplete anti-rust additives in turbine oils. Otherwise. Avoid copper or galvanized pipes and fittings. Be certain that the tank slopes to the drain. investigate and report. Never use gasoline or flammable solvents for flushing oil baths. Copper acts as a catalyst and promotes oil oxidation. Use only lint-free rags when cleaning oil reservoirs. 9. Kerosene or safety solvents can be used on cooled-down equipment but care must be taken to see that they are completely drained. A schedule should be established for cleaning oil coolers. 11. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 8. f. Inspect tank vents on a regular schedule to be sure they are free and working properly. Circulation system tips: a. b. c. Leakage of oil is wasteful and air entering the system can cause foaming or premature oil degradation. If it is cloudy or yellow. 10. only the service oil should be used for flushing. Clean oil level sight glasses and oil bottles regularly. 13. they will become inefficient.

c. as long as it is of the same type of soap base. use one grade heavier of the same oil type. f. b. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 15. Page 88 of 255 . refer questions to the Lubrication Engineers. consult the Lubrication Engineers. avoid mixing different types of oil in turbines. Except in emergencies. The following list will provide fundamental guidance: a. New grease may be added to old.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. In an emergency situation. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. if oil of the recommended viscosity is not available. hydraulic systems or engines. Do not use engine oils or compounded oils (such as gear oils) in circulating systems designed for turbine oils. When in doubt about the compatibility. Grade substitution and compatibility are important considerations in lubricant selection. d. Do not use turbine or hydraulic oils in internal combustion engines. When there is a doubt. For instruments or delicate mechanisms. use one grade lighter. in a mechanism. particularly diesel engines. Avoid water contamination of detergent-type crankcase oils as they tend to emulsify. e.

If the load acts in a line parallel to the axis of the bearing. depending on how they carry the load. Both are journal bearings. However. For these. boundary film or dry film type. more or less). Plain Bearings Diverse examples of plain bearings are the jeweled movements in watches and the line shaft bearings on ships. All bearings may be classed in two main divisions. it is called a "thrust" bearing. spindles or shafts. pins. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Metal-to-metal contact exists between the journal and the bearing surface. sliding or revolving parts which are called journals. Page 89 of 255 . BEARINGS Bearings are surfaces or points of contact between the frame of a machine and its moving parts. For purposes of this discussion. 1. In some applications. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual B. In a plain bearing. "anti-friction" bearings. Sliding contact bearings generally are called "plain" bearings. both support the load of a rotating shaft within the machine element. They support and guide the rotating. Journal and thrust bearings have either sliding or rolling contact. more commonly.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. rolling contact bearings are called "rolling element" or. If the load is carried at right angles to the axis of the bearing. B and C in Figure 4 depict a pressure-fed journal bearing and show the development of a hydrodynamic fluid film when the shaft is rotated. There are many sub-classes of each type and there are standard texts on the subject. The oil supply is shut off and the oil has leaked from the normally full clearance space. we will deal only with the fundamental principles of both types of bearings and their lubrication. correct lubrication is the most important factor in obtaining good performance. the bearings may be lubricated in such a manner that they require no additional service through the life of the machine (this describes the watch. The lubricating film may be of the full fluid film. In View A the machine is at rest. Views A. the majority of the plain bearings in service are of the full fluid film type (the line shafting on the ship). it is called a "journal" bearing. The spaces are greatly exaggerated for purposes of illustration. the moving surface is separated from the stationary surface by a lubricating film.

The fact that there is a clearance in this bearing (that is. The friction that is present. and friction develops.namely. There is no metallic contact and. consequently. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual In View B. Pressure development starts at Point A. however. Figure 5 is a graphic representation of the pressure distribution in a full journal bearing. It rolls onto an oil film. then drops rapidly to a minimum just beyond Point B. The amount of eccentricity will depend on the load. the machine is being started. supporting the journal in the slightly eccentric position shown. when the film is interrupted. View C shows the journal in operating position. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Under steady conditions. supported by a relatively thick film of oil and on the opposite side of the bearing from the starting position. a wedgeshaped space. Pressure increases gradually to a maximum. is relatively low. no wear. the upward force developed in the oil film just equals the total downward load. Page 90 of 255 . filling the clearance space and the shaft tends to climb the left side of the bearing. During normal operation in a hydrodynamic film bearing. being due only to the shearing of the lubricant film. This is one of the reasons for the special procedures given for start-up and shut-down of major rotating machinery. where the clearance space starts to converge.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. so that friction is reduced and the tendency to climb is balanced by the tendency to slip back. The oil supply is turned on. oil viscosity and clearance in the bearing. The line of contact is indicated at the lower left side. This is the point of minimum film thickness. The converging wedge has moved under the journal. Oil is being drawn out of the diverging wedge beyond Point B and there is a tendency for a negative pressure to develop in this area. the point of nearest approach of shaft and bearing. the journal floats on a fluid oil film and is completely separated from the bearing. Wear occurs. the journal diameter is less than that of the bearing) automatically provides one of the conditions necessary to hydrodynamic fluid film formation -. speed. the point of minimum film thickness.

finally. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 4: Pressure-Fed Journal Bearing. in View C. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Page 91 of 255 . with oil entering the spaces and the shaft tending to climb in the direction of rotation. the shaft has reached operating position and is supported by a full fluid film. View A shows the bearing at rest with the shaft at the bottom. View B represents start-up.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

where the clearance space begins to converge. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 5: Graphic representation of the forces at work in the development of a fluid film in a bearing. It increases gradually to a maximum at C.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. This is the point of minimum film thickness. Oil is being drawn out of the diverging wedge beyond C and there is a tendency for a negative pressure to develop. From a nearly constant value near the center. Page 92 of 255 . the pressure drops rapidly to zero at the ends because of end leakage. Pressure development starts at A. then drops to a minimum at point D. Pressure distribution along the length of the bearing is shown in the right-hand view. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

a driven element and a coupling on one skid. such as steam or gas turbines have specific recommendations and these may be at variance with the chart. The important point is that they all follow the same basic principle of operation and they all require lubrication. If there is any doubt. There are other regimes of lubrication: boundary. which considers the effect of pressure on viscosity and the deformation of bearing surfaces under stress. the turbine. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. pivots.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. i. and dry film lubrication. Some are lubricated with grease which has advantages. Many of them are ring-oiled. elasto-hydrodynamic. a science unto itself. Bottles. major machinery. consult the Lubrication Engineers. others are all-loss. In the Saudi Aramco system there are countless other plain bearings. Thick Film. this is not always the case. particularly in an all-loss situation. (Oil Can. being fed by oil cans. pressure-fed bearing setup but in practice. for example. The lubrication of these units is almost always by way of a common system and the recommended lubricant will be that required by the major element. bottles. trunnions. some run in baths of oil. Splash. Bath..Oil Recommendations For Plain Bearings Saudi Aramco Turbine or Machinery Oil Grade No. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The foregoing example dealt with a relatively large. less leakage and better retention in place during shut-downs. The following table constitutes a basic recommendation chart for plain bearings. Page 93 of 255 . there are many combined systems in Saudi Aramco operations: a driving element. some anti-friction bearings and slow moving parts. For example. Speed. There are examples of all of these in Saudi Aramco equipment: slides. Ring Oiled) Drip Feed Oilers) <1500 >1500 46/68 32/46 68/150 46/68 This table is for use ONLY WHEN MORE SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE! For example.e. drip feed oilers or other devices. where the full fluid film is missing and lubrication is accomplished by additives which impart a greater film strength to the remaining film. All-Loss RPM (Circulation. Re-use Thin Film. Table 7 .

In most cases. bearings are used on horizontal or vertical shafts. at low or very high speeds and under radial and/or thrust loads. One of the races fits the shaft or spindle. In some cases. The essential parts of all such bearings include a stationary race. Separators usually keep the rolling elements uniformly spaced around the circumference of the bearing. Seals around the shaft or spindle help to keep out harmful contaminants and to prevent leakage of the lubricant. a rotating race and rolling elements that separate the races while allowing free motion of the rotating race under load. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 2. the shaft revolves and its race is tightly fitted while the housing and a less tightly fitted race are stationary. the other fits into a suitable housing that encloses the entire assembly. Grooved. or anti-friction. the shaft forms the inner race. while in others they may be cylindrical. They have proven reliable in the most severe services and new advances in metallurgy have made them even more effective. spherical or concave rollers. the rolling elements are carefully matched balls. In either case. tapered. or otherwise-shaped. Antifriction Bearings Rolling element. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Page 94 of 255 . In some cases.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. raceways confine and guide the balls or rollers. the load on the bearing produces high unit pressures on the rolling elements and raceways.

namely. therefore. narrower or wider races and smaller or larger rolling elements -again depending on the duty to be performed. medium or heavy series. The size of an anti-friction bearing generally refers to the inside diameter. It is a single row. depending on the duty it must perform (light. the bore. While the other types mentioned above differ in construction. With any given bore. narrower or wider races and smaller or larger rolling elements. medium or heavy). a specific type of bearing may have smaller or larger outer diameters. Similarly. a specific type of bearing with a given outer diameter may have smaller or larger bores. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Page 95 of 255 . are further classed as light.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. grooved ball bearing of the type found throughout industrial machinery. the basic principle is well demonstrated by the picture. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 6 is a cross-sectional view of the type of rolling element bearing in most common use. Various types of anti-friction bearings.

The ball bearing. Figure 6: Rolling Element Bearing. which may be either grease or oil.. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.. The figure shows the parts which make up the bearing. To lubricate all true rolling contact areas elasto-hydrodynamically (very thin oil films trapped in the areas of deformity caused by the high pressures at point or line contacts).g.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Other configurations may use rollers instead of balls. may be double-row instead of single row.g. e. the rolling elements. as shown. b. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Lubricants. To lubricate that part of the contact area between the races on inner and outer rings and rolling elements where a true rolling motion does not exist. e. the essential elements are those shown in the illustration. serve several functions in antifriction bearings: a. a sliding contact. is the most common of the rolling element bearings. may be constructed to withstand thrust loads and many other permutations. Page 96 of 255 . However. To lubricate the sliding contact which exists between the cage and other parts of the bearing. c.

The lubricating instructions which come with Saudi Aramco machinery will reflect those formulas and should be followed to the extent that they conform to the lubricants available and the operating conditions found in Saudi Arabia. f. Page 97 of 255 .000. The choice of grade is a function of speed. at a stated temperature. Saudi Aramco Turbine and Machinery Oils are the preferred lubricants for oillubricated anti-friction bearings. and the operating temperature of the bearing. in millimeters. the rotational speed of the bearing. Table 8 is derived from speed factors ranging from 10. to protect against the intrusion of dirt.000 to 1. Using this method for choosing the product to use in a rolling element bearing requires three values: the bore diameter of the bearing. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual d. load and temperature. in RPM. it should be brought to the attention of the Lubrication Engineers. The following Table 8 is a simple reference to viscosity selection adequate for field use with non-critical equipment. of course. water and other contaminants. In grease lubricated bearings. requires less frequent lubrication maintenance and usually provides a better seal against contaminants. the heavier (higher viscosity) oils are used when speeds are low and temperatures are high. Both oil and grease lubrication are widely used. grease permits simpler housing designs. As a general rule. e. Equipment builders and oil companies have developed complex formulas for determining the precise viscosity of oil to use in a given bearing. In oil mist applications. Compensation must be made for extremes of load. Conversely. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Oil gives more positive lubrication and better cooling.000 and operating temperatures from 10 °C to 120 °C. in °C. with heavier loads requiring heavier oils. to help cool the bearing by reducing fluid friction. lighter (lower viscosity) oils are better when speeds are high and operating temperatures are low. To protect the highly finished surfaces of the bearing from corrosion and rust. running at a specific speed. The bore diameter and the speed are multiplied to get what is known as the speed factor. If there is a conflict.

A hot bearing will only get hotter if it is over-filled with grease.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. is to provide a lubricating film between the rolling elements. 32. Given moderate loads and speeds.000 50. 320 .000 500. as with oil. The function of the grease. Grease also provides a seal against the entry of contaminants. If such conditions apply.000 200.000 100. 46. with higher speeds and temperatures. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table 8 . One common misconception concerning greased bearings relates to the quantity of grease needed to adequately lubricate a bearing. Figure 7 shows a cross-section of a greased motor bearing with a fitting and a relief plug. It is far worse to over-fill than to under-fill.000 Temperature. Page 98 of 255 .Conditions which are unlikely to occur in Saudi Aramco. and 68. from very small and disposable to very large and very expensive.Viscosity Selection For Anti-Friction Bearings Anti-Friction Braring Speed Factor 1. Grease lubricated bearings run the gamut of sizes and costs. minimizing wear and maintaining efficiency. °C 10 X X X X X 32 32 50 X X X 32 46 68 68 65 X 32 46 68 68 150 150 90 32 46 68 150 150 320 320 120 68 150 150 320 X X X Key: X . grease addition may be required at intervals. 150. If there is any question about the need to relubricate. the Lubrication Engineers should be consulted. BUT ONLY WHERE THERE IS A RELIEF PLUG OR VENT TO ALLOW THE ESCAPE OF ANY EXCESS! Pressure buildup can cause seal rupture or it can be sufficient to prevent fresh grease from reaching the bearing cavities. the cage and the rings.Saudi Aramco Turbine Oils 32. it is best to remove the grease fitting and repack the bearing only when the machine is overhauled.Saudi Aramco Machinery Oils 150 and 320.000.000 20. 46. a properly packed bearing will run for years without replenishment. 68 . If conditions are more severe.000 10.

etc. Rack and Pinion Grease is a special product intended for use on jack-up barge open gears and racks. 5. Ball bearing grease 2 has superior high temperature performance compared with Lithium soap greases. Only the bearing should be full. All Purpose Grease 3 is a stiffer consistency product of the same type. All Purpose Grease 1 is a light-bodied lithium-base grease used for the gears in geared motors.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. rods. 4. 2. If done by hand. This minimizes the risk of contamination during the repacking operation. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Recommended procedures for repacking at overhaul or replacement (or initial packing of new bearings) are as follows: 1. Preferred practice is to use a grease packer in which the grease is fed from the can or drum with an air operated dispenser. Keep bearing in a clean oil bath if not to be greases at once. Polyethylene Grease 1 is a special product intended for use only in flexible gear couplings calling for grease lubrication. Ball Bearing Grease 2 is a polyurea grease for use in all motor bearings. Pack bearing with grease. There are six main greases in the Saudi Aramco lubricants system: 1. Do not dry by spinning with compressed air. nuts and threads. 2 3. or humid air are present. not the bearing housing. valve actuators and other equipment. dip bearing in light turbine oil and allow to drain for 10-15 minutes. it requires care and patience. 3. 4. most fin fans and many applications where water contamination. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Other uses include pins. Thoroughly clean bearings with kerosene or solvent. Page 99 of 255 . It also is used in low speed machinery where leakage rates are a problem and sealing is required to prevent the entry of contaminants. Avoid finger prints. links. Work clean grease into the spaces from each side in turn until the bearing is completely full. used in automotive wheel bearings and chassis points. 5. Housing covers should be only one-third to one-half-quarters filled in order that sufficient space is left for the bearing to expel excess grease. Immediately after drying.

Page 100 of 255 . High Temperature Grease is a special product intended for use in plain bearings at temperatures up to 235 °C continuous operation. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Figure 7: Greased Electric Motor Bearing. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 6.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. with a relief plug and grease distribution baffles. A properly constructed bearing will take the form shown.

The teeth are cut on a surface. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual C. The axes of the worm and wheel are on different planes and at right angles. Worm gears are used for heavy loads. The line of contact runs straight across the tooth face and the direction of sliding is at right angles to the line of contact. lower left illustration. The teeth on worm gears are helical. The teeth are cut on a spiral around a cylinder or wheel. The axes of the teeth intersect the shaft axis. The teeth are cut parallel to the shaft. A refinement of this type is the spiral bevel gear in which the axes of the teeth do not intersect the shaft axis. Spur gears are used for moderate speeds and loads and with parallel shafts. combined with low rolling velocity. GEARS Gears are employed to transmit motion and power from one revolving shaft to another. The most common types of gears are shown in Figure 8: 1. The high rate of side sliding in worm gears results in considerable frictional heating and this. similar to screw threads. Worm gears. These conditions contribute to the formation of an effective lubricating film and lessen the demand on the lubricant. Lubricant demands are the same as for helical gears. 2. Helical gear and pinion. relatively low speeds and for large speed reductions. requires a high viscosity lubricant. Spur gears. 4. usually containing friction reducing additives. Page 101 of 255 . upper left illustration. They run more smoothly and quietly than spur gears. Bevel gears are used for shafts which intersect.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. at an angle to the shaft. Because there is always more than one tooth in mesh. Bevel gears. on a cylinder or wheel. upper right illustration. or from a revolving shaft to a reciprocating element. the loading is more evenly distributed and contact pressures may not be as high as with spur gears. The lubricant demand is similar to spur gears although a slightly higher viscosity may be required. 3. also known as herringbone) gears are used with parallel shafts. lower center illustration. usually at right angles. Helical (and double helical.

hypoid gear. lower center. Hypoid gears are used for shafts which do not intersect and are designed to transmit high power in proportion to their size. helical gear and pinion. Because of the steel-on-steel configuration and the high rate of side sliding which occurs. lower right illustration. 5. spur gear. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 8: Various Types of Gears. Hypoid curve shaped teeth are cut on an angular surface. worm gear. bevel gear. lower right. lower left. these gears are under boundary lubrication conditions nearly all of the time and they require lubricants which contain extreme pressure additives.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. upper right. Hypoid gears. They are widely used in light vehicle rear axles and are made of heat treated steel. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Page 102 of 255 . These are the most common types of gears: upper left.

Load Higher loads require higher viscosity oils and EP properties. Table 9. the higher will be the sliding and rolling speeds of individual teeth. the oil must be inspected frequently for signs of water. noise and power loss.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. if the oil is allowed to oxidize. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. high humidity areas and steam turbine-driven gear sets. Factors which affect the choice of gear lubricant are: 1. Temperature Higher operating temperatures require higher viscosity oils with superior oxidation resistance. the Lubrication Engineers should be consulted. of the type used in Saudi Aramco operations. following.. 2. wherever water contamination is likely. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The function of the lubricant in a gear unit is to prevent metal-to-metal contact.g. Speed The higher the speed of meshing gears. Such inspections may reveal a need for additional centrifuging. will separate readily from water. Therefore. Emulsified oil is not a good lubricant and the result may well be excessive gear wear. the lubricating film may be subject to rupture and a higher viscosity will afford some measure of protection. If there is any doubt. thus minimizing wear. is a general recommendation chart for the lubrication of gears in Saudi Aramco equipment. 3. New oil. a higher viscosity will be needed to assure that sufficient lubricant remains in the contact area. It also serves as a coolant and may lubricate the shaft bearings. On the other hand. This condition tends to retain a lubricating film and a lower viscosity lubricant will suffice. it will form an emulsion with water which may enter the system. or is contaminated with dirt or rust. e. through overuse or overheating. when speeds are low. However. Where shock loading is a factor. There are many instances where the gears will be part of a combined system and the manufacturer's recommendations will differ from these. Page 103 of 255 .

. AGL 140 . EP1000. >50 ºC or Operating Temp. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 320.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. >70 ºC Any Any Worm Wheel Centers and Speeds: Size Regular Grade* MO 150 MO 150 MO 150 MO 320 MO 460 N/A TO 68** Single Enveloping EP 1000 EP 1000 EP 1000 EP 460 EP 1000 EP 460 EP 1000 EP 460 EP 1000 EP 460 EP Grade* EP 220 EP 220 EP 220 EP 220 EP 460 AGL 140 AW 68 Double Enveloping EP 1000 EP 1000 EP 1000 EP 1000 EP 1000 EP 1000 EP 1000 EP 1000 EP 1000 EP 1000 Hypoid Gears High Speed Gears (over 3600 RPM) Worm Gears <6 inch 6 inch to 12 inch - 12 inch to 18 inch 18 inch to 24 inch >24 inch - <700RPM >700RPM <450RPM >450RPM <300RPM >300RPM <250RPM >250RPM <200RPM >200RPM * Key to Product Grade Designations TO 68 . 460 1000. 460 EP 220. 320.Saudi Aramco Hydraulic Oil AW68 For combined systems. EP460.Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP220. ** Page 104 of 255 .Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 150.Gear Oils For Saudi Aramco Equipment Type of Gear Spur and Helical Gears <3600 RPM Planetary Gears Bevel Gears Any Any Cone Distance: <12" >12" Ambient Temp. 320 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table 9 . may be Transmission Oil D-II or Turbine Oil 46. Consult Lubrication Engineers.Saudi Aramco Automotive Gear Lube 140 or 85w/140 AW 68 .Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 68 MO 150.

helical and hypoid sets and 1/2 of the worm diameter (worm driven) or 1/3 of the wheel diameter (wheel driven) in worm gears. The best guide to a correct oil level is a dipstick or a sight glass provided by the manufacturer. Larger units should be part of the Oil Condition Monitoring Program. the standard rule of thumb is that the oil level should just immerse the teeth of the dipping gear in spur. Too high a level leads to churning. it will require periodic maintenance. Drain intervals in Saudi Aramco equipment are generally established at 2500 operating hours or 6 months unless conditions dictate otherwise. Where a heat exchanger is installed. If these are not available. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Enclosed gear sets are lubricated by the splash method or by means of a circulation system. Page 105 of 255 . overheating and accelerated wear. Saudi Aramco Open Gear and Wire Rope Lubricant. SAMS 26-007-302 or 330. With the former. bevel. lubrication maintenance consists of using the right oil. or Rack and Pinion Grease 26-004-540. paddle or a caulking gun. It can be sprayed on the gear.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. foam generation. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. For open gears subject to high loads and harsh environments such as underwater operation use Open Gear lubricant 26-007-640. Too low a level leads to oil starvation. applied with a brush. covered in Part VI. adhesive compound. maintaining the correct oil level and draining and flushing on a prescribed schedule. cleaning the system filters on a regular basis. Pressure circulation system maintenance consists of using the right oil. maintaining an oil level which will assure proper pump suction and draining and flushing the reservoir on a prescribed schedule. either from a power sprayer or a spray can. leaking and overheating. Open Gears Open gears require a tacky.

One (a) has a journal and thrust bearing at the gas turbine inlet and a second journal bearing at the exhaust. Two one-shaft gas turbines are shown. main. There may be a single shaft with a single turbine to drive both the compressor and the load or two shafts with a high pressure turbine to drive the compressor and a low pressure turbine to drive the load. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. There are two basic types of gas turbine engines. Page 106 of 255 . COMBUSTION (GAS) TURBINES Gas turbine drivers and generators used in Saudi Aramco operations vary in size up to 100 MW. a combustion chamber and a turbine. 1. These usually are mounted on fabricated bases and the portion of the base under the accessories is the lubricant reservoir. Accessories can include an accessory gear drive. torque converter and speed control. the so-called industrial type and the aircraft or aero-derivative type. Compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned in the combustion chamber.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Industrial Type The basic industrial gas turbine consists of an axial compressor. fuel pump. engine or turbine. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual D. The hot gases expand through a turbine or turbines to drive the load. Many configurations of gas turbines have been built. They represent one of the most critical mechanical areas in all of the Saudi Aramco equipment. starting motor. Several shaft and bearing arrangements are shown diagrammatically in Figure 9. auxiliary and emergency lube oil pumps. The other one-shaft unit (b) is similar but with an additional journal bearing between the compressor and the turbine.

The figure shows two bearing arrangements: (c) uses overhung turbine wheels so that the compressor and high pressure turbine are supported by journal bearings at the inlet and at the compressor discharge. March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Figure 9: Various Gas Turbine Configurations.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. The load turbine is supported by two journal bearings in the turbine exhaust structure. The other two-shaft configuration (d) locates a double journal bearing on both sides of the low pressure turbine. Thrust bearings are on each shaft. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Two-shaft gas turbines are frequently required in mechanical drive applications. One-shaft designs are shown in (a) and (b) while two-shaft designs are represented in (c) and (d). Page 107 of 255 .

gears. Page 108 of 255 .. external compressor or other powered unit. The function of the oil in a turbine lubricating system is to cool and lubricate bearings. Strainers/filters should be cleaned on a regular schedule and should be of the inert type. Bearings are usually babbitt lined shells which are operated under full fluid film hydrodynamic conditions. Larger systems may also have a centrifuge or purifier for continuous by-pass or periodic oil purification. collars or specially designed rolling element bearings. raises its pressure and temperature and forces it into the combustor. torque applied to a shaft. In Saudi Aramco gas turbines all bearings are pressure lubricated. coolers and control instrumentation. it should be reported and the reasons sought immediately. pump. If it is cloudy or opaque. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 10 shows a simple cycle. raising the temperature and heat energy level. i. Oil sight glasses should be examined daily. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. fuel is added which burns in contact with the compressed air. open system gas turbine of the type (a) above. strainers or filters. The compressor draws in air. They may be tilting pad types. compressed mixture travels to the turbine where it expands and develops mechanical energy. pumps. The rest is available to drive a useful load such as a generator. The circulating system will include an oil tank. The hot. in some cases. and.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Following are some general lubricating system maintenance guidelines: a. March. Activated clays or other chemicals may remove additives from the oil. In this chamber. The oil should be bright and clear.e. b. Thrust bearings are provided to take the axial load and maintain turbine position. A part of this energy is needed to drive the compressor. It could be the sign of a cooler leak. It also may serve as a hydraulic medium for governors and controls.

Galvanized metals or copper should never be used for parts in contact with the oil. March. Open Cycle Gas Turbine. The Lubrication Engineers will interpret the analyses and recommend the actions to be taken. Where there are air flow coolers it is permissible to go to 60 °C. Preferred bearing oil inlet temperatures are between 40 and 50 °C. Small circulation systems should be changed every 6 to 12 months. Large systems will require periodic flushing. Page 109 of 255 . g. use Oil Condition Monitoring analyses to follow the changing condition of the oil and determine the need for change. d. fed to the combustor and exhausted through the power turbine. e. On large capacity systems. depending on the interval established through laboratory analysis. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. c. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 10: Simple. The Lubrication Engineers will recommend the procedure. Air is drawn into the intake. compressed. f.

Bearing temperatures are very high. the hot compressed gases from the engine are fed to a power turbine which converts the heat energy into rotative power. or aero-derivative unit. Other features of aircraft engines used as gas generators in industrial service are summarized as follows: a. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. the manufacturer's recommendation should be followed and verified with the Lubrication Engineers. in the second instance. Instead of providing propulsion power directly. The following Table 10 contains typical recommendations for some of the Saudi Aramco equipment. it will have a common lubricating system. Because of their very high speeds.Saudi Aramco Recommendations For Industrial-Type Gas Turbines Turbine Builder General Electric Frame 5 Frame 7 Westinghouse Mitsubishi John Brown Sulzer Solar Oil Recommendation Turbine Oil 32 Gas Turbine Oil 32 Only Turbine Oil 32 Turbine Oil 32 Turbine Oil 32 Turbine Oil 32 Consult Lubrication Engineers 2. Aircraft Type The aircraft type. March. In the first case. takes up relatively little space. Page 110 of 255 . manufacturers generally use anti-friction bearings. there generally will be a separate system using conventional mineral turbine oil. NOTE: The driven turbine may be an integral unit with the gas generator or it may be a separate turbine. b. has a high level of thermal efficiency and is easily replaced or enhanced in case the need arises. usually 8000 to 18000 RPM. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Oil recommendations for gas turbines depend on the individual type and make. uses a jet engine as a gas generator. usually above 200C. and special synthetic lubricants are required. The cut-away in Figure 11 shows a typical aircraft-type gas turbine. compared to 3000 to 9000 RPM.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Table 10 . A jet engine weighs less than an industrial type. Since several different types and makes are used by Saudi Aramco.

