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Educational Sector of Pakistan and India

This document is about the educational strategies taken by Pakistan and India, as well as their literacy rate, share in GDP etc.

5/30/2011 Shurahbil Bin Nasim Khan Zain Khalid Sidra Fatima Javed MujtabaShafi Ali Aslam

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Acknowledgement
First and foremost, we would like to thank to our Allah, who give us the courage to do this project, then afterwards, we would wish to express our deep sense of gratitude to our beloved Professor Miss AfiaMushtaq teaching Pakistan Economy in University of Management and Technology, whose precious thought helps us to do this project in time.Finally, yet importantly, we would like to

express our heartfelt thanks to our beloved parents for their blessings, our friends classmates for their help and wishes for the successful completion of this project.

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Table of Contents
Education in Pakistan................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 3 Education Expenditure as Percentage of GDP ................................ ................................ .................... 4 Summary of Recent Changes in Primary Education ................................ ................................ ............ 5 Government policies and capacities................................ ................................ ............................... 5 Delivery of education services................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 6 Household demand for education................................ ................................ ................................ .. 7 Educational outputs and outcomes................................ ................................ ................................ .... 8 World Bank Contribution ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 9 Strategies by Pakistan ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 10 Steps Taken for Quality by the Government of Pakistan................................ ............................... 10 Establishing National Education Assessment System................................ ................................ .... 11 Formulation of a National Textbook and Learning Materials Policy ................................ .............. 11 Strengthening of Teacher Training ................................ ................................ ............................... 11 Technical and Vocational Education................................ ................................ ............................. 12 National Information and Communications Technology (NICT) Strategy for Education in Pakistan13 Strategies implement by the Government and UNSCO................................ ................................ . 13 Education in India: ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 14 History................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 15 Strategies by India ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 17 Public Private Partnership ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 17 Access and Equity ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 17 Recommendations................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 19 References: ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 20
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³Education Sector of Pakistan and India´
Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another. Etymologically, the word education is derived from educare (Latin) "bring up", which is related to educere "bring out", "bring forth what is within", "bring out potential" and ducere, "to lead". Teachers in educational institutions direct the education of students and might draw on many subjects, including reading, writing, mathematics, science and history. This process is sometimes called schooling when referring to the education of teaching only a certain subject, usually as professors at institutions of higher learning. There is also education in fields for those who want specific vocational skills, such as those required to be a pilot. In addition there is an array of education possible at the informal level, such as in museums and libraries, with the Internet and in life experience. Many non-traditional education options are now available and continue to evolve. One of the most substantial uses in education is the use of technology. Classrooms of the 21st century contain interactive white boards, iPads, iPods, laptops, etc. Teachers are encouraged to embed these technological devices in the curriculum in order to enhance students learning and meet the needs of various types of learners.

Education in Pakistan
Federal Ministry of Education, Provincial Education Ministries: Secretary of State (Education) National education budget (2007) Budget General Details: Primary Languages Literacy (2009) Urdu and English Total:58% Male: 69% Female: 45% Enrolment Total: 37,462,900 ImtiazKazi Rs.95.442 million (2.2% of the GDP)

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Primary: 22,650,000 Secondary: 2,884,400 Post-Secondary: 1,349,000 Education in Pakistan is overseen by the government Ministry of Education. Whereas Provincial governments whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research. The education in Pakistan is generally divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School) Certificate or HSC); and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees. The literacy rate ranges from 87% in Islamabad to 20% in the Kohlu District. Between 2000²2004, Pakistanis in the age group 55±64 had a literacy rate of almost 30%, those aged between 45±54 had a literacy rate of nearly 40%, those between 25±34 had a literacy rate of 50%, and those aged 15±24 had a literacy rate of more than 60%. These data indicate that, with every passing generation, the literacy rate in Pakistan has risen by around 10%. Literacy rates vary regionally, particularly by sex. In tribal areas female literacy is 7.5%. Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis (11% of the population) having a command over the English language, which makes it the 9th Largest English Speaking Nation in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia. On top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year.

