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TOTAL PRESSURE DROP IN PIPE

The total pressure drop in the pipe is typically calculated using these five steps. (1) Determine the total length of all horizontal and vertical straight pipe runs. (2) Determine the number of valves and fittings in the pipe. For example, there may be two gate valves, a 90o elbow and a flow thru tee. (3) Determine the means of incorporating the valves and fittings into the Darcy equation. To accomplish this, most engineers use a table of equivalent lengths. This table lists the valve and fitting and an associated length of straight pipe of the same diameter, which will incur the same pressure loss as that valve or fitting. For example, if a 2” 90o elbow were to produce a pressure drop of 1 psi, the equivalent length would be a length of 2” straight pipe that would also give a pressure drop of 1 psi. The engineer then multiplies the quantity of each type of valve and fitting by its respective equivalent length and adds them together. (4) The total equivalent length is usually added to the total straight pipe length obtained in step one to give a total pipe equivalent length. (5) This total pipe equivalent length is then substituted for in Equation 2 to obtain the pressure drop in the pipe.

One of the most basic calculations performed by any process engineer, whether in design or in the plant, is line sizing and pipeline pressure loss. Typically known are the flow rate, temperature and corresponding viscosity and specific gravity of the fluid that will flow through the pipe. These properties are entered into a computer program or spreadsheet along with some pipe physical data (pipe schedule and roughness factor) and out pops a series of line sizes with associated Reynolds Number, velocity, friction factor and pressure drop per linear dimension. The pipe size is then selected based on a compromise between the velocity and the pressure drop. With the line now sized and the pressure drop per linear dimension determined, the pressure loss from the inlet to the outlet of the pipe can be calculated.

Calculating Pressure Drop

The most commonly used equation for determining pressure drop in a straight pipe is the Darcy Weisbach equation. One common form of the equation which gives pressure drop in terms of feet of head { hL} is given by:
The term is commonly referred to as the Velocity Head.

Another common form of the Darcy Weisbach equation that is most often in units of psi/100 ft, the value of 100 replaces L in Equation 2. To obtain pressure drop used by engineers because it gives pressure drop in units of pounds per square inch (psi) is:

An Example

The fluid being pumped is 94% Sulfuric Acid through a 3”, Schedule 40, Carbon Steel pip
Mass Flow Rate, lb/hr: Volumetric Flow Rate, gpm: Density, lb/ft3: S.G. Viscosity, cp: Temperature, oF: Pipe ID, in: Velocity, fps: Reynold's No: Darcy Friction Factor, (f) Pipe: Pipe Line ∆P/100 ft. Friction Factor at Full Turbulence (ƒt): Straight Pipe, ft:

63,143 70 112.47 1.8 10 127 3.07 3.04 12,998 0.03 1.31 0.02 31.5

Fittings
90o Long Radius Elbow Branch Tee Swing Check Valve Plug Valve 3” x 1” Reducer4 TOTAL

Leq/D1

Leq2, 3

K1, 2 =¦t Quantity Total Leq Total K (L/D)

20 60 50 18 None5

5.1 15.3 12.8 4.6 822.69

0.36 1.08 0.9 0.32 57.92

2 1 1 1 1

10.23 15.34 12.78 4.6 822.68 865.63

0.72 1.08 0.9 0.32 57.92 60.94

1. K values and Leq/D are obtained from reference 1. 2. K values and Leq are given in terms of the larger sized pipe. 3. Leq is calculated using Equation 5 above. 4. The reducer is really an expansion; the pump discharge nozzle is 1” (Schedule 80) but the connecting pipe is 3”. In piping terms, there are no expanders, just reducers. It is standard to specify the reducer with the larger size shown first. The K value for the expansion is calculated as a gradual enlargement with a 30o angle.

5. There is no L/D associated with an expansion or contraction. The equivalent length must be back calculated from the K value using Equation 5 above.

