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- Engineering Design Guideline Separator Vessel Rev01
- Friction Loss in Pipe Line
- Discharge Pr Drop&Pipe Size
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- General Piping Design
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- Calculation_pipe Line Sizing
- Piping Design Guide
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- ABC_HTRI
- Rigorously size relief valves for supercritical fluids
- Considerations A105
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- Resistance Equivalent Length Fittings
- Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

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The total pressure drop in the pipe is typically calculated using these five steps. (1) Determine the total length of all

horizontal and vertical straight pipe runs. (2) Determine the number of valves and fittings in the pipe. For example, there may

be two gate valves, a 90o elbow and a flow thru tee. (3) Determine the means of incorporating the valves and fittings into the

Darcy equation. To accomplish this, most engineers use a table of equivalent lengths. This table lists the valve and fitting and

an associated length of straight pipe of the same diameter, which will incur the same pressure loss as that valve or fitting. For

example, if a 2” 90o elbow were to produce a pressure drop of 1 psi, the equivalent length would be a length of 2” straight pipe

that would also give a pressure drop of 1 psi. The engineer then multiplies the quantity of each type of valve and fitting by its

respective equivalent length and adds them together. (4) The total equivalent length is usually added to the total straight pipe

length obtained in step one to give a total pipe equivalent length. (5) This total pipe equivalent length is then substituted for

in Equation 2 to obtain the pressure drop in the pipe.

whether in design or in the plant, is line sizing and pipeline pressure loss.

Typically known are the flow rate, temperature and corresponding viscosity

and specific gravity of the fluid that will flow through the pipe. These

properties are entered into a computer program or spreadsheet along with

some pipe physical data (pipe schedule and roughness factor) and out pops a

series of line sizes with associated Reynolds Number, velocity, friction factor

and pressure drop per linear dimension. The pipe size is then selected based

on a compromise between the velocity and the pressure drop. With the line

now sized and the pressure drop per linear dimension determined, the

pressure loss from the inlet to the outlet of the pipe can be calculated.

The most commonly used equation for determining pressure drop

in a straight pipe is the Darcy Weisbach equation. One common

form of the equation which gives pressure drop in terms of feet of

head { hL} is given by:

The term

Head.

equation thatpressure

To obtain is most often used

drop in byofengineers

units psi/100 ft, the value of 100 replaces L in Equation 2.

because it gives pressure drop in units of pounds

per square inch (psi) is:

An Example

The fluid being pumped is 94% Sulfuric Acid through a 3”, Schedule 40, Carbon Steel pip

lb/hr: 63,143

Volumetric Flow Rate,

gpm: 70

Density, lb/ft3: 112.47

S.G. 1.8

Viscosity, cp: 10

Temperature, oF: 127

Pipe ID, in: 3.07

Velocity, fps: 3.04

Reynold's No: 12,998

Darcy Friction Factor,

(f) Pipe: 0.03

Pipe Line ∆P/100 ft. 1.31

Friction Factor at Full

Turbulence (ƒt): 0.02

Straight Pipe, ft: 31.5

Leq/D1 Leq2, 3 K1, 2 =¦t

Fittings Quantity Total Leq Total K

(L/D)

Elbow 20 5.1 0.36 2 10.23 0.72

Branch Tee 60 15.3 1.08 1 15.34 1.08

Swing Check Valve 50 12.8 0.9 1 12.78 0.9

Plug Valve 18 4.6 0.32 1 4.6 0.32

3” x 1” Reducer4 None5 822.69 57.92 1 822.68 57.92

TOTAL 865.63

60.94

from reference 1.

2. K values and Leq are given in terms

of the larger sized pipe.

3. Leq is calculated using Equation 5

above.

4. The reducer is really an

expansion; the pump discharge

nozzle is 1” (Schedule 80) but the

connecting pipe is 3”. In piping

terms, there are no expanders, just

reducers. It is standard to specify

the reducer with the larger size

shown first. The K value for the

expansion is calculated as a gradual

enlargement with a 30o angle.

expansion or contraction. The

equivalent length must be back

calculated from the K value using

Equation 5 above.