Education Expenditure as Percentage of GDP Public expenditure on education lies on the fringes of 2 percent of GDP. However, the government recently approved the new national education policy, which stipulates that education expenditure will be increased to 7% of GDP, an idea that was first suggested by the Punjab government. Author of an article, which reviews the history of education spending in Pakistan since 1972, argues that this policy target raises a fundamental question: What extraordinary things are going to happen that would enable Pakistan to achieve within six years what it has been unable to lay a hand on in the past six decades? The policy document

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is blank on this question and does not discuss the assumptions that form the basis of this target. Calculations of the author show that during the past 37 years, the highest public expenditure on education was 2.80 percent of GDP in 1987-88. Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP was actually reduced in 16 years and maintained in 5 years between 1972±73 and 2008-09. Thus, out of total 37 years since 1972, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP either decreased or remained stagnant for 21 years. The author argues if linear trend were maintained since 1972, Pakistan could have touched 4 percent of GDP well before 2015. However, it is unlikely to happen because the levels of spending have had remained significantly unpredictable and unsteady in the past. Given this disappointing trajectory, increasing public expenditure on education to 7 percent of GDP would be nothing less than a miracle but it is not going to be of godly nature. Instead, it is going to be the one of political nature because it has to be "invented" by those who are at the helm of affairs. The author suggests that little success can be made unless Pakistan adopts an "unconventional" approach to education. That is to say, education sector should be treated as a special sector by immunizing budgetary allocations for it from fiscal stresses and political and economic instabilities. Allocations for education should not be affected by squeezed fiscal space or surge in military expenditure or debts. At the same time, there is a need to debate others options about how Pakistan can "invent" the miracle of raising education expenditure to 7 percent of GDP by 2015.

Summary of Recent Changes in Primary Education
Government policies and capacities
Government policy for primary education has always been aimed at UPE, with the target dates constantly shifting. Government policy also has always cited quality and equity goals, including the poor and girls¶ education. During the 1990s a number of Bank -supported provincial education projects were aimed at creating the capacity to achieve these policy goals. Thus there were the Sindh Primary Education Project (1990), Balochistan Primary Education Project (1993), the Northwest Frontier Province Project (1995), and the Northern Education Project (1998). The big push to achieve this policy goal was the first Social Action Program Project (1994), which aimed to support a significant part (about 10 percent) of the government-initiated
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Social Action Program (SAP) that aimed to make a rapid improvement in Pakistan¶s social indicators (education, health, and poverty). This was followed by a second Social Action Program Project (1998). The results of both were disappointing. Many people interviewed look at the 1990s as the SAP phase of government and Bank involvement and the period since 2000 as the post-SAP phase. These two projects were too large (together $550 million in Bank support), too complex, and poorly designed in terms of mechanisms for implementation. For example, there were many donors involved, and supervision missions were large and unmanageable. Disbursement mechanisms were too complex and placed an unduly large reporting and documentation responsibility on an educational administration that could barely handle its normal day-to-day responsibilities. Based on these lessons, the more recent Punjab education adjustment credits (2004 and 2005) have simplified disbursement of a single tranche of $100 million with a substantial matrix of primary education policy reforms. That can work well with a province that is committed and capable, and it remains to be seen if this can work in other provinces like Sindh, which has expressed interest in such an approach. New comprehensive sector work is planned for that province, which can lead to an assessment of what can be appropriate there.

Delivery of education services
Despite the many implementation problems that arose during the 1990s, schools were built and public primary enrollment did increase at an annualized rate of about 6 percent (10.8 million in 1990 to 19.5 million in 2000). Such enrollment growth would compare favorably with Indonesia¶s experience during its well-known school construction program in the 1970s and 1980s. However, Pakistan started from a very low base level of about 16 percent gross enrollment rate at the time of independence and experienced high population growth of about 3 percent, so progress in improving enrollment rates was slow. The delivery of quality primary education was negatively affected by the availability of teachers and the low quality of those available. Teacher absenteeism was constantly cited as a problem in rural areas. Also, many teachers of low qualifications were appointed, sometimes as a result of political patronage. Research studies by Warwick and Reimer (1995) document the poor quality of teacher training as well, with many primary school teachers not performing much better than pupils on grade 5 reading and mathematics tests.
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The curriculum and textbooks also leave much to be desired. They rely heavily on rote learning without real understanding, and, according to many observers, contain excessive ideological material and religious indoctrination resulting from the time of General Zia¶s drive to Islamize education. This situation is not unique to Pakistan; Bank research is beginning to examine in more detail the academic and social content of primary school textbooks in a number of countries (see the latest Bank Education Sector Strategy Update [World Bank 2005]). The two most significant changes in the delivery of primary of education are the decentralization of government services and the rising demand for private primary education. The Musharraf government introduced an ambitious program of decentralization in 2001, partly to improve service delivery and partly to restore civilian politics by going around the established national political parties, thus holding elections at the local levels without candidates declaring affiliation with a national party. The recent trend toward private primary education is seen by many people as response to the poor quality of public primary education, with the result that many poor families struggle to pay fees in private primary education based on the belief that their children will receive a better education in private schools, though some are very low cost and quality is not yet proven.