Typical Equivalent Length Method Straight Pipe ∆P, psi Total Pipe Equivalent Length ∆P, psi Not applicable 11.73

K Value Method 0.41 Not Applicable

83 7. he takes the risk of falling into the trap when confronted by a pumping situation as shown above. One can argue that if the fluid is water or a hydrocarbon. and they would be correct. Why not use these for the rest of the fittings and apply the calculation correctly in the first place? Final Thoughts .Valves and Fittings ∆P. However hydraulic calculations. To do this. psi Not applicable 11. if at all significant. the equivalent length of the reducer had to be backcalculated using equation 5. like all calculations. should be done in a correct and consistent manner. Another point to consider is how the engineer treats a reducer when using the typical equivalent length method.5 psi (about 62%) using the typical equivalent length method (adding straight pipe length to the equivalent length of the fittings and valves and using the pipe line fiction factor in Equation 1). If the engineer gets into the habit of performing hydraulic calculations using fundamentally incorrect equations. As we saw above.K Values .24 The line pressure drop is greater by about 4. psi Total Pipe ∆P. the pipeline friction factor would be closer to the friction factor at full turbulence and the error would not be so great. we had to use ƒt and K.73 6.

410 first discussed and used the two-friction factor method for calculating the total pressure drop in a piping system (ƒ for straight pipe and ƒt for valves and fittings). Since then. designated K1. K becomes consistent with that given in CRANE. 410. His argument was that the equivalent length in pipe diameters (L/D) and K was indeed a function of Reynolds Number (at flow rates less than that obtained at fully developed turbulent flow) and the exact geometries of smaller valves and fittings. Hooper2 suggested a 2-K method for calculating the pressure loss contribution for valves and fittings.The 1976 edition of the Crane Technical Paper No. one being the K found in CRANE Technical Paper No. designated KΨ. . and the other being defined as the K of the valve or fitting at a Reynolds Number equal to 1. The two are related by the following equation: K = K1 / NRE + KΨ (1 + 1/D) The term (1+1/D) takes into account scaling between different sizes within a given valve or fitting group. K for a given valve or fitting is a combination of two Ks. Values for K1 can be found in the reference article2 and pressure drop is then calculated using Equation 7. For flow in the fully turbulent zone and larger size valves and fittings.

The use of the 2-K method has been around since 1981 and does not appear to have “caught” on as of yet. Darby states that the 2-K method does not accurately represent the effect of scaling the sizes of valves and fittings. The latest 3-K method comes from data reported in the recent CCPS Guidlines4 and appears to be destined to become the new standard.Darby3 expanded on the 2-K method. The reader is encouraged to get a copy of this article. Some newer commercial computer programs allow for the use of the 2-K method. . He suggests adding a third K term to the mix. but most engineers inclined to use the K method instead of the Equivalent Length method still use the procedures given in CRANE. we shall see.

For example. there may g the valves and fittings into the able lists the valve and fitting and e loss as that valve or fitting.mine the total length of all he pipe. For uld be a length of 2” straight pipe ch type of valve and fitting by its y added to the total straight pipe ent length is then substituted for L Pressure losses distributed in the pipes .

edule 40. that corresponding to the general flow in a rectilinear conduit. Carbon Steel pipe: . is given by the following general formula: ∆p = pressure loss in Pa Λ = friction factor (a number without dimension) p = density of water in kg/m3 V = flow rate in m/s D = pipe diameter in m L = pipe length in m The expression above shows that calculations of pressure losses rest entirely on the determination of the coefficient L.The calculation of the linear pressure loss.

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4 2.3 4 8 15 20 25 35 45 55 65 80 100 125 140 165 Absolute Pipe Roughness .6 2 2. ft.FLUID PARAMETERS PIPE PARAMETERS Allowance in Equivalent Length of Pipe for Friction Loss in Valves and Threaded Fittings Diameter of fitting in inches 90° std.2 1.6 0. ell. ft.5 3 3. 90° side tee.8 0. feet 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 1 2 2.6 0.5 3 4 5 6 7 10 12 15 18 21 25 30 0.4 0.7 3.8 1 1. 45° std. ft.5 2 2. Coupling or straight run Gate valve.9 1. feet valve.3 0. Globe of tee. ell.2 0.3 1.2 1.5 3 4 5 7 8 10 12 14 17 20 0. ft.5 0.5 1.6 1.8 2.4 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 1.6 4 5 6 0.

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9 to 9 mm roughness e by the pipe diameter D.22600. .9 to computed wood stave 600 to 3000 mm 1000 to dividing the concrete 10. These values are for new pipes.Included here is a sampling of absolute pipe roughness e data taken from Binder (1973).3 to 3 mm 3000 to absolute riveted steel 30.5 copper 5 1.000 0.5 commercial steel 150 45 wrought iron 150 45 asphalted cast iron pipe 400 120 galvanized Relative iron 500 150 roughness is cast iron by 850 0.000 0. age Absolute Roughness. e x 10-6 feet Pipe Material micron (unless noted) drawn brass 5 1.

