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LOADING ON SLAB:DEAD LOAD: Depth of slab= d Unit weight of reinforced concrete= 25 KN/m3 - IS 875 (Part-I) Table 1 2 Load of 1m of RCC slab= 25xd KN/m3 Depth of finish= 0.0625m Unit weight of cement concrete= 24 KN/m3 - IS 875 (Part –I) Table 1 Load of 1m2 of cement concrete finish= 0.0625x24= 1.5KN/m2 Dead load due to partition wall= 1 KN/m2 - IS 875 (Part – II) 3.1.2 Total dead load = 25d+1.5+1 KN/m2 LIVE LOAD In Residential buildings = 2 KN/m2,Educational buildings = 3 KN/m2,Business and office buildings = 2.5 KN/m2,Mercantile buildings = 4 KN/m2,Industrial buildings = 2.5 KN/m2- -IS 875(Part –II) Table –1 TOTAL LOAD = DL + LL

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SLABS:
SIMPLY SUPPORTED SLABS: When simply supported slabs do not have adequate provision to resist torsion at corners and to prevent the corners from lifting, maximum moments per unit width are given by the following equation: Mx=α x × w lx2 My= α y × wlx2 lx = effective length of shorter span ly = effective length of longer span α x and α y are coefficients - IS 456 Table 23 Reinforcement obtained from table in Design aid for reinforced concrete - SP 16 Table 5 to Table 44 RESTRAINED SLABS: When the corners of a slab are prevented from lifting, the slab may be designed as followsThe maximum moments per unit width are given by the following equation: Mx=α x × w lx2 My= α y × wlx2 lx = effective length of shorter span ly = effective length of longer span Mx and My = moments on strips of unit width spanning lx and ly respectively

IS 456 fig 4 λ = a factor for flanged beams which depends on the ratio of web width to the flange width . CHECK FOR DEFLECTION: The slab is checked for deflection L/d ≤ α β γ δ λ α = basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m .2. .IS 456 22.1. τ c’ =kτ c .11 Maximum bending moments at critical sections are computed using bending moment coefficients given in Table 7 – IS 456 For a balanced design Mu = 0.138× σ ck× b)} Area of steel is given by Mu= 0.1b γ =a factor which depends on the area and type of steel for tension reinforcement -IS 456 fig 3 δ = a factor which depends on the area of compression reinforcement .2.1 Check τ c’> τ v CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH: φ < 4τ bd/σ s× (1.IS 456 C. τ c=100× As/bd.1a β = a factor which accounts for correction in the values of α for spans greater than 10m= 10/span in meters -IS 456 22.2 α x and α y are coefficients .87× σ y× At {d-(σ yAt /σ ckb)} The bars must be embedded into the support by at least Ld/3 distance and U.87× σ y× At {d-(σ yAt/σ ckb)} At= Mu/[0.IS 456 Table 22 Reinforcement obtained from table in Design aid for reinforced concrete .2.138× σ ck× bd2 effective depth = d = √{Mu/ (0.1. k= factor The code permits in solid slabs thinner than 300mm an increase in shear strength by a factor k .hook must be provided.87× σ y× {d-(σ yAt/σ ckb)}] CHECK FOR SHEAR: The maximum shear force occurs at the first interior support in the end span Nominal shear stress τ v=Vu/bd Percent of tension steel.IS 456 39.SP 16 Table 5 to Table 44 ONE WAY SLABS: When ly/lx > 2 the slabs are to be designed as one-way slabs.IS 456 fig 5 .2M1/V + L0) M1 = 0.