It is. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. NOTE: The operation of the lubrication system differs considerably from the heavy industrial type. the lube oil is filtered through 10 micron filters on the return to the oil reservoir. or toping up the oil. not on the supply to the bearings. To prevent contamination when changing the oil. scavenge the oil at the shaft bearing locations and return the lube oil to the reservoir. therefore. having a higher flow rate than the feed lube oil pumps. For Saudi Aramco equipment. Scavenge pumps.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. a suitable filter must be installed upstream of the lube oil reservoir. (gas generator only shown) Page 111 of 255 . the primary functions of the lubricant in an aircrafttype engine are to cool and lubricate the bearings. most important that the oil in the oil reservoir is not contaminated at any time. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual As with the industrial turbine. the only lubricant to be used in the gas generator is Saudi Aramco Synthetic Gas Turbine Oil 5. the temperatures are much higher and a special lubricant is needed. Figure 11: Aircraft-Type Gas Turbine. Unlike the heavy industrial type gas turbines. March. at each of the shaft bearing locations. However. Oil is fed from the oil reservoir to the various shaft bearings. SAMS 26-005-430 or 440.

the bearings on the latter will be of similar construction and the lubrication usually will come from a common system. The additional oil flow is required to remove frictional heat and the heat conducted along the shaft from the hot parts of the turbine. made with pivoting wedge bearing surfaces. Where a turbine is used to drive a generator. gears. to the weight of the rotor assembly. If the nozzles are free to move. flexible couplings and turning gear may also require lubrication. a hydraulic control system. regardless of the type of turbine. impulse type turbines. both journal and thrust. Depending on the installation. to take axial thrust and hold the rotor in correct axial position with respect to the stationary parts. the jets' "impulse" force pushes the blades forward. The loads imposed on the bearings are due. Page 112 of 255 . will cause damage to the shaft seals and the blading. The bearings are enclosed in housings and supported on spherical seats or flexible plates to reduce any angular misalignment. oil shaft seals. primarily. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. the "reaction" of the jets pushes against the nozzles. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual E. the bearing alignment is critical. The kinetic energy is then converted into mechanical energy in the turbine runner either by the impulse principle or the reaction principle. These bearings are located at the ends of the rotor and. Any appreciable misalignment. resulting from improper installation or from wear. because of the very small clearances between the shaft and shaft seals and between the blades and the casing. Horizontally split shells lined with tin base babbitt are most commonly used. Thrust bearings are always provided. The main lubricated parts of steam turbines are the bearings. The passages and grooves in turbine bearings are sized to permit the flow of considerably more oil than is required for lubrication alone. will come from several different designs. the thrust may be absorbed by babbitt-faced ends on the journal bearings or by specially designed rolling element bearings. On small. depending on the type and size of the turbine. The rotor of a steam turbine is supported by two hydrodynamic journal bearings. causing them to move in the opposite direction. are used on large. These bearings. hot vapor under pressure is expanded in nozzles where part of its heat energy is converted into kinetic energy. reaction turbines. The bearings are conservatively proportioned so that pressures on them are moderate. STEAM TURBINES In a steam turbine. March. Tilting pad bearings. If the nozzles are fixed and the jets directed toward movable blades.

Following are some general lubricating system maintenance guidelines: 1. clean the housing with a lint-free rag and refill. Laboratory analyses should be used to establish a satisfactory drain interval for small circulating systems. 8. 9. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. pumps. 4. Water is the most prevalent contaminant in turbine lube systems. 60 deg C is permissible. Galvanized metals and copper should never be used in turbine systems where they may come in contact with oil. based on their knowledge of manufacturer's methods. The Lubrication Engineers will interpret the analyses and recommend actions to be taken. Also. The Lubrication Engineers will recommend the procedures. Activated clays and other chemical materials may remove the oil additives and are not recommended. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Small turbines. March. Larger units also will have a centrifuge or purifier for continuous by-pass or periodic oil purification. Oil changes for ring-oiled bearings should be scheduled for 6 to 9 month intervals. Large systems will require periodic flushing. coolers and control instrumentation. Collected water from the bottom of all reservoirs should be removed on a scheduled basis and sight glasses checked at least once per shift for any evidence of haze or opacity. All large units use pressure circulation systems which supply oil to all parts requiring lubrication. are usually equipped with ring-oiled bearings. If coolers are air flow type. It should be no more than 12 months. It comes as steam from leaking shaft seals. Drain the oil. Ten to fifteen percent of the total charge per hour is the rule of thumb. The circulating system will include an oil tank. 3. strainers or filters. as condensation from humid air in the reservoir or as water from leaking coolers. Bearing oil inlet temperatures should be between 40 and 50 deg C. 7. 2. the centrifuge should not be run at a rate of more than 75% of capacity.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 5. 6. such as those used to drive auxiliary equipment. Centrifuges should be used in such a way that the entire oil charge is treated every day. Strainers and filters should be cleaned on a regular schedule and should be of the inert type. Page 113 of 255 . Oil Condition Monitoring facilities should be used to follow the condition of the oil in all large systems.

The following Table 11 lists a few of the steam turbines used in the Saudi Aramco system and the oil recommendations which apply to them.Direct Circulation System . Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 32. Because of the critical nature of turbine lubrication. 46 or 68.Direct Circulation System . March.Direct Circulation System . While the table is not complete. In the Saudi Aramco system the proper oil will be one of the turbine grades.Typical Saudi Aramco Recommendations For Steam Turbines Turbine Builder General Electric and Delaval Conditions Circulation System .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. The positive displacement class includes reciprocating (piston) types and several rotary types.Geared Ring Oiled Bearings: <80 C Bearing Temperature >80 C Bearing Temperature Circulation System . it can be considered as representing general practice. Page 114 of 255 . Table 11 . Elliott & Worthington F. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Oil recommendations for steam turbines depend on the individual type and make.Geared Ring Oiled Bearings . Refrigeration and air conditioning compressors require special consideration because of the recirculation of the refrigerant and mixing of the lubricant with it. depending not only on the type of compressor but also on the gas being compressed. air and gas compressors are mechanically similar so that the main difference is the effect of the gas on the lubricant. Dynamic compressors are usually of either the centrifugal or axial flow type. In general.All Saudi Aramco Grade 32/46 32/46 32/46 68 68 150 (MO) 32/46 68 68 Westinghouse Terry. COMPRESSORS Compressors are manufactured in several types and for a variety of purposes.Geared Circulation System . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Compressors are classified as either positive displacement or dynamic. it is best to check with the Lubrication Engineers before commissioning a new unit or refilling an older one. Lubrication requirements vary widely.

The principal parts common to all reciprocating compressors are pistons. The cylinder walls and head are cooled and in the case of two stage and multistage machines.) are considered as cylinder parts and all parts associated with the driving end (bearings. Double acting compressors. Every reciprocating compressor is provided with cooling facilities in order to limit the final discharge temperature to a reasonable value and to minimize power requirements. all of the parts associated with the cylinders (pistons. Most reciprocating compressors are of the single or two stage type. crossheads and guides) are considered running gear. crossheads and crosshead guides. piston rings. valves.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. cylinders. connecting rods. Page 115 of 255 . Reciprocating Compressors Reciprocating compressors are used for many different purposes involving extremes of pressure and volume requirements. crankshafts. The details of the systems vary greatly but in essence they all deliver oil to the bearings and crossheads in sufficient quantity to protect and cool the moving parts. except in small compressors of the open crankcase design. while additional stages introduce different requirements. supplying oil directly to the cylinders or to the suction valve chambers. etc. Compressor valves require very little lubrication. either by splash or by positive displacement. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. March. This oil is carried out of the cylinders by the discharging gas and collects in the discharge system. single and two stage machines generally are similar. packing glands. main and crankpin bearings and suitable frames. From a lubrication point of view. Open crankcase compressor cylinders are lubricated by splash from the crankcase by means of scoops or other projections on the connecting rods or cranks. with smaller numbers of machines having three or more stages. rings. require piston rods. usually is accomplished by means of force-feed lubricators. Cylinder lubrication. Running gear is lubricated from the crankcase. the gas being compressed is cooled between stages in intercoolers. For lubrication purposes. valves. Usually the small feed of oil required spreads to the valves from the cylinder walls or is brought in atomized form from the air or gas stream. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 1. which compress on both ends of the pistons. Cooling can be by air or water but in larger machines water is usually required.

However. its lubricating ability. Hydrogen sulfide becomes corrosive in the presence of moisture so compressors processing this gas must be kept dry. The oxidation products can cause deposits which restrict air flow. such as carbon dioxide. the choice of lubricant and the use of proper feeds is essential. Sulfur dioxide dissolves in additive oils. The oils used should contain rust and oxidation inhibitors and be capable of absorbing moisture. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. b. thereby. have little or no effect on mineral lubricants. that in which there are large quantities of entrained liquids. d. Under certain conditions hydrocarbon gases (methane. imparted by the high temperatures involved in the compression process and the thin films of the exposed oil. d. NOTE: Most Saudi Aramco reciprocating instrument air compressors are designed to operate without cylinder lubrication. Other chemically active gases which are not compatible with petroleum lubricants are chlorine and hydrogen chloride.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Conditions applying to air are equally applicable to these gases. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Cylinder oils are subjected to severe oxidizing conditions. Oxygen compressors are designed to run without lubrication or with non-petroleum lubricants. The gases being compressed are also a factor in the selection of lubricant: a. forming sludges and reducing the viscosity. c. c. refinery gas) can condense and dilute the cylinder lubricant. Inert gases. Thus. Chemically active gases introduce new sets of conditions in lubricant selection: a. helium and nitrogen. Highly refined white oils are used in this application. natural gas. will require a heavier cylinder lubricant than dry gas. butane. direct from the well. Page 116 of 255 . Sour gas. thus reducing its viscosity and. Wet gas. Oxygen should never be compressed in the presence of petroleum oils as explosive mixtures will result. contains sulfur compounds and engine oils are used as they provide better protection against the corrosive effects of the sulfur. the running gear requires the same lubrication maintenance as any other compressor. March. hydrogen. b. increase temperatures and result in loss of power.

or sliding vane. If they are lubricated. This is usually accomplished through flood lubrication which also helps to seal the vane-cylinder space. Page 117 of 255 . b. often called screw compressors. c. compressors have vanes that are free to move in slots in a rotor mounted eccentrically in a casing. The impellers do not touch each other or the casing and no internal lubrication is required. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. All of the sliding surfaces in the cylinder require lubrication to minimize friction and wear. have a four lobed male impeller which meshes with a six lobed female impeller. Helical lobe compressors. using timing gears to separate the lobes. 125 psi is a practical maximum which can be doubled to 250 psi with two stages. Straight lobe machines are built with identical two or three lobed impellers which rotate in opposite directions inside a closely fitting casing. They can be operated without lubrication. In a single stage configuration. where oil is injected into the cylinder to absorb heat from the gas and to act as a seal between the rotors. Maximum pressures are approximately 100 psig for a single stage and 125 psig for double stage units. Compression pressures are low (up to 25 psi) and these units are often referred to as blowers rather than compressors. An external circulation system is required to control the temperature of the oil and a removal system to separate the oil and air at the discharge end. Rotary Compressors Rotary compressors fall into three principal types: a. they will be flooded. Gas is compressed by the action of the two mating rotors. Rotary vane. compressing the gas in the process.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. creating pockets which increase and decrease in volume. Rotation of the rotor causes the vanes to move in and out of the slots. March. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 2.

It is essential that the proper turbine oil grade is used and all seal oil system maintenance procedures are followed.000 RPM. In the diffuser ring. and thrust bearings and seals. due to increasing area in the direction of flow. Gas trapped between the impeller blades is accelerated and thrown outward and forward in the direction of rotation.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Axial Flow Compressors An axial flow compressor. As with centrifugal compressors. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Axial flow compressors are used in all of the smaller types of gas turbines because of their high capacities. March. Such dilution can affect the viscosity of the lubricating oil to such a point that machine damage may occur.0 to 10. Separate seal oil systems are provided for sour gas (H2S) compressor applications. Single stage units will deliver up to 10 psi and multistaging can increase this up to 10. a further reduction in velocity and increase in pressure take place. the second type of dynamic machine. The compression element is a multibladed rotor which rotates in a casing. which may be of either the plain or rolling element type. 500 psig. it is common practice to lubricate both bearings and gears from the same system including seals depending on the type of gas being compressed. Page 118 of 255 . The velocity is reduced and transformed to pressure as it flows through the expanding passages between the fixed and moving blades. The gas then enters a volute casing where.000 RPM to more than 40.500 psig depending on the number of stages. Where gear drives are used. Centrifugal Compressors Centrifugal compressors are particularly adapted to supplying volumes of gas at pressures ranging from 1. The gas leaves the blade tips with increased pressure and high velocity and enters a diffuser ring. These may be separate or integral with the lubricant circulation system. the lubricated parts are the bearings and any seals that may require oil. 4. again due to increasing area in the direction of flow. a reduction in velocity and a substantial increase in pressure take place. Their functions are to seal. in Saudi Aramco ranging from less than 10. contains alternating rows of moving and fixed blades. High velocity is imparted by the moving blades to the air being compressed. lubricate and cool: seal the lubricant from the product and cool and lubricate the seal faces. Compressors with combined lube and seal oil systems should have samples taken and analyses performed periodically to check for product gas dilution. Lubrication requirements for centrifugal compressors are limited to the shaft bearings. They are inherently suited to high speed operation. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3. Most Saudi Aramco compressors handling fluids and gases have seal oil systems.

ready for another cycle. However. when the hot. Refrigeration compressors. absorbing heat and cooling the affected space. usually of the reciprocating type. c. are exposed to low temperatures at the suction ports and relatively high temperatures at the discharge. the floc point of the oil becomes the limiting requirement. the refrigerants depress the pour point of the oil so that it does not congeal in the evaporator. 12. high pressure vapor flows from the compressor to the condenser. b. Systems are designed to prevent oil from entering the stream and the lubricating oil should have a pour point below the lowest temperature in the system. where it evaporates. due to the influence of the refrigerant. At the higher pressure at the discharge end of the compressor. HFC-134a refrigerant gases are replacing the above refrigerants in all new air conditioning/chiller compressors. March. the cooling water removes enough heat from it to condense it. receiver and expansion valve. and ammonia. compressor. Therefore. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5. These contradictory conditions require an oil which has low pour and floc points and sufficient viscosity and stability to withstand the high temperature and properly lubricate the cylinder walls. the condensing temperature of the refrigerant is higher than it would be at atmospheric pressure. Refrigeration Compressors Refrigeration compressors pose an entirely different set of lubricating conditions. are immiscible with petroleum oil so oil reaching the evaporator will solidify. R-22. 113 and 500 are miscible with oil in all proportions at all temperatures and pressures. For this reason refrigeration oils of the synthetic polyol ester type have been developed and must be used where HFC-134a is the refrigerant in use.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The vapor is then drawn into the compressor where its pressure and temperature are raised. Page 119 of 255 . R-11. This liquid refrigerant then flows to the receiver. Thus. Conditions with the running gear are similar to those found in air compressors. at which wax-like materials will start to separate out. Mineral oil refrigeration oils can not be used with these refrigerants. The following comments apply to the refrigerants in most common use (R for Refrigerant. condenser. 114 and 502 are generally miscible with oil under conditions found in the high pressure side of the compressor (the condenser) but are only partly miscible in the evaporator. Liquid refrigerant flows from the receiver under pressure through the expansion valve to the evaporator coils. The basic system consists of an evaporator. commonly referred to by brand names such as Freon): a. Being miscible. R-13 and 14. there is a temperature. the floc point.

March.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Discharge Temperature Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 68 or Machinery Oil 150. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The following table is a general chart of recommendations. Table 12 . Refrigeration Compressors Page 120 of 255 . Lubricators Conditions Saudi Aramco Lubricant Splash Force Feed or Separate Splash 0-500 psi 500-1000 psi 1000-2500 psi 2500-4000 psi >4000 psi 0-1000 psi 1000-2500 psi >2500 psi Wet Gas. Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD/CF <140 ºC 140-175 ºC >175 ºC Oil Cooled Type Lobe Type Centrifugal Compressors Axial Compressors Common System With Motor or Turbine Driver Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 150 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 320 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 320 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46/68 or Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 68 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46 or 68 Refrigeration Compressors Reciprocating and Certain Rotary types Except HFC 134a Refrigerant Gas Saudi Aramco Refrigeration Oil WF 68 Reciprocating and Certain Rotary Types where Refrigerant Gas is HFC-134a Saudi Aramco Refrigeration Oil HFC-134a Synthetic.Oil Recommendations For Saudi Aramco Compressors Type of Compressor Reciprocating: Cylinders and Bearings Bearings Cylinders. 320 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 68 or Machinery Oil 150 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 68 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 150 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 320 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 320 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 320 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 150 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 320 Consult Lubrication Engrs. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Stage Pressure Unstable Refinery Gas Rotary Compressors: Sliding Vane.

The oil and the oil filter should be changed after the manufacturer's recommended run-in. If the traps are small. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Lubricators should be inspected regularly. Lubricators should be set to give minimum oil feed rate for effective lubrication. e. h. If wet air filters are used. more frequent draining may be required. The rule of thumb is that the cylinders should have a very slight oil film and there should be no dry patches or signs of rust. discharge lines or coolers. Avoid any accumulation of oil in cylinders. they should be cleaned and reoiled AT LEAST weekly. Replaceable air filter units should be checked regularly and changed as needed. Follow manufacturer's recommendations or consult the Lubrication Engineers. If conditions are especially hot or dirty. which lead to hot spots and can ignite the oil vapor in the air and cause a fire or an explosion. receivers and traps at least once each shift if automatic drains are not provided. refer to the manufacturer's instructions or consult the Lubrication Engineers: Reciprocating Compressors a. March. g. b. f. approximately every three months or 2000 hours. aftercoolers. The lubricator reservoir and sight glass should be cleaned as part of the inspection procedure. The correct oil level must be maintained in the crankcase. Compressors MUST NOT BE OVER-LUBRICATED. Thereafter. Page 121 of 255 . d. Water should be drained from intercoolers. The net result of such accumulations may be deposits. For complete maintenance instructions. c. valves.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. both oil and filter should be changed on a regular schedule. A low level means oil starvation and poor lubrication. the interval should be shortened. at least 3-4 times per year. The best way to establish an appropriate interval is through laboratory analysis and a recommendation from the Lubrication Engineers. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The items listed below concern compressor maintenance and are a general guide. a high level means excessive agitation and oil carry-over to valves and discharge systems. Good compressor operation demands clean air or gas intake and correct lube feed rate.

March. d. j. If intercoolers or aftercoolers are fitted. This is a dangerous condition and should be corrected immediately. e. They should be cleaned as required and any broken discs or springs replaced. Shaft bearings. Centrifugal and Axial Compressors a. b. Valves and safety valves should be inspected every three to six months. a gear drive or both. Breathers or extractors should be checked on a scheduled basis and cleaned or changed as required. c. Some units will be integral with a gas turbine driver. Page 122 of 255 . Correct cooling water temperature should be maintained in jackets. under Reciprocating Compressors. l. k. intercoolers and aftercoolers. m. Oil level and filter condition should be checked on a regular schedule. Regular viscosity checks should be made of the seal oil in gas compressors where gas contamination can lower the viscosity and affect the sealing efficiency. the lubricating system will be common to all components and the service intervals applicable to the driver will cover the compressor as well. In such cases.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Glands should be inspected every six to twelve months and the packing adjusted or renewed as needed. Internal surfaces of coolers should be cleaned on a scheduled basis. A whistling or hissing sound should be investigated at once as it indicates a leaking valve. either by flushing or solvent washing. they should receive the same maintenance services as mentioned above. thrust bearings and seals may be served by a common lubricating system. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual i.

Examples are reciprocating. process pumps. Examples are centrifugal and jet pumps. consult the preceding sections on bearings and gears or ask the Lubrication Engineers. March. proportioning pumps. They will have such names as crude transfer pumps. There are two basic types of pumps: 1. Rotary and centrifugal pumps usually are driven by electric motors. is a general chart for pump lubrication. Also. fuel pumps. injection pumps. Some pumps are grease lubricated and the proper grease is Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 3 or Saudi Aramco Ball Bearing Grease 2. In some designs. PUMPS Pumps are used to move liquids or mixtures of liquids and solids. turbines or. Static. under certain conditions. Reciprocating pumps are either direct driven by an internal combustion engine or an electric motor. In the case of metering pumps and proportioning pumps. Page 123 of 255 . rotary. sewage pumps. the drive is via a gear box. Dynamic. occasionally.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. For more information as to specific grades of the products recommended. Table 13. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. shipping pumps and others. following. lubrication is provided by the liquid being pumped. vacuum pumps use only Saudi Aramco Vacuum Pump Oil. Specific exceptions to the above are some models of Byron Jackson submersible pumps. metering pumps. gear and vane pumps. where a decrease in volume in the working chamber causes fluid displacement. for which only B-J Submersible Pump Oil is recommended. water pumps. 2. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual G. diesel engines. Other designs require oil lubrication and the appropriate grade of Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil or Machinery Oil should be used. in which a dynamic action takes place between a mechanical element and a fluid. such as vertical line shaft pumps. Pump lubrication differs with the type of pump and the fluid being moved. vacuum pumps. submersible pumps. The pumps in most common use in Saudi Aramco operations are reciprocating and centrifugal.

Lubrication Recommendations For Pumps Type of Pump Direct Connected Centrifugal Parts To Be Lubricated Saudi Aramco Lubricant Bearings .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. B-J System System * B-J Submersible Pump Oil should be used in hot well service and on those pump motors with mercury seals Page 124 of 255 .68 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 3 Geared Pumps Centrifugal Common System Greased Bearings Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46. March. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table 13 .68 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46. Open Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 460 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 3 Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 220. Common System Seals Gears. EP 460 Saudi Aramco Open Gear and Wire Rope Lubricant Saudi Aramco Vacuum Pump Oil Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 68 or *B-J Submersible Pump Oil Vacuum Pumps Submersible Pumps. and Worm Gears. Deep Well Shafts Seals Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46.68 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 3 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 150 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46 Centrifugal Deep Well Bevel Gears Guide Bearings Integral Geared High Speed Bearings. Crossheads.Plain and AF Reuse All Loss Greased Guide Bearings. Gears Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-11/Turbine Oil 32 Reciprocating. Gears. Plunger Type Bearings.68 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 3 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46. Separately Lubricated Gears. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

In cases where contamination is unavoidable. Large systems will require periodic flushing. only the bearings require lubrication. 2.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. lubricated either with grease or oil. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The following general maintenance procedures are for plant guidance: 1. March. ELECTRIC MOTORS Electric motors and generators are relatively easily lubricated if they are cared for properly. Each product pumped requires different maintenance and creates different problems. depending on the interval established through laboratory analysis. Motors below 250 HP may have grease lubricated antifriction bearings. Oil reservoirs should be checked weekly and topped up if necessary. Problems with pumps result most frequently from product fluids passing the seals and bushings. Crossheads and linkages require a few drops of oil once or twice per shift and. the reservoirs should be topped up as needed. Page 125 of 255 . oil lubricated antifriction bearings or plain bearings. 8. 3. 4. The Lubrication Engineers will recommend the procedure. H. 7. Small circulation systems should be changed every 6 to 12 months. Frequent laboratory analyses and use of the Oil Condition Monitoring Program will help keep adverse conditions under control. Strainers/filters should be cleaned on a regular basis and should be of the inert type. The usual rule regarding lubricant selection is the following: 1. if equipped with drip feed oilers. 5. Ball and roller bearings should not be overgreased. separate pump/driver/gear units may be required. The Lubrication Engineers will interpret the analyses and recommend proper action steps. On large capacity systems. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. based on their knowledge of manufacturer's methods and industry practice. 6. Except in the case of integral gear motors. use Oil Condition Monitoring to follow the changing condition of the oil and the pump.

March. or if it is overfilled. is one approach at recommending oils for antifriction bearings. Oper. The baths or reservoirs of oil lubricated bearings require the same care that applies to other such equipment. the bearings will overheat and excess grease may leak into the windings. using temperature and speed as the only parameters: Table 14 . Temp. Ambient Temperature -7 deg C -7 deg C -7 deg C -7 deg C 4. regardless of speeds or loads. also in the Bearing section of this chapter. the simplified chart in Table 7. If this space is not available. under Bearings. The first point to be understood is that a bearing will expel grease which it does not need.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. the major problem with greased antifriction bearings is over-lubrication.5 deg C 4. 54 deg C 54 deg C 54 deg C 54 deg C 93 deg C 93 deg C 93 deg C 93 deg C Saudi Aramco Grade Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 150 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 68 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 32/46 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 32 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 150 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 68 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46/68 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 32 Integral gear motors have different requirements. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 2. Such an arrangement is shown in Figure 12. For oiled plain bearings. Motors over 250 HP will nearly always have plain bearings and they will nearly always be oil lubricated.5 deg C 4.Oils For Antifriction Bearings .Motors And Generators Speed. The following Table 14 supplements the other and refers specifically to electric motor and generator bearings. In the Saudi Aramco system.5 deg C Max. the housing must have space to accept the surplus grease. Therefore. RPM <500 500-1100 1100-3600 >3600 <500 500-1100 1100-3600 >3600 Min.5 deg C 4. based on the type of gears and the operating conditions. Table 8. all greased antifriction bearings. in the case of some oil lubricated take out bearings. Oil distribution may be by means of rings or pressure systems or. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. by means of a slinger ring. Page 126 of 255 . As was discussed earlier under "Bearings". is a sufficient series of recommendations for most Saudi Aramco equipment. Lubricant recommendations should come from the Gears section of this chapter. will use Saudi Aramco Ball Bearing Grease 2. from the manufacturer's instructions or from the Lubrication Engineers.

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A well-designed bearing has a relief or vent plug to allow excess grease to be expelled. Figure 13 shows such a bearing. Replenishing this type of bearing is done as follows: 1. 2. Remove power to the motor and wait for the motor shaft to stop running. A low-pressure hand lever gun should be used - never a high-pressure, airpowered gun. 3. The housing and the fitting should be thoroughly cleaned. The relief plug should be removed and the opening, including any grease vent pipe if fitted, freed of hardened grease. Grease should be added slowly until new grease appears at the relief plug. Proper safety precautions should be observed. The motor should be re-started and allowed to run for ten to fifteen minutes with the relief plug out. By this time there should be no more excess grease coming from the bearing. The relief plug should then be cleaned and refitted. NOTE: Re-greasing of Double Shielded Bearings: The use of double shielded bearings, particularly in electric motors is increasing. Contrary to some opinions they can be re-greased, and should be re-greased periodically, to prevent corrosion in the bearing housing and on the shaft. However, it is most important that the grease vent plug be removed when re-greasing and the bearing housing arrangement is such that the grease gun fitting and the vent plug locations are on the same side relative to the bearing position. The reason being that it is most important that during re-greasing the grease flow is not restricted otherwise the internal pressure can damage the bearing shields and in some cases displace the bearing on the shaft. The above does not apply to sealed bearings. On no account should attempts be made to re-grease bearing housings fitted with sealed bearings.

4.

5.

6. 7.

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Figure 12:

Oil-Fed, Slinger Ring Bearing. Oil from the reservoir is fed to the bearing by the oil ring.

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Figure 13:

Greased Electric Motor Bearing. Note the drain plug which allows the bearing to purge itself after regreasing. NOTE: For motors fitted with double shielded bearings special consideration is required. Refer to item 7 of this section on Electric Motors.

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Frequency of replenishment and repacking depends on motor size and speed, bearing operating temperature and whether service is intermittent or continuous. Additionally, the effect of the environment must be considered, such things as airborne dirt and chemical vapors. As a general rule, motor bearings in normal service should be checked and relubricated at intervals of one to two years. However, high speeds or high temperatures or hostile environments may require regreasing at one to three month intervals, where a relief plug is fitted. Replenishment and repacking intervals should be established by the Lubrication Engineers after a full study of on-site operating conditions and bearing designs.

I.

OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT This category consists of transformers and switchgear. In transformers, the functions of the oil are to insulate windings and to dissipate heat when under load. In switchgear, the functions are to insulate live parts and to extinguish arcs which may form when contacts open. The properties required of transformer and switchgear oils are low viscosity, good dielectric strength, good oxidation resistance and chemical stability. Saudi Aramco Transformer Oil is made from a highly refined base oil, contains no additives and is the only product permitted in Saudi Aramco transformers and switchgear. Insulating oils must be dry and free from contaminants. Minimum dielectric strength is usually guaranteed ex-refinery to be 30 kv or higher. During shipment and storage at site, however, the oil may pick up moisture and contaminants and these must be removed before use. The following oil usage procedures are recommended: 1. Transformer oil is to be stored indoors and should be held at the use site for ten hours before opening the drum. This will permit the oil to reach ambient temperature before exposure to the air -- thus air will neither be expelled or drawn in when the drum is opened. If, in a laboratory test, the oil is not 25 kv or over, it must be dehydrated before use. This is accomplished in one of two ways: a purifier/vacuum dehydrator or a filter press. The former is most common in Saudi Aramco operations. Only clean pumps and metal hoses should be used for filling transformers and switchgear. The equipment should be thoroughly flushed with clean, dry transformer oil before use.

2.

3.

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4.

Transformers should be filled through the bottom drain valve or through a hose reaching nearly to the bottom of the tank. A vacuum pump may be used to remove entrapped air bubbles. If possible, fill through a filter press or a filter cartridge. The level to which the transformer should be filled will vary with the type of unit involved. Manufacturer's instructions should be followed. The newly-filled transformer should be allowed to stand for 24 hours to allow air to rise or, preferably, the vacuum pump should remain in operation. At the end of this time, the level should be brought to the desired point with the air vent plugs open. Where possible, operate the transformer for a short time at low voltage to release air or moisture. Check the dielectric strength on a sample from the bottom of the tank, check the insulation resistance of the windings and recheck the oil level before applying full working voltage.