S. Per 100' Dual Line Hose U. GPM 30 60 95 125 150 200 250 1" 26 ------------1½" 4 9 22 38 54 ----1¾" 2½" 3" ------1 2 3.5 --6 1 14 2 25 3.Example: FIRE HOSE Friction Loss Charts P.5 1.S.I.S. GPM 500 750 1000 1250 3"WI 2½" CPL 13 3 32 6 56 10 87 15 Add 5 P.5 5 4" ------------1.5 12 Hose L/Min.I.S. Per 100' Single Line Hose U.S.I. Per Portable Monitor 2½" Kpa Per 30 Meter Dual Line 76mm 65mm CPL 90 20 220 40 390 70 600 100 Add 30 Kpa Per Siamese or Wye 70 Kpa Per Monitor 65mm .I. 1900 2850 3800 4750 P. Per Storey 3" 2 4 7.S.S.5 35 5 62 8 --13 Add 5 P. Per Siamese or Wye 10 P.I.

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feet 4 8 12 15 18 22 28 34 40 50 55 70 80 The Reynolds number is defined is: According to kinematics viscosity According to dynamics viscosity .nd Threaded Fittings Angle valve.

the nature or the surface quality of the interior walls of the lines does not intervene in the calculation of the pressure loss.s (or kg/m.s) (kg/m. The viscosity of a fluid is a characteristic which makes it possible to determine resistance to the movement of the fluid.s = One tenth of a poise = 10 poises) Reynolds number is inversely proportional to kinematics viscosity.V = flow rate in m/s d = pipe diameter in mm v = viscosity of water in mm²/s (or centistokes) (legal System (S. The higher kinematic viscosity will be and the more difficult it will be to move the fluid in the pipe. Kinematics viscosity in m2/s kinematics viscosity in mm²/s (or centistokes) v = kinematics viscosity in mm²/s (or centistokes) .I) in m²/s = 1000000 centistokes) µ = viscosity dynamic of water Pa. Kinematics viscosity (v is the ratio of dynamic viscosity on the density of the fluid. The loss pressure is determined by the following function: .(legal system (S.s or (kg/m S) p = density of water in kg/m3 Loss pressure Laminar flow (Re £ 2000) In rate of laminar.I) in m²/s = 1000000 centistokes or mm²/s) p = density in kg/m3 V =speed in m/s D = hydraulic diameter of the pipe in m µ = dynamic viscosity in Pa.

5 0.001 to 0. k = index of roughness of the pipe. stainless 0.0015 0.5 to 2.015 0. i.015 0. Re = Reynolds number.8 to 1. lead. oils.045 à 0.045 0.25 to 0.Λ = friction factor (a number without dimension) Re = Reynolds number The laminar flow meets in practice only in the transport and the handling of the viscous fluids.5 1. It is noted that this formula is in implicit form.002 PVC pipe Stainless steel Steel commercial pipe Stretched steel Weld steel Galvanized steel Rusted steel New cast iron Worn cast iron Rusty cast iron Sheet or asphalted cast iron Smoothed cement Ordinary concrete Coarse concrete 0.01 to 0.8 0. such as the crude oil. Turbulent flow (Re > 2000) In the critical zone. between 2000 and 4000 Reynolds the formula of computation employed will be treated in the manner that in situation of mode of turbulent flow. brass. consequently search can be done only by successive approaches (iterative calculation) With: Λ = friction factor (a number without dimension) D = pressure loss coefficient.e. d = pipe diameter in mm. fuel oil.015 0. Usual value index of roughness (k) in mm Nature of interior surface Index roughness K Copper. etc.09 0. the factor of friction is translated by the formula of Colebrook considered as that which translates best the phenomena of flow into turbulent mode.1 to 1 0. In rate of turbulent.15 0.3 1 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

] = Flow Rate l/min = Flow velocity [m/s] = Viscosity [mm^2/s] = 50 120 #DIV/0! 50 mm PVC pipe. [d mm.16 17 Well planed wood Ordinary wood 5 1 Influence rate of antifreeze (glycol) In the case of an addition of antifreeze (glycol) to water. kinematics viscosity (into centistokes) varies in the following way: t = temperature at 0°C a = percentage of glycol Pipe dia. 120 l/min Kpa Per 30 Meter Single Line Hose L/Min. 130 225 350 475 570 760 950 25mm 180 ------------38mm 44mm 65mm --7 14 24 35 55 90 76mm ------7 14 24 35 100mm ------------10 28 10 60 40 150 95 260 170 370 240 --425 ----Add 30 Kpa Per Storey eter Dual Line 76mm 14 28 50 85 Siamese or Wye er Monitor .