Typical

Equivalent

Length K Value

Method Method

Not

Straight Pipe ∆P, psi applicable 0.41

Total Pipe Equivalent Not

Length ∆P, psi 11.73 Applicable

Valves and Fittings Not

∆P, psi applicable 6.83

Total Pipe ∆P, psi 11.73 7.24

62%) using the typical equivalent length method (adding straight

pipe length to the equivalent length of the fittings and valves and

using the pipe line fiction factor in Equation 1).

pipeline friction factor would be closer to the friction factor at full

turbulence and the error would not be so great, if at all

significant; and they would be correct. However hydraulic

calculations, like all calculations, should be done in a correct and

consistent manner. If the engineer gets into the habit of

performing hydraulic calculations using fundamentally incorrect

equations, he takes the risk of falling into the trap when

confronted by a pumping situation as shown above.

engineer treats a reducer when using

the typical equivalent length method.

As we saw above, the equivalent

length of the reducer had to be back-

calculated using equation 5. To do

this, we had to use ƒt and K. Why not

use these for the rest of the fittings and

apply the calculation correctly in the

first place?

The 1976 edition of the Crane

Technical Paper No. 410 first

discussed and used the two-friction

factor method for calculating the total

pressure drop in a piping system (ƒ for

straight pipe and ƒt for valves and

fittings). Since then, Hooper2

suggested a 2-K method for calculating

the pressure loss contribution for

valves and fittings. His argument was

that the equivalent length in pipe

diameters (L/D) and K was indeed a

function of Reynolds Number (at flow

rates less than that obtained at fully

developed turbulent flow) and the exact

geometries of smaller valves and

fittings. K for a given valve or fitting is

a combination of two Ks, one being the

K found in CRANE Technical Paper

No. 410, designated KΨ, and the other

being defined as the K of the valve or

fitting at a Reynolds Number equal to

1, designated K1. The two are related

by the following equation:

K = K1 / NRE + KΨ (1 + 1/D)

scaling between different sizes within a

given valve or fitting group. Values for

K1 can be found in the reference

article2 and pressure drop is then

calculated using Equation 7. For flow

in the fully turbulent zone and larger

size valves and fittings, K becomes

consistent with that given in CRANE.

Darby3 expanded on the 2-K

method. He suggests adding a third K

term to the mix. Darby states that the

2-K method does not accurately

represent the effect of scaling the sizes

of valves and fittings. The reader is

encouraged to get a copy of this article.

been around since 1981 and does not

appear to have “caught” on as of yet.

Some newer commercial computer

programs allow for the use of the 2-K

method, but most engineers inclined to

use the K method instead of the

Equivalent Length method still use the

procedures given in CRANE. The

latest 3-K method comes from data

reported in the recent CCPS Guidlines4

and appears to be destined to become

the new standard; we shall see.

mine the total length of all

he pipe. For example, there may

g the valves and fittings into the

able lists the valve and fitting and

e loss as that valve or fitting. For

uld be a length of 2” straight pipe

ch type of valve and fitting by its

y added to the total straight pipe

ent length is then substituted for L

The calculation of the linear pressure loss, that

corresponding to the general flow in a rectilinear

conduit, is given by the following general formula:

∆p = pressure loss in Pa

Λ = friction factor (a number without dimension)

V = flow rate in m/s

D = pipe diameter in m

L = pipe length in m

rest entirely on the determination of the coefficient L.

FLUID PARAMETERS

PIPE PARAMETERS

Allowance in Equivalent Length of Pipe for Friction Loss in Valves and Threaded Fittings

Diameter of Coupling or

fitting in 90° std. 45° std. 90° side straight run Gate valve, Globe

inches ell, ft. ell, ft. tee, ft. of tee, ft. feet valve, feet

3/8 1 0.6 1.5 0.3 0.2 8

1/2 2 1.2 3 0.6 0.4 15

3/4 2.5 1.5 4 0.8 0.5 20

1 3 1.8 5 0.9 0.6 25

1 1/4 4 2.4 6 1.2 0.8 35

1 1/2 5 3 7 1.5 1 45

2 7 4 10 2 1.3 55

2 1/2 8 5 12 2.5 1.6 65

3 10 6 15 3 2 80

3 1/2 12 7 18 3.6 2.4 100

4 14 8 21 4 2.7 125

5 17 10 25 5 3.3 140

6 20 12 30 6 4 165

Absolute

Pipe

Roughness

Included here is a sampling of absolute pipe roughness e data taken from Binder (1973). These values are for new pipes; age

Absolute

Pipe Roughness,

Material e

x 10-6 feet micron

(unless

noted)

copper

commercial 5 1.5

steel 150 45

wrought iron

asphalted 150 45

cast iron

galvanized

Relative pipe 400 120

iron

roughness is 500 150

cast iron

computed by 850 0.2260

to 0.9

wood stave

dividing the 600 to 3000

1000 to mm

concrete

absolute 10,000

3000 to 0.3 to 3 mm

riveted steel

roughness e 30,000 0.9 to 9 mm

by the pipe

diameter D,

Example:

FIRE

HOSE

Hose

1" 1½" 1¾" 2½" 3" 4"

U.S. GPM

30 26 4 1.5 --- --- ---

60 --- 9 6 1 --- ---

95 --- 22 14 2 --- ---

125 --- 38 25 3.5 1 ---

150 --- 54 35 5 2 ---

200 --- --- 62 8 3.5 ---

250 --- --- --- 13 5 1.5

Add 5 P.S.I. Per Storey

P.S.I. Per 100' Dual Line Kpa Per 30 Meter Dual Line

Hose 3"WI Hose 76mm

2½" 3" 65mm

U.S. GPM 2½" CPL L/Min. 65mm CPL

500 13 3 2 1900 90 20

750 32 6 4 2850 220 40

1000 56 10 7.5 3800 390 70

1250 87 15 12 4750 600 100

Add 5 P.S.I. Per Siamese or Wye Add 30 Kpa Per Siamese or Wye

10 P.S.I. Per Portable Monitor 70 Kpa Per Monitor

Back to Top

nd Threaded Fittings

4

8

12

15

18

22

28

34

40

50

55

70

80

V = flow rate in m/s p = density in kg/m3

d = pipe diameter in mm V =speed in m/s

v = viscosity of water in mm²/s (or

centistokes) D = hydraulic diameter of the pipe in m

µ = dynamic viscosity in Pa.s (or kg/m.s)

(legal System (S.I) in m²/s = 1000000

centistokes or mm²/s) (kg/m.s = One tenth of a poise = 10 poises)

determine resistance to the movement of the fluid. The higher kinematic

viscosity will be and the more difficult it will be to move the fluid in the pipe.

fluid.

centistokes)

centistokes) - (legal system (S.I) in m²/s =

1000000 centistokes)

Loss pressure

In rate of laminar, the nature or the surface quality of the interior walls of the

lines does not intervene in the calculation of the pressure loss.

Λ = friction factor (a number without dimension)

Re = Reynolds number

The laminar flow meets in practice only in the transport and the handling of

the viscous fluids, such as the crude oil, fuel oil, oils, etc.

In the critical zone, i.e. between 2000 and 4000 Reynolds the formula of

computation employed will be treated in the manner that in situation of

mode of turbulent flow.

Colebrook considered as that which translates best the phenomena of flow

into turbulent mode.

done only by successive approaches (iterative calculation)

With:

D = pressure loss coefficient.

k = index of roughness of the pipe.

d = pipe diameter in mm.

Re = Reynolds number.

Nature of interior surface Index roughness K

1 Copper, lead, brass, stainless 0,001 to 0,002

3 Stainless steel 0,015

4 Steel commercial pipe 0,045 à 0,09

5 Stretched steel 0,015

6 Weld steel 0,045

7 Galvanized steel 0,15

8 Rusted steel 0,1 to 1

9 New cast iron 0,25 to 0,8

10 Worn cast iron 0,8 to 1,5

11 Rusty cast iron 1,5 to 2,5

12 Sheet or asphalted cast iron 0,01 to 0,015

13 Smoothed cement 0,3

14 Ordinary concrete 1

15 Coarse concrete 5

16 Well planed wood 5

17 Ordinary wood 1

(into centistokes) varies in the following way:

t = temperature at 0°C

a = percentage of glycol

Flow Rate l/min = 120

Viscosity [mm^2/s] =

Hose

25mm 38mm 44mm 65mm 76mm 100mm

L/Min.