5.

6.

7.

Service checks for transformers should consist of the following: 1. 2. 3. Check oil level monthly. Renew desiccants in breathers before they become saturated. Take oil sample three months after installation or refilling and check dielectric strength. Check samples periodically for cleanliness, dielectric strength and neutralization number. The interval will depend on the equipment rating and the local environment. While neutralization number is less than 0.15 mg KOH/g, the oil may be passed through a purification unit every two to three years. When oil reaches 0.2 mg KOH/g, it should be changed. Immediately after emptying transformer, wash down the inside of the tank and the windings with clean insulating oil to remove oil deterioration products. Check tank and cover for corrosion. Any such material should be removed and the metal appropriately protected.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

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are the following: a. At overhaul. Check the level and condition of oil in hydraulically operated breaker mechanisms. 1. 8. Check insulating oil samples periodically for cleanliness. Switchgear not in regular use should be operated every three to six months to be sure it is still in good working order. Machine Tool Lubricants The primary parts of machine tools. c. They can be classified into a variety of types. 4. 2. Headstocks and tailstocks Gear boxes Spindles Page 132 of 255 . dielectric strength and neutralization number. Special oils are used in this service and guidance should be sought from the Lubrication Engineers. J. 6. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Moving parts with grease lubrication should be cleaned of old grease and relubricated with Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 3. MACHINE TOOLS Machine tools are used. where applicable. b. add the proper oil. the following brief remarks cover only the essential elements of the subject. requiring lubrication. Check oil level in dash pots and. Also. 7. remove oil and check dielectric strength which should be at least 25 kv. March. in a broad sense. check the condition of the insulators and for leakage of sealing compound. Wash switch with clean insulating oil and wipe down the tank. to alter the shape or size of a piece of metal. if necessary. Neutralization number testing is not usually necessary. Inspect all moving parts for burning or other damage and replace where necessary. 3. 9. For reasons of space and relevance. 5. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Service checks for switchgear should consist of the following: 1. covering numerous machining operations.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Check oil level on a scheduled basis and inspect for signs of overheating.

Whenever possible. Page 133 of 255 . If ISO 68 is called for. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. ways and feedscrews Grease lubricated parts Since most machine tools are precision made to do precision work. the manufacturer's recommendations should be followed. e. Tapping. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual d. Hydraulic systems Sliding surfaces. f. Threading. use Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 32 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 46 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 68 Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil 150 Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 460 Saudi Aramco Way Lubricant Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP NOTE: For motor bearings. use Saudi Aramco Hydraulic Oil AW 68 If ISO 32 is called for.Machine Tool Lubrication Guide Drilling. Parts Grinding Honing General Lathes 32-68 32-68 32-68 32-68 460 32-68* 32-68 W AP3 46-150 46-150 460 68 68 W AP3 68 68 68 W AP3 46-68 46-68 46-68 460 32-68 46 W AP3 46 46 460 32-68* 46-68 W AP3 46 460 46 46-68 W AP3 68-150 68-150 68 W AP3 Key: * ** ** 32 46 68 150 460 W AP3 Lighter oils may be required. Consult Lubrication Engineers. March. Section H. Ways Grease Lubr. correct lubrication is important. is a general guide showing the Saudi Aramco grades for various applications. Table 15. which follows.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. see Part V. Boring Planning Shaping Milling Machine Tool Function Machine Tool Element Main Gears Headstock Speed Chg. Table 15 . Gears Feed Gears Traverse & Worm Gears Spindles Hydraulics ** Slides.

Check and clean filters on scheduled basis. The type of fluid required depends on the severity of the machining operation and the type of metal being machined. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Lubrication maintenance should follow normal practice for gearboxes and hydraulic systems: a. Check condition of wiper shields on ways periodically. carrying heat away from the cutting tool and the workpiece. e. Alloy Steels and Stainless SOL GP or SOL GP or SOL GP or SOL GP or SOL GP or SOL GP GP GP HON SYN SOL HD HD HD HD HD HD HD HD HON SYN Non-Ferrous Metals Free-Machining Tough Alloys Alloys SOL SOL SOL SOL SOL SOL GP or SOL GP or SOL GP or SOL HON SYN SOL SOL SOL SOL SOL SOL GP or SOL GP or SOL GP or SOL HON SYN Operation Planing Drilling Milling Turning Boring Sawing Tapping Threading Reaming Honing Grinding Page 134 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2. Drain. consult the Lubrication Engineers. is a general guide to cutting fluid selection.Guide To Cutting Fluid Selection Ferrous Metals Mild Steel & Easily High Tensile Easily Machined Steels. depending on speeds and amount of use. Maintain correct levels. b. Table 16. Table 16 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. They act as coolants. b. flush and refill boxes on six to twelve month basis. If there is any doubt. They lubricate the tool and the chip faces. d. c. c. following. They prevent welding of the work and the tool. Cutting Fluids Cutting fluids (metal processing oils) perform several functions: a. March. Avoid contamination of machine lubricants by cutting fluids.

b.. non-soluble types: (1) Remove contaminants by centrifuge. The fluids are contaminated with metal chips. Special circumstances may require different ratios. The system must be thoroughly clean before putting in the emulsion. (2) Clean. a difficult process. Emulsion strength should be checked periodically and more oil or water added as is indicated.e.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Soluble cutting fluids require even more care in service due to the fact that they are emulsions and subject to bacterial attack and separation in service: (1) To prepare an emulsion. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Key: SOL GP HD HON SYN Saudi Aramco Soluble Oil Saudi Aramco General Purpose Cutting Fluid Saudi Aramco Heavy Duty Cutting Fluid Saudi Aramco Honing Oil Saudi Aramco Synthetic Grinding Fluid Cutting fluid maintenance is. The system should be kept free of contaminants by means of filtration or settling. (3) Keep machines and oil system clean at all times. Special maintenance routines are required: a. (2) (3) Mix emulsion only when needed. with gentle stirring. As a general rule 20 parts water to 1 part oil is used. The system should be drained and flushed with a germicide and refilled with new soluble oil at the recommended concentration. flush and refill system every three to six months. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. grinding grit and other undesirable materials. (4) Avoid contamination of machine lubricants by cutting oil. free from mineral or organic acids. fresh water. (4) (5) (6) Page 135 of 255 . i. always add the OIL TO THE WATER slowly. filter or settling. there may be bacterial or fungal contamination. Use clean. March. by nature. If there is a bad odor or a broken emulsion. With straight cutting oils. It doesn't store well.

pneumatic and electrical means may be stated simply . The bulk and weight of the apparatus is small in relation to the power transmitted. The inertia effects are minimal. Hydraulic systems may also give force or torque amplification. volume of fluid flow. 3. The resulting motion may be oscillating. Changing operating sequences. is generated by pumps. Hydraulic power. The conversion of hydraulic power to useful work is accomplished through actuators. In most cases. depending on the type and amount of work being done and the temperatures encountered. There is inherent protection against overload. hydraulic motors and hydraulic transmissions.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Transmission of power from the point of generation (the pump) is accomplished by the movement of the hydraulic fluid through pipes or hoses. 9. There is accurate control of speed. System construction is relatively easy. Page 136 of 255 . There is almost unlimited force amplification. they should be treated at once and their causes investigated. 5. force and position. If skin rashes appear. The force application is elastic. March. It transmits large amounts of energy. If clothing becomes oil-wet. rotary or straight line. A shorter interval may be necessary. Any skin area which has come in contact with the fluid should be thoroughly washed. 2.it is the versatility of the fluid power system: 1. 6. The advantage of hydraulic fluid power transmission over mechanical. 4. HYDRAULICS The hydraulic fluid power system may be defined as a means of power transmission in which a relatively incompressible fluid is used as a power transmitting medium. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual (7) The system should be thoroughly cleaned and refilled at least every three months. speeds and loads is simple. NOTE: Good personal hygiene is an absolute must for personnel handling any type of cutting fluids. for purposes of this manual. using standard components. Valves are used to control pressure. K. they will be the result of poor personal hygiene. it should be changed and laundered immediately. 7. The primary purpose of a hydraulic system is the transfer of energy from one location to another and the conversion of this energy to useful work. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 8. direction and to control force.

they are not widely used in industrial hydraulics and are unlikely to be found in Saudi Aramco. generally. Non-positive displacement pumps may be of the centrifugal or propeller types. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Figure 14 shows a simple gear pump. are rotary. and the only pumps likely to be found in Saudi Aramco equipment. a partial vacuum is formed. 2. They may be further divided into reciprocating and rotary types. Page 137 of 255 . However. positive displacement pumps and the most common of these are the gear. using pistons and cylinders of very large size. including both positive and non-positive displacement designs: 1. March. Positive displacement pumps may be of either the fixed or variable displacement type. the first producing a set flow of fluid per revolution and the second running at fixed speed but with a construction which permits the flow rate to be varied. consisting of a drive gear and a driven gear in a closely fitted housing. are used in water hydraulics. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual There are many different types of pumps.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Reciprocating pumps. drawing fluid into the inlet chamber. The gears rotate in opposite directions and mesh at a point in the housing between the inlet and outlet ports. vane and piston types. As the teeth of the two gears separate. The liquid is then trapped and carried between the gear teeth and the housing to the outlet chamber. Gear pumps generally operate at less than 1500 psi although newer designs reach higher levels. By far the most common configuration in industry.

in turn.g. imparts a reciprocating motion to the drive pistons. but the essential elements are as shown.. e. working in the cylinder barrel. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 14: Gear Type Hydraulic Pump. through ports. variable volume configurations. The rotor is slotted and the slots contain movable vanes. Axial Rotary Piston Type Hydraulic Pump. March. and discharged under pressure. Figure 15: Figure 16: Page 138 of 255 . The motor shaft turns the drive plate which. the vanes contact the housing and trap oil which is then discharged. trapped between the gear teeth and the housing. Other variations of axial piston pumps may have additional features. As the rotor turns. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Oil is drawn into the barrel through valve ports as the pistons are retracting and forced out as they are extended.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Vane Type Hydraulic Pump. under pressure. Fluid is drawn into the suction port.

both internal and external. Pumps of this type develop pressures of up to 1000 psi and they can be set up in series to reach higher pressures. a cylinder block which revolves around the pintle and houses the pistons and a rotor which controls the piston stroke. consists of a drive shaft which rotates the pistons. reduced pump capacity or efficiency and. If it is too viscous. inability to maintain dwell or hold the pressure. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The vane pump Figure 15 may be the most widely employed of all. As the rotor turns the pistons draw fluid into the cylinder bores as they pass the inlet side and force the fluid out of the bores as they pass the outlet side. The vanes thereby divide the area between the rotor and casing into a series of chambers which vary in size according to their respective position about the shaft. a cylinder block to house the pistons and a stationary valve plate which ports the inlet and outlet flow. Proper viscosity at operating temperature. There are two basic types: the radial piston and the axial piston. Both of these types of pumps are capable of very high pressures and the axial piston pump can be built with flexible. Anti-wear and lubricity. The liquid trapped between the vanes is carried to the outlet side of the pump and discharged under pressure. b. Figure 15 displays the working mechanism of a simple vane pump. pressure loss. The axial piston pump. therefore. fluid is forced out. Rotation of the drive shaft causes rotation of the pistons and the cylinder block. rectangular vane which is free to move radially in the slot. the results may be high internal friction and power loss. As the rotor turns.when they are separating. The rotor and vanes are enclosed in a casing. The first consists of a stationary pintle which ports the inlet and outlet flow. sufficient to protect the rubbing surfaces in the pumps and motors. The plane of rotation of the pistons is at an angle to the plane of the valving surface. the inner surface of which is eccentric or offset with the drive shaft axis. Rotary piston pumps Figure 16 are used in various forms where high pressure and accurate volume are required. 2. centrifugal force drives the vanes outward to contact and follow the casing contour. It consists of a slotted rotor which is moved by a drive shaft. high leakage. the results may be reduced wear protection.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. sluggish response and pump cavitation with erratic operation. possibly. a. Page 139 of 255 . The fluid requirements for hydraulic systems are as follows: 1. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Each slot of the rotor contains a flat. depicted in Figure 16. fluid is drawn into the cylinder bore and when they are closing. If it is too thin. March. variable volume flow. the distance between the pistons and the valving surface is continually changing -.

March. If contaminants build up. e. chain couplings and floating member couplings. 2. Saudi Aramco Turbine Oils 32 and 46 Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II (ISO VG 32) Saudi Aramco Hydraulic Oil AW 68 Saudi Aramco Turbine Oils are used in many hydraulic applications.g. The Lubrication Engineers should be consulted if there is any doubt as to the proper product to use. 2. Saudi Aramco Hydraulic Oil AW 68 and Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II are for those applications requiring an anti-wear oil. flushing may be required and it is good practice to flush with the grade to be used in service.. Adding to the oxidative influence is the catalytic effect of the variety of metals found in the systems. Cleanliness is vital to hydraulic systems and filters must be cleaned and serviced regularly. Those which contain a flexible member as part of the construction.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Water separability is required because intermittent operation nearly always leads to an accumulation of condensed atmospheric moisture. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Resistance to oxidation and deposit formation in the presence of the high temperatures and intimate contact with oxygen found in hydraulic systems.g. System maintenance can be summed up in the following few lines. geared couplings. metal disks or couplings with rubber parts. L. Page 140 of 255 . continuous spring or metal grid couplings.. 3. 4. It is best to circulate with a separate flushing pump as disturbed contaminants may damage the hydraulic pump. FLEXIBLE COUPLINGS Flexible couplings can be categorized in two general groups: 1. Couplings containing articulated joints. e. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3. An oil temperature of 40-50 °C is sufficient. or a lower viscosity of the same grade. Hydraulic fluids used in the Saudi Aramco system are: 1.

It has many benefits. This phenomenon occurs in tightly fitted contacts subjected to vibratory motion and can result in severe pitting and virtual destruction of both contacting surfaces. pose very difficult lubricating situations. Gear-type couplings are lubricated by any one of several methods. Gear Type Couplings Gear-type couplings are predominant in older Saudi Aramco equipment. in some cases. Geared couplings consist of meshing internal and external gears or splines and. e. To transmit torque from the driving shaft to the driven shaft. for this reason. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. of which the most common are: 1. All of the others. resistance to oil separation under extremes of radial acceleration. It has the characteristics required for this type of service. thermal growth and end-play. Page 141 of 255 . Figure 17 shows a typical geared coupling. To allow for and accommodate predictable and unavoidable misalignment and axial movement of the connecting shafts. To provide protection against damage to the driving and driven units because of shaft misalignment. The sliding action in a geared coupling generates heat and. Improper lubrication will cause severe wear through normal surface contact mechanisms and through fretting corrosion. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Couplings containing flexible members do not require lubrication and are not covered in this Manual. it is economical. are lubricated and. shock loads. high temperature properties and extreme pressure and anti-wear capability. because the movement is a sliding action. also called friction oxidation. They can transmit more torque than any other type of coupling of equal size. Grease Packed Grease is the most commonly used lubricant for geared couplings which operate at relatively moderate speeds and temperatures. often still found on older equipment.. the lubricant also is a coolant. 3. simple. and can handle transient shock loads. namely adhesiveness.g.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. In the Saudi Aramco system the sole filling for grease packed couplings is Saudi Aramco Polyethylene Grease 1. 2. They serve the following purposes: 1. reliable. Flexible couplings are the usual connecting link between two rotating shaft ends. a lubricant is required to maintain the flexibility by keeping friction at a minimum. March. It should be noted that this type of coupling is a mandatory requirement for all new equipment purchased by Saudi Aramco.

For servicing. causing weeping Breathing. Evaporation or misting Discharging along the keyway A burr on a flange A cracked or dried gasket Failure of an end ring seal Flange bolt loose Lubricant plugs not tight Lubricant plug seal missing Burr on lubricant plug seal Pinhole through sleeve Distortion due to misalignment Slow speed or reversing. g. However. If there is consistent loss of oil from the coupling. it may be due to one or more of the following: a. e. when running. where the shafts are inclined excessively Blowing. m. the grease should be carefully handpacked into all internal and external teeth. 2. i. q. d. caused by changes in ambient temperature Driver "hunting". p.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. March. by far the most common cause Page 142 of 255 . The space between the ends of the hubs should also be filled. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. c. Grease lubrication permits long intervals between services. the method provides good reliability as long as seals are maintained in good order. j. if there are high temperatures involved. resulting in axial oscillation Pumping. b. one for a fitting and the other to act as a relief plug. caused by rapid air movement across coupling Over-lubrication. k. cleaned and repacked with grease every year. the interval should be shortened to 6 months. couplings generally are provided with two removable plugs. o. where the coupling acts as a pump Tilting. f. l. Grease should be injected through the top fitting plug. until new grease appears at the lower relief outlet or plug. a coupling should be disassembled. Although oil level checks are required every 1000 hours and the oil must be drained every 6 months. h. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual When commissioning a new coupling. positioned at 45 above horizontal. to provide a reserve which will be thrown out to the teeth by the centrifugal force. and/or obvious seal leakage. m. n. Under moderate loads and conditions. Oil Filled Oil is preferred for geared couplings when operating at normal to relatively high speeds and temperatures and when coupling capacity is large enough to hold sufficient lubricant.

Oil temperature below 95 °C -. This can cause corrosion and damage to the gear teeth. Saudi Aramco procedures call for the addition of grease. In some cases the oil inlet to the coupling will be protected by a fine micron filter. When running. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The oils recommended for use in Saudi Aramco oil filled couplings are: a.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. If seals are tight. these couplings do not need frequent service. the grease must be carefully packed into spaces between and around the spring grid and into the space between the hubs. are removed from the oil. the couplings on circulation systems usually will be lubricated from the central system of the rotating driver or driven unit.Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 460 Oil temperature above 95 °C -. A typical example of such a unit is shown in Figure 18. b. Usually these couplings are grease lubricated.non lubricated types. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The Saudi Aramco recommendation for this service is Saudi Aramco Polyethylene Grease 1. A continuous spring grid slots into grooves in each coupling part. using a pressure gun. depending on the type of service. every three to six months. March. These must be renewed according to the OEM guidelines to ensure only clean oil flows through the coupling. the grease between the hubs is thrown outward to fill any voids. 3. Where still in service. The centrifugal action of the coupling will cause all particulate matter. When commissioning. including water.Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 1000 Continuous Oil Flow Gear couplings equipped with circulation systems for continuous oil flow may be found in the Saudi Aramco system but they are being phased out in favor of . The flexing of the spring takes up the misalignment and causes the spring to slide in the grooves during rotation of the coupling. Page 143 of 255 . to be separated out and deposited in the coupling. The units should be disassembled and repacked every 12 months. Spring Grid Type Couplings Another type of coupling found in Saudi Aramco equipment is the spring grid (or flex) type. Extreme care must be taken to see that all contaminants. including water.

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. joining the driving and driven shafts. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 17: Geared Coupling. Figure 18: Grid (or Flex) Coupling. The flexible coupling. March. protects both machines from the effects of minor misalignment. The sliding action between the gear teeth alleviates the potentially harmful damage that such misalignment can cause. Page 144 of 255 . The flexing of the spring in the groove compensates for minor misalignment. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

using Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP3. Actuator mechanisms usually are air operated or employ geared electric motors which use one or more gear boxes to reduce the motor speed and increase the torque required to operate the valve. Their upper limit is about 260 °C. 6. silicone fluids or greases are used. the greased threads should be covered with a tube or gaiter. Where valve stem bearings and nuts are used. Where threads are not turned for long periods of time. Fluid lubricants also are used to help reduce this critical friction.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The gear boxes and bearings require the same kind of lubrication care as do other gears and bearings. Page 145 of 255 . Lantern ring spacers are provided to allow the lubricant to reach the stem. One of the major problems is the contamination of the grease with blowing dust and sand. March. hydraulically or with air or gas. 4. 5. depending on the combination of valve type and material being controlled. Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP3 is used for manually greasing valve threads and driving nuts. Typical elements of valves which may require lubrication are: 1. 2. Valves may be manually operated by wrench. with lubrication requirements as shown below in Table 17.. Exposed valve stem threads Exposed stem thread nuts Valve stem bushings or bearings Valve stem packing Actuator mechanisms Valve sealing faces Geared Limit Switch The exposed threads of valve stems should be greased to maintain ease of operation and to prevent corrosion.g. VALVES Several different types of valves are used in Saudi Aramco operations. 7. there will be grease fittings and these should have regularly scheduled service. e. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual M. gate valves and plug valves. 3. ball valves. Valve packing is made with low friction materials to accommodate the need for precise valve positioning. The majority of the actuators used in Saudi Aramco operations are Limitorque or Rotork. lever or hand wheel or power actuated electrically. If the valve is left in the fully open position for long periods of time. For moderately high and low temperatures. they should be protected with Saudi Aramco Rust Preventive. They are used for flow control of a variety of fluids and gases and special lubricants and sealants are required.

without lubrication. non-critical service. Ball valves are available in many metals and with different types of sealing compounds. the Lubrication Engineers should be consulted. which is injected into a system of grooves around the plug and the body. The lubricants and sealants are all proprietary materials. Nut Limitorque Actuator Drive Sleeve and Top Bearing All Geared Limit Switch Oil Mist Lubricator Hydraulic System Valve Stems and Worm Gears Scotch Yoke Saudi Aramco Lubricant Frequency Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 220 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP3 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP1 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP3 Saudi Aramco Silicon Grease 44 Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP3 Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP3 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months Weekly 6 months 3 months 6 months Ball valves consist of a spherical element. minimizing sticking. typically have a steel plug which often is coated with a dry film.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The recommended Saudi Aramco sealant should be used to minimize leakage and protect the ball and seat. and a ground seat.Valve Actuator Lubrication In Saudi Aramco Actuator Builder Rotork Actuator Valve Stem. serves to improve the seal and reduce the turning effort. used for low-pressure. If there is any question. The sealant. usually. retained by a cage. to extremely high-pressure transfer of fluids or gases and requiring specialized sealant materials. Plug valves of the type used by Saudi Aramco. Page 146 of 255 . Valves of this type all consist of a plug. Turning the valve 90 degrees in either direction opens or closes it. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table 17 . March. and making operation relatively easy. better sealing than gate or globe valves. Plug valves range from simple cocks. Actuation is accomplished by means of a threaded handle which can be powered or manually operated. which fits in a shaped seat. A ball valve is faster closing and. The ball is rotated on the fixed seat which is renewable and often made of Teflon. which is drilled horizontally. many are single-sourced and nonsubstitutable. This coating gives a permanent separation of the metal surfaces of the plug and the body. Gate valves usually consist of a wedge-shaped gate which opens or closes a run of pipe.

is used for sealing and lubricating ball valves. gases. Valve Stem Lubricant. Valtex No.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. gasoline. Masonelian No. d. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The following listing is a guide to valve lubricants and sealants used in Saudi Aramco: 1. Ball Valves a. b. -28 °C to 205 °C). made by the Chemola Corporation. is used with the hydraulic high pressure gun.. It is suitable for use with most light hydrocarbons and LPG fluids for which ball valves are employed. 654G 26-009-077. This item and c-f. is used in the presence of water and all aqueous solutions. including caustic and compressed air (Temp. plug valve. SAMS 26-009-037 from Serck-Audco (U. 2. from Masonelian International Incorporated. 3.K. "Grease. (Temp. BTR Nordstrom Sealant No. kerosene. is used with high temperature hydrocarbons liquids. used with LPG. SAMS 26-009-017. is used with acids. A general purpose sealant. 10 °C to 260 °C). -12 °C to 177 °C). 40 °C to 260 °C). -15 °C to 325 °C). BTR Sealant No. BTR Sealant No. are from BTR Industries. jetfuel. made by M&J Valve Company. lubricating oils and crude distillates. P-77. c. kerosene. SAMS 26-009-027. is for use with gasoline. -10 °C to 260 °C). strong acids and alkalis (Temperature range -40 °C to 538 °C). Serpent 1699. BTR Sealant No. Approved under Mil-G-6032B.). aqueous chemical solutions and steam (Temp. made by Valves Inc. 555SS (bulk) 26-009-047. 2. March. is used in the presence of gasoline. alkalis. gasoline and oil resistant"(Temp. is used with solvent treated lubricating oils. SAMS 26-009-097. Desco H. (Temp. -10 °C to 177 °C). 80. 4. Plug Valve Lubricant 731. Gate Valve Lubricant No. 950J. below. oil and water. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 421D 26-009-067. 26-009-057. for lubrication ball valves in sour gas and sour crude service (Temp. of Texas. Page 147 of 255 .S. e. petroleum oils and natural gas Plug Valves a. SAMS 26-009-107. b. hot and compressed gas (Temp.

light duty and high quality fuels. monograde. kerosene. without additives. Due to the operating conditions and environment in Saudi Aramco. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual f. these service definitions were developed by the American Petroleum Institute. gasoline and diesel. gasoline. As spelled out in Part III of this Manual. N. shown in Part III of this Manual. There are eight levels for gasoline engines (from SA. Lubchem Formasil CO2 Heavy Duty sealant 26-009-095 for well head valves up to 10. h. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES The engines used in the Saudi Aramco system are both gasoline and diesel and are used in a wide variety of services: automobiles. Most engine manufacturers specify oil viscosity requirements according to the SAE Viscosity Classification System for crankcase oils. to CF. Saudi Aramco crankcase oils. Valve lubricants come in a variety of containers and sizes. March. supercharged engines in high speed.000 psi. stationary power. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. ONLY SAE 40 and SAE 15W-40 GRADES ARE USED. construction equipment. The classification only sets limits for viscosity and does not define other oil qualities. They are the most used method of specifying engine oil levels. to SJ. g. There are three methods of classifying engine oils: 1. trucks.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. lubricating oils and crude distillates (Temp. locomotives and marine applications.S. BTR Sealant No. resists H2S. Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil 15W-40 is to API CF-4 performance level. 2. and CG-4 multigrade. for use in gasoline engines from 1980 onward) and six levels for diesel engines (from CA. Refer to the SAMS catalog or to the supplier's literature. R. crude oil. 555 Gun Pack 26-009-087. Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD and Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil EMD. to mention a few. By viscosity. are at the CD level. Clare/ Vetco Grey XP-82 sealant 26-009-090 for high pressure valves in Khuff gas well heads. A general purpose sealant for use in the presence of LPG. -29 °C to 260 °C). Page 148 of 255 . high output duty). introduced 1997. By service level.

As with other engines. The Oil Condition Monitoring Program should be used to establish drain intervals and to monitor engine condition. ambient temperature at the site.e. light or heavy loads. By performance level.. construction equipment. to a large extent. this means that there is the additional responsibility of keeping the heat transfer system clean and operative. as well as in stationary diesel engines. The procedures laid down in builder's operating manuals should be followed with particular attention to regular oil and filter changes. This method has been supplanted. air cleaner maintenance. developed by Caterpillar and now superseded by Mil-L-2104C which describes an oil for heavy duty diesel engines and moderate service gasoline engines. standby or auxiliary power require the same service as the land-based types.e. In the Saudi Aramco system. dictated by the conditions at the site.S. i. Page 149 of 255 . military and engine builder specifications. Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD is qualified against Mil-L-2104D. The attention required by stationary diesel engines is similar to that of mobile equipment engines. The Oil Condition Monitoring Program should be utilized for these engines. For EMD (Electromotive Division. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3. NOTE: Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oils CD and 15W-40 are NOT to be used in EMD engines! (See section covering EMD engines). cars. GM) engines in Marine Department service. The principal difference between them may be the cooling systems: direct. Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil EMD is used exclusively. Among those most frequently quoted are these: Series 3. March. Engines used for marine propulsion. Air filters must be cleaned on a regular schedule. etc. Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD is used in mobile engines.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. by the service level approach. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. draining oil while hot and thorough flushing at recommended intervals. In terms of maintenance. the Oil Condition Monitoring Program will aid in extending engine life and conserving oil. based on manufacturers recommendations and individual operating variables. i. trucks. in the case of the on-shore units. fuel quality. Regular lubrication maintenance is essential for all mobile equipment engines operating under the severe conditions imposed by the environment in the Saudi Aramco area.(See section covering EMD engines). Oil quality is stated in terms of the performance level as defined by various U.. and indirect in the marine applications. Oil and oil filters must be changed at predetermined intervals. steady or intermittent service.