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03 Inches 100 Ft 0 Ft Velocity (V) = 2.63 Ft Input Data Fluid Parameters Velocity = 2. Friction factor calculation based on approximated Colebrook equation (Swamee-Jain equation) when Re>5000.1 Ft 2 Friction Factor = 0. Common Piping Material Properties Specific Roughness.02 Friction Loss1 (Hf) = 0. Friction head loss calculation based on Darcy-Weisbach equation.96 Velocity Head (Hv) = 0. Inc. cement lined 0 Plastic 0 Fiberglass 0 Visit us at http://www. SyncroFlo. 5% (68°F) 0 Saltwater. 2.syncroflo.63 Ft 1. 35% (20°F)1 0 1 Ethylene Glycol.03 Inches Length = 100 Ft Absolute Roughness = 0 Ft Output Data Flow Rate = 100 GPM Reynold's Number = 69527. ε (Ft) Material Steel and wrought iron 0 Cast iron 0 Galvanized steel and iron 0 Copper and brass 0 Cast iron. tar coated 0 Cast iron. clear (40°F) 0 Water. clear (32°F) 0 Water.96 Velocity Head (Hv) = 0. clear (60°F) 0 Water.52 Ft/s Reynold's Number (Re) = 69527.02 Friction Loss1 = 0. SyncroFlo makes no warranties regarding this information and is in no way responsible for loss incurred from the use of such information. Aqueous solution.com/ Copyright © 2003. The information contained on this chart has been carefully prepared and is believed to be correct.Pipe Head Loss Calculator Input Data Fluid Parameters Flow rate (Q) = Kinematic Viscosity (v) = Pipe Parameters Inside Diameter (D) = Length (L) = Specific Roughness (ε) = Output Data 100 GPM 0 Ft /s 2 4. . v (Ft2/s) Water. concentration in volume percent. 35% (20°F)1 0 1 Propylene Glycol.1 Ft Friction Factor2 (f) = 0.52 Ft/s Kinematic Viscosity = 0 Ft2/s Pipe Parameters Inside Diameter = 4. 25% (60°F) 0 Propylene Glycol. 25% (40°F) 0 NOTE: 1. Common Fluid Properties Fluid Kinematic Viscosity. 25% (40°F) 0 Ethylene Glycol. clear (85°F) 0 Saltwater.

The pipe is assumed to be relatively straight (no sharp bends). µ: þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿkPa þÿm/s þÿcm þÿm/m þÿm þÿm þÿkg/l þÿcP Answers . (The default calculation is for a smooth horizontal pipe carrying water. with answers rounded to 3 significant figures. V: Pipe diameter. To calculate the pressure drop and flowrates in a section of uniform pipe running from Point A to Point B.Wall drag and changes in height lead to pressure drops in pipe fluid flow. L: Elevation gain from A to B. ρ: Fluid viscosity (dynamic). ∆z: Fluid density. e/D: Pipe length from A to B. Inputs Pressure at A (absolute): Average fluid velocity in pipe. D: Pipe relative roughness.) Note that a positive ∆z means that B is higher than A. enter the parameters below. whereas a negative ∆z means that B is lower than A. such that changes in pressure are due mostly to elevation changes and wall friction.

