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Climatic regions of India

India, being a vast country does not fit into any one zone. Situated roughly between 8° N and 37° N Latitude, it occupies a large area of South Asia. The climate of India defies easy generalization, comprising a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale and varied topography. Analyzed according to the Köppen system, India hosts six major climatic subtypes, ranging from desert in the west, to alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, to humid tropical regions supporting rain forests in the southwest and the island territories. Many regions have starkly different micro climates. The nation has four seasons: winter (January and February), summer (March to May), a monsoon (rainy) season (June to September), and a post-monsoon period (October to December). India's unique geography and geology strongly influence its climate; this is particularly true of the Himalayas in the north and the Thar Desert in the northwest. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia. Thus, North India is kept warm or only mildly cold during winter; in summer, the same phenomenon makes India relatively hot. Although the Tropic of Cancer—the boundary between the tropics and subtropics—passes through the middle of India, the whole country is considered to be tropical. As in much of the tropics, monsoonal and other weather conditions in India are unstable: major droughts, floods, cyclones and other natural disasters are sporadic, but have killed or displaced millions.

India has a large variation in climate from region to region, due to its vast size. India experiences climate from four major climate groups. These can be further subdivided into seven climatic types. Tropical rainy climatic group The regions belonging to this group experience persistent high temperatures which normally do not go below 18°C even in the coolest month. There are two climatic types which fall under this group. Tropical monsoon rain forest The west coastal lowlands, the Western Ghats, and southern parts of Assam have this climate type. It is characterized by high temperatures throughout the year, even in the hills. The rainfall here is seasonal, but heavy and is above 78 in a year. Most of the rain is received in the period from May to November, and is adequate for the growth of vegetation during the entire year. December to March are the dry months with very little rainfall. The heavy rain is responsible for the tropical wet forests in these regions, which consists of a large number of species of animals. Tropical wet and dry climate Most of the plateau of peninsular India enjoys this climate, except a semi-arid tract to the east of the Western Ghats. Winter and early summer are long dry periods with temperature above 18°C. Summer is very hot and the temperatures in the interior low level areas can go above 45°C during May. The rainy season is from June to September and the annual rainfall is between 75 and 150 cm. Only Tamil Nadu receives rainfall during the winter months of October to December. Dry climate group

western Andhra Pradesh and central Maharashtra. These happen when the monsoon winds penetrate this region in the months of July. interior Tamil Nadu. Humid sub-tropical climate group The temperature during the coldest months in regions experiencing this climate falls between 18 and 0°C. It includes Karnataka. Tropical semi-arid steppe climate A long stretch of land situated to the south of Tropic of Cancer and east of the western ghats and the Cardamom Hills experiences this climate. Frost occurs for a few weeks in winter. The rainfall is received mostly in the summer and is about 65 cm in the west and increases to 250 cm annually to the east and near the Himalayas. May and June are the hottest months. There is a large diurnal range of about 14°C during summer which becomes higher by a few more degrees during winter. Humid sub-tropical with dry winters The foothills of the Himalayas. Towards the north of Krishna River the summer monsoon is responsible for most of the rainfall. This extreme climate makes this a sparsely populated region of India. The annual rainfall is between 30 to 65 cm but is very unreliable and happens mostly during the summer monsoon season. This region is a famine prone zone with very unreliable rainfall which varies between 40 to 75 cm annually. The vegetation mostly comprises grasses with a few scattered trees due to the rainfall. The difference in rainfall between the east and the west gives rise to a wide difference in the natural vegetation and crops. Tropical and sub-tropical desert Most of western Rajasthan falls under this climate type characterized by scanty rainfall. Mountain climate . This climate is a transitional climate falling between tropical desert and humid sub-tropical. The vegetation mostly comprises short coarse grass. The coldest month is December but even in this month the temperature remains between 20°C and 24°C. Hence this area is not very well suited for permanent agriculture. It has one climatic subdivision in India. It is subdivided into three climate types.This group consists of regions where the rate of evaporation of water is higher than the rate of moisture received through precipitation. The months of March to May are hot and dry with mean monthly temperatures of around 32°C. During winters the temperatures can drop below freezing in some areas due to cold wave. Winter months are mostly dry with feeble winds. Cloud bursts are largely responsible for the all the rainfall seen in this region which is less than 30 cm. Tropical and sub-tropical steppe The region towards the east of the tropical desert running from Punjab and Haryana to Kathiawar experiences this climate type. while to the south of the river rainfall also occurs in the months of October and November. Maximum temperatures during summer can rise to 40°C. Punjab-Haryana plain adjacent to the Himalayas. Bihar and northern part of West Bengal and Assam experience this climate. The summers are hot and temperatures can reach 46°C in the lowlands. Some crops like jowar and bajra are also cultivated. with temperatures which are less extreme than the desert climate. The summer months of May and June are very hot with mean monthly temperatures in the region of 35°C and highs which can sometimes reach 50°C. Uttar Pradesh. August and September. The rainfall is very erratic and a few regions might not see rainfall for a couple of years. Rajasthan east of the Aravalli range. The winters are mainly dry due to the land derived winter winds which blow down the lowlands of north India towards the Bay of Bengal.