DESIGN BENDING MOMENT Total bending moment = M Factor of safety = F Design bending moment Mu = M× F Section proposed Breadth = b Depth = D Cover depth = D’ Effective depth d= D-D’ Calculate Mu/bd2 For Mu/bd2<Mulim/bd2 For different values of fy pt is obtained -SP-16. Table 45 . Table 62. SP16. Table 63 CHECK FOR MAXIMUM SHEAR: τ v ≤ τ cmax -SP16. Table 7 DESIGN OF BEAM: Beams can be designed as singly reinforced and doubly reinforced sections. τ v > τ c. -SP-16. Table J CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH: φ < 4τ bd/σ s× (1.6W TOTAL SHEAR FORCE = SUDL + SCONC + SWIND or SEISMIC -IS 456. Table 61 The nominal shear strength is calculated by the following equation: τ v = Vu/bd where. Shear capacity of concrete section = τ cbd Shear reinforcement should be provided for carrying shear Vus = Vu .τ cbd -SP16 .2M1/V + L0) M1 = 0..87× σ y× At {d-(σ yAt /σ ckb)} .4 Shear force due to concentrated load = 0. Table 13. Tensile reinforcement Ast = pt × bd/100 Compressive reinforcement Asc = pc × bd/100 DESIGN SHEAR FORCE: Total shear force = S Factor of safety = F Design shear force Vu = S × F Design shear strength of concrete = τ c -IS456. and D’/d pt and pc are obtained. Table 1-Table 4 For Mu/bd2>Mulim/ bd2 For different values of Mu/bd2. Vu is the shear force When.

IS 456 fig 4 λ = A factor for flanged beams which depends on the ratio of web width to the flange width .IS 456 22.1b γ =A factor which depends on the area and type of steel for tension reinforcement .2.1a β = A factor which accounts for correction in the values of α for spans greater than 10m = 10/span in meters .5 The bars must be embedded into the support by at least Ld/3 distance and U.IS 456 fig 3 δ = A factor which depends on the area of compression reinforcement .IS 456 22. CHECK FOR DEFLECTION: The beam is checked for deflection L/d ≤ α β γ δ λ α = Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m .IS 456 fig 5 .hook must be provided.2.

6 LOADING ON COLUMN: SELF WEIGHT The self-weight of columns can be obtained by the following formula: P= N× W Where. of floors W = weight of column per floor = wbDh Where. N3 = number of floors S1 = self weight of slab 1 . N2 = number of floors W1 = self weight of wall 1 L1 = length of wall 1 W2 = self weight of wall 2 L2 = length of wall 2 W3 = self weight of wall 3 L3 = length of wall 3 W4 = self weight of wall 4 L4 = length of wall 4 LOAD DUE TO SLAB: The load acting on the column due to the floor slabs of various floors attached to it is given by: P3 = N3× (S1L1L2 + S2L2L3 + S3L3L4 + S4L4L1) Where. w = unit weight of reinforced cement concrete b = breadth of column D = depth of column h = height of a floor LOAD DUE BEAM The load acting on a column transferred by the beams connected to the column can be given by the following formula: P1= N1× W1× (L1+L2+L3+L4)/2 Where. N1= number of floors W1 = self weight of beam L1 = length of beam 1 L2 = length of beam 2 L3 = length of beam 3 L4 = length of beam 4 LOAD DUE TO WALL: The load acting on the column due to the walls supported by the beams attached to the column is given by the formula: P2 = N2× (W1L1+W2L2+W3L3+W4L4) Where. N= no.

Design bending moment = Mu = F × BM Where. Me = bending moment at the end of the beam Mes = maximum difference between the moments at the ends of the two beams framing into opposite sides of the column KU = stiffness of the upper column = M. of the upper column / Length of the column KL = stiffness of the lower column Kb1 = stiffness of the beam on one side of the column Kb2 = stiffness of the beam on the other side of the column The equation for the moment at head of the lower column can be used for columns in a topmost storey by taking KU as zero. BM = 2 × W /100 where. W = axial load acting on the column Bending moments in external columns and internal columns supporting an arrangement of beams and loading not approximately symmetrical should be calculated and provided for.I.e. i. F = factor of safety .7 L1× L2 = area of slab AB S2 = self weight of slab 2 L2× L3 = area of slab BC S3 = self weight of slab 3 L3× L4 = area of slab CD S4 = self weight of slab 4 L4× L1 = area of slab DA Total weight on column W = P + P1 + P2 + P3 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF COLUMN: BENDING MOMENT: A nominal bending moment considering an eccentricity of 2cms can be considered. In the absence of more accurate methods of analysis for computing bending moments in columns following formulae can be used: For external columns: Moments at foot of upper column = BM = Me × Ku/ (KL + KU + Kb1) Moments at head of lower column BM = Me × KL/ (KL + KU + Kb1) For internal columns: Moments at foot of upper column BM = Mes × KU/ (KL + KU + Kb1 +Kb2) Moments at head of lower column BM = Mes × KL/ (KL + KU + Kb1 + Kb2) Where.