þÿkPa þÿl/s þÿkg/s Calculate Again Hint: To Calculate a Flowrate Default Value s You can solve for flowrate from a known pressure drop using this calculator (instead of solving for a pressure drop from a known flowrate or velocity).0180 Pressure at B: 95. z is the pipe elevation above some datum. Refine your velocity guess until the calculated pressure drop matches your data. Proceed by guessing the velocity and inspecting the calculated pressure drop. R: 1.00 × 105 Friction Factor. incompressible flow moving from Point A to Point B along a pipe are described by Bernoulli's equation.85 kg/s Select desired output units for next calculatio n.Reynolds Number.50 kPa Volume Flowrate: 7. .85 l/s Mass Flowrate: 7. and g is the gravity acceleration constant. f: 0. Equations used in the Calculation Changes to inviscid. where p is the pressure. V is the average fluid velocity. ρ is the fluid density.5 kPa Pressure Drop: 4.

we assume that the pipe diameter D stays constant. we then know that the fluid velocity V stays c where L is the pipe length between points A and B.Bernoulli's equation states that the total head h along a streamline (parameterized by x) remains constant. the total head h (or energy) remains constant. By continuity. For real viscous fluids. gravity. For pipe flow. No energy is lost in such a flow. mechanical energy is converted into heat (in the viscous boundary layer along the pipe walls) and is lost from the flow. Still. and ∆z is the change in pipe elevation (zB . such that the total head h stays constant. This means that velocity head can be converted into gravity head and/or pressure head (or viceversa). As the flow moves down the pipe. viscous head slowly accumulates taking available head away from the pressure. . where D is the pipe diameter. Note that ∆z will be negative if the pipe at B is lower than at A. Still. and velocity heads. one can keep track of this lost head by introducing another term (called viscous head) into Bernoulli's equation to get.zA). Therefore one cannot use Bernoulli's principle of conserved head (or energy) to calculate flow parameters.

Note that perfectly smooth pipes would have a roughness of zero. The answer is. For commercial pipes this is usually a very small number. f depends on the Reynolds Number R of the pipe flow. One such fit is provided by Colebrook. f is determined from experimental curve fits. The solutions to this equation plotted versus R make up the popular Moody Chart for pipe flow. For laminar flow (R < 2000 in pipes). It then computes the friction factor f by direct substitutio . The relative roughness e/D is therefore the size of the bumps compared to the diameter of the pipe. The roughness measure e is the average size of the bumps on the pipe wall.The viscous head term is scaled by the pipe friction factor f. The calculator above first computes the Reynolds Number for the flow. For turbulent flow (R > 3000 in pipes). f can be deduced analytically. In general.

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47 Length .>> Unit Conversion Guide Area To convert square meters (m²) square meters (m²) Into square centimeters (cm²) Multiply by 10000 10.39 square feet (ft²) (statute) square miles square kilometers (km²) (mi²) nautical square miles square kilometers (km²) (nm²) 0.11 þÿ þÿ acres 640 þÿ acres square yards (yd²) 4840 þÿ acres square feet (ft²) 43560 þÿ hectares(ha) Reset acres 2.29 square kilometers (km²) acres (statute) square miles (mi²) 247.76 0.

54 12 þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ Mass To convert kilograms (kg) kilograms (kg) grams (g) Reset grams (g) Into Multiply by 1000 þÿ pounds (lb) ounce (oz) þÿ 2.28 1.04 þÿ Pressure To convert atmospheres (atm) atmospheres (atm) atmospheres (atm) Into millibar (mb) feet of water (at 4°C) inches of mercury (at 0°C) Multiply by 1013.37 3.To convert meters (m) meters (m) meters (m) meters (m) kilometers (km) kilometers (km) feet (ft) Reset Into centimeters (cm) inches (in) feet (ft) yard (yd) (statute) miles (mi) nautical miles (nm) inches (in) Multiply by 100 39.03 þÿ þÿ 14.92 þÿ þÿ atmospheres (atm) atmospheres (atm) centimeters of mercury kgs/cm² 76 1.25 þÿ þÿ 33.06 þÿ atmospheres (atm) atmospheres (atm) Reset lbs/in² tons/ft² .09 0.2 0.62 0.9 29.7 1.

8 þÿ 1 þÿ Fahrenheit (°F)+459.7778 Fahrenheit (°F) Celsius (°C)+273. gallons (gal) U.51 þÿ þÿ Temperature To convert Fahrenheit (°F)-32 Into Celsius (°C) Multiply by 9-May þÿ þÿ 9-May 1.S.17 þÿ 0.000 35.Reset Speed To convert Into Multiply by þÿ kilometers/hour (km/h) meters/second (m/s) kilometers/hour (km/h) miles/hour (mi/hr) knots(kn) Reset meters/second (m/s) 0.15 kelvin (K) Reset Volume To convert cubic meters (m³) cubic meters (m³) cubic meters (m³) liter(l) Reset Into cubic centimeters (cm³) cubic feet (ft³) U. L.S.31 þÿ 264.gov Plumbing Conversions . Charles Sun.000. gallons (gal) Multiply by þÿ 1.26 þÿ For questions and comments.67 kelvin (K) Celsius (°C)+17. Email: Charles.62 0.28 0.Sun@noaa. please contact: Dr.