2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual EMD engines. Both usually work in combination with gear and clutch assemblies. Manual transmissions are usually spur or helical gears with a manually operated linkage to change gears. The manufacturers of transmissions have their own recommendations for lubrication. may not always agree with the builder's publications. They may be manually operated or automatic. Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil EMD is a specially formulated oil with an additive package that will not tarnish these bearings. However. have specific lubricant requirements. The cumulative data provided by the Oil Condition Monitoring Program is especially valuable with these most critical engines. Questions should be referred to the Lubrication Engineers. cools and acts as a hydraulic medium to activate controls. They are enclosed in a gearbox with oil bath/splash lubrication. However. Page 150 of 255 . Service intervals for various classes of equipment will be those contained in the builder's manuals. Fluids for automatic transmissions are high viscosity index oils with additives to resist oxidation and foaming. March. they all will be lubricated with either Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD (SAE 40) or Saudi Aramco Automotive Gear Lube 90 or 140.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. lubricates. Saudi Aramco recommendations comprehend the unique environment in Saudi Arabia and. For Saudi Aramco equipment. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. O. in that sense. Transmissions provide speed and torque change. They are filled with a fluid which transmits power. in the Saudi Aramco system. 40 or 50 engine oils or SAE 90 or 140 gear oils. dictated by the silver flashed bearings used in their running gear. These may be SAE 30. only two grades are used. The requirements of Allison C-3 are met by Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD and all other transmissions use Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II. The fluid also has to facilitate engagement of the clutch plates and drum bands in the mechanism. used for marine and locomotive propulsion. Automatic transmissions use either fluid couplings to transmit power or torque converters to transmit power and change torque. Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine oil EMD also may be used in other makes of diesel engines where API Service CD is appropriate. MOBILE EQUIPMENT (EXCEPT ENGINES) The definitive sources of information for vehicle maintenance are the manuals supplied with the equipment. Transmission manufacturers usually specify the grade and type of fluid and issue approvals. 26-003-340.

The recommendations for individual machine elements are the same as for similar equipment ashore. it will need a special lubricant and the Lubrication Engineers should be consulted. For power steering units. should be used in both applications. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Final drives or differentials on most equipment are hypoid or spiral bevel gears. The type of service in passenger cars differs from that in trucks and to cover both requirements. Winches a. P. using modifications provided by the Lubrication Engineers. March. depending on the type of pump and the severity of service.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Active EP oils are essential for hypoid gears and are suitable for spiral bevel gears. If a final drive with a worm gear is found. Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II. multi-purpose gear lubricants. MARINE EQUIPMENT (EXCEPT ENGINES) Usually. where the manufacturer calls for an SAE 10 or 20 engine oil. Chassis points calling for oil lubrication will use Saudi Aramco Automotive Gear Lube 140. also may be used where a lower viscosity hydraulic fluid is appropriate. The Saudi Aramco product filling this requirement is Saudi Aramco Automotive Gear Lube 140. suitable for API Service GL-5. vessels will have been provided with specific lubrication instructions by the builder. 26-002-130. Saudi Aramco Hydraulic Oil AW 68 or Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II. Wheel bearings and grease-lubricated chassis points will use Saudi Aramco All Purpose Grease EP 3. The principal difference between the two types of service is the harshness of the environment to which the off-shore gear is exposed. These should be followed to the extent possible with the lubricants stocked in the Saudi Aramco system. Mobile hydraulic systems are found on tractors and construction equipment and the manufacturers usually will recommend the use of lighter grade engine oils. where an SAE 30 is called for. The proper Saudi Aramco product for this application is Saudi Aramco Hydraulic Oil AW 68 which has a viscosity corresponding to SAE 20-20W and has appropriate anti-wear additives. and Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II. with a viscosity conforming to SAE 10-10W. 1. the Saudi Aramco recommendations are Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD. Hydraulic systems should use Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD. Page 151 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

The same general recommendations apply. Manual units will have sheaves which should be greased by hand on a scheduled basis. Davits a. 4. Barge jack-up legs are subject to special lubrication instructions and the Lubrication Engineers should be consulted. Separate regulations covering life-saving equipment supersede all other recommendations. March. should be used. For the rack and pinion mechanisms a special heavy duty Saudi Aramco Rack and Pinion Grease. on an as needed basis. 26-004-540. 2. c. Recommendations for hydraulic systems and electric motors are the same as shown above. c. b. Open gears and cables should be coated with Saudi Aramco Open Gear and Wire Rope Lubricants. d.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Boat davits can be operated manually or powered by electric or hydraulic means. The same machine elements as were found in the foregoing section (Winches) will be found in deck cranes. Liberal use of Saudi Aramco Rust Preventive is encouraged to protect exposed metallic surfaces from rust and corrosion. 3. Gear boxes on powered units should be checked regularly and any accumulated water drained. d. Deck Cranes a. b. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual b. Enclosed gears have different requirements depending on the type and general recommendations will be found under "Gears". Electric motors should be serviced with Saudi Aramco Ball Bearing Grease 2 but only at such intervals as have been established in consultation with the Lubrication Engineers and in conformance with the general instructions covered under "Electric Motors". Page 152 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

Proper use of protective paints and rust preventives is essential. either turbine or vane actuated. normal air compressor lubricants may be used. Service air compressors and refrigeration compressors are treated the same as shore-side counterparts. Some tools have built-in oil reservoirs and air and oil are mixed at the tool. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. steering mechanisms. Again. as are found on percussion tools. Q MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT 1. should be maintained in accordance with the builder's instructions. Others have an air-line oiler to provide an air-oil mist to the moving parts. which serves a number of tools.. with oil resistant hose between the oiler and the tool. March. If fool-proof traps are provided to keep oil from entering the compressed air. Compressors a. The air-line oiler should be fitted less than 12 feet from the tool. pneumatic tools and rock drills. the harsh environment is the principal difference in equipment care at sea as opposed to the same equipment on land. b. One oiler per tool or drill is essential. may cause oil starvation of one or more of the tools. instrumentation. an oiler feeding a manifold. Page 153 of 255 . or reciprocating. If such safety equipment is not fitted. The humid air encountered in marine applications requires special attention to intake air filters and system traps. Air Operated Equipment Compressed air is used to operate air motors on hoists. a special product will be required and the Lubrication Engineers should be consulted.g. thrusters. See Compressors" in this section of the Manual. c. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5. Equipment utilized in the actual operation of the vessel. Diving air is subject to special consideration. Air motors may be of the rotary type.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Recommended lubricants for Saudi Aramco air tools are Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil 32 and Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II. etc. e.

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. with wire rope lubrication per se. marine and oil drilling equipment. the Saudi Aramco products are Saudi Aramco Open Gear and Wire Rope Lubricant. For these. is that it is easily overdone and the excess lubricant attracts and holds a buildup of airborne dirt. The problem with such devices and. indeed. Wire Ropes Figure 19 shows the various types of wire ropes which are widely used in construction. March. 26-007-330 35lb. or run the ropes dry. to protect against rust and corrosion and to protect the sheaves. it may be best to use a wire rope aerosol spray lubricant. This acts as an abrasive and. pressure fed oilers which drip on the rope and others of similar nature. it actually accelerates it. instead of protecting the rope from wear. slides and drums from wear as the rope passes them. Lubricants usually are applied by hand except for those which are out of reach. the core and the strands. rollers. . brushing or passing the rope through a bath of the material. Page 154 of 255 . there are a variety of application devices. 26-011-280. given moderate operating conditions. can. 26-007-330 can be applied by spraying. spray can). (or 26-007-302 1 lb. such as oiled brushes through which the rope passes. The purposes are to lubricate the components of wire rope. If a lubricant is used. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 2. Thus.

Page 155 of 255 . March. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 19: Various Types of Wire Rope.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

used in high speed. drip or manual methods are satisfactory. one example of a machined surface chain. without machined surfaces.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Some operators. 3. They will be easier to clean and there will be less tendency for airborne dirt to adhere to the chain. Chain drives can be enclosed or open. Both of these types are used in single or multiple strands. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. lower cost drives. These are the areas most in need of lubrication. either a mist or a pumped spray is required. a relatively light oil should be used on chains. a modern example of the cast link design. Page 156 of 255 . Over 2000 feet per minute. either bath or drip methods may be used. such as are found in the oil fields. Drive Chains Drive chains fall into two general categories: a. March. In practice. Between 500 and 1000 feet per minute. lower power. The most important thing to remember is that the tension must be off the chain if the lubricant is to reach the internal pins and bushings. precision drives. The best method of lubricating chains is to remove them from the machine and soak them in the lubricant. machined surface chains. working in extremely dusty conditions. Between 1000 and 2000 feet per minute. They find that it is less sticky and that dirt can be removed more easily when the rope is relubricated. cast or forged link chains. The other is the so-called "silent chain" in which the links of the chain are so machined that they very nearly fill the clearance space in the sprocket. Under cleaner conditions. used in lower speed. Figure 21 pictures a rivetless chain. by drip feed. this is often impractical and other means must be used. or by a force-fed brush which distributes the oil over the chain. The continuous lubrication methods described below should be supplemented with periodic deep oiling treatment. Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD is an appropriate filling for such use. Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP 220 may be used. Chain speed is the key to the application method: below 500 feet per minute the bath. In dusty conditions. mist oiler. prefer to use engine oil to protect and lubricate wire rope. b. regardless of the application method. In Figure 22 the wear zones in a chain drive are shown. using side bars instead of rivets to hold the links together. Figure 20 shows the precision parts in a typical roller chain. the bath method may be suitable but a mist application is preferred. and can be lubricated by dipping into a bath.

Figure 21: Figure 22: Page 157 of 255 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 20: Roller Chain Cross Section. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Rivetless Chain.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. using snap-on side bars in lieu of rivets to hold the links together. March. Wear Zones on Chain System. The wear zones shown are the areas to which lubricant should be applied. This is a cast chain. These are precision machined elements and require effective lubrication to prevent premature wear.

is an additive concentrate which may be introduced into any enclosed circulating lube system or hydraulic power unit which is susceptible to corrosion from humid air. 26-007-440. inactive machines would be stored indoors in a building with controlled humidity. The vapor space inhibitor protects internal metal parts above the oil level by releasing vapors which condense on the metal surfaces to form a thin film corrosion protection. It can be applied by brushing.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. The amount of vaporization is dependent on the oil temperature. Thoroughly mix the oil by running the system for one hour. A short term procedure for laying up a diesel engine is as follows: 1. Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil Vapor Space Inhibitor. Page 158 of 255 . PRESERVATION OF IDLE EQUIPMENT NOTE: For additional information refer to the Saudi Aramco Mothballing Manual SAER 2365. Periodic oil testing will be required to maintain the effectiveness of vapor inhibitors and respiking of the system may be necessary. Stop the engine and drain oil from the crankcase. Ideally. is a soft film external type of rust proofer and it should be used for the protection of small parts to be placed in storage for any period of time. A five percent (by volume) spike should be added to a circulating system when the bulk oil temperature is below 60 deg C. March. Since this usually is impractical. 2. Saudi Aramco Rust Preventive. Fill the crankcase and filter pump housing with Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD. airless spray or dipping. For assistance on testing refer to the Lubrication Engineer. fuel pump housing. Run the engine until it is thoroughly warm. a series of procedures has been developed to minimize the effects of inactivity. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual R. Whenever possible. etc. It is recommended to drain off any existing water from the bottom of the idle reservoir before the space inhibitor concentrate is added. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The parts should be thoroughly cleaned and dried before treating with the rust preventive. the treated parts should be wrapped in cheesecloth or waxed paper before storing. Short or long-term periods of inactivity are a major cause of equipment deterioration. therefore continuous running or agitation of the oil will deplete the inhibitors rapidly. filter housing. 3. This will also activate the vapor and distribute it into all cavities. 26-007-240.

Completely drain the fuel system . March.. do not remove fuel injectors. Fill crankcase and filter housing with fresh Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD. fuel pump. Coat external unpainted surfaces with Saudi Aramco Rust Preventive. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 10. Switch off the ignition. tape dipstick openings. carburetor. 6. 2. etc. exhaust pipes. oil and fuel caps. Drain crankcase and filter housing.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31.tank. spray oil into other apertures. 8. 9. 3. accelerating to top speed two or three times. Also. Coat external unpainted surfaces with Saudi Aramco Rust Preventive. Leave fuel lines full of the calibration fluid. remove batteries and keep fully charged. Seal all vents and openings with waterproof paper and tape. as described above. Warm up engine. starting air valves. refill with 10:1 mixture of water and Saudi Aramco Soluble Oil or proprietary coolant. 4. Relieve tension on all belts and remove batteries. with waterproof tape. Drain fuel from the tank(s) and fuel filter housings and fill with Saudi Aramco Fuel Injector Calibration Fluid. Seal all vents with waterproof paper and tape. 7. fuel and oil caps. seal dipsticks. Page 159 of 255 . etc. Spray Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD into the fuel tank. using dry compressed air. 12. 8. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 4. 7. Drain and flush the cooling system and refill with a 10:1 mixture of Saudi Aramco Soluble Oil and water or a proprietary coolant. No fuel should remain in the system as gums may form during storage. disconnect intake and exhaust manifolds and spray Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD into air intakes and exhaust outlets while turning the engine over. 11. crankcase ventilators. such as indicator holes. 6. crankcase ventilators. The short term procedure for gasoline engines is similar: 1. Run the engine. Prime the fuel system Drain and flush the cooling system. 12. Run engine at idle for 15 minutes. When the engine has cooled. Stop engine by spraying Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD into the carburetor air intake (with the air cleaner removed). 5. 10. exhaust pipes. 9. Relieve tension from all belts. 5. 11. filter and fuel lines.

Coat all external unpainted metal surfaces with Saudi Aramco Rust Preventive. generators. Drain and flush water cooling systems and refill with a mixture of 10:1 water and Saudi Aramco Soluble Oil or proprietary coolant. 2. Page 160 of 255 . Turbines. seal all vents and brush Saudi Aramco Rust Preventive onto all unpainted external ferrous parts. March. spray a small quantity of the oil into the air intake while running or turning. bearing housings. centrifugal compressors and other major equipment items require special procedures and special preservative materials. Seal all breathers and other openings. Drain the oil. the Lubrication Engineers should be consulted. Fill the crankcase and lubricator housings to the correct level with Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD. When such equipment is proposed for layup. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual The short term preservation treatment for gearboxes. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. or refer to the Saudi Aramco Mothball Manual SAER 2365. 4. if installed. if possible. Fill completely with Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD and turn over by hand. 2. Reciprocating compressors are treated for layup as follows: 1. Drain oil from gear cases. filters and associated elements and flush until clean. pumps. 3. Drain and flush the sump and mechanical lubricator housings. be certain the drain is the low point.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 3. Run the compressor at no-load or turn by hand to distribute oil to all working surfaces. 5. couplings and similar equipment is as follows: 1. 4.

Page 161 of 255 . These samples are checked in the Saudi Aramco lube oil testing laboratory. which follows.OIL INSPECTION. ANALYSIS AND CONDITIONING This section of the manual deals with lubricant maintenance . The burden is on the supplier to inform Saudi Aramco of any changes in his product which would affect this quality control process.how to ensure the quality of the lubricant before use and during use. QUALITY CONTROL Quality control in Saudi Aramco starts with lubricant specifications. a similarly representative number of pails will be sampled. All future deliveries will be compared to the "reference" samples. March. Saudi Aramco Class 26 lubricant specifications are written to assure that the products used are the best choices for the diverse jobs at hand. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. measuring their properties against the specification and against the reference sample provided by the supplier. When required. doing the best job with the least number of products. To assure that this chain of quality checks is maintained. Before they are approved as suppliers. bulk deliveries and a representative percentage of all drums are checked. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual PART VI . it covers the Oil Conditioning Monitoring Program. At present. samples of incoming shipments are taken. a technique for using oil analyses as a means of monitoring equipment condition and extending oil life. Logistics and economics both dictate the need for a strict program of rationalization. Also. they will be known manufacturers. they will have submitted "reference" samples of their products which must conform to the specifications. is a Summary of Required Laboratory Tests for New Lubricating Oils.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Table 18. A. The next step in quality control comes from the credibility of the various approved suppliers. For this reason. In every instance. companies who have reputations to uphold.

ASTM D1744 Flash. ASTM D2896 Insol.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31.. ASTM Water. Turbine x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Engine C'case x x x x x x x Trans. Mach. ASTM D892 Pour Pt.. Gas Turb. ASTM D92 Infrared Foam. ASTM D93 Flash. Metals PPM Neut No. Saudi Aramco Color. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. all grades Saudi Aramco Machinery Oil... Syn..Summary Of Required Laboratory Tests New Lubricating Oils Turb. all grades The results of these laboratory tests are continuing assurance that the products being delivered meet Saudi Aramco standards. Saudi Aramco Key: Turb Mach Gas Turb Syn Turbine Engine - Trans Hyd Insulating Refrigeration Gear Lube - Saudi Aramco Turbine Oil. x x x x x x x Insulating x x x x x x x Refrigeration x x x x x x x Gear Lube x x x x x Test Appearance. . March. ASTM D2276 Solids. ASTM D1552 Chlorides. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table 18 . ASTM D97 Sulfur. ASTM D664 TBN. Saudi Aramco Vis @40 C. ASTM D445 Spectro. KV. ASTM D893 Dielectric. ASTM D445 Vis @100 C. Hyd. all grades Saudi Aramco Gas Turbine Oil 32 Saudi Aramco Synthetic Gas Turbine Oil 5 Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil CD Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil 15W-40 Saudi Aramco Diesel Engine Oil EMD Saudi Aramco Transmission Oil D-II Saudi Aramco Hydraulic Oil AW 68 Saudi Aramco Insulating Oil Saudi Aramco Refrigeration Oil Saudi Aramco Automotive Gear Lube 140 & 90 Saudi Aramco Gear Lube EP. Page 162 of 255 .

f. Be aware of sounds and vibration. Little leaks become big leaks. March. Just because the level appears to be right is not enough. The following are just a few of the "secrets" which make really good lubrication maintenance people: a.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. He has extra ears to hear noises that are out of place. Oil Inspection It has been said that every good lubrication maintenance man has an extra set of senses. The smell of hot oil is very noticeable. It is a good opportunity to visually examine the oil to see if there are traces of residual water or other foreign material present or if an emulsion has begun to form. 1. take an oil sample once the water is gone. d. The smallest leaks are indicative of an incipient problem. Only by really looking and occasionally checking inside the reservoir can you be certain that what you see is the real thing. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. There is a lot of truth in that adage but there really is nothing supernatural about it. It comes from practice and from an intimate knowledge of the machinery with which one works. below. c. for some of the things to be learned. b. A filter housing with the cover bolts painted in place has not been serviced. Filter changes are easy to put off. the loss in drops adds up to a loss in gallons. Sight glasses can be misleading. the steps to be taken at the point of use to be certain that the lubricant is enabled to do the job for which it was designed. In this section. Table L in PART VIII covers the subject of leaks in detail. Page 163 of 255 . e. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual B. Be aware of such conditions and take corrective steps. guidance has been given on the proper lubricants to use in specific equipment and the steps to take to ensure that the lubricant performs as expected. See Table 19. the subject is on-site lubricant maintenance. ON-SITE LUBRICANT INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES Throughout the foregoing sections of this Manual. Trace it to it's source. simply by touching he can determine something that is too hot and his nose is aware of abnormal odors. When draining accumulated water from a reservoir. A bearing which is badly worn has a different sound than one which is running well and worn or misaligned parts may develop vibrations. given time. Not only that. the eyes in the back of his head see things that just don't look right.

It does not make a good lubricant and. not the cost of an analysis. Also. Samples. Simple visual inspection supplements routine laboratory analyses and the Oil Condition Monitoring Program. whether for routine analyses. visual examination or Oil Condition Monitoring Program. March. b. The intent is to save the machine.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. For used oil analysis requiring additional tests use a 500 ml sample bottle. A proper visual examination will involve the comparison of the used oil with a sample of new oil. the cause should be determined and corrected. These are a few of the things which a lubrication maintenance man can do to keep equipment running longer and more efficiently. when it is observed. indicate that there is an obvious and immediate way to correct an abnormal condition. These simple visual procedures are intended only to supplement the far more reliable laboratory tests. If there is any doubt. causing air to be taken in? Are baffles needed to lessen agitation of the oil? Are the flow rates and oil pressures as recommended by the manufacturer? Remember that dirt and water contamination also contribute to foaming. Often such visual checks will establish the need for laboratory assistance or. These are available in SAMS Class 25. Is the oil return line above the oil level in the reservoir? Is air being drawn into the suction side from leaking pipes or because the oil level is too low? Is the suction filter clogged. Table 19. unused disposable plastic sampler bottles. 25-008-738 is a 250 ml bottle used for most routine used oil sample testing. a "smell test" may be rewarding: such distinctive odors as kerosene. Foam is a lot of air and very little oil. following. but they are important ones. Mention was made above of the value of visual inspections of used oil. should be taken as follows: a. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Always ensure sample bottles are completely filled. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual g. 250008-747. use the laboratory. If possible. Use clean. on the other hand. take sample while machine is under normal operating load. is a guide to the causes of abnormal appearance in used oil samples. solvents and sour or sulfurous gases or crudes are indicative of contamination from specific sources. Page 164 of 255 . NOTE: Care should be taken when checking odor in case dangerous gases or vapors are present.

After oil is added. hours since last oil change or overhaul. Entrained Air Unstable Emulsion Stable Emulsion Clear But Separated Water No Change Drain Water As Soon As Possible Requires Lab Analysis To Determine Source Of Water Requires Lab Analysis to Determine Source Of Dirt Requires Lab Check Centrifuge Setting. it should be properly labeled: date. d. first flush the drain cock into a separate container for visual examination.Visual Inspection Of Used Oil Samples Appearance Of Sample As First After 1 Taken Hour Clear Opaque. Then draw the sample slowly into another bottle. machine identification. Page 165 of 255 . Regardless of the use for which the sample is intended. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. When sampling from a drain cock. sampling point and.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. take samples before and after. Centrifuge Filter. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table 19 . allow several hours for thorough mixing before sampling. Operation Check Centrifuge and Send Lab Sample Dirty Separated Solids Dirt In System Check Filter Or Centrifuge Dark Acidic Odor No Change Oxidized Oil Analysis Requires Lab Analysis c. March. Samples should be taken after a full-flow filter or before a by-pass filter. If checking on filter effectiveness. e. Centrifuge None Find and Cure the Cause of the Foam None Find and Cure the Cause of the Foam Reason Foaming. Note that OCM samples require more data which will be covered in detail in the next section of the Manual. oil type and grade. f. Cloudy Clear Action To Be Taken System Without System With Filter. whenever possible.

removing only solid particles. i. Such materials as iron oxide.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. (refer Glossary). Any water or particulate matter will reduce the dielectric strength and the insulating oil will be ineffective. promoting wear and acting as catalysts in the oxidation process. an internal combustion engine has a much higher tolerance for contamination and cleaning usually is confined to on-board filters.e. together with water. (refer Glossary). i. In transformers the desirable contamination level is zero. or as a clarifier. It becomes unfit for service when it develops a contaminant load which is beyond practical filtration levels or it oxidizes. Oil does not "wear out". functioning as a purifier for removal of all contaminants. Different machines have different tolerances for contamination and the cleaning methods will vary with these differences. On major equipment a centrifuge may be fitted. dirt and other contaminants in order to protect vulnerable machine parts from excessive wear and to maximize oil service life. form oxidation catalysts and can drastically shorten the useful life of lubricating oil. March. The crudest form of water removal involves draining from low points in the system. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. as more new oil is added. such as coalescers.. On the other hand. The oxidation rate also is affected by the make-up rate. including water. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages. is accelerated with high temperatures and is advanced by the catalyzing effects of contaminants which are present in the oil. Oil Maintenance Aside from the periodic cleaning and flushing of reservoirs and machines. usually portable. The purpose of lubricant cleaning is to remove water. which in turn become abrasive particles.. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 2. the oxidation process is slowed. Page 166 of 255 . Water is the contaminant most frequently found and most in need of removal. a function of contact with oxygen. As a result insulating oils are passed through filter presses or vacuum dehydrators to attain high levels of cleanliness. oil maintenance is largely a function of keeping the oil clean and moisture free. becomes chemically unstable and prone to deposit formation on machine parts. This oxidation process. For more information on this subject consult with the Lubrication Engineers. It causes corrosion and rust.e. lead and copper. Other methods of removing water are through the use of commercially available devices. and vacuum dehydrators.

This situation may change in coming years and for that reason definitions of the various reprocessing treatments is now included in the Glossary in Part VIII. March. such as dirt or water. Figure 23: Typical Centrifuge of the Type Used for Lube Oil Purification. to be removed from the oil. Page 167 of 255 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Reclaiming. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. but otherwise reclaiming/recycling of lubricants and related fluids is not currently undertaken. Centrifugal force causes impurities.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. recycling and rerefining of lubricants and hydraulic fluids is a rapidly growing area brought about by legislative pressures on the conserving of lubricants and related fluids. Some seal oil reclamation is carried out at Saudi Aramco plants.

or ring dams. but without flooding. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Effective capacity is the quantity of oil which can be handled by the centrifuge with the desired degree of purification. Page 168 of 255 . In many instances.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. They are not filters in the finest sense of the term but they require periodic inspection and maintenance. they should be referred to the Lubrication Engineers. If the centrifuge is a separate item. They take many forms. Nearly every machine with an oil circulation system will be equipped with basic strainers. moved from machine to machine. which are matched to the specific gravity of the oil at the processing temperature. Throughput capacity denotes the total quantity of oil which can be handled by the centrifuge without regard to the degree of purification. the instructions for the use of the centrifuge will be part of the overall equipment instruction manual. If there are any questions concerning the use of centrifuges with specific oil types. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual A centrifuge operates on the principle of separation by mass. Filters are an essential part of all machines. a. they may blow out and be totally ineffective. Degree of purification desired Persistency of any emulsion present b. as required. In that case. a dedicated unit. fitted either to the discharge or suction side of the oil system. The centrifugal force imparted by the high speed rotation of the bowl causes the more dense material. be they mobile or stationary. to be separated from the oil and exhausted through ports. A typical centrifuge is shown in Figure 23. which in turn are related to the temperature. Centrifuges are rated in two ways. They are fitted with gravity rings. If they clog on the suction side. These are wire mesh screens. Type. there will be a manual covering its use and maintenance. If they clog on the discharge side. the pump may starve. such as water or other contaminants. The effective capacity depends on several factors: (1) (2) (3) (4) Oil viscosity and density. March. Saudi Aramco equipment will be delivered with a centrifuge on the primary skid. shape and size of the contaminants in the oil.

sintered metal. following a circuitous path and depositing its contaminant load as it passes. Correct maintenance of blade clearances is essential. This type of medium is capable of removing such complex contaminants as acids. It is a portable industrial filtration unit. They may be made from perforated metal. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. filtration is a vitally important concern. NOTE. such as nylon. Depth type filters have housings. It may also remove some additives and this must be taken into account when selecting filter media. some plastic materials. It will not remove water.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. This type is less likely to be found on large installations or where high pressure drops are present. There are two basic filter types: surface and depth. large or small. presenting a series of edges through which the oil must flow. asphaltenes. Some are absorbent and some are adsorbent but they all work in the same basic manner: the oil is forced through a mass of the media. Page 169 of 255 . woven metal (or special plastic. More commonly used in industrial applications is a cellulose filter pack which is effective in the removal of gross quantities of contaminants. The persistence of air-borne dirt is a constant detriment to good lubrication and only proper filtration will effectively keep the dirt from the moving parts of machinery. The great advantage of the edge type is that it can be easily cleaned simply by rotating the cleaning blades. March. such as Fuller's earth in replaceable woven cloth containers. The disposable paper filters found in automotive equipment and many plant equipment items are examples of depth type filter. which contain a variety of filter materials. A third type uses resin-impregnated paper for the filter medium and is recommended for medium contaminant loads and high flow rates. however. Surface filters present a surface to the flow of oil and the contaminants impinge on that surface and all larger than the pore size of the filter medium are removed. They also may be of the edge type. colloidal particles or fine solids. Use caution when specifying filters incorporating plastic materials) screen. nor will it remove additives. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual In the Saudi Aramco area of operation. moved from machine to machine as needed. resins. membranes and belts of various materials. gums. may create static charge build up in the lubrication system and cause explosions when flammable gas mixtures are present. wound wire. Another depth type filter is shown in Figure 26. The filter medium may be adsorbent material. Figures 24 and 25 show typical surface filters: in Figure 24 a cleanable metal cartridge is enclosed in a housing while an edge type filter is shown in Figure 25.