. where. 2.SP 16. Wall footing b. p = reinforcement percentage fck = strength of concrete . In case of deep foundations the depth is greater than its width. and c. SHALLOW FOUNDATION a.8 AXIAL LOAD Design axial load= Pu= F × W We calculate Pu/ fck bd Mu/ bd2 D’/D Where. Load per meter of footing W = P + F . D’ = cover to reinforcement D = depth of the column From the chart we get p/fck . The diameter of the polygonal links or lateral ties should not be less than one-fourth of the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar. A foundation is shallow if its depth is equal to or lesser than its width. The least lateral dimension of the compression member b.5. Combined footing d.2 FOOTING: Foundations maybe broadly classified into shallow foundation and deep foundation respectively. Forty eight times the diameter of the lateral ties. Chart 27 ….IS 456. Sixteen times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement bar to be tied. and in no case less than 5 mm. Commonly only shallow foundations are used for small buildings. Raft footing WALL FOOTING: In designing such a footing the following stresses are to be checked: a) Soil pressure beneath footing b) Thickness from the point of view of diagonal tension or shear stress c) Thickness from the point of view of bending moment d) Development length We consider a span equal to 1m length for the footing. Isolated footing c. 25.3. The pitch of the lateral ties should not exceed the following distances: a. As = p × b × D / 100 LATERAL TIES: 1.

b = width of wall d = effective depth of footing Percentage of tensile steel pt = 100 Ast / bd Design shear stress τ c is obtained from the table . φ ≤ 4× τ bd × Ld/0.87fy where. Ld = (0. the bending moment has to be calculated halfway between the middle and edge of the wall.IS 456.87× fy× Ast× (d – fyAst/fckb) DEPTH FROM SHEAR FORCE CONSIDERATION: Shear force will be checked at a distance equal to the depth of the footing d from the face of the wall: V= P{(B-b)/2 – d} Where. the embedment required is.1 ISOLATED FOOTINGS: In designing such a footing the following stresses are to be checked: e) Soil pressure beneath footing f) Thickness from the point of view of diagonal tension or shear stress g) Thickness from the point of view of bending moment . Pr = effective soil pressure Footing width provided = D’ Net upward soil pressure Prn = W/D’ DEPTH FROM BENDING MOMENT CONSIDERATION: As the wall is built of masonry. 25. P = load of wall per meter F = load of footing per meter Width of footing required D = W / Pr Where.2.9 Where. BM= P(B/2 – b/4)2/2 Design bending moment Effective depth required d1 = √(F× BM/0.1 Ld = development length fy = strength of steel reinforcement used -IS 456.2.1. 33. 25. Table 13 τ c = P{(B-b)/2 – d}/(1000× d) CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH: For development of reinforcement.IS 456. φ = diameter of reinforcement bar τ bd = design bond stress .2. -IS 456.87× fy× φ ) / (4× τ bd) Therefore.148× fck× b) Area of steel is given by the formula: BM = 0.3 Thus.