Household demand for education
Nearly all research shows that the level of parents¶ education has a direct impact on the education of their children. However, in the patriarchal household structures of Pakistan in which men are socially assigned a strong role as the head of the family, there is attenuation of this insofar as many parents prefer to invest in the education of sons. However, many officials now report that the acceptance of education for girls is growing. If schools lack boundary walls or require a very long walk, the demand for girls¶ schooling decreases because of parental concerns about their daughters¶ safety. In addition, remnants of feudal structures in the rural areas of Pakistan also constrain demand for primary education, since feudal land owners still exercise much influence and often do not encourage education among their populace.

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Educational outputs and outcomes
Trends in output indicators (enrolment rates) are available, but outcome trends (learning achievement and employment) are not. Gross enrolment rates have been somewhat stagnant in recent years, being 75 percent, 71 percent, and 72 percent in 1995-96, 1998-99 and 200102, respectively. These figures are based on household surveys, and some observers are puzzled by the data, given that the ambitious SAP projects were expected to have some impact around this period. Also puzzling is that fact that two major household surveys do not agree for some measures. The Pakistan Social and Economic Survey give 84.3 percent for the GRE in 2000-1 while the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey gives 72 percent in 2001-02. However, the two surveys are closer for net enrolment rates (NERs), with the Pakistan Social and Economic Survey giving 48.6 percent and the household survey giving 42 percent for the same years. The reasons for these differing measurements are not clear. Many education analysts now favour using the primary completion rate, defined as the ratio of number of children completing primary education over the number of children of primary completion age, as an outcome indicator for measuring the success of EFA. While there is no time series for this measure in Pakistan, there is an estimate for the year 2000-1, giving an overall primary completion rate of 51.3 percent. For male and female, the breakdown is 69.4 percent and 64.6 percent for in urban versus 51.6 percent and 34.8 percent in rural areas. There are no time series for learning achievement over time, although the National Education Assessment System Project (2003) is introducing an assessment system for grades 4 and 8. The first results of the grade 4 assessments should be available in 2006. Pupils are to be tested in four subject areas: reading, mathematics, science, and social studies/Islamiyat. Pakistan does not have a national examination for a certificate of primary school completion, which could provide some insight into this issue. However, tests given in some regions on a one-off basis as a part of various research projects and other more qualitative judgments by informed observers indicate that the trend for learning achievement overall would be flat at best, or probably even declining, for public primary schools.

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Finally, in terms of labour market and welfare outcomes related to primary education, there are a few research studies that show that the wider economic and social benefits to primary education in Pakistan are much the same as in comparable developing countries.

World Bank Contribution
The Bank¶s ESW has been an important factor in the education dialogue with the Pakistani government and in recent years with civil society and NGOs. As explained by one of the interviewees, this is where the Bank was strongest and helped the government to focus on policy objectives. Although the last comprehensive piece of sector work, covering all levels of the system, was the Education Sector Report in 1988, that report was influential in setting the framework for the provincial primary education projects of the 1990s. Subsequent ESW, although generally of high quality, focused on specific analytical issues, such as girls¶ education. As a result, there was a noticeable change in the attitudes of government to problems and benefits of more education for girls. The Bank also had an impact on emphasizing the monitoring of quality and learning achievement, resulting after a long period of dialogue in the National Education Assessment System Project. Implementation of Bank-supported projects encountered many difficulties over the past 20 years, perhaps more than the average level of difficulty for the Bank primary education projects as a whole. This was especially true for the two large SAP projects²SAPP1 in 1994 for $200 million (60 percent to primary education) and SAPP2 in 1998 for $250 million (60 percent to primary education). Most government and NGO persons interviewed expressed the view that this project was poorly designed and that the Bank and other donors put too much of a burden on a system that lacked the capacity to effectively absorb such large infusions of funds. For example, the disbursement procedures involved the government to prefinance expenditures and to seek reimbursement through submitting Statements of Expenditures. Although this appeared simple in principle, in practice the federal and provincial education administrations were overwhelmed by the large number of small transactions to be documented and were often not clear as to what expenditures were actually eligible for reimbursement.