The diurnal range of temperature is also high. Winter: December to February is the wintertime in almost all of India. Summer.In Southern part. peaking around 20–25 °C (68–77 °F) in mainland India's southeast. The monsoon approaches with moisture laden winds. The states of Jammu and Kashmir.Winter. Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. Uttarakhand and Sikkim experience this kind of weather. The average temperature is around 32 c but in western region the maximum temperature can be far above the average. as 'Loo' is the marked feature of summers in northern India. Cycle of season Though divided into different climatic zones. when monsoon after drenching all of India. The vegetation is sparse and stunted as rainfall is scanty and the winters are severely cold. At this time of the year. Months of June. Retreating Monsoon: This season starts. The places situated between 1070 and 2290 m altitudes receive the heaviest rainfall and the rainfall decreases rapidly above 2290m. This has lead to climatic disasters such as Drought. the hottest month is April. It results in large-scale loss of life and property. The northern side of the western Himalayas also known as the trans-Himalayan belt is arid. It is a time period when rays of the sun fall vertically on Indian subcontinent. Advancing Monsoon: It is the time period when India gets major part of its share of rain. inversion of temperature. and variability of rainfall based on altitude. In recent times. the monsoon is completely gone from major part of India. August and September form the core of Advancing Monsoon in almost all parts of country. but it can drop down to below 0 �C in some higher ranges of northern India. known. except for Tamil Nadu and some other southern states. Annual Floods have become part of life in many regions of India. Temperatures rise as one proceeds towards the equator. Advancing Monsoon and Retreating Monsoon. India seems to be unified by primarily four seasons. The area to the south of the great Himalayan range is protected from cold winds coming from interior of Asia during winter. for northern regions. rainfall began to decrease and as we approach November. April. The great Himalayan range witnesses heavy snowfall during winter months of December to February at altitudes above 1500m. July.In the Himalayan mountains the temperature falls by 0. Himachal Pradesh. May is the hottest month. the temperature difference is not so marked due to moderating effect of Indian Ocean. With the month of September. which also receive rain from Western Disturbance. Hot wind. begins to retreat. Normally winters are dry in northern India. May and June are the summer months in India. . known as 'break' of the monsoon. Summer: March. One can also observe sharp contrast between temperatures of the sunny and shady slopes. days are cold with average temperature of10-15 �C. Seasons The India Meteorological Department (IMD) designates four official seasons. In western and southern regions. Landslides Floods and Global Warming. high diurnal range of temperature. Most of the rainfall is in the form of snow during late winter and spring months. cold and generally wind swept. Temperatures average around 32–40 °C (90–104 °F) in most of the interior.6°C for every 100 m rise in altitude and this gives rise to a variety of climates from nearly tropical in the foothills to tundra type above the snow line. The unchecked cutting down of trees indirectly leads to landslide and drought. The leeward side of the mountains receives less rain while the well exposed slopes get heavy rainfall. this cycle of season has been disturbed due to uncontrolled industrialization and other developmental activities resulting in drastic changes in climate. this sudden approach is marked with violent thunderstorms and lightening.

Indians note six seasons. early autumn (śarada). and winter (śiśira). summer (grīṣma). being more temperate. These are based on the astronomical division of the twelve months into six parts. Traditionally. The ancient Hindu calendar also reflects these seasons in its arrangement of months. each about two months long. monsoon season (varṣā). . These are the spring (Sanskrit: vasanta). late autumn (hemanta). experience an additional two seasons: autumn and spring.The Himalayan states.