March. Where a by-pass filter is fitted. if needed. a schedule should be established for removal and cleaning. the change over lever should be operated to place the unused filter into operation. in the case of duplex filters. it requires maintenance attention. or. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Regardless of the type or size of a filtration unit. Some filters are equipped with pressure gages on either side of the unit. The pressure drop is a measure of the dirt load in the filter and it should be monitored on a shift-by-shift basis and the filter element removed for cleaning as indicated.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. which is a science unto itself. Page 170 of 255 . These few lines barely touch the surface of filtration. In the case of lube and seal oil circulating systems for pumps compressors and turbines the main filters are required to be 10 microns nominal rating. Additional references are available from the Lubrication Engineers.

1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 24: Figure 25: Surface Filter. Figure 26: Page 171 of 255 . Depth Type Filter. This unit is designed to be moved from machine to machine. Turning the handle rotates the cleaning blades and exposes clean edges to the oil flow. Surface Filter of the Edge Type. March.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. The woven metal element can be removed for cleaning. The filter element is contained in the tank and usually will be of a disposable type.

Also. equipment. for example. sodium. Physical tests will vary by type of lubricant and application but will include such standards as viscosity. Metals content is derived from spectrographic analysis and is reported in parts per million (PPM) of 20 different metals. This kind of monitoring permits adverse conditions to be recognized and corrected before actual failure occurs. boron). Background Equipment condition monitoring. Metals which are part of the oil additive package also will be reported: zinc. etc. water content. The samples are analyzed by the Saudi Aramco Lube Oil Testing Laboratory and the results interpreted by the Lubrication Engineers of the Consulting Services Department. This is accomplished through a series of laboratory tests. OIL CONDITION MONITORING PROGRAM 1. coolants. including physical tests and metals content analysis. Independent laboratories. c. In Saudi Aramco.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Page 172 of 255 . continuity is required. equipment suppliers. flash point. neutralization number. calcium and barium. copper. b. the Oil Condition Monitoring Program calls for taking samples from nominated equipment at periodic intervals. aluminum) and others from external contamination by dirt. etc. oil companies and consumers have developed systems throughout the world. A single sample can give simple information: a. through used oil analysis. it provides a method for maximizing oil service life. (silicon. phosphorous. Trends can be identified and analyzed. tin. March. the information becomes cumulative and forms a machine condition history. to achieve the broader objectives of the OCM Program. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual C. Where there is continuity. sampling on a periodic basis. Some of the metals present will come from machine wear (iron. The reason is simple: through oil analysis it is possible to keep abreast of what is happening to expensive. Is the oil the proper product for the application? Is the oil suitable for continued use? Is there significant evidence of mechanical malfunction? However. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. They were selected to best represent the changing conditions of the oils and the machines. has gained wide favor in industry. and critical. lead.

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. flush the cock or drain into a separate container. This cleans the sampling system and provides an opportunity for visual examination of the oil. they MUST BE FULL. Given a series of such analyses. Page 173 of 255 . March. To obtain consistently representative samples. Always. as indicated. based on the new oil standards. to pin-point their causes and corrections. These limits were developed from experience. This Guideline is shown in Figure 27. Mechanics of the Program Initially. in many cases. Plastic sample bottles come in two sizes: 16 ounce (500 millimeter) (SAMS 25008-747) and 8 ounce (250 millimeter) (SAMS 25-008-738). The sample should be taken before any makeup oil is added. can be obtained from the Dhahran Laboratory or through the SAMS system. the subject system should be hot and should have been operating for some time. which may reveal dirt. NOTE: If the 8 ounce sample bottles are used. The warning limits are the key to the reporting portion of the OCM program. sampling cocks should be installed after a fullflow filter or before a by-pass filter and all samples should be taken from these points. when sampling. together with preprinted identification tags or labels. it becomes possible to track adverse conditions and. The reservoir drain is the least desirable sampling point but. this interval may be lengthened or shortened. has a unique set of warning limits. sediment or water and represent the need for immediate action. gained through the operation of similar programs. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Each of the major Saudi Aramco lubricating oil grades. Ideally. they form the basis for the satisfactory or unsatisfactory status report which follows the analysis. identified by SAMS number. Check with the Lube Engineers or the Lube oil test laboratory in case of any revisions. 2. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The bottles. if it is the only one available. If there is any doubt concerning the sampling procedure. Guidelines for the frequency of sampling covering all equipment types have been established based on successful operating experience since the start up of the Saudi Aramco OCM Program. a considerable quantity of oil should be drawn off before the sample is taken. These Frequency Guidelines should be followed to ensure the operation of the OCM Program is carried out as cost effectively as possible. NOT the sample bottle. the Lubrication Engineers should be consulted. regardless of the point. As data accumulate and trends are identified. monthly samples should be taken from nominated equipment.

Lubrication Engineers and field personnel. Unless the sample bottle. the cap and the sampling system are all clean. the data on the work station screen will be sufficient. Obviously. other information. Equipment No. the data become available to all users of the OCM program. (phone 5728609). They provide space for the following information: Plant No. the display screen will show nothing after “Observations” and "OIL SUITABLE FOR CONTINUED USE" after RECOMMENDATIONS.: Saudi Aramco Stock No. They should NOT be held and sent in batches as this defeats the timeliness feature of the program and can overload the system. the analytical results may be erroneous and lead to misinterpretation. address and phone number of the sender. This system eliminates the need for telephone communications among laboratory staff. Laboratories. the samples are analyzed and the test results are fed into the computer. such as the sampling point and hours in service. Page 174 of 255 .: Saudi Aramco Brand Name: Date Sampled: Sampling Point: Send Report To: Box and Phone No. Preprinted adhesive labels are supplied with the sample bottle. March.: Remarks: Location: Hours in Service: These data are entered into the OCM computer program and a permanent record is established. Subsequent samples must be identified with the Plant No. Samples should be sent to the S. Box 5000.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31.. A.: Equipment No. using any dedicated workstation operating the New OCM Cient/Server application.. if possible on the same day they are taken. is important in the interpretation process. For those field locations operating the latest client/server OCM application sample labels complete with bar codes will be generated at the field location work station.. For routine results. Once logged in. Date Sampled and the name. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Cleanliness is all-important. If a sample is received without this basic information. If all results are within the warning limits. it cannot be logged into the computer and the analyses will not be performed. SAMS Stock No. At this point. Abqaiq.

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31, March, 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April, 2002

Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

If, on the other hand, there are test results outside the warning limits, such results will be highlighted on the screen and either "high" or "low" shown after REMARKS. Further interpretation is provided by the Lubrication Engineers. Their comments will appear after RECOMMENDS and will show as standard terms, e.g., direct action types such as "Change Oil" or "Resample", or investigative actions such as "Check Air Filters" or "Check Fuel Injectors". The final step in the system is the field action. To achieve the maximum benefit from the OCM program, it is essential that the recommended action as given by the Lubrication Engineers be carried out in a timely manner. 3. The Results Screen The screen will display all results for plants and equipment in those plants under the control of a particular work station. Graphics are a feature, available for trending changes in key parameters such as viscosity, acid number, contaminants etc. NOTE, for more comprehensive information on the latest version of the OCM computer application, refer to the final section of this Lubrication Manual where you will find under Part X of this Manual an attachment entitled: “Lube Oil Condition Monitoring System (OCM) -- OCM Application Users Manual”.

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Figure 27

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Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31, March, 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April, 2002

Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

PART VII - STORAGE, HANDLING AND APPLICATION OF LUBRICANTS A. STORAGE AND HANDLING (INCLUDING SAFETY PRACTICES) Lubricating oils and greases are specially formulated to satisfy specific types of service. If not handled and stored properly, they can deteriorate or become contaminated and, as a result, provide inadequate lubrication or become waste which requires disposal. Common causes of lubricant contamination, deterioration and waste in handling and storage are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Damaged containers Moisture from rain or condensation Dirty dispensing equipment Exposure to dust or chemical fumes Poor outdoor storage practices Mixing of different viscosity grades, Saudi Aramco brands or types Exposure to excessive heat or cold Overlong storage Unsealed bungs or covers

Simple handling and storage precautions can reduce contamination, deterioration and waste. The following brief notes are a guide to these precautions: 1. Containers Drums, pails and cartons of lubricants from all suppliers must be clearly labeled with the Saudi Aramco brand name, the SAMS 26-number, the supplier's batch number, the filling date and location, the blender's name or other identification and the Saudi Aramco purchase order number. Thus, there should be no confusion as to precisely what is in each container and no cause for improper application. Containers as received from suppliers usually will be free of leaks. Careless handling, however, can cause leaks, contaminate the contents and smudge, rip or damage the labels. The 208 liter (55-gallon) drum, the most common lubricant container in the Saudi Aramco system, is involved in most handling operations. Care is the key to safe drum handling. A full drum weighs about 200 Kg (450 pounds) and, if handled carelessly, can easily injure workers or damage Saudi Aramco property. Unloading drums by dropping them from the delivery vehicle to the ground or the dock is poor practice. The drum's seams can be punctured or can burst, resulting in a slippery hazard and in wasted product.

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Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31, March, 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April, 2002

Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

Correct loading procedures must be used to prevent drum damage or injury to personnel. Once unloaded, the drums should be moved immediately to the storage area. The best way is by fork lift truck, with the drums on pallets or held by lift jaws. A hook type, two wheel hand truck also can be used. If the floor between the unloading and storage areas is flat and smooth, drums can be rolled. The drums's hoops will protect it from damage, but care must be taken to to avoid hitting hard objects that might puncture the shell. Two workers should handle the rolling operation, maintaining firm control or drum speed. 20 Liter (-five gallon) oil and 16 Kg (35-pound) grease pails are usually shipped on pallets. Smaller containers of lubricants usually come in cartons. All should be handled with the same care given to drums. Cartons should be left sealed until they are in the storage area to reduce the risk of the carton falling apart during handling. 2 Indoor Storage The ideal place to store lubricants is indoors, in the store houses at the main consumption points, e.g., Abqaiq, Ras Tanura, Vehicle Maintenance Facilities, etc. Most containers eventually will be taken there to be prepared for use in the operating unit, be it refinery, rig, barge or pipe line station. Therefore, on-site storage such as block shelters, is a practical approach, given the physical constraints of the space available. It is important to note that lubricants should not be stored near steam lines or hot running equipment. Backup storage should be indoors whenever possible. Racks and shelving that adequately protect all containers should be provided, along with a device to hoist the containers into place. Each type of lubricant should be easy to reach. Access to the older stocks, which always should be used first, should never be blocked by new stocks. A first-in, first-out rule will eliminate the risk of deterioration caused by long periods of storage. One important note concerning oil storage relates to transformer oil and refrigeration oil. These should be stored indoors as they cannot tolerate contamination. When outside storage is unavoidable, drums of these products should be placed upside down, on pallets.

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Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31, March, 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April, 2002

Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual

3.

Outdoor Storage Much of the lubricant storage space in Saudi Aramco is outdoors. While this is not the best practice, the large quantities of material required to be kept on hand make it a necessity. It imposes a need for specific precautionary measures. Because of the weather extremes in the Saudi Aramco operating areas, it is advisable, whenever possible, to provide some sort of basic shelter against the sun. Figure 29 shows a simple protective structure. Drums should be stored on pallets, blocks or racks, several inches above the ground. Once the protective shipping cover has been removed, they should be placed on their sides with the bungs approximately horizontal. In this position, the bungs are submerged by the contents and cannot breathe moisture. Also, water cannot collect inside the chine. If drums are stored on end, with the bungs on top, water may collect on the top and migrate through the bung as the drum breathes, as shown in Figure 30. The only way to prevent this, given this kind of storage option, is to block the drum with the blocks parallel to the bungs, as shown in Figure 31.

4.

Bulk Storage Saudi Aramco practice calls for the purchase of oil in bulk whenever the quantities justify it. It is a more economical purchasing method but, of greater importance, the costs and perils of handling drums are eliminated. At present, only Saudi Aramco Turbine Oils 32 and 46 are available in bulk but others will be added when the volume criteria are met. Bulk tanks should be located under cover, if at all possible, because the weather effects noted for drums are equally destructive to bulk tanks and their contents. Where outdoor storage is unavoidable, all openings on bulk tanks should be checked for tightness and properly secured. Storage tanks in a warehouse or oil house should be away from steam lines, heaters or any other plant equipment which might generate high temperatures. All bulk tanks should have strainers on the fill points and have protected vent breathers. Bulk unloading can be a hazardous task and all persons involved in the process should be properly trained. Galvanized tanks or piping should not be used to store lubricants which contain additives. They may react with zinc to form a soap-like sludge in the lubricant.

Page 179 of 255

2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Under some conditions. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. or it can be pumped out when bottom-fed pumps are used. In either case. Figure 29: Simple Shelter for Drum Storage Page 180 of 255 . it is important that water be removed promptly to prevent rust from forming inside the tank and contaminating the oil.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. even indoors. moisture may condense inside oil tanks. If the tank is properly sloped to a low point and fitted with a drain cock. the condensate can be removed through the bottom drain. March.

Proper Upright Storage. Outdoors. This is the mechanism by which moisture is drawn into a sealed drum. March. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 30: How a Sealed Drum Breathes.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Blocking the drum in this manner keeps water from collecting around the bung. Figure 31: Page 181 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

Page 182 of 255 . Ideally. Other drummed lubricants may be stored outdoors. Full drums should not be dropped. g. provided with adequate fire-fighting equipment and should have a hard.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. all lubricants should be stored indoors. d. In Saudi Aramco practice. All containers smaller than a drum should be stored indoors. To Recap a. non-slip floor. Be certain drum bungs and covers are in place and tight. b. 6. in specially constructed racks and under some sort of cover. c. Oil drums stored outside should be on their sides. Drum markings should be clearly visible. impervious to oil. c. (2) (3) (4) b. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 5. damaged containers and obscured markings. f. Fork lifts. (1) Drums of refrigeration oil and transformer oil should be stored indoors. e. Stocks should be inspected at regular intervals for signs of leakage. The storehouse should be well ventilated. of fireproof construction. mobile hoists. Keep the stores clean and wipe up oil spills immediately. the best compromises for large stores are as follows. Safety considerations involved in the storage and handling of lubricants include the following: a. first-out stock rotation for drums and smaller containers. observing the practices outlined above. Grease drums should be stored upright and be under cover. Ensure first-in. All opened drums should be stored indoors. drum skids and other such handling equipment should be used whenever possible. Drums should be kept off the ground by using rails or some other sort of block. h. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. March.

2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual d. Oil Application Methods Oil application usually is divided into two broad categories. if the circumstances so dictate. immediately after any such contact.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. b. Flammable products such as gasoline. Oil holes and cups (See Figure 32) Oil bottles (See Figure 33) Wick feed oilers Drop feed oilers (See Figure 34) Constant level oilers (See Figure 35) Page 183 of 255 . etc. good personal hygiene is essential in the prevention of dermatitis resulting from such contact. should be kept in a separate storage facility. It is the Lubrication Engineer's responsibility to investigate lubrication related failures and.. Oily rags should be disposed of and not reused unless they are thoroughly laundered. Machines require the right amount of the right lubricant to reach the lubricated point at the right time. f. The lubricants used in Saudi Aramco operations are all classed as innocuous. A proposal to change to a more complex system must be evaluated in terms of first cost versus savings in machine down-time. kerosene. which means that accidental contact with the skin is not harmful. d. if such occurs. the application method may be at fault. using soap and water. solvents. e. all loss and reuse. If repetitive lubrication related failures occur. All loss methods of the most common types are: 1. Oil should be washed from the skin. However. located away from the lubricants. e. Oral ingestion of any lubricant is to be avoided and. medical help should be summoned immediately. Manual application a. OIL AND GREASE APPLICATION METHODS Saudi Aramco equipment usually will have lubricant application systems installed by the erectors or builders. B. March. to recommend improved application methods. and the correct lubricant is being used. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. This section briefly describes the more common application systems likely to be encountered in Saudi Aramco plant and equipment. c. Oil soaked clothing should be laundered before reuse.

c. Mechanical lubricators (See Figure 36) Centralized systems Mist systems Reuse methods call for the oil to be used over and over. Table 19. following. the preferred methods are mechanical or centralized systems. low speed bearings or to applications on old equipment already supplied with such facilities. Examples are: 1.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 3. high speed machines. b. ring oilers. Page 184 of 255 . Manual oiling should be confined to lightly loaded. Ring and collar oilers Bath and splash systems Pressure circulation systems None of the above methods or devices are suited to all applications. describes the most common all loss lubrication methods and lists their advantages and disadvantages. March. 2. Mechanical methods a. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. For modern. bath/splash or circulation systems. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 2.

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Figure 33: Figure 34: Figure 35: Page 185 of 255 . Oil passes through the needle valve. The line from the oiler to the bearing is located at the lowest point of the bearing housing and permits a constant level to be maintained. March. Oil is added to the reservoir through the oil cup. The pin contacts the shaft and causes oil to flow to the bearing. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 32: Oil Cup Mounted on a Vertical Bearing Enclosure. Oil Bottle Mounted on a Plain Bearing. The sight glass permits the oil flow to be observed and adjusted as required. one drop at a time. Drop Feed Oiler. Constant Level Oiler. A revolving flinger ring conveys oil to the bearing. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

Page 186 of 255 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 36: Mechanical Force Feed Lubricator. March. The cam-actuated pump forces oil through the check valve and into the oil line via the sight-feed glass. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31.

adjustable. Inefficient method. conveys oil to shaft. may be open or protected with a ball check or cap. Automatic continuous lubrication. wicks need replacement. Mechanical lubricators Page 187 of 255 . feed rate increases with temperature due to oil viscosity decrease/ Oil application cost is high. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table 19 . oil protected against contamination/Initial cost is high. can be operated by machine being lubricated or by separate motor. rod or pin passing through sleeve to bearing vibrates when shaft turns and causes oil to flow to shaft. bearing is alternately flooded. only used for lightly loaded. adjustable feed rate. maintenance is low. Low cost/Oil flow dependent on level. non-automatic requiring shut down when machine not running. upward stroke forces oil through sight glass liquid and displaces equal volume of oil in bearing. Oil cups screwed into bearing housing.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. wick gathers dirt. Positive pressure feed. Small cam operated piston pumps. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. has sight glass beneath reservoir. Flow rate adjustable. starved. moisture and reduces flow. not affected by oil level. Plastic bottle mounted on bearing housing. Wick dips into oil in reservoir. Constant level oiler Hole drilled at lowest point in bearing housing and connected to the oiler. Oil bottles Wick feed oilers Drop feed oilers Oil reservoir has needle valve with on/off lever. low speed Low cost. feeds oil only when when shaft turns.Lubricant Application Methods Application Method Oil holes and cups Description Hole drilled in bearing housing. rate adjusted by needle valve. March. needs little attention/Oil feed may become plugged. valve can become clogged. Advamtages/Disadvantages Simple and cheap/Application cost is high. pin is sensitive to wear and damage. fairly fast rate possible/Flow rate decreases as oil level drops.

kegs and drums. Many bearings are packed for life. especially in electric appliances and automotive accessory drives. Grease guns. Centralized systems. can utilize a cartridge or can be filled with an air or lever operated loader. which can be manual or air operated. Page 188 of 255 . Packing. 2 3. many of which are designed to deliver either oil or grease. follower plates and hoses as shown in Figure 39. Power guns usually are attached to container mounted systems with pumps. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Grease Application Methods Grease application methods usually will come from one of the following: 1. following. These are used for hard to reach points. Other hand operated guns are the simple push-pull type and the screw type. These units are available to fit pails. Spring loaded grease cups with lines leading from the cup to the point of application. Figure 37 shows a typical lever operated hand grease gun. 4. March. which can be done by hand or with a mechanical bearing packer.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Packing normally is restricted to bearings although some small worm gears are lubricated in this fashion. An example of the latter is shown in Figure 38. The principal shortcoming of this method is the tendency of the grease to separate into oil and solid phases as a result of the constant pressure exerted by the spring on the small volume of grease in the system. They can be packed with grease by hand. See "Centralized Systems".

March. Figure 38: Figure 39: Page 189 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 37: Lever-Type Grease Gun. The gun is attached to the filler and is filled by pumping the handle. Spring pressure is maintained by the screw handle at the lower end of the gun and charging pressure is applied by means of the lever. usually a pail. The unit is mounted on a container of grease. Pump-Type Grease Gun Filler.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Power Grease Gun. and transported on an oiler's cart.

so apply grease carefully to avoid over-packing a bearing or rupturing a seal. Use only one type of grease in a gun. such as hard to reach grease fittings. They can be. 5. fill them on a clean bench. 4. for example). piped out to safe locations. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figures 40 and 41 show some of the fittings and coupler adapters used in industrial grease application practice. Some precautions to be observed in the application of grease are as follows: 1.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. March. a different type of fitting will minimize the danger of the wrong grease being applied. 9. Some guns deliver only 1/30th oz. By so doing. However. There are several types of grease guns. Learn to use them properly. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. always wipe the fitting free of all dirt so there is no possibility of any abrasive material getting into the bearings or part. Never put them down on dirty surfaces. Replace any fittings observed to be defective. (1 gram) while others deliver up to 1/3 oz. Try to standardize on one type of fitting. Some hand guns develop up to 15. (9 grams). 7. Report any unsafe conditions. 2. Keep guns clean.000 psi (103 MPa). Keep grease containers covered tightly when not in use. 6. Page 190 of 255 . 8. only one gun will have to be carried on rounds. and should be. Mark the grease gun with the type of grease being used. Use a gun loader if one is available. Before applying the grease gun to a fitting. if there are places where one particular brand of grease MUST be used (flexible couplings. 3.

Page 191 of 255 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Various Types of Couplings and Adapters for Grease Guns. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 40: Figure 41: Various Types of Grease Fittings.

4. In Figure 43. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Centralized Systems Centralized lubrication systems (oil or grease) are used to lubricate many points on a machine from a single source. then permit the lubricant flow to pass through to the next valve. is the ISO Classification of Lubrication Systems which categorizes them by total loss and circulating types. Two line system. Single line. the measuring valves cycle again. a single distribution line is used. a single supply line is used. The valve can be operated manually. The most commonly found systems are: 1. measuring the pump output. The measuring valves deliver a charge of lubricant to the application points when system pressure is applied to them and reset themselves by spring pressure when the system pressure is relieved. 3. When the flow in the supply line is reversed. In this type of system. Filling only one reservoir saves the maintenance man's time and eliminates the hazards associated with climbing up ladders and clambering over machinery. Figure 42. a pump. The measuring valves are designed to deliver a charge of lubricant. a pump. It consists of a reservoir. In this system. 2. The metering valves are designed to deliver a charge of lubricant to the bearings each time the flow in the lines is reversed. from the machine. spring return. reversing flow. cycled by a timer or by a counter. in reverse order. in sequence. Page 192 of 255 . It consists of a reservoir. a three-way valve and a series of measuring valves. Series system. This is a series loop system using a single supply line with a four-way valve to reverse the flow in the system. The manifold measuring valves automatically reset themselves and continue cycling as long as pressure is applied through the supply line. schematic drawings of the various types of systems show how they differ from one another. The system can be cycled by starting and stopping the pump and a valve is not required. March. Two supply lines are used in this version. Series manifold system. There are a number of types of centralized systems. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. A four-way reversing valve can be operated in any of the ways mentioned above and it alternately directs and relieves pressure to the two lines. a master metering valve and a series of secondary measuring valves.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. following.

March.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Page 193 of 255 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 42: ISO Classification of Lubrication Systems.

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. March. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 43: Various Types of Centralized Systems Page 194 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

March. Page 195 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Never let a reservoir run dry. plugs and indicator stems. Dirt may block feeder valves. Periodically check the time taken to complete a lubrication cycle and report any change. 12. These can be simple indicator pins on the feeder valves. the grease should be brought to room temperature before being charged to the system. Some greases are not suitable for centralized systems. the central pump should be operated until lubricant appears at the end of each feeder line. 11. 8. Watch whatever indicator is provided at the pump to be sure the system is working. Fill the reservoir through the fitting in the pump base. Air lock may result.or over-lubrication. 9. 7. Be sure all personnel know what the horns or warning lights mean. Changes in feed rate may be indicated. Before the feeder lines are connected to the application points. 4. Periodically check the maximum pump pressure and the length of time it takes to build up. In a grease system. report any change. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Almost any centralized system can be installed with monitoring systems to warn of operational problems. 6. if such is provided. Report signs of under. the application points should be prelubricated to ensure a supply of lubricant for start-up. Watch for leaks at connections. The following general items are a maintenance guide to centralized systems: 1. Be sure grease is clean. 3. Be sure the right brand is used.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Look for crushed or bent feeder lines and broken fittings. 2. 5. 10. 13. When a new system is installed. blowout discs or warning lights or horns.

spray or drip. pipe sizing for oil mist distribution. and mist generator selection is fully covered in the manufacturers engineering manuals. Design and instruction concerning the sizing of application fittings. depending on the manufacturer of the equipment. or contact the lubrication engineers for guidance. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The condensing action can be accomplished in several ways. When the mist reaches the application point. oil is atomized into small droplets by low pressure compressed air (about 206 kPa or 30 psi). air is used only as a low pressure carrier to transport the oil to points where it is required. In an oil mist system. It differs from other centralized systems in that the oil is moved as a mist. that can be transported for relatively long distances in the piping system. micro-mist. A true oil mist is a dispersion of very small droplets of oil in smoothly flowing clean air. The size of the droplets averages from one to three micrometres (one micrometre equals 0. In comparison. micro-fog. up to 100 micrometres in diameter. March. it is condensed. Report any change in the "feel" of manual pumping or any indication of racing in pumps. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 14. to condense the oil into a heavy mist. In an airline lubricating system.000039 inches) in diameter. Periodically inspect the screen at the reservoir fill connection (and any other screens in the system) and clean. In oil mist lubricators. in the air space immediately surrounding the moving elements. temporarily. oil fog.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. called reclassifiers. to cause condensation. power mist and so forth. which are suspended. Interchangeable terms. or fog. if necessary. or coalesced. gears and other lubricated points require that the mist be passed through special application fittings. an ordinary airline lubricator produces an atomized mixture of droplets. Oil Mist Systems An oil mist system is a means of delivering oil of required viscosity from a central reservoir to application points. These oil droplets are so small that they float in the air. venting. High speed bearings generally create enough turbulence. In the oil refining and petrochemical industry there has been widespread interest in reducing operating and maintenance costs by the application of oil mist lubrication. the air is the working media used to transmit power. into larger particles which wet the surfaces and provide lubrication. in turbulent air flowing at high velocity and pressure. Lower speed bearings. equipment sump method. 15. (Normal manifold header pressures is set at 5kPa or 20 in H20). may be liquid aerosol. Page 196 of 255 . forming a practically dry mist.

Gears. the oil in the reservoir could be subjected to accelerated oxidation and it should be checked periodically for signs of sludge or deposits. chains and medium to low speed rolling element bearings may not create enough turbulence or have high enough impingement velocities to adequately remove oil from the mist. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Page 197 of 255 . are equipped with application fittings which condense the oil mist to a liquid form. the mist is carried to a manifold and then to the various application fittings at the lubricated points. slides and ways. Oil mist provides a continuous replacement of the oil losses and pressurizes the equipment housing to prevent entrance of contaminants or moisture. Plain bearings. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual It should be noted that two lubrication methods or designs are used in the industry. Direct misting. 2. Spray condensing.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. Impingement velocities are high enough to cause a state of turbulence. forming a film. As shown. As with the Wet Sump method. From the generator. housing pressure prevents the entrance of contaminants. Compressed air enters through a water separator. A "Wet Sump or Purge Mist" installation is one in which the oil bath level in the pump or turbine housing is maintained at the point recommended by the equipment manufacture. offering little or no opportunity for oil condensation from the mist. the mist can be fed directly from the distribution system to the lubricated points through a mist fitting. as shown in the Figure. Oil mist systems without heaters can handle oils with viscosities up to about 150 to 190 cSt @ 40 °C (800 to 1000 SUS @ 100 °F). This causes the small droplets to contact one another and coalesce. Where a higher viscosity oil must be misted. March. a fine filter and an air pressure regulator to the mist generator. It is important to select the appropriate type "Wet or Dry" sumps best suited for the application and running environment. In this type of application. Figure 44. A "Dry Sump or Pure Mist" installation is one in which the bath is eliminated and all lubricating oil is deposited on the bearings or lubricated parts from the oil mist unit. Total condensing. a heater may be installed in the reservoir and/or the incoming air may be heated. shown in the Figure. there are three methods of condensing oil from the oil mist: 1. In these cases. shows a typical oil mist system. The required level is maintained by position of a vent or bottle oiler standpipe. 3. an application fitting that partially condenses the mist into a spray is used. following. as shown in the Figure. In either case.