07 0.2 13.58 5.To Change Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Btu/min.49 1.31 2. Btu/min. Horsepower Inches Inches of water Inches of water Inches of water Inches of water Inches of mercury Inches of mercury Inches of mercury Ounces (fluid) To Pounds per square inch Inches of mercury Feet of water Foot-pounds/sec Horsepower Watts Atmospheres Feet of water Cubic feet Cubic inches Atmospheres Inches of mercury Cubic inches Cubic feet Pounds of water Cubic feet sec.57 0. Btu/min.07 Pounds per square inch Inches of water Pounds per square inch Feet of water Pounds per square inch Inches of mercury Pounds per square inch Atmospheres . Feet Pounds per square inch Inches of mercury Ounces per square inch Ounces per square foot Inches of water Feet of water Pounds per square inch Cubic inches Multiply By 14.81 27.04 0.88 231 0.03 0. Cubic feet hour Foot-lbs/sec.13 8.96 0.13 0.72 2.92 34 12. Centimeters of mercury Centimeters of mercury Cubic inches Cubic feet Feet of water Feet of water Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons per min.6 1.02 17.08 0.01 0. Gallons per min.33 0 8.04 0.45 0 1728 0.02 550 0.7 29.

195985 sq.ft .093611 yd (imp) 0.609347 km 1.US 6.451578 cm2 1 Square foot (sq ft) = 144 sq in .I.US 0.4711 acre (imp) 0.US 0. = square meter) US & Imperial >> Metric system 1 Acre .6213724 mi (imp) 0.I.Imp 0.Imp 0.28083 ft (imp) 1.ft .3861006 sq.40005 mm 25.mi (imp) Volume (the unit of volume of S.589979 km2 1.ft (US) 1 Square inch (sq in) .in) .US 1 Inch (in) .7639 sq. in (US) 0.03937 in (imp) 1 meter (m) 1 meter (m) 1 meter (m) 1 meter (m) 1 kilometer (km) 1 kilometer (km) 1 kilometer (km) 3.09290341 m2 1 Square foot (sq ft) = 144 sq in Imp 0.6213699 mi (US) 0.09290272 m2 10.Imp 6. = cubic meter) US/imp >> Metric system ----Metric system >> US/imp ----- .1550 sq.ft (imp) 1.in (imp) 10.Imp 0.093611 yd (US) 1.ft) .5396127 n.28083 ft (US) 3. = meter) US & Imperial >>: Metric system 1 Inch (in) .8361307 m2 1 Square yard (sq yd) = 9 sq.yd (imp) 1 Square kilometer 0.3861 sq.Imp 0.589998 km2 1 Square mile (sq mi) = 640 acres Imp 2.ft) .4046842 ha Metric system >> US & Imperial 1 hectare (ha) 1 hectare (ha) 1 Square centimeter (cm2) 1 Square centimeter (cm2) 1 Square meter (m2) 1 Square meter (m2) 1 Square meter (m2) 1 Square meter (m2) 2.yd (US) 1 Square yard (sq yd) = 9 sq.mi (km2) (US) 1 Square kilometer (km2) 0.9144018 m 1 Yard (yd) = (3.US 1 Mile (mi) = (1760.4046873 ha 0.US 0.853181 km Surface (the unit of area of S.39996 mm Metric system >> US & Imperial 1 millimeter (mm) 0.Imp 25.03937 in (US) 1 millimeter (mm) 0.yd) .I.76387 sq.9143984 m 1 Mile (mi) = (1760.yd) .609341 km 1.1960 sq.mi (imp) 1 Foot (ft) = (12.US 1 Acre .Length (Unit of length of S.8361245 m2 1 Square mile (sq mi) = 640 acres US 2.3048006 m 1 Foot (ft) = (12.451626 cm2 1 Square inch (sq in) .Imp 1 Nautical mile (imp) 1.1549997 sq.3047995 m 1 Yard (yd) = (3.471044 acre (US) 2.in) .US 0.