BM1= Pu× L(B – d/2)2/2 BM2= Pu× B(L – d/2)2/2 Bmmax= maximum of BM1 and BM2 Design bending moment =Mu =F× BMmax Effective depth required d1 = √(Mu/0. Pr = effective soil pressure Footing area provided = L× B Net upward soil pressure Prn = W/(L× B) DEPTH FROM BENDING MOMENT CONSIDERATION: As the footing is under a column.IS 456.10 h) Thickness from the point of view of punching shear i) Development length Load on footing W = P + F Where.87fy where.IS 456.138× fck× b) Area of steel is given by the formula: BM = 0.87× fy× φ ) / (4× τ bd) Therefore.1 Actual embedment provided from the face of the column = Ld’ = (B-D)/2 – dc Where.2. φ = Diameter of reinforcement bar τ bd = design bond stress -IS 456. b = width of column .3 Thus.2. Ld = (0. 33. the bending moment has to be calculated at the face of the column. φ ≤ 4× τ bd × Ld/0. B = shorter dimension of the footing D = greater dimension of the column dc = depth of reinforcement cover Ld’ ≥ Ld DEPTH FROM SHEAR FORCE CONSIDERATION: a) SHEAR ONE-WAY ACTION Shear force will be checked at a distance equal to the depth of the footing d from the face of the column: V= Pu× L{(B-b)/2 – d2} Where.87× fy× Ast× (d1 – fyAst/fckb) CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH: For development of reinforcement. the embedment required is.1.2. P = load of column F = load of footing Area of footing required A = W / Pr Where. 25. 25. .1 Ld = development length fy = strength of steel reinforcement used.

ks = 0.5% of Ac These bars are to be provided as dowels. 33.5 + β c . the column load cannot be transferred by bearing alone Excess load: Pu’ = (σ br .ks ≤ 1 Where.(B-0. 30. The shear force is given by: V= Pu× {L× B .5b)× (L-0.4 PUNCHING SHEAR CONSIDERATION: Depth from punching shear consideration: d = P/{2× (b+D)} LOAD TRANSFER FROM COLUMN TO FOOTING: Nominal bearing stress in the column concrete: σ br = Pu / Ac Where.11 d2 = effective depth of footing from shear one way action consideration Nominal shear stress τ v = V/bd Percentage of tensile steel pt = 100 Ast/bd2 Design shear stress τ c is obtained from the table .IS 456. β c = length of shorter side of column /length of longer side of column τ c= 0. Pu = load transferred from the column Ac = area of the column Allowable bearing stress σ br’= 0.25√fck -IS 456.6. Table 13 b) SHEAR TWO WAY ACTION: The critical section is taken at a distance equal to d/2 distance away from the face of the column.σ br’)× Ac Required area of steel: Asb = Pu’/(0. These dowels are to be developed above and below the junction of column and footing.67× fy) Minimum Asb = 0. d = depth of footing τ c ≥ τ v .2.45σ ck If σ br>σ br’ Then.5D)} Nominal shear stress τ v = V/b0d Shear strength of concrete: τ c’ =ksτ c Where. Ld for compression: Ld’ = σ sφ /4τ bd Available vertical length L1 for anchorage: L1 = d –dc -2φ m -φ L1≥ Ld’ Where.

considering that primary settlement has already occurred and only secondary settlement is left. 3) All the columns should be joined at ground level by a tie beam to avoid differential settlement. 5) In case of addition or alteration design of building. The specifications of the tie beam are given in the reinforcement schedule. i) The beams and slabs are redesigned only for the additional portion. and SP-16. 2) The design has been done by LIMIT STATE METHOD. unless otherwise mentioned. IS-2911.12 dc= cover depth of footing φ m = diameter of main reinforcement in footing φ = Diameter of dowel bars GENERAL NOTES 1) All the footings should be laid at least 1.5m below the ground level. ii) It is to be considered that the columns and footings are found to be safe structurally for further construction. and M20 unless otherwise mentioned. Fe415. 4) The codes used are IS-456. 6) Incase wherever pile foundation is advised. . iii) Beyond the exterior piles the pile cap should extend ≥ 150mm. IS-875. i) Bored piles of length ≥ 15m are to be used. 7) The specifications for steel and concrete to be used are Fe250. SP-34. ii) Piles should be embedded ≥ 150mm in the pile cap.