130 180 28 10 --- --- ---

225 --- 60 40 7 --- ---

350 --- 150 95 14 --- ---

475 --- 260 170 24 7 ---

570 --- 370 240 35 14 ---

760 --- --- 425 55 24 ---

950 --- --- --- 90 35 10

Add 30 Kpa Per Storey

eter Dual Line

76mm

14

28

50

85

Siamese or Wye

er Monitor

Pipe Head Loss Calculator

Fluid Parameters

Flow rate (Q) = 100 GPM Velocity (V) = 2.52 Ft/s

Kinematic Viscosity (v) = 0 Ft /s2 Reynold's Number (Re) = 69527.96

Pipe Parameters Velocity Head (Hv) = 0.1 Ft

Inside Diameter (D) = 4.03 Inches Friction Factor2 (f) = 0.02

Length (L) = 100 Ft

Specific Roughness (ε) = 0 Ft Friction Loss1 (Hf) = 0.63 Ft

Fluid Parameters

Velocity = 2.52 Ft/s Flow Rate = 100 GPM

Kinematic Viscosity = 0 Ft2/s Reynold's Number = 69527.96

Pipe Parameters Velocity Head (Hv) = 0.1 Ft

Inside Diameter = 4.03 Inches Friction Factor =

2

0.02

Length = 100 Ft

Absolute Roughness = 0 Ft Friction Loss1 = 0.63 Ft

1. Friction head loss calculation based on Darcy-Weisbach equation.

2. Friction factor calculation based on approximated Colebrook equation (Swamee-Jain equation) when Re>5000.

Fluid Kinematic Viscosity, v (Ft2/s)

Water, clear (32°F) 0

Water, clear (40°F) 0

Water, clear (60°F) 0

Water, clear (85°F) 0

Saltwater, 5% (68°F) 0

Saltwater, 25% (60°F) 0

Propylene Glycol, 35% (20°F)1 0

Propylene Glycol, 25% (40°F)1

0

Ethylene Glycol, 35% (20°F)1 0

Ethylene Glycol, 25% (40°F)1

0

NOTE:

1. Aqueous solution, concentration in volume percent.

Material Specific Roughness, ε (Ft)

Steel and wrought iron 0

Cast iron 0

Galvanized steel and iron 0

Copper and brass 0

Cast iron, tar coated 0

Cast iron, cement lined 0

Plastic 0

Fiberglass 0

Visit us at http://www.syncroflo.com/

The information contained on this chart has been carefully prepared and is believed to be correct.

SyncroFlo makes no warranties regarding this information and is in no way responsible for loss incurred from the use of such information.

Wall drag and changes in height lead

to pressure drops in pipe fluid flow.

flowrates in a section of uniform pipe

running from Point A to Point B, enter

the parameters below. The pipe is

assumed to be relatively straight (no

sharp bends), such that changes in

pressure are due mostly to elevation

changes and wall friction. (The default

calculation is for a smooth horizontal

pipe carrying water, with answers

rounded to 3 significant figures.)

higher than A, whereas a negative ∆z

means that B is lower than A.

Inputs

Pressure at A (absolute): kPa

Average fluid velocity in pipe, V: m/s

Pipe diameter, D: cm

Pipe relative roughness, e/D: m/m

Pipe length from A to B, L: m

Elevation gain from A to B, ∆z: m

Fluid density, ρ: kg/l

Fluid viscosity (dynamic), µ: cP

Answers

Select

desired

output

units for

next

calculatio

Reynolds Number, R:1.00 × 105 n.

Friction Factor, f: 0.0180

Pressure at B: 95.5 kPa kPa

Pressure Drop: 4.50 kPa

Volume Flowrate: 7.85 l/s l/s

Mass Flowrate: 7.85 kg/s kg/s

Hint: To Calculate a Flowrate

known pressure drop using this

calculator (instead of solving for a

pressure drop from a known flowrate

or velocity).

inspecting the calculated pressure

drop. Refine your velocity guess until

the calculated pressure drop matches

your data.

flow moving from Point A to Point B

along a pipe are described by

Bernoulli's equation,

average fluid velocity, ρ is the fluid

density, z is the pipe elevation above

some datum, and g is the gravity

acceleration constant.

Bernoulli's equation states that the

total head h along a streamline

(parameterized by x) remains

constant. This means that velocity

head can be converted into gravity

head and/or pressure head (or vice-

versa), such that the total head h

stays constant. No energy is lost in

such a flow.

energy is converted into heat (in the

viscous boundary layer along the pipe

walls) and is lost from the flow.

Therefore one cannot use Bernoulli's

principle of conserved head (or

energy) to calculate flow parameters.

Still, one can keep track of this lost

head by introducing another term

(called viscous head) into Bernoulli's

equation to get,

flow moves down the pipe, viscous

head slowly accumulates taking

available head away from the

pressure, gravity, and velocity heads.

Still, the total head h (or energy)

remains constant.

For pipe flow, we assume that the pipe diameter D stays constant. By continuity, we then know that the fluid velocity V stays c

points A and B, and ∆z is the change

in pipe elevation (zB - zA). Note that

∆z will be negative if the pipe at B is

lower than at A.

The viscous head term is scaled by the pipe friction factor f. In general, f depends on the Reynolds Number R of the pipe flow,

average size of the bumps on the pipe

wall. The relative roughness e/D is

therefore the size of the bumps

compared to the diameter of the pipe.