At the mist generator. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. While the manufacturer's instructions are the definitive guide to mist system maintenance. A supply of clean. at the point of application. air pressure and oil feed should be checked regularly and the reservoir refilled when necessary. the following general points are widely applicable: 1. 2. then reclassified.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. must be similarly vented. the unit will have to be dismantled and cleaned. Oil is atomized in a mist generator. thus permitting air to flow through. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Figure 44: Typical Mist Lubrication System. If this happens. Plain bearings and enclosed housings of gears chains. dirt may find its way into the venturi in the mist generator. dry compressed air is essential to the proper functioning of an oil mist system. The separator and filter ahead of the mist generator should be maintained properly. When installing a mist system it is often necessary to provide a method of venting the bearing housings. 3. March. etc. Page 198 of 255 . or condensed. Even with good maintenance of the separator and filter..

Whenever possible. 9. crushed or broken. Lines should be inspected frequently to be sure they do not have any downward loops and are not bent. If such is present. inspect lubricated parts to be sure that a proper oil film is present. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 4. it should be checked regularly to be certain that the proper temperature is maintained. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 7. it should be checked regularly to be certain that it is not too hot. 8. Vents should be inspected periodically to be sure they are open and that air passes freely. 6. Check around machinery for sign of stray mist. Page 199 of 255 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. If heated air is employed. March. The temperature should not exceed 80 °C (175 °F). 5. the system could need readjusting. Where an oil heater is used.

is for convenient conversion. and he Celsius equivalent is desired. following. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual PART VIII . locate "120" in the center column and read 248 °F in the right column. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. especially in the United States. if the known temperature is 120 °F. Use the center column for the known temperature and read either to the right or the left for the conversion. If the known is 120 °C and the Fahrenheit equivalent is desired. Table A. March. TEMPERATURE CONVERSION Temperatures in degrees Celsius (°C) are standard throughout most of the world.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. locate "120" in the center column and read 48.TABLES AND GLOSSARY OF TERMS A. Page 200 of 255 .9 °C in the left column. the Fahrenheit (°F) scale is still widely used. For example. However.

1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Temperature Conversions Page 201 of 255 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table A .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31. March.

0 13. will provide a convenient reference.5 86. following.2 28.1-49.Viscosity Conversion Table ISO To SUS Grade Viscosity Range cSt @ 40 °C 1.2-35.0-37.9 90.8 45. Table B .6 95. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.2 40.6-65.6-72.8 39.3 39.0-81.52 4.06 6.5-16.0-38. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual B.42 2.4-47.9 53.4 75.0-43.0 57. and ISO viscosity grades are now the industry standard.4-50. some industrial communities.0-38.14-5. centistoke.2-46.2 72.8 90.9 36.9 61. as they depend on the VI of the oil in question.4-37.4 56. Page 202 of 255 .0 41.3 104-115 127-142 156-175 204-219 2 3 5 7 10 15 22 32 46 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 * Based on 95 VI.7 62.8-89.0 66. SUS @ 210 °C 95 VI 65 VI 34 VI ----34.2 41.2 48.0 47.1-67.9-45.2-74.12-7.00-11.5-40. still use Saybolt Universal Seconds for product identification.0-57.8-24.9 44.48 9.6-51.4-66.6-79.4 36.0-56.4-42.7 37.3 38.0-110 135-165 198-242 288-352 414-506 612-748 900-1100 1350-1650 Approximate Viscosity Range* SUS @ 100 °F 32.8-61.88-3.5 47.1-40.3-53.8 50. VISCOSITY CONVERSION (1) Although the international unit for viscosity.4 42.3 36.8-34.7 79.1 105-126 149-182 214-262 317-389 469-575 708-869 1046-1283 1531-1878 2216-2717 3298-4046 4885-5994 7385-9063 Approximate Viscosity Range.6 42.5 19. Table B.2-52.6 61.8-34.3-95.98-2. Note that the values given for SUS are only approximate.7-106 116-130 145-162 181-204 229-256 ----33. notably the United States.9 74.4-43.7-41.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.1 54.8-35.3-87.3-101 112-126 139-158 178-202 227-257 293-331 ----34.6-35.

The latter figure applies only to viscosities above 70 cSt. there also are the obsolete Redwood and Engler systems of viscosity measurement.94 cSt at 38 °C (100 °F) equals 97.5 SUS at 38 °C (100 °F) or 2. Table C. In spite of the above anomalies.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.87 Engler degrees at 38 °C (100 °F).75% higher and at 93 °C (200 °F) the Redwood values would be about 1. VISCOSITY CONVERSION (2) In addition to the more commonly used centistoke and Saybolt Seconds. the Saybolt values would be about 0. following. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual C. Page 203 of 255 . At 99 °C (210 °F).75% higher. It is valid in converting from one viscosity unit to another ONLY AT THE SAME TEMPERATURE. For high test temperatures. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. the Saybolt and Redwood values would be increased. 19.5 to 2. For example. gives an approximate comparison. It is approximate because the Saybolt and Redwood values shown in the table are strictly accurate only for a temperature of 38 °C (100 °F) since these viscometers are affected by the test temperature. the table is helpful in determining the comparative relationships between the various systems.

Viscosity Conversion Table Page 204 of 255 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table C .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Chart D shows the principle viscosity systems in current use. For example an oil of 315 SUS at 100 °F is approximately 68 cSt at 40 °C. Note: This chart is based on oils having a viscosity index (VI) of 95. Page 205 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. To obtain any equivalent viscosity read horizontally across the viscosity ranges shown.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. The accuracy is diminished when lower VI or very high VI oils are being considered.

2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Page 206 of 255 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Page 207 of 255 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

Page 208 of 255 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Chart G.5 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.curve shows absolute viscosities in Reyns and Centipoises against temperature of a typical petroleum oil in standard ISO viscosity grades.

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Chart H Equivalents of API for Liquids at 60 °C (Liters at 59 °F) Page 209 of 255 .

000.18 6.Masses Of Selected Petroleum Products Product LPG Aviation Gasoline Motor Gasoline Paraffin Wax Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Lubricating Oil Residual Fuel Oil Grease Asphalt kg/m3 542 707 740 799 812 843 899 944 998 1038 m 3/Mg 1. kg/m3 .88 8.Kilograms Per Cubic Meter m3Mg .67 6.23 1.06 Page 210 of 255 . 2.00 6. 3.Barrels (42 USG) Per Tonne (Metric Tonne.06 1.35 1.Cubic Meters Per Megagram (1.00 0.90 6. 1.66 6.53 5.50 7.46 7.000 g) lb/US gal .000 kg) Table D .25 1. 4.75 7. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.19 1.50 7.77 7.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.11 1.Pounds Per US Gallon bbl/tonne .04 7.87 7.60 8.66 bbl/tonne 11.42 1.33 8. The nomenclature used is as follows: 1.84 1.96 lb/US gal 4. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual J. Table of Mass (Density) of Selected Petroleum Products This table is useful in comparing the weights of various petroleum products.90 8.30 6.

0. 1.00097 0.00045 0. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual K MASS CONVERSION This table is an aid in converting between English and metric units of mass. 0.350.000035 0.592.000002 0.001 1000.20462 35.10231 2204.27397 0.00110 2.98421 1. Pounds To Long Tons To Short Tons To Ounces To Metric Tonnes To Kilograms To Grams To Milligrams Ounces To Pounds To Kilograms To Grams To Milligrams 0.12 2240.03528 0. Milligrams To Pounds To Ounces To Kilograms To Grams 0.0283 28.00102 0.000001 0.35 28.5924 453.016 1016.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.9072 0.0467 0.0625 0.00221 0.00045 0. 0.4 0. 1. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Table K .Mass Conversion Table To Convert Long Tons To Short Tons To Pounds To Metric Tonnes To Kilograms Short Tons To Long Tons To Pounds To Metric Tonnes To Kilograms Multiply By To Convert Metric Tonnes To Long Tons To Short Tons To Pounds To Kilograms Kilograms To Long Tons To Short Tons To Pounds To Ounces To Metric Tonnes To Grams To Milligrams Grams To Pounds To Ounces To Kilograms To Milligrams Multiply By 1.8929 2000.623 1000.0 0.001 1000.001 Page 211 of 255 .0005 16.45359 453.000.000.

3.026 0.057 0.0286 1. 0. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual L.8038 0.00455 0.00379 0.0353 61.8327 0.2009 4.0043 0.316 0.001 0.2898 264.220 0.17 219.0164 0. 168.1337 231.Volume Conversion Table To Convert US Barrels (Bbl) To US Gallons To US Quarts To Imperial Gallons To Cubic Feet To Cubic Meters To Liters US Gallons (USG) To US Barrels To US Quarts To Imperial Gallons To Cubic Meters To Cubic Feet To Cubic Inches To Liters Imperial Gallons(IG) To US Barrels To US Gallons To US Quarts To Cubic Meters To Cubic Feet To Cubic Inches To Liters Cubic Inches (in3) To US Gallons To Liters To Imperial Gallons Multiply By To Convert Cubic Meters (m3 or kL) To US Barrels To US Gallons To Imperial Gallons To Cubic Feet To Liters Cubic Feet (ft3) To US Barrels To US Gallons To US Quarts To Imperial Gallons To Cubic Meters To Cubic Inches To Liters Liters (L or dm3) To US Barrels To US Gallons To US Quarts To Imperial Gallons To Cubic Meters To Cubic Feet To Cubic Inches Multiply By 42. VOLUME CONVERSIONS This table is intended to simplify conversions between English and metric units.1605 277.97 35.2288 0.0036 Page 212 of 255 .0063 0.315 1000.4805 1.0238 4.6146 0. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.42 4.15899 158. 34. Table L .9723 5.9873 6.546 0. 0.1781 7.7853 0.0283 1728. 28.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.2642 1.8701 6.

00132 14. 101. cm To atmospheres Inches of Water (in. water To kPa To kg/sq.03609 1. water * kg/cm2.07031 0.06805 7. cm To in.70759 6.71492 27.89476 0.69595 760. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.24884 0.01865 0.00987 0. Multiply By To Convert Kilopascals (kPa) To mm Hg To in. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual M.01934 0.01020 0. cm To atmospheres Atmospheres (atm.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.53578 0. H2O) To psi To mm Hg To kPa To kg/sq.03323 407. cm To atmospheres Millimeters of Mercury (mm Hg) To psi To in. cm To atmospheres Kilograms Per Square Centimeter* To psi To mm Hg To kPa To in. water To kPa To kg/sq.55910 98.00254 0.14504 0.00246 0.96784 Page 213 of 255 .22334 735.18940 14. water To atmospheres Multiply By 51.32500 1. Table M .09460 0.Pressure Conversion Table To Convert Pounds Per Square Inch (psi) To mm Hg To in.) To psi To mm Hg To kPa To kg/sq.13332 0. PRESSURE CONVERSIONS This table is an aid in the conversion of obsolete used units of pressure to SI Units and vice versa.86645 0. water To psi To kg/sq.06650 394.50062 4.00136 0.

8170 239.00095 0.41485 0.05506 1055.23901 To Horsepower To Megawatts To Kilowatts To BTU/s To Kcal/s 0.00075 0.Power Conversion Table To Convert Horsepower (HP) To Megawatts To Kilowatts To Watts To BTU/s To Kcal/s BTU Per Second (BTU/sec.96567 1341.34102 0.0057 To Horsepower To Megawatts To Watts To BTU/ To Kcal/s 1.74569 745. 1. 0.001 1000.69990 0. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.00106 1.) To Horsepower To Megawatts To Kilowatts To Watts To Kcal/s Kilocalorie Per Second (Kcal/s) To Horsepower To Megawatts To Kilowatts To Watts To BTU/s Multiply By To Convert Megawatts (mW) To Horsepower To Kilowatts To Watts To BTU/s To Kcal/s Multiply By 0.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.00418 4. 3. Table N .17823 Kilowatts (kw) 1.00024 Page 214 of 255 .000.000001 0.94782 0.00134 0.61084 0.25217 Watts (W) 5.70679 0. 947.056 0.022 1000. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual N. POWER CONVERSIONS This table is a conversion chart for the various systems used to measure power.184 4184.000.001 0.

03281 0.60934 1609.62137 1098.) To Yards To Feet To Kilometers To Meters Yards (yds. 5280.44018 914.39370 0.91440 91.4 0.1 Page 215 of 255 .00328 0.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.00057 3.33333 12.3048 30. LENGTH CONVERSION This table provides conversion factors for English and metric systems of measuring length.00062 1.) To Yards To Feet To Meters To Centimeters To Millimeters Multiply By To Convert Kilometers (km) To Miles To Yards To Feet To Meters Meters (m) To Miles To Yards To Feet To Inches To Kilometers To Centimeters To Millimeters Centimeters (cm) To Miles To Yards To Feet To Inches To Kilometers To Meters To Millimeters Millimeters (mm) To Yards To Feet To Inches To Meters To Centimeters Multiply By 1760.801 0.613 3280.00001 0. 36.001 0.40183 0.00031 0.344 0.00006 0.8398 1000. 0.08333 0.01094 0.01 10.00019 0. 1000.24300 25.00109 0.28084 39.37008 0. 1.4801 304.00091 0. 0. 0.02778 0. Table P . 0. 0.09361 3.Conversion Table For Length Measurement To Convert Miles (mi. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual P.02540 0.) To Miles To Feet To Inches To Kilometers To Meters To Centimeters To Millimeters Feet (ft.) To Miles To Yards To Inches To Kilometers To Meters To Centimeters To Millimeters Inches (ins.03934 0. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.001 100.

4046.000001 0. 1.00694 0.000.1550 0.00025 0.639.00065 6. 0.000. AREA CONVERSIONS This table provides conversions between English and metric units of area measurement.00155 0. Table Q .000.003 10.76391 1550.0001 0.00108 0. 43.00001 0.556 0.47105 Page 216 of 255 .00002 0. 160.010 107. 2.4516 645. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Q.0001 100. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.560.04 0.903.000009 10.) To Square Feet To Square Meters To Hectares Multiply By To Convert Square Meters (cm2) To Square Feet To Square Inches To Square cm To Square mm To Acres To Hectares Square Centimeters (cm2) To Square Feet To Square Inches To Square Meters To Square mm Square Millimeters (mm2) To Square Feet To Square Inches To Square Meters To Square cm Hectares (Ha) To Square Feet To Square Meters To Acres Multiply By 144.03040 92.09290 929.16379 0. 10.40469 0.000.Area Conversion Table To Convert Square Feet (ft2) To Square Inches To Square Meters To Square cm To Square mm To Acres To Hectares Square Inches (in2) To Square Feet To Square Meters To Square cm To Square mm Acres (A.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

oil often can be reclaimed but only at a substantial cost in labor and equipment.SI Multiples And Submultiples Multiplication Factor 1.20 68.225 1.06 0. for purposes of this calculation.000 001 0.60 79.60 13.000 000 001 0 000 000 000 001 Power of 10 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 Prefix tera giga mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro nano pico Symbol T G M k h da d c m u n p S.53 7. A drop is assumed to be approximately 11/64 inches in diameter.000. of course.000.62 2. The following tables indicate how even small leaks can result in appreciable losses. Table S(1) relates oil leakage to volume in US gallons and value in US dollars.45 2.40 2486.72 1.Losses From Oil Leaks Leakage Rate Drop/10 sec. Table S(1) .44 7.000 100 10 0.00 Page 217 of 255 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.50 Loss in One Year Drums $ 0. Loss in One Day Gals $ 0.000 1. since some of the units have been used. Three drop/sec. is a modernized and rationalized version of the well known metric system. Air.20 225.20 158. abbreviated "SI" in all languages.01 0. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual R.40 818.00 per gallon.22 0.001 0. Lower or higher unit costs can be calculated. Table R . it may be helpful to be familiar with the most commonly used of the multiples and submultiples which are basic to the system. It is beyond the scope of this book to go into the system in detail but. but the intent of the table is to give some meaning to the fact that leaks cost money. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. even if the lost material can be reclaimed.75 0. based on a unit cost of $2. particularly in the foregoing tables. THE COST OF LEAKS Leaks obviously are expensive. steam or water that is lost due to leakage seldom can be recovered.000.50 Loss in One Month Drums $ 0. One drop/sec.000 1.1 0.05 6.12 0.112 0.000.000. SI UNITS The Systeme International D'Unites (International System of Units).125 3.000 1. Drop/5 sec.000. and a drum is 55 US gallons.44 22.

200 T.200 4.449. ADDITIVES. any substance containing hydrogen in combination with a non-metal or non-metallic radical and capable of producing hydrogen ions in solution.200 4.800 Gas 20 psi cu ft/month 5. The process by which one substance draws another into itself. ABSORPTION. Not to be confused with PROPRIETARY ADDITIVES which purport to improve the product performance but which.400 9. See Part II. Chemicals added to lubricants by lubricant manufacturers to improve certain properties.600 1.640 69. As related to lubrication.900 19.400 307. The value of the losses can be calculated from the unit costs of the various substances. steam. The diameter of the largest hard spherical particle that will pass through a filter under specified test conditions. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Losses Of Various Substances Through Leaks Size of Opening. ADHESION. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual Table S(2) shows the losses resulting from piping leaks of various sizes for air. are seldom of any value and may be harmful. GLOSSARY OF TERMS ABSOLUTE FILTER RATING.979. the concentration of which is usually defined in terms of an ACID NUMBER. i.357.000 3. Table S(2) . water and gas. ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY.000 692. In lubricants.114. See VISCOSITY.200 4. In a restricted sense.000 84.. all at representative pressures.000 1.000 339. ACIDITY.000 274.085.000 68.798.420. See Neutralization NUMBER and Part II.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.560 278. a sponge absorbing moisture or an oil absorbing natural gasoline from wet gas. Inches 1/2 3/8 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32 Air 100 psi cu ft/month 17.040. This is a measure of the largest opening in the filter element.000 17. in fact.552 Steam 140 psi lbs/month 1. the force that causes fluids to stick to or adhere to solids. acidity denotes the presence of acidic constituents. Page 218 of 255 .231.e.000 620.700 76.600 21.280 Water 40 psi gals/month 1. ACID.

ALKALI. Calcium oxide (lime). Devoid of water. Page 219 of 255 . thus preventing the formation of sludge. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The lowest temperature at which a standard quantity of aniline is soluble in a standard sample of a petroleum product. Lubricant sprays in small containers usually are aerosols. See TEMPERATURE. Additive to prevent damage caused by solid phase welding between sliding surfaces. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual ADSORPTION. AGMA. See Part II. American Gear Manufacturers Association. naphthenic oils have low aniline points. Not to be confused with ABSORPTION. and sodium carbonate (soda ash) also are alkalies. ANHYDROUS. It is a measure of the solvency of a hydrocarbon and the lower the aniline point. the greater the solvent action of the material. aromatic solvents are still lower. are examples of strong caustic alkalies. Having the capacity to behave either as an acid or a base. A suspension of fine solid or liquid particles in air or gas. ANILINE POINT. Paraffinic lubricating oils have high aniline points. The adhesion of an extremely thin layer of the molecules of gases. See Part III. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE. AIR RELEASE. A chemical substance which reacts with an acid to form a salt plus water. ANTI-SCUFFING AGENT. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). dissolved substances or liquids to the microscopically porous surfaces of solid bodies. both readily soluble in water. AEROSOL.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Oxidation inhibitor. ANTI-OXIDANT. All alkalies are bases although not all bases are alkalies. calcium hydroxide (slaked lime). Oxides and hydroxides of certain metals are included as alkalies. See Part II. one of whose activities is the establishment and promotion of standards for gear lubricants. An additive which inhibits the formation of foam. ANTI-FOAM AGENT. AMPHOTERIC. varnish and corrosive compounds. an additive to prevent or control the oxidation of lubricating oil. Property of lubricant which permits mixtures of lubricant and air to be readily separated.

It can be evaluated in a capillary type of instrument where it is defined as the shear stress at the capillary wall divided by the mean rate of shear as computed from the Poiseuille equation. Non combustible residue of a lubricating oil (also fuels) determined in accordance with ASTM D 582-also D 874 (sulfated ash). A cleanliness additive for crankcase oils which does not contain metallic compounds. American Petroleum Institute. that leave no ash at all. AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS. Some of the ash may becontributed by additives other than detergents. Detergents vary considerably in their potency. ANTI-WEAR AGENT. See Part II. It is expressed in fundamental viscosity units at a given rate of shear. One of the Institute's activities has been the development of the API Service Classifications for crankcase oils. Examples are toluene and xylene. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. usually grease-like. Interpretations can be grossly distorted. for the following reasons: 1. One in which water is the solvent. the specific gravity of petroleum products. A material. API. which contains graphite or other solid material. Compounds of carbon and hydrogen characterized by the presence of a benzene nucleus. When applied to threaded joints. APPARENT VISCOSITY. Since some detergents are metallic (barium and calcium derivatives). Detergents have been developed. An additive which inhibits wear on rubbing surfaces. API GRAVITY. Detergency depends on the properties of the base oil as well as on the additive. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual ANTI-SIEZE COMPOUND. 2. ASHLESS DISPERSANT. especially those exposed to high temperatures. Page 220 of 255 . See Part II. a society organized to further the interests of the petroleum industry. An arbitrary scale. Some combinations of base oil and additive are much more effective than others. it maintains a separating film that prevents the joints from seizing. expressing in Degrees API. and some leave more ash than others. A term used in referring to the resistance to flow of fluids whose viscosity varies with the rate of shear. 3. however. ASH CONTENT. See Part II.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. in fact. AQUEOUS SOLUTION. the percentage of ash has been considered to have a relationship to detergency. See Part II.

corrosion protection. Should not be confused with the 55 gallon drum. gallons or approximately 159 liters. BARREL. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual ASPERITY. Minimum temperature at which a combustible fluid will burst into flame without an extraneous ignition source. Auto-ignition temperature is not to be confused with flash or fire points. See Part IV. Properly maintained. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Equivalent to 105 Pa. Other requirements are oxidation stability. equal to 105 Pa or 14. ASTM. exerted equally in all directions. high viscosity index. Unit of liquid volume of petroleum equal to 42 U. which are generally a few hundred degrees lower.S. For petroleum products the conditions are outlined in ASTM D 2155. It is normally very viscous but may be liquefied by heat or mixing with solvents. as on a sliding surface. A microscopic projection. BAR. above. In addition to use in highway aggregates. which results from normal finishing processes." Most of the tests used in petroleum laboratories are ASTM methods. ASPHALT. ATF. Still used to some extent. See Part V. The fluids combine low viscosity (for torque converters) with antiwear properties (for gears).7 psi. an organization devoted to "the promotion of knowledge of the materials of engineering and standardization of specifications and methods of testing. they will prevent the unpleasant odors which can result from bacterial infestation. fluids for the automatic transmissions of vehicles and other applications. The pressure of air. See Part VIII. BACTERICIDE. it has many industrial applications. for appropriate pressure designations. ranging from roofing to open gear lubricants. Also referred to as an atmosphere. Blackish. AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE. Page 221 of 255 . A family of additives which are included in the formulations of soluble oils. thermoplastic mixture of hydrocarbons. but not an ISO designation for pressure. The auto-ignition temperature may vary considerably depending upon the conditions of the test. special frictional properties and compatibility with normally used sealant materials. Automatic transmission fluid. Interference between opposing asperities is a source of friction and wear. They inhibit the growth of bacterial organisms which are promoted by the addition of water. bituminous. American Society for Testing Materials. The standard pressure at sea level is 760 mm Hg. foam suppression. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. The auto-ignition temperature assumes only enough "fuel" to form an explosive mixture in the presence of air at atmospheric pressures. and augmented as needed.

Surface color. BLEEDING. benzene. It is the difference between ihp. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual BASE. the effective or available power of a prime mover. such as oil from a grease. BENZENE (BENZOL). usually blue or green. above. BLACK OIL. indicated horsepower. Bases are used extensively in the petroleum industry as caustic washes in refinery streams and as components in additives where they tend to neutralize the weak acids formed during the oxidation process. flammable liquid mixture of hydrocarbons known as petroleum spirit and totally distinct from the aromatic hydrocarbon. The acids may be mild organic acids from the oil itself or. and the power lost to friction in an engine. Lubricant containing asphaltic materials and serving on a once-through basis in certain non-critical applications. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. etc. having the composition C6H6. See also neutralization. which can enter the oil from several sources. volatile. BENZINE. It results from the high pressure differential and can be exacerbated by incomplete combustion and loose or worn piston rings. A very firm grease manufactured in block form to be applied to certain large open bearings operating at high temperatures and slow speeds. for conversion factors to ISO-coherent terminology. Chemical attack on bearing metal or on one of the metals in a bearing alloy caused by acids evolved during chemical deterioration of the oil. free of additives. The tendency of a liquid component to separate from a liquid-solid mixture. more likely. Refined mineral oils. BHP. (Also called "fluorescence". The seepage of fuel and gases from the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine into the crankcase. It is associated with the absorption of ultraviolet light and may not be visible in artificial light. A substance which neutralize acids. BLOCK GREASE. producing a salt and water. equipment. BASE STOCKS. Brake horsepower. See Part VIII. especially where extra adhesiveness is desired. Widely used in mining and quarrying. This includes ALKALIES as well as other chemicals with similar behavior. a colorless.) BLOW-BY. The initial member of the aromatic or benzene series of hydrocarbons. the strong acids that result from breakdown of nitrogen or sulfur compounds. of an oil or grease when viewed by reflected daylight at an angle of about 45 degrees. used as a component in a lubricant blend. Page 222 of 255 .Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. BEARING CORROSION. BLOOM..

Bromine number X 1000 equals BROMINE INDEX. such as heavy duty gears. In mineral spirits or kerosene. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Page 223 of 255 . which are artificially thickened by blowing with air. A form of lubrication effective in the absence of a full lubricant film. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual BLOWN OILS. fully refined residuals used as lubricant blending stock. See Part II. It is a measure of the oxidation resistance of the grease . OILINESS AGENTS are used. BODY. It is used as an indication of the amount of olefinic components in a petroleum solvent.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. such as rapeseed. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. EP ADDITIVES are used. BRIGHT STOCK. however. It is effected by additives which provide a film which is stronger than that of the oil alone. A term used to describe a device for the aspiration afforded to machine housings. A loose term. In automobiles. there is a PCV (positive crankcase ventilator) valve which draws the expelled vapors from the "breather" into the intake manifold where they are burned with the incoming fuel-air mixture. The number of grams of bromine consumed by 100 grams of a sample when reacted under test conditions. Heavy. such as internal combustion engines and gear cases. BOMB OXIDATION STABILITY (RBOT). the point at which the fluid begins to vaporize. BOUNDARY LUBRICATION. For the most severe conditions. if any. In some instances. correlation with the service life. the bromine number approximates the actual percentage of olefins present. usually denoting viscosity or consistency. ASTM D 2262 Used for testing the oxidation stability of Turbine Oils. There is little. thus promoting oxidation. The amount of oxygen (in terms of gas pressure drop) reacted with a grease sample under conditions prescribed by ASTM D942. These are chemicals which modify the metal asperities to form a surface film which is easily sheared. Fatty oils. BROMINE NUMBER. BREATHER . refer RBOT.the lower the pressure drop. The simplest form of breather is a vent pipe with a screen to prevent the entry of dirt. the less the oxygen consumed and the longer the theoretical storage life of the grease. whale or fish oils. BOMB OXIDATION STABILITY. BOILING POINT. These are polar materials with an exceptionally strong affinity for metallic surfaces.