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Other specific investment projects for primary education had a variety of implementation difficulties and delays. Slow disbursement thus became the norm, and the overall disbursement percentage after project completion for primary education projects in Pak istan was 72 percent of the approved amount, compared to the Bank-wide average of 93 percent for IDA-financed primary education projects (see IEG Primary Education Portfolio Review). However, despite these difficulties, without the Bank¶s persistent efforts to keep access, quality, and equity issues on the agenda, it is likely that even less progress would have been made in increasing school enrolment, especially for girls and the poor.

Strategies by Pakistan
Quality education in Pakistan has been very hot topics of discussion how government can improve the quality of education that can be meet the international standard and set by the UNSCO. Government has taken the initiatives to first to improve the quality standards in school education because School education provides a pathway to higher education. Students join college and university level education with the learning concepts which they gain at school level. The concepts, students learn at school level help in understanding advance form of these concepts at higher education level. If students got sophisticated concepts at this level, ultimately, it will work smartly in higher education. This is possible only through quality education. In Pakistan, school education is suffering due to many reasons. Teachers¶ education, curriculum and basic facilities are the pillars of quality education, and in Pakistan all these are criticized on many forums. The World Bank (1997) in its reports on elementary education in Pakistan states: The best way to improve access is to improve quality which would make coming to school or staying in school a more attractive option from the perspective of parents as well as children. Moreover, effort to improve quality will tend to increase the efficiency of the public expenditure and will encourage parents to contribute to children education."

Steps Taken for Quality by the Government of Pakistan
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Benchmarking competencies.
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Continuous improvement of curricula. Staff development, teacher education and training, and professional development of planners, Managers and staff at all levels.

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Establishment of National Educational Assessment System (NEAS). Strengthening the Teacher Training institutions. Setting Academic Audit through linkage of grants/incentives with quality. Increase of non-salary budget for provision of conducive educational environmental. District based educational planning and implementation under the Devolution Plan. Public-private partnership and community participation.

Pakistan Economic Survey (2008, p.177) documented that government has undertaken a number of reforms to widen access to education and raise its quality in the country. This document highlighted the following steps of government taken for imparting quality education to its mass:

Establishing National Education Assessment System
Government of Pakistan launched National Education Assessment System (NEAS) to improve and assess the quality of education at elementary level.

Formulation of a National Textbook and Learning Materials Policy
National Textbook and Learning Materials Policy (2007) has been prepared to prop up the quality of education at all levels through better quality textbooks at affordable prices and other learning materials for promoting Pakistan as a knowledge based society.

Strengthening of Teacher Training
The government has taken several substantial initiatives for teacher¶s education and professional development.

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Technical and Vocational Education

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Realizing the role of skilled and technically educated manpower for the economy, the government has established the National Technical and Vocational Education Commission (NAVTEC) in November 2006. Steps taken by the government to improve the quality of Curriculum and Medium of Instruction
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A new cycle of curriculum development will be initiated and a major effort will be directed towards improving the delivery of the curriculum

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The curricula shall encourage enquiry, creatity and progressive thinking through projected-oriented education.

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The professional base of institutions involved in curriculum development shall be enlarged.

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All vocational curricula shall be related to employment market The linkage among curriculum development, textbooks writing, teacher training and examination will be reinforced.

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Science curricula will be revised and made compatible with the demands of new knowledge

Steps taken by the government to improve the quality of Textbooks
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Textbooks shall be revised and updated to incorporate new knowledge Curriculum development and book development shall be coordinated Incentives shall be provided to teachers for producing new and attractive learning materials, making use of audio, video and print media

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For each course, multiple textbooks may be approved and the institutions may be allowed to select any one of these texts.

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Use of library materials will be encouraged by teachers, through various types of academic assignments.

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Arrangements will be made for computer education at all levels through phased program starting with secondary schools

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Science laboratories shall be provided in all middle schools
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National Information and Communications Technology (NICT) Strategy for Education in Pakistan
In December 2004, the Ministry of Education initiated the development of the NICT Strategy. To create a sound strategy that would respond to the country¶s diverse needs, the Ministry of Education knew that it was vital to engage diverse stakeholders. Thus, it invited leaders from all levels of the education system and across all provinces to share their knowledge and expertise. It also asked INFORMATION COMMUCATION TECHNOLOGY experts to contribute their technical opinions. Together, these leaders and experts formed an Advisory Board and Steering Committee. The members of these groups came from a cross-section of public and private organizations. Technical assistance from consultants, supported by funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the Education Sector Reform Assistance (ESRA) Program, facilitated this overall effort.

