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Psychology 1101 ± Chapter Eight

Motivation & Emotion Motivation
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Motivation - Provides one way of explaining why people think and act as they do Behavior - what people do Motive - why they do it

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List three things that you like to do on a regular basis Explain why you like to do those things Determine what needs those three things fulfill

Motivation? Most of the time your attitude determines your motivation. All of life is a series of choices, and what you choose to give to life today will determine what life will give you tomorrow. - Zig Ziggler Types of Motives
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1. Positive . Negative 3. Maintaining 4. Gaining 5. Intrinsic 6. Extrinsic

Categories of Motives
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1. Biological . Cognitive 3. Emotional 4. Social

Theories of Motives
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1. Instinct Theory . Drive Theory 3. Arousal Theory 4. Incentive Theory 5. Opponent-Process Theory 6. Maslow Hierarchy

cocaine . After repeated exposure to the same stimulus.the equilibrium that the body maintains by adjusting itself in different ways An imbalance in homeostasis creates a physiological need. the first reaction weakens while the opponent process becomes stronger Heroin .roller coaster? Arousal Theory y y y y y Arousal is a general level of activation People are motivated to maintain their optimal level of arousal High level vs low level Depression today Does not explain the whole range of motivation Incentive Theory y y y y y Behavior is goal directed Focuses on the role of external factors Positive incentives Negative incentives What may be positive for one person may be negative for another Opponent-Process Theory y y y Both incentives and arousal are important Any reaction to a stimulus is automatically followed by its opposite or opponent process. automatic behaviors over which the animal or person has no control William McDougall (1908) Much of human behavior is controlled by instincts Eighteen 1) Ridiculous 2) Hard to prove 3) Role of learning Drive Theory y y y y y Walter Cannon . which in turn produces a drive.Emphasized biological factors Homeostasis . Biological Motives 8. Social Motives Instinct Theory y y y y y y y Instincts are innate. a psychological state of arousal that moves the organism to meet the need Primary and secondary drives Does not explain why people do things that do not reduce a drive .y y 7.

25% of normal body weight 4 . Anorexia nervosa Self-starvation and dramatic weight loss . Obesity 2. Lower metabolism Psychological reasons Eating Disorders y y y y y y y 2. water. Higher set-point b. racial and ethnic differences. Anorexia Nervosa 3. Bulimia Eating Disorders y y y y y y y y 1. and sexual stereotypes often discourage people from exploring and developing their potential Biological Motives y y Biological needs are the strongest source of human behavior These include the need for food.30% starve themselves to death! 70% recover and maintain normal body weight 90% are young females Causes are unknown Fear of being fat Brain dysfunction? Eating Disorders . Obesity Eating large quantities of food on a regular basic Reasons? 1. activity. Hypersensitive to external cues 2.y Addicts soon come to use the drug to avoid the negative withdrawal feelings Maslow¶s Hierarchy y y y y There are many motives that may guide behavior at any time Five basic classes of motives Self-actualization is an inherent motive Cultural norms. oxygen. Physiological characteristics a. sleep. and sex Hunger y y y y y y Role of stomach cues Role of the brain Eating Disorders 1.

y y y y y 3. psychological need to protect and be protected. emotional. a majority are college students Do maintain a "normal" body weight . . The most certain way to succeed is to always try just one more time. Bulimia Eating quantities of food and then eliminating it by self-induced vomiting or strong laxatives 99% are female.are in "control" Physiological problems Sex!!!! y y y y y y y Sexual drive is rooted in biology Kinsey Masters & Johnson Biological basis of sexual motivation Social & psychological influences on sexual motivation Sexual orientation Sexual problems Social Motives y y y y y y Social.Thomas Edison Achievement Motivation y y y y y y y 1) Establish challenging and difficult but realistic goals 2) Actively pursue success and take risks if necessary 3) Derive intense satisfaction from success and not bothered by failure if they feel they did their best 4) Prefer tasks with clear-cut results 5) Keep trying even though they fail 6) Take pride in being independent 7) Delay gratification and plan for the future Achievement Motivation y y y David McClelland. love to be loved. belong Harlow Parenting Affiliation Esteem Achievement Achievement Our Greatest weakness lies in giving up.Ways parents can help children 1) Encouraging their children to attempt difficult but realistic tasks 2) Rewarding and praising the child when success is achieved .

y y y y 3) Not complaining or punishing when the child fails.late 1600¶s Six primary emotions 1) wonder 2) love 3) hate 4) desire 5) joy 6) sadness . opportunities for achievement and advancement 2) Job dissatisfaction (extrinsic factors) ± the quality of supervision. challenging work. job security. Emotion Emotion y y y y In the life of a child. we learn to suppress and control our emotions Emotions can enhance or interfere with our daily activities Definition y y y y y y Emotions are hard to define Emotions are transitory states characterized by four features: 1) Emotions are experiences 2) Emotions are passions rather than actions 3) Emotions arise in part from a cognitive appraisal of a situation 4) Emotions are accompanied by bodily responses Classification of Emotions y y y y y y y y Descartes . courage to change the things I can. but encouraging the child to try again or try another method 4) Encouraging the child to advance Sex & racial differences in achievement motivation? Some females have the "fear of success" Why? Jobs and Motivation y y 1) Job satisfaction (intrinsic factors) .having responsibility. emotions frequently find expression Children have a whole keyboard of emotions As we grow into adulthood. interpersonal relations on the job. working conditions Grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change. and wisdom to know the difference. the salary.

if you see a bear. the brain creates the experience of fear even if you do not move an inch There is a direct experience of emotion.Classification of Emotions y y y y y y y Plutchik . you do not run because you feel afraid. with or without feedback Theories of Emotions y Schatcher or Cognitive Theory .1982 Four basis emotions 1) Expectancy 2) Rage 3) Panic 4) Fear All other emotions are combinations Theories of Emotions y y y y James-Lange Theory An emotion-arousing event automatically causes a physiological reaction. which then causes the subjective experience of emotion In other words. you feel afraid because you run The emotion follows the physiological response Theories of Emotions y y y y Cannon-Bard Theory Bodily changes and the experience of the emotion occur at about the same time If you see a bear.1980 Four pairs of opposites are the eight primary emotions 1) Joy .disgust All other emotions are combinations .for example.anger 3) Surprise .anticipation 4) Acceptance . awe is fear and surprise disappointment is sadness and surprise Classification of Emotions y y y y y y y Panksepp .sadness 2) Fear .

facial expressions are the most important means of communicating and interpreting emotions Cultures differ in the extent to which they expect emotions to be controlled There is good evidence that some emotional expressions are innate Functions and Effects of Emotions y y y y y y 1) Communication 2) Social Referencing Phenomenon 3) Motivation 4) Health 5) Memory 6) Performance Yerkes-Dodson Theory y When emotions are either very high or very low. they can adversely affect our performance .y y y y Emotions are produced by both physiological arousal and a cognitive appraisal of what caused those responses 1) Perception of a situation 2) Bodily responses to that perception 3) Interpretation of the bodily response Expressing and Recognizing Emotions y y y y Emotions are communicated differently by different species For humans.