CALORIE. a liquid under high pressure. The conditions of the tests bear little similarity to actual operating conditions and many consider the type of carbon formed to be of greater importance than the quantity. British Thermal Unit. SHEAR STRESS. BTU. A gaseous hydrocarbon of the paraffin series with the formula C4H10. The apparent viscosity of a non-Newtonian fluid and the method for determining same. CARBON RESIDUE. It is widely used in sealant materials for use in the presence of lubricants. A synthetic rubber that is resistant to weather and heat. This is accomplished by means of a spindle of specified configuration that rotates at a known constant speed in the fluid sample. The average torque reading can be converted to absolute viscosity units (centipoise) by the application of a multiplication factor that takes rate of shear (spindle type and speed) into consideration. Since an apparent viscosity value holds only for the rate of shear (as well as temperature) at which it is determined. operating in parallel with the main flow. with a separate pump. BY-PASS FILTRATION. A non-metallic element which is a constituent of all organic compounds. See Complex. CALCIUM COMPLEX. the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at a standard temperature of 68 F and a constant pressure of 29. CARBON. The amount of heat required to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius. A system of filtration in which only a portion of the total flow of a fluid system passes through a filter at any instant. Page 224 of 255 . It may also be a separate filter. etc. it is used in LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and in gasoline. It also occurs in many inorganic substances such as carbon monoxide. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual BROOKFIELD VISCOSITY. BULK MODULUS. the Brookfield viscometer provides for the maintenance of a known rate of shear. See POISE. it may have little significance. BUTYL RUBBER. characterized by low resiliency and low air-permeability.7 psi).92 inches of mercury (14. It has been used as a measure of coke-forming tendencies but. The percent of coked material remaining after a sample of lubricating oil has been exposed to high temperatures under ASTM D189 or D524. The measure of the resistance to compressibility of a fluid.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. limestone. BUTANE. See Part VI. The torque imposed by fluid friction can be measured. except for roll oils and air tool oils. the reciprocal of the compressibility.

such as a gear or the rolling member of an anti-friction bearing.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Higher cetane numbers indicate a shorter ignition lag and are associated with better all-around performance in most diesel engines. the European Hydraulic and Pneumatic Oil Committee. CETOP. CHANNEL. The ratio of the force required to move one body over another to the force pressing the two bodies together. Catalysts usually lower the activation energy required to initiate a chemical reaction. CETANE NUMBER. As a rule. there may be a failure. The distinction to be observed is that FRICTION defines the resistive force associated with a particular situation. The higher the cetane number. ASTM D 613. CENTISTOKE. COALESCERS. COC. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual CATALYST. See VISCOSITY. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. the lower the octane number. CENTIGRADE. Comite European Transmission Oleo Hydrauliques et Pneumatiques. See also CETANE INDEX. or "channels". Simple and effective oil treatment devices for the separation of small percentages of free water from turbine oils. a flash point apparatus. If the material is so viscous as to preclude slump to the lubricated points. See TEMPERATURE. are cut by the motion of the lubricated element. See Part II. See VISCOSITY. the higher the cetane number of a fuel. CHANNEL POINT is the temperature at which the lubricant will not slump. Cleveland Open Cup. The grooves. CELSIUS. See Part II. The only rotating component is the lube oil circulating pump. making this a most reliable method of removing water from lube oil. A substance which promotes a chemical reaction but does not become part of it. DIESEL INDEX. especially in sensitive engines of the high-speed type. the better the ignition quality and the less the tendency to knock. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION. To form a groove in a grease or gear oil which is too viscous to flow readily under existing conditions. CENTIPOISE. Page 225 of 255 . thus permitting the reaction to proceed under milder conditions. CLOUD POINT. See TEMPERATURE. Measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel. coefficient of friction defines the frictional characteristics of certain materials or combinations of materials.

The presence of copper will discolor the strip to a degree matching a series of standard samples. They are used where wet conditions apply and it is necessary to combine the oil and the water. usually a salt of a metallic material and a fatty acid or an inorganic salt plus a complexing agent. a measure of the "stiffness". CORROSION. A small strip of polished copper is immersed in the fluid to be tested. CONRADSON CARBON. Blends of petroleum oil with animal or vegetable oils (lard oil whale oil. Sulfurized sperm oil. Examples are wet steam cylinders and some compressors. Grease composition in which the thickener is a combination of a soap and r other components. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual COHESION. Page 226 of 255 . See PENETRATION. COLLOID. such as a grease.). pitting from combustion and oxidation-induced acids or pickling solutions. has been replaced by synthesized materials for ecological reasons and the use of other natural compounding is reduced each year as the applications are replaced with more modern methods. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. COMPATABILITY. It is left for a specified period of time at a given temperature. COMPOUNDED OILS. depending on which type of product is involved. once widely used in ATF and machine tool way oils. Color has little relationship to the quality or performance of a lubricating oil. COMPLEX. COPPER STRIP CORROSION. The ability of petroleum products to form a homogeneous mixture that neither separates nor is changed by chemical interaction. tallow oil. A quality which is determined by comparing the test sample with a "standard" or for identification. A substance with particle sizes larger than molecules but small enough to be dispersed in a stable two-phase system. The resistance of substances to being pulled apart by external forces. COLOR. resists deformation. The degree to which a semi-solid material.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Progressive attack of metal surfaces through one of several chemical mechanisms: rusting from water exposure. A test to determine the presence of sulfur compounds. etc. CONSISTENCY. See CARBON. A method of measuring carbon forming tendency.

The latter may be compounded. the water is displaced. "Soluble" cutting fluids are emulsifiable with water to improve cooling.05 to . If the test is positive. Corrosion inhibitors may be polar compounds that wet metal surfaces preferentially. Lubricants for independently lubricated cylinders. See Part II.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. See Part II. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. CUTTING FLUID. protecting them with a film of oil. Only the oil touches the metal surface. An additive which reduces the foaming tendency of an oil.10 percent free water. the less heavy grades for wet. DENSITY. An additive for protecting lubricated metal surfaces against chemical attack by water or other contaminants. Crude. Also for some valves and other elements in the cylinder area. See Part II. thus improving the finish and extending the tool life. The refining process by which heavy oils are converted into low-boiling hydrocarbons. oxygen and sulfur and many other impurities depending on the source. Other compounds may absorb water by incorporating it in a water-in-oil emulsion. saturated steam. CRUDE. Audible crackling will be noted on samples containing as little as . usually of petroleum origin. CRACKLE TEST. See COMPOUNDED OILS. See Part II. Also for grinding. It is a quick screening test for samples suspected of water contamination. or crude oil. The heavier grades are for superheated and high pressure steam. DEFOAMANT. The more stable molecules leave the system as cracked gas oil. such as those in steam engines and double-acting air compressors. Still another type combines chemically with the metal to present a non-reactive surface. is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon fluid that contains small amounts of nitrogen. Page 227 of 255 . DEMULSIBILITY. Distillation or Karl Fisher. Some cutting fluids are fortified with EP agents to speed up the cutting of metals which are hard to machine. CRACKING. CYLINDER OILS. Its numerical value varies with the units used. The mass of a unit volume of a substance. An oil. cracked gasoline or gas while the reactive molecules polymerize and form tar. the water content can be determined by other methods. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual CORROSION INHIBITOR. for cooling and lubricating the tool and the work in machining operations. The measure of a lubricating oil's ability to separate from water.

which indicates the volume percentage of fuel in the sample. Dermatitis can be prevented by meticulous attention to personal hygiene. DERMATITIS. the result of incomplete combustion. DIELECTRIC STRENGTH. DIN. A thinning of the oil caused by the presence of fuel in the crankcase. high-load. including petroleum products. DETERGENTS. DILUENT. It may be caused by contact with any number of substances. The minimum voltage required to produce an electric arc through an oil sample under controlled conditions. A low reading may indicate contamination. heavy-duty service minimizes sludge formation but promotes ring zone deposits and ring sticking. but high dilution values may be indicative of engine defects or improper operation. Short trips promote rusting. DISPERSANT. See Part III. Persons whose work calls for contact with petroleum products should take special precautions to keep the exposed portions of their bodies washed and to see that their clothing is washed after every shift. DEXRON. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Not only is dilution detrimental to lubrication. faulty injection. DEWAXING. which are soluble in petroleum products and are used to prevent engine deposits. Organic chemicals which are soluble in petroleum products and are added to fuels and lubricants to prevent deposit formation. The type of deposit formed depends upon type of service and type of engine. DILUTION OF CRANKCASE OIL. the German Institute for Standardization. avoiding contact with all potentially harmful substances and washing with soap and water immediately after any inadvertent or unavoidable contact. where they are more likely to be filtered out of the oil stream and less likely to be deposited in the recesses of an engine. worn rings. Deutsche Industrie Norm. See SOLVENT. excessively rich fuel mixtures. etc. Page 228 of 255 . Dilution can be measured by the ASTM Method D 322. An inflammation of the skin. usually of metallo-organic origin. The removal of wax from lubricating oil stocks in the refinery. especially with water. Stop-and-go service promotes sludge formation which shows up as deposits in the crankcase and on the rocker-arm assembly and plugged oil screens and oil rings. A registered trademark of the General Motors Corporation covering approved transmission fluids. See Part III. See Part II. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual DEPOSITS. They function by keeping potential deposit precursors in a suspended state. low-engine-temperature operation.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Highspeed. It is a measure of the insulating properties of transformer and switchgear oils. Additives.

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DISTILLATE. Any of a wide range of petroleum products produced by the process of distillation, as distinct from residuals, cracked stock or natural gas derivatives. DISTILLATION. The primary refining step, in which the crude is separated into its various boiling range fractions in a distillation tower. The process in known as fractionation and is a continuous thermodynamic one in which heat is applied at the lower part of the tower and the various distillates are piped off above: gases overhead and light fuels, solvents and lube stocks from side streams. The higher the sidestream, the lighter the fraction. Heavy materials remaining in the bottom of the tower are known as residuals or bottoms. DISTILLATION TEST. The method for determining the volatility characteristics of liquids such as petroleum products which are made up of a variety of hydrocarbon components, each with volatility characteristics different from the others. A distillation test covers the entire range of volatility characteristics by the progressive evaporation of a sample under conditions of controlled heating. Throughout the procedure, the percentage of sample evaporated is reported against the corresponding fluid temperature and results may be expressed in a tabular or graphic form. dN FACTOR. Also known as the "speed factor", used in conjunction with operating temperature to help determine the proper viscosity of oil to use in a given bearing. See Part IV. DROPPING POINT. The temperature at which the first drop of liquid separates when a grease is heated under prescribed conditions. See Part II. DRUM. A standard container with a capacity of 55 U.S. gallons. The name also refers to an open head container of similar size which holds approximately 400 pounds of grease. DRY GAS. A gas which does not contain the heavier fraction which are prone to condense under normal atmospheric conditions. In the hydrocarbon series, for example, methane and ethane are dry gases. EHL (ELASTO-HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION). A concept that considers the effects of pressure on hydrodynamic lubrication: viscosity changes in the lubricant and elastic deformation of the metal surfaces resulting from the pressure in the contact area. ELASTOMER. Material which, after having been stretched, returns to its original dimensions. Rubber is an example. EMPIRICAL. Depending on experience or observation alone, without regard to science or theory.

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EMULSIBILITY. The ability of an oil to emulsify with water. The oil becomes suspended in water in the form of minute particles, an EMULSION. See Part II. ENGLER VISCOSITY. A method formerly used in Europe for expressing the resistance to flow of a given oil. See VISCOSITY, following, or Part VIII, above. EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANTS. Lubricants which impart to rubbing or sliding steel surfaces the ability of carrying appreciably greater loads than would be possible with ordinary lubricants, without excessive wear or damage. FAHRENHEIT. See TEMPERATURE. FALEX TEST. A method for determining the extreme pressure properties of oils and greases. A rotating pin is clamped between vee blocks in such a manner that load can be applied to the blocks. Wear can be measured by determining the width of the contact areas or the weight loss of the pin and blocks. FALSE BRINELING. See fretting corrosion. FAT. A naturally occurring mixture of triglycerides. A fatty oil is a fat which is liquid at room temperature. See COMPOUNDED OIL. FATTY ACID. An organic acid of aliphatic structure originally derived from fats and fatty oils. FERROGRAPH. An instrument used to separate metal particles and contaminants from a lubricant. It determines the size distribution and analysis of the particles (quantitatively and qualitatively). FDA. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FIBER GREASE. Grease having a distinctly fibrous structure which is noticeable when the grease is pulled apart. Greases having this property are reputed to resist being thrown out of bearings or gears. FILLER. Any substance, such as talc, mica or various powders, which is added to grease solely to increase the consistency. FILM STRENGTH. The property of a film of lubricant to resist rupture due to load, speed or temperature. See ANTI-WEAR. FILTER. Any device or porous substance used as a strainer for cleaning fluids by removing suspended matter. See Part VI.

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FILTRATION. A process of removing suspended material from a liquid by passing it through a porous medium. See Part VI. FLASH POINT AND FIRE POINT. See Part II. FLOC POINT. The temperature at which the wax in a refrigeration oil separates as a flocculent material when a mixture of 10% oil and 90% refrigerant is chilled under standard conditions. See Part II. FOAM INHIBITOR. See DEFOAMANT. FOAMING CHARACTERISTICS. A method of rating the foaming tendency and stability of the foam in a lubricating oil under controlled conditions (ASTM D892). FOLLOWER PLATE. A steel disc fitted to the top surface of lubricating grease in a container and designed so as to follow the progressive depletion of the material. The gravitational force thus exerted will assist in the delivery of grease to the dispensing system. FOUR BALL TESTS. Two test procedures based on the same principle are the Four Ball EP Test and the Four Ball Wear Test. Three balls are clamped together to form a cradle upon which a fourth ball rotates in a vertical axis. The balls are immersed in the liquid being tested. The Four Ball Wear Test determines the wear-preventing properties of lubricants operating under boundary conditions. The Four Ball EP Test is designed to evaluate performance under much higher unit loads. FRETTING CORROSION. Wear phenomenon taking place between two surfaces that have an oscillatory relative motion of small amplitude (also called friction oxidation). FREON. Registered trademark for fluids used as refrigerants. FRICTION. The resistance to motion offered by a surface or substance as a result of contact with another surface or substance. See Part II. FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY. Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy, measures energy in the infrared region of the spectrum. Coupled to a computer this instrument is capable of detecting trends in used lube oil condition over time. Able to produce rapid results this instrument is now widely used as the principal test instrument for lube oil analysis in many lube oil test laboratories. FULL FLOW FILTRATION. A system of filtration in which the total flow o f a circulating fluid passes through a filter.

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FUROL. See VISCOSITY. FZG TESTER. (Forschungsstelle fur Zahnrader und Getriebebau) A four square gear tester which measures the load carrying capacity of a lubricating oil in a gear set for which the load may be varied. GALLON (IMPERIAL). Unit of liquid volume formerly used in Canada, England and other countries, defined as the volume of 10 pounds of water at 68 F. Now almost entirely supplanted by metric measures. See Part VIII, Table F. GALLON (U.S.). Unit of liquid volume equal to 231 cubic inches. See Part VIII, Table F. GAS. The vapor state of any substance, having neither independent shape nor volume. GAS ABSORBER OIL. Also called wash oil or scrubber oil. Oil used to recover soluble components of a gas mixture, as in the production of benzol, in coal tar distillation, in gas manufacture, etc. GAS BLANKET. A layer of inert gas (usually nitrogen) lying on top of petroleum oil and preventing contact with air. Also used in enclosed machine spaces. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. A procedure for identifying and indicating the quantity of individual components in a hydrocarbon product, usually a solvent or light distillate. The sample is passed in gaseous form through a packed column where individual components are adsorbed, then desorbed, in individual patterns. These patterns can be measured and compared with standards to identify the components. GEL. An elastic solid mixture of a COLLOID and a liquid, it possesses a yield point and a jelly-like texture. GRAM. A metric unit of mass and weight equal to 0.001 kilogram and nearly equal to the mass of 1 cubic centimeter of water at its maximum density. See Part VIII, Table E. GRAPHITE. A crystalline form of carbon, either natural or synthetic in origin, which is occasionally used as a lubricant, either in dry form or in a carrier such as an oil, grease or anti-seize compound. GRAVITY. The weight per unit volume relationship, which, with petroleum products, may be expressed as SPECIFIC GRAVITY or API GRAVITY. See Part VIII, Tables D and E.

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GREASE. A solid or semi-solid lubricant, consisting of a stabilized mixture of mineral, fatty or synthetic oil with soaps or other thickeners. Other ingredients may be added to impart specific properties. See Part II. GUM. A rubber-like, sticky deposit black or dark brown in color, which results from the oxidation of lubricating oils or from unstable constituents in gasoline which deposit during storage or use. HEAT TRANSFER FLUID. A circulating medium, often of petroleum origin, which absorbs heat in one part of a system and releases it in another. HOMOGENIZATION. As applied to a grease, the process of intimate mixing with intensive shearing action to obtain a more uniform dispersion. HORSEPOWER. A method of rating mechanical work, defined as 33,000 foot pounds of mechanical work per minute. Note that this is a rate. It must always be associated with a time element. See Part VIII, Table H, for conversion to ISO-coherent forms of expression. HUMIDITY. Moisture (water vapor) in the atmosphere, a matter of concern in drying, air compression and other areas of machine operation. Relative humidity, directly affected by temperature, is a significant value to machine operators, as it gives a clear indication of the drying effect of the atmosphere or the tendency for moisture to condense. The lower the relative humidity, the drier the air; the higher the temperature, the lower the relative humidity. Absolute humidity, on the other hand, is not affected by temperature and is, therefore, more of an academic value. HYDRAULIC FLUID. Petroleum (or water, synthetic material, emulsion, etc.) fluid serving as a power transmission medium in a system. It acts as a lubricant only in the pumps, motors, actuators and valves in a system. HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION. The lubrication regime in which the shape and relative motion of the sliding surfaces causes a pumping action to take place. The oil in the interface then forms a liquid film with sufficient pressure to separate the surfaces, resulting in full fluid film lubrication. See Part V. HYDROLYTIC STABILITY. The property of a lubricant to resist deterioration caused by chemical reaction with water. HYDROMETER. An instrument for determining the gravity of a liquid. HYDROPHILIC. Having an affinity for water.

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See Part II. AFTERCOOLING. International Electrotechnical Commission. Invert emulsions are used where the oil. INDUCTION PERIOD. not the water. Special bevel gears in which the two gear-shaft axes do not intersect. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Widely used in automotive differentials. Viscosity Grade. See part III. HYDROSTATIC LUBRICATION. Additives for the control of certain undesirable phenomena in lubricants. HYGROSCOPIC. Also called TRANSFORMER OIL. fire resistant hydraulic fluids etc. dehydrated and wax free oil having good dielectric strength for use in electrical equipment. The part of a shaft which rotates in a bearing. JOULE. A lubrication regime in which the lubricant is supplied under sufficient pressure to separate the opposing surfaces. I. Similarly. A low viscosity. Same as HYDROPHILIC. International unit for energy or quantity of heat or work. An improvement in efficiency brought about by cooling air between compression stages. See MISCIBLE. INHIBITORS.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Basic SI unit for absolute temperature. IMMISCIBLE. INTERFACIAL TENSION. should contact the solid surfaces as in rust preventatives. INSULATING OIL. KELVIN. It ends when the rate begins to increase sharply. The time period in an oxidation test where oxidation proceeds at a relatively low rate. JOURNAL. Page 234 of 255 . Section B. such as between water and a petroleum oil sample. The symbol is J. See DIELECTRIC STRENGTH. The opposite of HYDROPHILIC. INVERT EMULSION. A mechanical mixture of oil and water where the mixture is of water in a continuous oil phase. symbol K. See TEMPERATURE. Extreme high unit loading and sliding velocity characteristics require EP gear oils. The force required to rupture the interface between two phases. ISO. Used as a measure of oil deterioration.E. partly to lower the drive shaft. HYPOID GEARS. INTERCOOLING.C. following the final stage. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual HYDROPHOBIC.

In contrast with natural gas. Colorless. The most common LP gases are propane and butane. A moderate load-carrying ability over and above that indicated by its viscosity. See also compounded oil. light distillate heavier than gasoline but lighter than heating oils. MACHINERY OIL. The noise associated with the premature ignition of the fuel-air mixture in a combustion chamber. plastic. LUBRICANT. LOAD WEAR INDEX. See four ball test. Apparatus for the rapid analysis of the hydrocarbon types in a petroleum sample.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. LPG has a low vapor pressure which permits compression. A grease soap thickener is derived from the reaction of a fatty acid with a metal hydroxide. which must be piped at nominal pressures to points of application. KNOCK. Also called "ping" or "engine knock" or "preignition" or "detonation". MECHANICAL LUBRICATORS. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. heating and some internal combustion engines. LPG (LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS). Common lubricants are petroleum oils and greases. which indicates the relative difficulty with which it is machined. or solid material capable of forming a friction-reducing film between two rubbing surfaces when properly applied. LUBRICITY (of an oil). A percentage value assigned to a steel. Formerly mean Hertz load. LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY. transportation and storage in a liquid state at ordinary temperatures. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY. Section C. calculated from the loads applied and corrected for elastic deformation of the ball under static loading and for the size of the wear scar. The property can be enhanced by additive treatment. a measure of the relative ability of a lubricant to prevent wear under applied loads. Page 235 of 255 . Fluid. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual KEROSENE. See Part VII. Fuel that is obtained by extraction from field gas plants or as a refinery product. LITHIUM BASE GREASE. A term used to describe the ability of a lubricant to resist film rupture and protect against wear. MASS SPECTROMETER. in this case lithium hydroxide. MACHINABILITY RATING. See VISCOSITY. Used for lighting. See Part IV.

MISCIBLE. MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE. MIL SPECIFICATIONS. MINERAL SPIRITS. Naphthas of mixed hydrocarbon composition and moderate volatility. S. MILLIPORE FILTER. kerosene. For example. Useful when very high temperatures and. widely used for cleaning and a variety of manufacturing processes. The resulting low pressure at the orifice causes oil to be drawn into the air stream and atomized. The mist is reclassified to a liquid at the point of use. See Part VII. higher boiling than kerosene. resulting in a fine mist which is carried at high velocity to the points of application. MINERAL SEAL OIL. A chemical compound of molybdenum and sulfur which has good lubricating properties as a solid or mixed with fluid or grease carriers. Included in this classification are gasoline. MIST LUBRICATION. Military Specification Descriptions. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual METAL DEACTIVATOR. Water and alcohol are miscible. water and petroleum oil are IMMISCIBLE. Mutually soluble to some practical extent. The effect is to reduce oxidation. The oil particles thus suspended are limited in size. An organic type of additive having the property of suppressing the catalytic action of metal surfaces and traces of metallic debris exposed to petroleum products. A generic term covering a range of light petroleum distillates. Saudi Aramco diesel engine CD is qualified against MIL-L-2104C. or severe load conditions apply. It is a gravimetric determination in units of milligrams per liter or parts per million. See Part II. MULTIGRADE (MULTIVISCOSITY. An oil that meets the low temperature viscosity limits of an SAE W number and the 100 C viscosity limits of a nonW number. CROSSGRADE). A highly refined distillate. SAE 15W-40 is an example. Saudi Aramco uses this filter for the determination of particulates (dirt and gums) in light and medium grade lubricants. Having the characteristics of naphthenes. A commercial name of the manufacture of membrane filters. See Part III. NAPHTHA. NAPHTHENIC. Page 236 of 255 . A system whereby compressed air is passed rapidly across an orifice fed by a liquid oil supply. which are saturated hydrocarbons with molecules containing at least one closed ring of carbon atoms. U. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. which is used as the fuel in signal lamps.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. mineral spirits and a broad selection of other petroleum solvents.

ORGANIC MATTER. vegetable and mineral oils for example as fatty acid. They have the general formula CnH2n. These may be mineral or synthetic oils thickened with clay or synthetic materials. propane. National Lubricating Grease Institute. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Gas occurring naturally in the earth. Page 237 of 255 . Property of an oil to reduce the coefficient of friction under boundary conditions. Greases. Unsaturated hydrocarbons which are more reactive. NEWTONIAN FLUIDS. NON-SOAP GREASE.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. consisting mainly of methane but also ethane. BASE NUMBERS are similar with TOTAL BASE NUMBER being a measure of the alkalinity of the oil. OCTANE NUMBER. i. The analog is INORGANIC.. Material derived from living organisms and consisting essentially of carbon and hydrogen with minor amounts of other chemical elements. residuals and some synthetic oils also are non-Newtonian fluids.e. The specific quantity of a reagent required to neutralize the acidity or alkalinity of a lube oil sample. Non soluble cutting oil (See Part V. New oils may show one or the other as a result of the refining method or from the characteristics of the additives used. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual NATURAL GAS. BOUNDARY LUBRICATION.e. mineral. less stable. See Part III. NEUTRALIZATION NUMBER. Greases manufactured without conventional soap bases. ORGANIC ACID. and STRONG BASE NUMBER usually resulting from contamination with a caustic material. while the difference between TOTAL ACID NUMBER and STRONG ACID NUMBER is attributed to weak (organic) acids. Section J-2). An organic compound. See also pH. See Part II. See COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION. particularly diesel engine oils.. i. butane and minor quantities of heavier materials. than paraffins. A numerical term indicating the relative anti-knock value of gasoline. OLEFINS. OILINESS. STRONG ACID NUMBERS are considered to be related to inorganic acids. Multigrade oils are non-Newtonian because their viscosity decreases with increased shear rates. largely derived from the additive package used. possibly the result of oil oxidation. NEAT CUTTING OIL. NLGI. Single grade crankcase oils and most mineral oils are Newtonian fluids at normal temperatures. such as those derived from sulfur. Increasing neutralization numbers may indicate oil deterioration in service and ACID NUMBERS are obtained to confirm the trend. obtained from organic substances such as animal. with acid properties. Fluids of which the viscosity is independent of the rate of shear.

as in hydrogen peroxide . Positive crankcase ventilation system for internal combustion engines. a higher oxide in which oxygen is held to be joined to oxygen. hence. such as paraffin wax. Closed cup flash point tester. Pure distilled water has a pH of 7. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Hydrocarbon belonging to the series starting with methane. commonly used to determine fuel dilution in crankcase lubes and fuel oils. In their high molecular weight form they are solids. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual OXIDATION.H2O2. The midpoint. The apparatus for measuring PENETRATION. pH is the common logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration and its value runs from 0. A relatively unstable oxide containing a relatively high proportion of oxygen. It is designed to provide positive scavenging of crankcase vapors and return them to the intake system. maximum alkalinity. PETROLATUM. PENSKY-MARTENS. to 14.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. PEROXIDE. PARAFFIN. NEUTRALIZATION NUMBER is related to the quantity of acid or base forming materials in a solution. An oxidation inhibitor may combine with the peroxides formed initially by oxidation. lower molecular weights are high quality lubricating oil base stocks. pH 7. Either or both may be used in evaluating an oil in service. Or the inhibitor (a passivator) may react with a catalyst either to "poison" it or to coat it with an inert film. PCV. See BREATHER. A pale yellow hydrocarbon containing components of microcrystalline wax. Page 238 of 255 . used in pharmaceuticals and in some types of rust preventives. Paraffins are saturated with respect to hydrogen. OXIDATION INHIBITOR. pH indicates their intensity. pH. A measure of alkalinity or acidity. See Part II. maximum acidity. Heat and metal catalysts accelerates oxidation reactions. In petroleum oils OXIDATION STABILITY means that the oil resists oxidizing influences and longer service is obtained. to lengthen its service or storage life. thereby modifying them in such a way as to arrest their oxidizing influence. PENETROMETER. The measurement of the consistency of a grease. Chemical added in small quantities to a petroleum product to increase its oxidation resistance and. represents neutrality. All petroleum hydrocarbons are subject to oxidation to some extent. See Part II. PENETRATION. The process of combining with oxygen.

Such a molecule may have two wholly different characteristics. Lowest temperature (°F) at which an oil will flow. a large mouthful of food is 1 ppm of all a person eats in a lifetime. The bomb is charged with oxygen and pressurized. POLAR COMPOUND. whereas that of a paraffinic oil is brought about by crystallization of waxy particles. The time for the test oil to react with a given volume of oxygen is measured. The shear stress (in dynes per square centimeter) required to move one layer of fluid along another (total layer thickness of one centimeter) at a shear rate of one centimeter per second. Abbreviation of Rotating Bomb Oxidation Test. are subject to distortion by differences in fluid density. thus. rust inhibitors. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual POISE. the most notable of which is turbine oil. negative at the other. RBOT TEST. POUR POINT.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. is used to determine the oxidation stability of turbine oils. R & O. a half block is 1 ppm of the distance around the world. This test. a factor of significance in cold-weather start-up. Reclaiming is defined as the process which removes solids and water by simple methods but does not remove unwanted oil soluble contaminants. Other viscosity measurement methods rely on the force of gravity to supply the shear stress and. Abbreviation for parts per million. placed in an oil bath at a constant high temperature and rotated axially. while the other may be water-soluble or may have an affinity for metal surfaces. etc. The term is applied to highly refined industrial lubricating oils. PPM. emulsifiers. End use is usually concrete form oil. completion of the time being indicated by a specific drop in pressure. if the crystalline structure is mechanically disrupted. The unit of absolute viscosity. however. Hence waxy pour point. One in which the molecule exhibits electrically positive characteristics at one extremity. or fuels. The test oil. An abbreviation for rust and oxidation inhibited. ASTM D 2272. In the latter case. the formulated product would be said to have good metal-wetting properties or to wet the metal surface preferentially. Absolute viscosity measurements are independent of density and are directly related to resistance to flow. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. For illustration: a postage stamp is 1 ppm of the weight of a man. ASTM D97. Page 239 of 255 . oiliness agents. water and copper catalyst are placed in a bomb equipped with a pressure gauge. Many additives in petroleum formulations are polar. A paraffinic oil will often flow at temperatures below its pour point. One extremity may be oil-soluble. Lack of fluidity of a naphthenic oil stems from the increase in viscosity. detergents. Refer also to Recycling and Rerefining. See also pour depressant under additives. RECLAIMING: Used for conservation purposes.