For commercial pipes this is usually a

very small number. Note that perfectly

smooth pipes would have a roughness

of zero.

For laminar flow (R < 2000 in pipes), f can be deduced analytically. The answer is,

f is determined from experimental

curve fits. One such fit is provided by

Colebrook,

versus R make up the popular Moody

Chart for pipe flow,

The calculator above first computes the Reynolds Number for the flow. It then computes the friction factor f by direct substitutio

>> Unit Conversion Guide

Area

square centimeters

square meters (m²) (cm²) 10000

(statute) square miles

square kilometers (km²) (mi²) 0.39

square kilometers (km²) (nm²) 0.29

(mi²) acres 640

Reset

Length

To convert Into Multiply by

Reset

Mass

grams (g) ounce (oz) 0.04

Reset

Pressure

atmospheres (atm) millibar (mb) 1013.25

inches of mercury (at

atmospheres (atm) 0°C) 29.92

atmospheres (atm) kgs/cm² 1.03

Reset

Reset

Speed

Reset

Temperature

Fahrenheit (°F)-32 Celsius (°C) 9-May

Celsius (°C)+17.7778 Fahrenheit (°F) 1.8

Celsius (°C)+273.15 kelvin (K) 1

Reset

Volume

cubic meters (m³) cubic feet (ft³) 35.31

cubic meters (m³) U.S. gallons (gal) 264.17

liter(l) U.S. gallons (gal) 0.26

Reset

For questions and comments, please contact: Dr. L. Charles Sun, Email: Charles.Sun@noaa.gov

Plumbing Conversions

To Change To Multiply By

Atmospheres Inches of mercury 29.92

Atmospheres Feet of water 34

Btu/min. Foot-pounds/sec 12.96

Btu/min. Horsepower 0.02

Btu/min. Watts 17.57

Centimeters of mercury Atmospheres 0.01

Centimeters of mercury Feet of water 0.45

Cubic inches Cubic feet 0

Cubic feet Cubic inches 1728

Feet of water Atmospheres 0.03

Feet of water Inches of mercury 0.88

Gallons Cubic inches 231

Gallons Cubic feet 0.13

Gallons Pounds of water 8.33

Gallons per min. Cubic feet sec. 0

Gallons per min. Cubic feet hour 8.02

Horsepower Foot-lbs/sec. 550

Inches Feet 0.08

Inches of water Inches of mercury 0.07

Inches of water Ounces per square foot 5.2

Inches of mercury Inches of water 13.6

Inches of mercury Feet of water 1.13

Ounces (fluid) Cubic inches 1.81

Pounds per square

inch Feet of water 2.31

Length (Unit of length of S.I. = meter)

US & Imperial >>: Metric system Metric system >> US & Imperial

1 Inch (in) - US 25.40005 mm 1 millimeter (mm) 0.03937 in (US)

1 Inch (in) - Imp 25.39996 mm 1 millimeter (mm) 0.03937 in (imp)

1 Foot (ft) = (12.in)

- US 0.3048006 m 1 meter (m) 3.28083 ft (US)

1 Foot (ft) = (12.in)

- Imp 0.3047995 m 1 meter (m) 3.28083 ft (imp)

1 Yard (yd) = (3.ft)

- US 0.9144018 m 1 meter (m) 1.093611 yd (US)

1 Yard (yd) = (3.ft)

- Imp 0.9143984 m 1 meter (m) 1.093611 yd (imp)

1 Mile (mi) =

(1760.yd) - US 1.609347 km 1 kilometer (km) 0.6213699 mi (US)

1 Mile (mi) = 0.6213724 mi

(1760.yd) - Imp 1.609341 km 1 kilometer (km) (imp)

1 Nautical mile 0.5396127 n.mi

(imp) 1.853181 km 1 kilometer (km) (imp)

US & Imperial >> Metric system Metric system >> US & Imperial

2.471044 acre

1 Acre - US 0.4046873 ha 1 hectare (ha) (US)

1 Square inch (sq 1 Square 0.1549997 sq. in

in) - US 6.451626 cm2 centimeter (cm2) (US)

1 Square inch (sq 1 Square

in) - Imp 6.451578 cm2 centimeter (cm2) 0.1550 sq.in (imp)

ft) = 144 sq in - US 0.09290341 m2 (m2) (US)

1 Square foot (sq

ft) = 144 sq in - 1 Square meter

Imp 0.09290272 m2 (m2) 10.7639 sq.ft (imp)

yd) = 9 sq.ft - US 0.8361307 m2 (m2) (US)

yd) = 9 sq.ft - Imp 0.8361245 m2 (m2) 1.1960 sq.yd (imp)