I. The mass (kg) is a intrinsic characteristic of the body and is measured in kilogram.195 fl oz 35.pt liter) (dm3) (US) 1 Pint(pt) = 20 fl oz 0.36770 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 0.38698 cm3 ----- ----- 1 Cubic centimeter 0.0283782 bu (US) 36.23829 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter litre) (dm3) 0. For example a man of 75 kg (it is its mass.3871 cm3 16.31670 dm3 1 Cubic yard (cu yd) . Masse spécifique ou volumique = quotient de la masse d'un corps par son volume.Imp ----16. has a weight of: 75 * 9.Imp liter) (dm3) 1.US 28.Volume 1 Cubic inch (cu in) .814 fl oz 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 35.307943 cu yd 1 Cubic meter (m3) (US) 1.US 1 Cubic yard (cu yd) .5682454 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter .US 1 Cubic inch (cu in) . Specific mass = quotient of the mass of a body by its volume Weight is a force which depends on terrestrial attraction and it is the equivalent of the mass of a body by the acceleration of gravity (9.7645594 m3 0.545963 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 0.5 N on the sea level.80665 = 735.307957 cu yd 1 Cubic meter (m3) (imp) --------- 1 Cubic foot (cu ft) .7645509 m3 ----- 1 fluid ounce (fl oz) 29.Imp Measure of capacity 0.759803 pt (imp) Mass (the unit of mass of S. and not its weight contrary to the current expression).31702 dm3 1 Cubic foot (cu ft (Imp) 28.02749692 bu liter) (dm3) (imp) 3.0610241 cu in (cm3) (imp) 1 Cubic decimeter 0.03531544 cu ft (dm3) (US) 1 Cubic decimeter 0.4131 cm3 (or .2199754 gal liter) (dm3) (imp) 0.06102509 cu in (cm3) (US) 1 Cubic centimeter 0.US ml) 1 fluid ounce (fl oz) 28.Imp ml) 1 Bushel (US) 1 Bushel (imp) 1 Gallon (US) 1 Gallon (imp) 1 Liquid pint (US) 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 33.80665 at the sea level) and is measured in Newton [ N ].4731661 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 2. = kilogram) Attention not to confuse mass and weight.2641779 gal liter) (dm3) (US) 4.0353148 cu ft (dm3) (imp) 1.785329 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 0. US/imp >> Metric system Metric system >> US/imp .113423 liq.5735 cm3 (or .

(imp) 1Ounce (oz) .02204622 ctl (imp) 0.79892 mg 1 milligram (mg) 1 milligram (mg) 1 gram (g) 1 gram (g) 1 kilogram (kg) 1 kilogram (kg) 0.02204622 sh.204622 lb av.4535924 kg 1Short hundredweight(sh cwt)= 100 Ib . The specific gravity of air is defined as 1.01543236 gr (US) 0.03527396 oz av.US 28.016047 t 1kilogram (kg) 1 kilogram (kg) 1 ton 1 ton 0.US 1Grain (gr) .Imp 28. Since propane gas has a specific gravity of 1.Imp 0.016047 t 1. is called specific gravity.US 1Ton (imp) Specific Gravity 45.01543236 gr (imp) 0.1Grain (gr) .03527396 oz av. . (imp) 2.cwt (US) 0.US 1Pound (Ib) = 16 oz .34953 g 1Ounce (oz) . (US) 0.Imp 64. (US) 2.79892 mg 64. propane-air mixtures have a specific gravity of greater than 1.9842064 l.34953 g 1Pound (Ib) = 16 oz .US 45.204622 lb av.35924 kg 1Cental (imp) 1Long ton (l tn) = 2240 Ib . relative to air.9842064 tn (imp) The density of gas.35924 kg 1.5.tn (US) 0.4535924 kg 0.

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a 90o elbow and a (3) Determine the means of incorporating the valves and fittings into the Darcy equation. For example. 2) Determine the number of valves and fittings in the pipe. (4) The total equivalent length is usually added to the total straight pipe length obtained in step one to give a total pipe equ (5) This total pipe equivalent length is then substituted for L in Equation 2 to obtain the pressure drop in the pipe . there may be two gate valves.Design 1: (1) Determine the total length of all horizontal and vertical straight pipe runs.

o gate valves. essure drop in the pipe . n step one to give a total pipe equivalent length. a 90o elbow and a flow thru tee.