An oil for use in refrigeration compressors. An additive which protects against the formation of rust on metallic surfaces. Distillation with activated clay in the oil. See VISCOSITY or Part VIII. REDWOOD VISCOMETER. and additive replenishment. the other for gear oils. Compounds which give non-permanent protection to bare metal surfaces against the effects of moisture. The organization responsible for the establishment of many U. Rerefining can produce base oils which can compare favorably in quality to virgin oils. See illustration in Section V. OXIDATION. expressed in the LB Sec/in2. RHEOLOGY. See Part II. RUST PREVENTIVES. either by preferentially oil wetting the surfaces or by neutralizing acids. REYN. Refer also to Rerefining and Reclaiming. filtration to remove solids. See Part III. Refer also to Recycling and Reclaiming. SAE VISCOSITY NUMBERS. They range from light oil materials to grease-like consistencies to asphaltic. Table C.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. An obsolete method of determining lubricating oil viscosity.. They can be used in place of 80% or more of industrial and automotive products. The study of the deformation and flow of matter in terms of stress. Filtration to remove the spent clay. The standard unit of absolute viscosity in the English system. See POLAR COMPOUNDS. REREFINING: Used for conservation purposes. Figure 12. automotive and aviation standards. brittle shields. RING OILER. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual RECYCLING: For conservation purposes recycling is used to reprocess used oils either for its original use or for a secondary use. temperature and time. Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE. The rheological properties of greases are commonly measured by PENETRATION (static state) or pumping studies (dynamic state).S. Page 240 of 255 . strain. clay treatment to remove oxidation products etc. Two systems for classifying viscosities: one for crankcase oils. RUST INHIBITOR. centrifuging to remove solids and water. including the crankcase and gear oil viscosity classifications. Rerefining will usually consist of a pretreatment to remove the major portion of unwanted constituents. REFRIGERATION OIL. Typical reprocessing includes dehydration to remove water. A simple device for carrying oil from a reservoir to a bearing.

The higher the viscosity of a Newtonian fluid. are non-toxic and electrically insulating. It may be said to have APPARENT VISCOSITY. The unit frictional force overcome in sliding one layer of fluid along another. A characteristic of grease to settle to the bottom of the container. usually for the control or identification of added substances.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. They are chemically quite inert. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual SAPONIFICATION. They can be obtained in a very wide range of viscosities. the sight fluid must be immiscible with the oil and it must be more dense. SAYBOLT FUROL SECONDS. SHEAR STRESS. the greater the shear stress per rate of shear. SLUMP. Water and glycerin often are used for this purpose. an important consideration in planning pump suction systems. For a Newtonian fluid. The transparent liquid in a sight feed oiler through which the upward passage of the oil drops can be observed. Conversion into soap. at any given temperature. The unit of measurement is dynes/cm2. SIGHT FLUID. also Part VIII. A measure of the quantity of fat or fatty oil in compounded oils. but they have several other advantages. Since the drops follow a wire upward through this medium. SHEAR STABILITY. SAPONIFICATION NUMBER. as in any fluid flow. Deformation which occurs when parallel planes of a body are displaced relative to each other in a direction parallel to themselves. the process by which fats are decomposed by the action of alkali and the first step in the manufacture of soap-based greases. SILICONE BASED LUBRICANTS. Cylinder oils and other compounded oils have saponification numbers dependent on the amount of fatty material added. a viscosity which holds only for the rate of shear and the temperature at which the viscosity is determined. SLUDGE. SHEAR. See VISCOSITY. repel water. Ability of a lubricant such as a grease or a VI-improved oil to withstand mechanical shearing without being degraded in consistency or viscosity. A non-Newtonian fluid is one in which shear stress is not proportional to the rate of shear. See VISCOSITY. Table C. Uncompounded mineral oils have low saponification numbers. but are not good boundary lubricants for steel. SAYBOLT UNIVERSAL SECONDS. These are generally used for their good hightemperature properties. or both. Insoluble material formed as a result either of deterioration reactions in an oil or by contamination of the oil. See CHANNEL. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. Page 241 of 255 . the shear stress varies directly with velocity or rate of shear.

and thus to produce a homogeneous physical mixture like that of sugar dissolved in water. Widely used for the analysis of lube oils. A refining technique to improve the quality of base oils using selective extraction of undesirable components by means of solvents. SPINDLE OIL. SOLVENCY (SOLVENT POWER). 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. ALSO SUS. Ability to dissolve.P. Universal the American viscosity reporting system for petroleum oils. Seconds. Stoddard solvent. Low viscosity. The ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a body one degree to that required to raise an equal mass of water one degree. A mineral oil containing additives which permit the oil to be easily mixed with water. sodium. Using a spectrometer as a vital part of a lube oil analysis program. SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS. Hence solvent. SPECIFIC GRAVITY. SOLVENT REFINED. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual SOAP. SSU. They include: mineral spirits.A. hexane. barium or aluminum are the principal thickeners used in greases. The metallic salt of an acid derived from animal or vegetable matter. The main disadvantage is the inability to detect particle sizes greater than around 10 microns. oil of high quality for the lubrication of textile and machine tool spindles. See EMULSION. and. Common abbreviations for Saybolt. Soaps of lithium.O. is particularly useful when analyzing crankcase oils.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. xylene. See GRAVITY. heptane. used in the manufacture of grease. SOLUBLE CUTTING OIL. Acronym for Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program. some petroleum solvents have more solvency than others. napthas. a liquid with a particularly high solvency for a certain class of substances. SPECIFIC HEAT. to put into solution. Refer to Spectrometric Oil Analysis. It should contain rust and oxidation inhibitors and may contain anti-wear agents to control wear during start up. Petroleum solvents are among the most common. Solvency is related to chemical similarity. Page 242 of 255 . toluene. S.0 centistokes at 40 C. An oil analyzing technique using a spectrometer to detect qualitatively and quantitatively wear and additive metals in lubricating oils. calcium. typically in the range 2.0 to 20 . for substances soluble in hydrocarbons. Superseded by the ISO system.

It is expressed in dynes/cm or ergs/cm2. SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS. STRAIGHT MINERAL OILS. Universal . The contractile surface force of a liquid by which it tends to assume a spherical form and to present the least possible surface. Loss of the liquid component from a grease. The residue that remains after a sample of oil has been combusted under prescribed conditions and reduced to a constant weight by heating in the presence of sulfuric acid. It may be due to either physical or chemical changes in the thickener and is a form of bleeding. SYNERGISM. the slow speed and the fact that the starting friction is greater than the running friction. Page 243 of 255 . An organization founded for the advancement of triblogy. STOKE. Previously known as the American Society of Lubrication Engineers. SUS. SURFACTANT. A surface-acting agent such as a detergent. SULFATED ASH. The unit of kinematic viscosity. See VISCOSITY. caused by shrinkage or rearrangement of the structure. SURFACE TENSION. A phenomenon wherein the mixed effect of two influences is greater than the sum of the two influences acting separately. Their molecules consist of long hydrocarbon chains (which are insoluble in water) attached to acid groups (which are soluble in water). 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. STLE. It is caused by the reciprocating action. See Part II. This undesirable action usually can be controlled by the special way oils which are used in precision machine tools. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual STICK-SLIP.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Oils which do not contain compounds or additives. SYNERESIS.See SSU. Erratic motion characteristic of some machine tool slideways. Those produced by chemical synthesis rather than by extraction or refining. Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers. Abbreviation for Saybolt seconds. including all aspects of lubrication. It is used as a check on the amount of metallo-organic additives present in the oil.

A centrifuge test used to determine the percent by volume or weight of the total Insoluble material in a sample.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Lubricating and power-transfer medium for industrial and automotive torque converters. The OK Load is the heaviest that can be carried without scoring. The Rankine scale is based on the Fahrenheit unit where 0 °R = -460 °F. Page 244 of 255 . THIXOTROPY. suspended in a crankcase engine oil. the portion of a grease in a bearing that undergoes shearing will soften during operation but generally will return to its normal plastic state when the agitation stops. stringy. THIN FILM LUBRICATION. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. fibrous. It uses a standard steel roller rotating under load against a steel block. TORQUE FLUID. Possesses the lubricating properties required for associated gear assemblies and is compatible with seal materials. The intensity of heat measured by various scales. The Kelvin scale is based on the Celsius unit. See NEUTRALIZATION NUMBER. albeit slowly. TOTAL ACID NUMBER (TAN). usually reversible. of some gels and greases to undergo changes in consistency when subjected to a shearing action. where 0 °K = -273 °C. etc. TOTAL BASE NUMBER (TBN). The property of a fuel or lubricant which indicates its ability to resist cracking and decomposition when exposed to high temperatures. soot gums. See Part VII. Table A. TRANSFORMER OIL. A measure of the EP properties of a lubricant. The appearance or feel of a grease. See INSULATING OIL. Water freezes at 0 °C (32 °F) and boils at 100 °C (212 °F). "Centigrade" is the obsolete name for Celsius and it is the more commonly used. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual TEMPERATURE. The property. short fiber. TOTAL SOLIDS. Saudi Aramco uses a modified ASTM D893 Procedure B to determine the total finely divided material. See BOUNDARY LUBRICATION. See NEUTRALIZATION NUMBER. wear metals. TEXTURE. THICKENERS. which can be described as buttery. The Celsius scale is in common use in nearly every part of the world except for the United States which is adapting. Solid particles which are dispersed in a liquid to form the structure of a lubricating grease. TIMKEN OK LOAD. THERMAL STABILITY. See SOAP and NON-SOAP. Available in a selection of grades to meet the specifications of different equipment manufacturers. etc. resilient. Thus.

See also R & O Oils. and wear of surfaces in relative motion. Turbine oils are also used as heat transfer fluids in open systems. refrigeration. USP. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual TRIBOLOGIST: A specialist in the discipline of Tribology TRIBOLOGY: The study of the phenomena and mechanisms of friction. Pharmacopoeia. light hydrocarbons. A machine for converting the heat energy of steam or combustion gases to kinetic energy by action or reaction with respect to fixed and rotating blades. (UL). a deposit resulting from oxidation and polymerization of fuels and lubricants. Reputable turbine oils are also distinguished by good demulsibility. A U. It is possible to reduce soluble water to less than 20 parts per million with this specialized equipment. REID VAPOR PRESSURE is widely used as a measure of the volatility of gasoline and is the absolute vapor pressure of a liquid at 100 °F. This applies to circulating systems.S. is one atmosphere. UNWORKED PENETRATION. a requisite of effective oil-water separation. ethylene and butene.A process for removing both free and dissolved water. compressors. USP white oils and petrolatums meet FDA requirements and are suitable for internal and medicinal use. TURBINE. U. VAPOR PRESSURE. VARNISH. where oxidation resistance is of primary importance. In petroleum parlance.S. It is similar to but softer than lacquer. lubrication. INC. This process has been used mainly on transformer oils but is now widely accepted for reclaiming of turbine. in a sealed container. hydrocarbons that are not satisfied with respect to hydrogen. and other precision equipment. And dissolved gases in oils. non-profit organization devoted to the establishment and dissemination of fire prevention information. See Part V. As applied to lubrication. VACUUM DEHYDRATION . UNSATURATED. The pressure exerted by the vapors released from a liquid at a given temperature. UNDERWRITERS' LABORATORIES. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. an independent organization known for the maintenance of pharmaceutical standards. hydraulic systems. The vapor pressure of water at 100 °C. Top-quality rust. gear drives. See Part II. such as the olefin series. TURBINE OIL. for example.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Turbine oils are widely used in exacting applications for which a long service life and dependable lubrication are mandatory. oils. seal. supported by tests and specifications directed at the reduction of fire hazards.and oxidation-inhibited oil that meets the rigid requirements traditionally imposed on steam-turbine lubrication. Page 245 of 255 .

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. again expressed as dyn. they have been replaced by the ISO-coherent kinematic units (cSt). SAYBOLT FUROL SECONDS (SSF) are the number of seconds required for 60 milliliters of oil to flow through the orifice of a standard Saybolt Furol Viscosimeter at a given temperature. The derivation of the word "Furol" is fuel and road oils and it is for these that it principally is used. Ordinarily it is expressed in terms of the time required for a standard quantity of the fluid at a given temperature to flow through a standard orifice. Following are the most common viscosity measurement methods: (See Part VIII.s/cm2) To avoid complex decimals. VISCOSITY. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. the more viscous the fluid. being Poise X 0. 4. ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY. however. 1) Viscosimeter at a standard temperature. The capacity of the Furol viscosimeter is approximately ten times that of the Universal apparatus. The value of one centistoke is one millimeter squared per second (1 mm2/sec). Apparatus for measuring viscosity. expressed in POISE. 6. its value is meaningless unless accompanied by the temperature at which it is determined. 1 P = 1 dyne second/centimeter squared (dyn. This measurement was widely used in the United States although now replaced by the ISO-coherent kinematic units (cSt). CENTIPOISE is used. SAYBOLT SECONDS UNIVERSAL (SSU or SUS) is the number of seconds required for 60 milliliters of oil to flow through the orifice of the standard Saybolt Universal Viscosimeter (viscometer) at a given temperature. 130 or 210 °F. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY is most commonly used throughout the world.s/cm2. It is obtained by dividing the absolute viscosity by the density of the material being measured. or cSt (0. Standard temperatures are the same as for Saybolt Universal. The measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. Page 246 of 255 .01 Stoke). The higher the reading. 2. 100. 1) are the number of seconds required for 50 milliliters of oil to flow through the orifice of the Redwood Standard (No. The basic expression is STOKE (1 centimeter squared per second) and the expression used in commerce is the CENTISTOKE.01.) 1. Table C for conversion factors and Part II for additional explanation. Redwood units formerly were the standard measurements for viscosity in Great Britain. 3. REDWOOD STANDARD SECONDS (or REDWOOD NO. Since viscosity varies inversely with temperature. 5. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual VISCOMETER (VISCOSIMETER). Standard temperatures are 70.

VOLATILITY. or viscosity index. VISCOUS. Page 247 of 255 . However. ENGLER SECONDS are the number of seconds required for 200 milliliters of oil to flow through the orifice of the Engler Standard Viscosimeter at a given temperature. 20W. REDWOOD ADMIRALTY SECONDS (or REDWOOD NO.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. The relative ease with which a liquid is converted into a vapor state. measured in water percent volume. regardless of temperature. This is similar to RELATIVE VISCOSITY and SPECIFIC VISCOSITY. Possessing viscosity. would have constant viscosity. 9. both of which compare the viscosity of one fluid to that of another. make it less susceptible to viscosity change with temperature. It is to Redwood Standard as Saybolt Furol is to Universal. they all are reduced in viscosity ("thin out") with increased temperature and become more viscous ("thicken") at low temperatures. The relationship between viscosity changes of various oils with given changes in temperature. Used to measure small amounts of water. for example. VISCOSITY INDEX IMPROVER.50. 2) are the number of seconds required for 50 milliliters of oil to flow through the orifice of the Redwood Admiralty Viscosimeter at a standard temperature. Oils which change the least have "high VI" and oils which change the most have "low VI". usually water. Typical applications are multigrade engine oils. Engler values were the norm in Europe until the advent of kinematic expression. A gross method to determine the presence of large quantities of water or other contaminants. and high VI hydraulic oils. WATER. Bottom Sediment and Water (BS&W). No such oil exists. Some are more resistant to change than others and it is this difference which is represented by VI. These usually are long chain polymers and the more modern examples are relatively resistant to shear. 2. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. VISCOSITY INDEX. See Part II. Water by Distillation. Additives which improve the VI of an oil. frequently used to imply high viscosity. as far as viscosity is concerned. all oils do not react to temperature changes in the same fashion. Several methods are used for determining the amount of water in a petroleum product: 1. The perfect oil. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 7. ENGLER DEGREES are Engler seconds divided by the time in seconds required for 200 milliliters of water at 20 °C to flow through the orifice of an Engler instrument. See VAPOR PRESSURE. 8.

1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. or hydraulic pumps and motors containing silver bearings. A polar compound which has the property of modifying the characteristics of the contact between a liquid and a solid surface to promote more rapid and complete wetting of the surface. The attrition or rubbing away of the surface of a material as a result of mechanical action. which is widely used as an extreme pressure agent in motor oils to protect heavily loaded valve train mechanisms (particularly the chamshaft and cam followers). scale wax). ZDP AND ZDDP. also used as an antiwear agent in hydraulic fluids and certain other applications. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual 3. If water is present. that contains recoverable gasoline fractions. occurring naturally or produced by some refinery processes. The most accurate. measured in parts pre million. WAY LUBRICANT. Dielectric Strength. method for quantitatively measuring small quantities of water. the voltage will be lower but the method does not provide a quantitative value. See POLAR COMPOUND. Petroleum waxes.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. detergents and other additives. Used to determine the presence of minute quantities of water in insulating oils. from petroleum crudes. Page 248 of 255 . ZDDP is also an effective oxidation inhibitor. See USP WHITE OIL. WET GAS. They are used in rust inhibitors. are produced directly (paraffin) or as by-products of lube oil manufacture (slack wax. Initials for zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. Water by Karl Fischer Method. WHITE OIL. WEAR. Special oil for use on machine tool ways. Oils containing ZDDP should not be used in engines. measured as the voltage required to cause a spark to pass between two plates immersed in the oil to be tested. from excessive wear. Gas. but most time-consuming. Highly refined oil. 4. Wear is the subject of a separate scientific discipline known as TRIBOLOGY. practically colorless. WAX. See STICK-SLIP. WETTING AGENT.

The list covers all Saudi Aramco branded lubricants as given in the SAMS catalog with the exception of sub classes: 09. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual PART IX .BRAND COMPARISONS A. (Fuels). Sub classes 09. (Instrument Lubricants).Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. In addition brands shown as comparable are not necessarily direct equivalents in performance. be used with discretion. If in doubt. The list should therefore. Note: Vendor brand names are subject to change and the same names are not always used in all countries. (Valve Lubricants). 11. Page 249 of 255 . 10. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. This list can be used to select those Saudi Aramco brands which correspond to equipment vendor's recommended lubricants as shown in instruction manuals and on attached nameplates. Saudi Aramco Brand Names and their SAMS Numbers against major Vendor Brand Names The following list shows the major vendor branded products and their nearest Saudi Aramco brand equivalents. and 12. the Lubrication Engineer should be consulted. 11 and 12 are single source special requirements and listing equivalent brands is not considered practical. 10. (Specialty Lubricants).

1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.A.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. such oils are unsuitable for use in sour gas compressor services. Saudi Aramco branded oils can be used to replace vendor grades shown on this list but the reverse is not necessarily the case.S. Saudi Aramco branded oils are zinc free. Teresstic and Tresso products are identical. Contact the lubrication engineers for further information. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual ARAMCO BRAND COMPARISON LIST CIRCULATING OILS -TURBINE & MACHINERY (SUB CLASS 01)* SAUDI ARAMCO BRAND TURBINE OIL 32 SAMS NUMBER 26-001-140 (55G) 26-001-150 (BULK) 26-001-230 (5G) 26-001-240 (55G) 26-001-250 (BULK) 26-001-330 (5G) 26-001-340 (55G) 26-001-430 (5G) 26-001-440 (55G) 26-001-530 (5G) 26-001-540 (55G) 26-001-630 (5G) 26-001-640 (55G) CALTEX REGAL OIL R & O 32 GULF HARMONY 32 TEXACO REGAL OIL R & O 32 REGAL OIL R & O 46 EXXON** TERESSO 32 MOBIL DTE OIL LIGHT SHELL TURBO 32 PETROMIN TURBINE OIL T 32 TURBINE OIL 46 REGAL OIL R & O 46 HARMONY 46 TERESSO 46 DTE OIL MEDIUM TURBO 46 TURBINE OIL T 46 TURBINE OIL 68 REGAL OIL R & O 68 HARMONY 68 REGAL OIL R & O 68 REGAL OIL R & O 150 REGAL OIL R & O 320 REGAL OIL R & O 460 TERESSO 68 DTE OIL HEAVY MEDIUM DTE OIL EXTRA HEAVY DTE OIL AA TURBO 68 TURBINE OIL T 68 MACHINERY OIL 150 RANDO OIL 150 HARMONY 150 TERESSO 150 TELLUS 150 TURBINE OIL C 150 MACHINERY OIL 320 RANDO OIL 320 HARMONY 320 TERESSO 320 TELLUS 320 TURBINE OIL C 320 MACHINERY OIL 460 RANDO OIL 460 HARMONY 460 TERESSO 460 DTE OIL HH TELLUS 460 TURBINE OIL C 460 *Note: Certain vendor turbine oil contains zinc based additives. **Note: Exxon turbine oils are known as Teresstic in the U. Page 250 of 255 .

HD 460 - - - - - - POWER TRANSMISSION OIL (SUB CLASS 03) ARAMCO BRAND TRANSMISSION OIL D II SAMS NUMBER 26-003-340 (55G) CALTEX TEXAMATIC FLUID DEXRON II GULF GULF ATF DX TEXACO TEXAMATIC FLUID 6673 EXXON AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID DEXRON II NUTO H68 MOBIL ATF 220 SHELL AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID DEXRON II TELLUS 68 PETROMIN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID DEXRON II HYDRAULIC OIL AW 68 HYDRAULIC OIL AW 68 26-003-140 (55G) RANDO OIL HD 68 GULF HARMONY AW 68 RANDO OIL HD 68 DTE 26 Page 251 of 255 .P. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual GEAR LUBRICATIONS (SUB CLASS 02) ARAMCO BRAND AUTOMOTIVE GEAR LUBE 140 SAMS NUMBER 26-002-130 (35LB) 26-002-140 (400LB) 26-002-230 (35LB) 26-002-330 (35LB) 26-002-430 (35LB) CALTEX MULTI PURPOSE THUBAN GL5 EP 140 MEROPA 220 MEROPA 460 MEROPA 1000 GULF GEAR MP 85W-140 TEXACO MULTI GEAR LUBRICANT EP 85W-140 MEROPA 220 MEROPA 460 EXXON ESSO GEAR OIL GX 85W140 MOBIL MOBILUBE HD 85W-140 SHELL SPIRAX HD 140 PETROMIN GEARBOX OIL HD 140 GEAR LUBE EP 220 GEAR LUBE EP 460 GEAR LUBE EP 1000 E.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. HD 220 SPARTAN EP 220 SPARTAN EP 460 MOBIL GEAR 630 MOBIL GEAR 634 OMALA 220 OMALA 460 GEARLUBE EP 220 GEARLUBE EP 460 E. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.P.

3 RPM GREASE SRI 2 - - - - - DOLIUM R - - COUPLING GREASE HI-SPEED COUPLING GREASE - - - ENGINE AND GAS TURBINE OILS (SUB CLASS 05) ARAMCO BRAND DIESEL ENGINE OIL CD SAMS NUMBER 26-005-130 (5G) 26-005-140 (55G) 26-005-240 (55G) CALTEX RPM DELO 300 OIL SAE 40 GULF SUPER DUTY MOTOR OIL (SAE 40) - TEXACO URSA OIL LA-3 SAE 40 EXXON ESSOLUBE XD-3 SAE 40 MOBIL DELVAC 1340 (SAE 40) SHELL RIMULA U 40 (SAE 40) PETROMIN DIESEL OIL SUPER HD-3 (SAE 40) DIESEL ENGINE OIL EMD RPM DELO 6200 OIL SAE 40 TARO 4-80 DIOL RDX SUPER P (SAE 40) GAS TURBINE OIL 32 26-005-340 (55G) 26-005-430 (5GA) 26-005-440 (55GA) 26-005-530 (55G) GAS TURBINE OIL 32 GAS TURBINE OIL HT-2 - SYANTHETIC GAS TURBINE OIL 5 DIESEL ENGINE OIL 15W-40 - GAS TURBINE OIL 32 (TL 9794) - TERRESTIC GT 32 MOBIL GUARD 450 (SAE 40) (13. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual GREASES (SUB CLASS 04) ARAMCO BRAND ALL PURPOSE GREASE EP 1 SAMS NUMBER 26-004-130 (35LB) CALTEX SPECIAL MULTIFAK EP 1 GULF GULF CROWN EP 1 TEXACO MULTIFAK EP 1 EXXON BEACON EP 1 MOBIL MOBILITH AW1 OR MOBILUX EP 1 MOBILITH AW3 SHELL ALVANIA EP 1 PETROMIN EP GREASE NO.5 TBN) DTE 724 CAPRINUS OIL HTD 40 ENGINE OIL RR 4020 - TURBINE OIL GE 32 TURBO OIL 2380 MOBIL JET OIL II - - RPM DELO 600 MULTIGRADE GULF SUPER FLEET URSA PREMIUM 15W-4O - DELVAC 1300 SUPER 15W-40 RIMULA SUPER TURBO DIESEL C Page 252 of 255 . 1 ALL PURPOSE GREASE EP 3 BALL BEARING GREASE 2 POLYETHYLENE GREASE 1 26-004-202 (1 LB) 26-004-230 (35LB) 26-004-240 (400LB) 26-004-330 (35LB) 26-004-430 (35LB) SPECIAL MARFAK ALL PURPOSE 3 GULF CROWN EP 3 - - - EP GREASE NO.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual INSULATING AND REFREGERATION OILS (SUB CLASS 06) ARAMCO BRAND INSULATING OIL REFRIGERATION OIL RECIPROCATING SAMS NUMBER 26-006-140 (55G) 26-006-220 (1G) 26-006-240 (55G) CALTEX TRANSFOR -MER OIL CAPELLA OIL WF 68 GULF TRANSCREST H ESKIMO 68 TEXACO TRANSFORMER OIL CAPELLA OIL PREMIUM 68 EXXON UNIVOLT 54 ZERICE S 68 MOBIL MOBILECT 24 GARGOYLE ARCTIC 300 SHELL DIALA A CLAVUS 68 PETROMIN TRANSFORMER OIL B REFRIGERATION OIL HM68 PRESERVATIVE LUBRICANTS (SUB CLASS 07) ARAMCO BRAND PENETRATING OIL SAMS NUMBER 26-007-102 (16OZ) 26-007-130 (5G) 26-007-230 (5G) 26-007-240 (55G) 26-007-302 (1 LB CAN) 26-007-330 (35LB) CALTEX PENETRATING OIL GULF - TEXACO GRAPHITED PENETRATING OIL RUSTPROOF COMPOUND L EXXON PENETRATING OIL RUSTBAN MOBIL SPRING OIL SHELL DONAX P PETROMIN - RUST PREVENTIVE RUSTPROOF COMPOUND L CRATER 5X FLUID - MOBIL ARMA 355 ENSIS FLUID 224 - OPEN GEAR & WIRE ROPE LUBRICANT LUBCOTE FLUID NO. 5 CRATER 5X FLUID SURRET FLUID N 700 K MOBILTAC 325 NC CARDIUM EP FLUID B OPEN GEARLUBE Page 253 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.

4 TONNA T 220 WAY OIL NO. 4 Page 254 of 255 . 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April. 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual METAL WORKING FLUIDS (CUTTING OIL & COOLANT) (SUB CLASS 08) ARAMCO BRAND GENERAL PURPOSE CUTTING OIL HEAVY DUTY CUTTING OIL SOLUBLE OIL SAMS NUMBER 26-008-130 (5G) 26-008-230 (5G) 26-008-330 (5G) 26-008-430 (5G) 26-008-530 (5G) 26-008-630 (5G) CALTEX TRANSULTEX PC SULTEX D SOLUBLE OIL GP CLEARTEX A - GULF - TEXACO TRANSULTEX F SULTEX D SOLUBLE OIL D CLEARTEX A STARCOOL EXXON DORTAN 34 MOBIL MOBILMET 47 MOBILMET UPSILON MOBILMET S-43 MOBILMET 33 - SHELL GARIA B PETROMIN - GULFCUT SOLUBLE OIL - PENNEX 45 KUTWELL 60 DORTAN 56 KUTWELL 82 FEBIS K220 GARIA C DROMUS D MACRON B - SOLCUT HONING OIL SYNTHETIC GRINDING FLUID MACHINE WAY LUBRICANT - WAY LUBRICANT 220 - WAY LUBRICANT 220 VACTRA OIL NO.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March.

sub heading: “Plant System Users Manual” describes the operation of the new client/server Lube Oil Condition Monitoring Program for the benefit of the field user. 1999 Next Planned Update: 1 April.Document Responsibility: Rotating Equipment Issue Date: 31 March. Page 255 of 255 . 2002 Saudi Aramco Lubrication Manual PART X ATTACHMENT LUBE OIL CONDITION MONITORING SYSTEM (OCM) The following attachment: “Lube Oil Condition Monitoring System (OCM)”.