In summers. even though the day is hot. of Clear Days in a month >20 Places Rajasthan. This is due to the rapid radiative heat loss from the ground or the building to the clear night sky. because of which the indoor temperature changes very little through the day or night. This pattern minimizes the exposure of building surfaces to the outside. The desert town of Jaisalmer deals with this by building homes that abut against each other. and people spend time out on the roof terrace. staying close to a more comfortable daily mean temperature. (%) Preciptation Hot & dry >30 <55 <5 No.H. cooling by evaporation of water would be an easy and effective way of obtaining thermal comfort. Another important characteristic is a high diurnal temperature variation. Because humidity is low. You can be boiling during the day and cold at night. with very little precipitation and a short and mild winter season characterize this climate. The buildings are of heavy mass and the windows small. jaisalmer .Jaisalmer. (°C) R. if water was available. nights are cool. with the inner rooms opening towards small courtyards and the front rooms opening through screened openings towards narrow shaded streets. Hot and Dry Mean Monthly Mean Monthly Mean Monthly Temp. Ahemadabad. Gujarat Very high daytime temperatures.

jaisalmer haveli elevation jaisalmer haveli plans jaisalmer haveli plans .

to stay warm indoors at night. Heavy walls (mud) and a well insulated roof (timber & mud) dampen the variations of indoor temperatures. (°C) R. The traditional Ladhaki settlement is usually built on steep slopes facing southward. . trombe.jaisalmer section jaisalmer site plan Leh.H." There is very little precipitation and the temperatures vary greatly between the day and night and also from summer to winter.wall is very successful as heat can be stored in the building mass during the day. Cold and Sunny Mean Monthly Mean Monthly Mean Monthly Temp. This allows good insolation during the day. of clear days in a month >20 Places Ladakh Leh in Ladakh is a "mountain desert. The use of glass and nowadays. (%) Precipitation Cold & cloudy <25 <55 <5 No.

. High humidity. of clear days in a month Places Trivandrum. strong sun. Trivandrum. Coastal Areas/ North East. The sides are open to the breeze. The Padmanabhapuram Palace in Trivandrum. (%) Precipitation Warm & humid >30 >5 No. with deep eaves. glare from the sky and horizon characterize this climate. But the breezes.H. Warm and Humid Mean Monthly Mean Monthly Mean Monthly Temp. and air ventilates up through the porous tile roofs. There are long monsoon periods with heavy rain. ensuring that the indoor temperature does not build up. can alleviate discomfort considerably. (°C) R. especially in coastal areas.Padamanabhapuram Palace. responds to the climate with steep sloping high tiled roofs.

of clear Places . U. ensures privacy but allows the breeze flow across the rooms. Walls are white to reflect the sun.Using open slatted or perforated timber screens on sides of verandahs cuts out glare. Cold and Cloudy Mean Monthly Mean Monthly Mean Monthly No. to allow the natural breeze to flow through them is of paramount importance.P. Sauni Village.. and often completely shaded by the verandahs. For a cluster of buildings. an openness of planning.

There is also a fair amount of precipitationsnow or rain. The upper floor which is away from cold and damp ground has the living rooms. Himachal. The cooking area is a part of it.Himalayan region are built on hill slopes that would receive a fair amount of sunshine. NW UP. (%) >55 Precipitation >5 days in a month <20 J&K. Low timber ceiling provide insulation and conserve the warmth. in order to benefit from the heat generated by it. (°C) Cold & cloudy <25 R.H.Temp. Niligiri Winters are prolonged and summers are short in this climate. often spread across the year. The traditional homes and villages of the sub . The lower floor is occupied by cattle and used for storage. House Elevation House Section . Windows face the sun.

Rooms have thick walls and small openings for summer days and winter nights. followed by a short winter with the cloudy and wet as well as sunny periods. there is water stream flowing through the middle and the screens and awnings that can be raised or lowered to modulate the light. Verandahs are for evenings and mornings. or insulate against the heat or cold. Before the summer returns there is a comfortable but short spring season. With the departure of the monsoon it gradually becomes comfortable in autumn. followed by a humid season with monsoon rains. Red Fort. Composite New Delhi has a Composite climate.Rang Mahal. There is a screened balcony that will cut out the sun but enjoy the monsoon breeze during the humid season. Additionally. It has a very hot and dry summer. The Rang Mahal at the Red Fort royal palace has spaces suitable for every season. Delhi. provide shade. Exterior RangMahal RedFort Interiors Rang Mahal RedFort .

nor too cold. (°C) R. High ceilings reduce the effect of heat that would radiate down from the roof which would get hot under the sun. of clear days in a month <20 Places Bangalore.H. high up in the walls. neither too hot. the ideal comfortable house is built of heavy walls with high ceiling rooms. This will also allow the warm air to rise and escape through ventilators. (%) Precipitation Moderate 25-30 <75 <5 No. surrounded by a shade giving verandah. . with windows that you can shut and open. Moderate Mean Monthly Mean Monthly Mean Monthly Temp. and where all of us should be staying! All you need to do is be shaded and insulated from direct sun.Plan Rang Mahal RedFort Bangalore. Deccan This is a climate which is generally comfortable. In Banglore. let in a little breeze when you feel stuffy or warm: and shut the window if it is chilly or wear some light woolens.

Ground Floor Plan .

External View Spaces .