Strategies implement by the Government and UNSCO
Teaching Kit: Updated Teaching Kit with provisions of replacement and necessary teacher training at center school level. The preparation cost per Teaching Kit is Rs. 3000/-. Supplementary Readers: A library of 100 titles with five copies of each can be established at a cost of Rs. 4000/- only. Additional cost may be required for providing a cupboard for the readers. Supplementary Readers: A library of 100 titles with five copies of each can be established at a cost of Rs. 4000/- only. Additional cost may be required for providing a cupboard for the readers. Improved Learning Environment (PEP-ILE): A coherent decentralized plan of continuous teacher training, monitoring and evaluation can be established at the pattern of PEP-ILE in other provinces. Scientific Preparation of Textbooks and Teacher Guides: Books should be tested before scale implementation. The program be linked with teacher training and follow-up in the classrooms

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Educational Sector of Pakistan and India 2011
Fell i School Program It has special val e for remote areas which do no have a school t For four years, the government funds a subsidy of Rs. 2,500 per student; and subsequently the school is handed over to the community. School Community Participation: Program and formal structures involving community and parents such as PTAs, School Councils, Village ducation Committees, Women Village ducation Committees, and Parent ducation Councils etc. can be established according to the local needs and context. Public ±private partner programs.

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Ministry of Human Resource Development

National education budget (2011±2012)

Budget: 52,057 crore (US$11.56 billion)

General etail Primary Languages: Literacy (2011) Hindi, nglish, or State language Total: 74.04% Male: 82.14% Female: 65.46%

Education in India is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory. The Nalanda University was the oldest university-system of education in the world. Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj. Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states with , some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled. India has made progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India's improved education

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system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India. Much of the progress especially in Higher education, Scientific research has been credited to various public institutions. The private education market in India is merely 5% although in terms of value is estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008 and will increase to $68 billion by 2012. However, India continues to face stern challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 35% of its population is still illiterate; only 15% of Indian students reach high school, and just 7% graduate. As of 2008, India's post-secondary high schools offer only enough seats for 7% of India's college-age population, 25% of teaching positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors lack either a master's or PhD degree. As of 2007, there are 1522 degree-granting engineering colleges in India with an annual student intake of 582,000, plus 1,244 polytechnics with an annual intake of 265,000. However, these institutions face shortage of faculty and concerns have been raised over the quality of education.

History
A monastic order of education under the supervision of a guru was a favored form of education for the nobility in ancient India. The knowledge in these orders was often related to the tasks a section of the society had to perform. The priest class, the Brahmins, were imparted knowledge of religion, philosophy, and other ancillary branches while the warrior class, the Kshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare. The business class, the Vaishya, were taught their trade and the lowered class of the Shudras was generally deprived of educational advantages. The book of laws, the Manusmriti, and the treatise on statecraft the Arthashastra were among the influential works of this era which reflect the outlook and understanding of the world at the time. Secular Buddhist institutions cropped up along with monasteries. These institutions imparted practical education, e.g. medicine. A number of urban learning centres became increasingly visible from the period between 200 BCE to 400 CE. The important urban centres of learning were Taxila and Nalanda, among others. These institutions systematically imparted knowledge and attracted a number of foreign students to study topics such as Buddhist literature, logic, grammar, etc.

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sophisticated system of mathematics.

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By the time of the visit of the Islamic scholar Alberuni (973±1048 CE), India already had a