1 Square mile (sq

mi) = 640 acres - 1 Square kilometer 0.3861006 sq.mi

US 2.589998 km2 (km2) (US)

1 Square mile (sq

mi) = 640 acres - 1 Square kilometer

Imp 2.589979 km2 (km2) 0.3861 sq.mi (imp)

US/imp >> Metric Metric system >>

system ----- US/imp -----

Volume ----- ----- -----

1 Cubic inch (cu 1 Cubic centimeter 0.06102509 cu in

in) - US 16,3871 cm3 (cm3) (US)

1 Cubic inch (cu 1 Cubic centimeter 0.0610241 cu in

in) - Imp 16.38698 cm3 (cm3) (imp)

1 Cubic foot (cu ft) 1 Cubic decimeter 0.03531544 cu ft

- US 28.31702 dm3 (dm3) (US)

1 Cubic foot (cu ft - 1 Cubic decimeter 0.0353148 cu ft

(Imp) 28.31670 dm3 (dm3) (imp)

1 Cubic yard (cu 1.307943 cu yd

yd) - US 0.7645594 m3 1 Cubic meter (m3) (US)

1 Cubic yard (cu 1.307957 cu yd

yd) - Imp 0.7645509 m3 1 Cubic meter (m3) (imp)

Measure of

capacity ----- ----- -----

1 fluid ounce (fl oz) 29,5735 cm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter

- US ml) (dm3) 33.814 fl oz

1 fluid ounce (fl oz) 28,4131 cm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter

- Imp ml) (dm3) 35.195 fl oz

35.23829 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter

1 Bushel (US) litre) (dm3) 0.0283782 bu (US)

36.36770 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 0.02749692 bu

1 Bushel (imp) liter) (dm3) (imp)

3.785329 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 0.2641779 gal

1 Gallon (US) liter) (dm3) (US)

4.545963 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 0.2199754 gal

1 Gallon (imp) liter) (dm3) (imp)

0.4731661 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 2.113423 liq.pt

1 Liquid pint (US) liter) (dm3) (US)

1 Pint(pt) = 20 fl oz 0.5682454 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter

- Imp liter) (dm3) 1.759803 pt (imp)

Attention not to confuse mass and weight.

kilogram.

volume.

equivalent of the mass of a body by the acceleration of gravity (9.80665 at the

sea level) and is measured in Newton [ N ].

For example a man of 75 kg (it is its mass, and not its weight contrary to the

current expression), has a weight of: 75 * 9.80665 = 735,5 N on the sea level.

0.01543236 gr

1Grain (gr) - US 64.79892 mg 1 milligram (mg) (US)

0.01543236 gr

1Grain (gr) - Imp 64.79892 mg 1 milligram (mg) (imp)

0.03527396 oz av.

1Ounce (oz) - US 28.34953 g 1 gram (g) (US)

0.03527396 oz av.

1Ounce (oz) - Imp 28.34953 g 1 gram (g) (imp)

1Pound (Ib) = 16 2.204622 lb av.

oz - US 0.4535924 kg 1 kilogram (kg) (US)

1Pound (Ib) = 16 2.204622 lb av.

oz - Imp 0.4535924 kg 1 kilogram (kg) (imp)

1Short

hundredweight(sh 0.02204622 sh.cwt

cwt)= 100 Ib - US 45.35924 kg 1kilogram (kg) (US)

0.02204622 ctl

1Cental (imp) 45.35924 kg 1 kilogram (kg) (imp)

1Long ton (l tn) = 0.9842064 l.tn

2240 Ib - US 1.016047 t 1 ton (US)

Specific Gravity

The density of gas, relative to air, is called specific gravity. The specific gravity

of air is defined as 1. Since propane gas has a specific gravity of 1.5,

propane-air mixtures have a specific gravity of greater than 1.

Design 1:

(1) Determine the total length of all horizontal and vertical straight pipe runs.

2) Determine the number of valves and fittings in the pipe. For example, there may be two gate valves, a 90o elbow and a

(3) Determine the means of incorporating the valves and fittings into the Darcy equation.

(4) The total equivalent length is usually added to the total straight pipe length obtained in step one to give a total pipe equ

(5) This total pipe equivalent length is then substituted for L in Equation 2 to obtain the pressure drop in the pipe

o gate valves, a 90o elbow and a flow thru tee.

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