With the arrival of the British Raj in India the modern European education came to India. British Raj was reluctant to introduce mass education system as it was not their interest. The colonial educational policy was deliberately one of reducing indigenous culture and religion, an approach which became known as Macaulayism. The system soon became solidified in India as a number of primary, secondary, and tertiary centres for education cropped up during the colonial era. Between 1867 and 1941 the British increased the percentage of the population in Primary and Secondary Education from around 0.6% of the population in 1867 to over 3.5% of the population in 1941. However this was much lower than the equivalent figures for Europe where in 1911 between 8 and 18% of the population were in Primary and Secondary education. Additionally literacy was also improved. In 1901 the literacy rate in India was only about 5% though by Independence it was nearly 20%. Following independence in 1947, Maulana Azad, India's first education minister envisaged strong central government control over education throughout the country, with a uniform educational system. However, given the cultural and linguistic diversity of India, it was only the higher education dealing with science and technology that came under the jurisdiction of the central government. The government also held powers to make national policies for educational development and could regulate selected aspects of education throughout India. The central government of India formulated the National Policy on Education (NPE) in 1986 and also reinforced the Programme of Action (POA) in 1986. The government initiated several measures the launching of DPEP (District Primary Education Programme) and SSA (SarvaShikshaAbhiyan, India's initiative for Education for All) and setting up of NavodayaVidyalaya and other selective schools in every district, advances in female education, inter-disciplinary research and establishment of open universities. India's NPE also contains the National System of Education, which ensures some uniformity while taking into account regional education needs. The NPE also stresses on higher spending on education, envisaging a budget of more than 6% of the Gross Domestic Product. While the need for wider reform in the primary and secondary sectors is recognized as an issue, the emphasis is also on the development of science and technology education infrastructure.

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Strategies by India

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The Indian education system is one of the largest such systems in the World. It is estimated that during the next Five Year Plan period (2010-15), there will be a tremendous pressure of numbers on this system and a large number of additional students will be knocking at the doors of higher education institutions in the country. There are also new challenges of management and regulation being faced by these institutions, which require serious attention, both at the institutions in the public sector and also those in the private sector now growing at a fast pace.

Public/Private Partnership
Indian higher education system has undergone massive expansion in post-independent India with a national resolve to establish several Universities, Technical Institutes, Research Institutions and Professional / Non-professional Colleges all over the country to generate and disseminate knowledge coupled with the noble intention of providing easy access to higher education to the common Indian. The Public initiatives played a dominant and controlling role in this phase. Most of the Universities were Public institutions with powers to regulate academic activities on their campuses as well as in their areas of jurisdiction through the affiliating system. Even the private institutions enjoyed large-scale financial support in the form of grants from the public exchequer. Private funds as well as individuals played key roles in the cause of higher education.

Access and Equity
It is worth noting that while India has the second largest system of higher education, next only to USA, the total number of students hardly represent 6 percent of the relevant age group, i.e., 18 - 23, which is much below the average of developed countries, which is about 47%. Thus, access, equity, accountability and quality should form the four guiding principles, while planning for higher education development in India in the twenty-first century. Several social, economic and political reasons seem to act as constraints to access and equit in y higher education in India. Poverty leads to high drop- out rates even at primary, middle and secondary school levels. Lower status of women, lack of easy access, lack of implementation of existing programs, inadequate utilization of resources, absence of political will and

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inadequacies in coordinated actions across all equity fronts within institutions seem to be the other reason. Financial constrains also often form a significant factor in advancing equity. Other initiatives taken by the Indian government & academic exports for education include Developing educational products of new models based on flexibility and learner's Choice;
y y y y y

Prepared students for the knowledge society; Provide methods and styles of working for life-long learning; Arranged facilities for E-learning and distance learning; Ensured total quality management in the higher education system; Catered to the changing market demands and churn out adaptable work force, instead of providing them scope for narrow specialization.

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Developed philanthropy and cultivating an organized culture of giving Reorientation of educational programs Linked education with employment Launched industry linked human resource development programs Reorientation of the management system of Colleges and Universities Better allocation/utilization of the resources already available Encouraged accountability at various levels of decision making Obtained research grants from industries Reorganization of the educational system in the country in line with the changes Provided professional and vocational education and preparation of students for this Made general education costlier and less widely available than vocational education as to induce more students to take up the latter.

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Developed innovative educational programs products, having high potential for raising resources, making use of the institutional autonomy

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Promotion of publication activities and printing College/University stationery Encouraged taking up national/international and Government funded R&D projects. Used marketing strategies to attract funded projects from industry and other sources Set up Alumni Associations, to benefit from alumni contacts/contributions. Introduced students¶ loan scheme. Encouraging the application of ICT in all processes at the institutions.. Taking up productive assignments from the Government.
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Encouraging a policy of rewarding merit in the institutions Encouraging donations by large companies Introducing µearn while you learn¶ scheme for needy students Introducing a scheme for rewards/punishments to ensure accountability work.

Recommendations
After concerning so many issues in education sector, we give some recommendation according to Pakistani educational System:
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The major issue in education in Pakistan is low financial public sector investment. Although education enjoys the highest priority on the social sector agenda, yet allocations are not provided according to the requirements. It is strange to note that in the federal and provincial budgets, public sector allocations to education have steadily declined over the past five years from 2.7% of GDP in 1995-97 to 1.8% of GDP in 2001-2002. It is, therefore, recommended that all efforts should be made to enhance the budgetary allocation to education to 4% of GDP. In addition, innovative approaches should be adopted to generate additional resources for increasing funds for the education sector, especially to primary education, adult literacy and early childhood education if Dakar targets have to be met by 2015.

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It has been observed that at present, an extremely high proportion (over 95%) of education budgets at the provincial levels are spent on recurrent heads, particularly on salaries of teaching staff, with negligible proportions i.e., below 5%, remaining for development expenditures due to delays and budgetary cuts in view of shortfall in resources. It is recommended that developmental budget should be increased, so that infrastructure can be strengthened for providing basic educational facilities.

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It was found that education suffers from inefficient financial management and outdated procedures which have adversely affected the implementation of education programs and projects. The development projects are preparedby the

Ministry/Departments of Education, which are approved, by the Planning and Development Division/ Department (through PDWP, CDWP and ECNEC) but the funds are allocated by the Finance Division (through Priorities Committee, APCC, and NEC). It is not unusual to observe that funds particularly for higher-cost projects

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are seldom allocated according to the approved phasing due to thin funding. This is mainly due to low budgetary allocation to education, which entails repeated revision of projects based on escalated costs, hampering their implementation. It is recommended that obstacles in management and procedural systems hindering the efficient utilization of allocated resources should be removed through an overhaul of the financial procedures governing release of funds.
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It was found that the overall enrolment growth rate was 13% in private sector whereas it was only 3% in public sector this indicates that private sector is playing vital role in the development of education, but financial assistance is not being provided to private sector. It is recommended that financial assistance may be given to private sector. Though considerable progress has been observed during the past decade in the participation of NGOs and private sectors in the field of education, especially primary and university education, but more involvement of NGOs and private organizations would benefit the delivery of education services. To facilitate this, the national and provincial education foundations also need to play a more active role in guiding and coordinating NGOs and private organizations in ³adopting´ public schools and supporting rural community schools to achieve rapid progress in achieving the Dakar goals.

References:
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http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001215/121541eo.pdf http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DISABILITY/Resources/Regions/South%20Asia/J ICA_Pakistan.pdf

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http://www.hec.gov.pk/MediaPublication/HECPublication/Documents/Task%20Force %20on%20Improvement%20of%20Higher%20Education%20in%20Pakistan%20%20Report.pdf

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http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/235724/skills%20development%20in%2 0india%20the%20vocational%20education%20and%20training%20system.pdf

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http://www.usp.ac.fj/worldbank2009/frame/Documents/Publications_global/peril_pro mise_en.pdf

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http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20680/1/MPRA_paper_20680.pdf http://www.ibe.unesco.org/International/ICE47/English/Natreps/reports/india.pdf
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http://www.cas.ed.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/28323/Tilak_India_PBET_WP6_ final.pdf

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Ahmad, M. (208). "Application of Classroom Management Strategies in Public and Private Sector at School Level in Pakistan." Journal of Managerial Science Volume IV, Number 1 . Dr.Saeed-ul-Hassan Chishti, S. A. T., SaddafAyub Raja, Shahinshah Babar Khan (2011). "QUALITY SCHOOL EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN: CHALLENGES, SUCCESSES AND STRATEGIES." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Of ACADEMI RESEARCHVol. 3. NO 2(March, 2011). Kh. SabirHussain, D. P. A. S. (2005). "Basic Education in Pakistan." AEPAM Research Study No. 181 (2005)

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Kingdon, G. G. (207). "The progress of school education in India " Global Poverty Research Group. Marg, B. S. Z. (2005). "HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA: ISSUES, CONCERNS AND NEW DIRECTIONS." The University Grants Commission New Delhi 110 002 . Mirza, D. M. S. (2008). "QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN." Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan in collaboration with UNSCO Report, M. o. e. (2007). "National Information and Communications Technology Strategy For Education In Pakistan Shah, G. H., F. Bari, et al. (2007). "The Role of NGOs in Basic and Primary Education in Pakistan." LUMS-McGill SocialEnterprise

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