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# TOTAL PRESSURE DROP IN PIPE

The total pressure drop in the pipe is typically calculated using these five steps. (1) Determine the total length of all
horizontal and vertical straight pipe runs. (2) Determine the number of valves and fittings in the pipe. For example, there may
be two gate valves, a 90o elbow and a flow thru tee. (3) Determine the means of incorporating the valves and fittings into the
Darcy equation. To accomplish this, most engineers use a table of equivalent lengths. This table lists the valve and fitting and
an associated length of straight pipe of the same diameter, which will incur the same pressure loss as that valve or fitting. For
example, if a 2” 90o elbow were to produce a pressure drop of 1 psi, the equivalent length would be a length of 2” straight pipe
that would also give a pressure drop of 1 psi. The engineer then multiplies the quantity of each type of valve and fitting by its
respective equivalent length and adds them together. (4) The total equivalent length is usually added to the total straight pipe
length obtained in step one to give a total pipe equivalent length. (5) This total pipe equivalent length is then substituted for
in Equation 2 to obtain the pressure drop in the pipe.

## One of the most basic calculations performed by any process engineer,

whether in design or in the plant, is line sizing and pipeline pressure loss.
Typically known are the flow rate, temperature and corresponding viscosity
and specific gravity of the fluid that will flow through the pipe. These
properties are entered into a computer program or spreadsheet along with
some pipe physical data (pipe schedule and roughness factor) and out pops a
series of line sizes with associated Reynolds Number, velocity, friction factor
and pressure drop per linear dimension. The pipe size is then selected based
on a compromise between the velocity and the pressure drop. With the line
now sized and the pressure drop per linear dimension determined, the
pressure loss from the inlet to the outlet of the pipe can be calculated.

## Calculating Pressure Drop

The most commonly used equation for determining pressure drop
in a straight pipe is the Darcy Weisbach equation. One common
form of the equation which gives pressure drop in terms of feet of
head { hL} is given by:

The term

## Another common form of the Darcy Weisbach

equation thatpressure
To obtain is most often used
drop in byofengineers
units psi/100 ft, the value of 100 replaces L in Equation 2.
because it gives pressure drop in units of pounds
per square inch (psi) is:

An Example

The fluid being pumped is 94% Sulfuric Acid through a 3”, Schedule 40, Carbon Steel pip

## Mass Flow Rate,

lb/hr: 63,143
Volumetric Flow Rate,
gpm: 70
Density, lb/ft3: 112.47
S.G. 1.8
Viscosity, cp: 10
Temperature, oF: 127
Pipe ID, in: 3.07
Velocity, fps: 3.04
Reynold's No: 12,998
Darcy Friction Factor,
(f) Pipe: 0.03
Pipe Line ∆P/100 ft. 1.31
Friction Factor at Full
Turbulence (ƒt): 0.02
Straight Pipe, ft: 31.5
Leq/D1 Leq2, 3 K1, 2 =¦t
Fittings Quantity Total Leq Total K
(L/D)

Elbow 20 5.1 0.36 2 10.23 0.72
Branch Tee 60 15.3 1.08 1 15.34 1.08
Swing Check Valve 50 12.8 0.9 1 12.78 0.9
Plug Valve 18 4.6 0.32 1 4.6 0.32
3” x 1” Reducer4 None5 822.69 57.92 1 822.68 57.92
TOTAL 865.63
60.94

## 1. K values and Leq/D are obtained

from reference 1.
2. K values and Leq are given in terms
of the larger sized pipe.
3. Leq is calculated using Equation 5
above.
4. The reducer is really an
expansion; the pump discharge
nozzle is 1” (Schedule 80) but the
connecting pipe is 3”. In piping
terms, there are no expanders, just
reducers. It is standard to specify
the reducer with the larger size
shown first. The K value for the
expansion is calculated as a gradual
enlargement with a 30o angle.

## 5. There is no L/D associated with an

expansion or contraction. The
equivalent length must be back
calculated from the K value using
Equation 5 above.

Typical
Equivalent
Length K Value
Method Method
Not
Straight Pipe ∆P, psi applicable 0.41
Total Pipe Equivalent Not
Length ∆P, psi 11.73 Applicable
Valves and Fittings Not
∆P, psi applicable 6.83
Total Pipe ∆P, psi 11.73 7.24

## The line pressure drop is greater by about 4.5 psi (about

62%) using the typical equivalent length method (adding straight
pipe length to the equivalent length of the fittings and valves and
using the pipe line fiction factor in Equation 1).

## One can argue that if the fluid is water or a hydrocarbon, the

pipeline friction factor would be closer to the friction factor at full
turbulence and the error would not be so great, if at all
significant; and they would be correct. However hydraulic
calculations, like all calculations, should be done in a correct and
consistent manner. If the engineer gets into the habit of
performing hydraulic calculations using fundamentally incorrect
equations, he takes the risk of falling into the trap when
confronted by a pumping situation as shown above.

## Another point to consider is how the

engineer treats a reducer when using
the typical equivalent length method.
As we saw above, the equivalent
length of the reducer had to be back-
calculated using equation 5. To do
this, we had to use ƒt and K. Why not
use these for the rest of the fittings and
apply the calculation correctly in the
first place?

## Final Thoughts - K Values

The 1976 edition of the Crane
Technical Paper No. 410 first
discussed and used the two-friction
factor method for calculating the total
pressure drop in a piping system (ƒ for
straight pipe and ƒt for valves and
fittings). Since then, Hooper2
suggested a 2-K method for calculating
the pressure loss contribution for
valves and fittings. His argument was
that the equivalent length in pipe
diameters (L/D) and K was indeed a
function of Reynolds Number (at flow
rates less than that obtained at fully
developed turbulent flow) and the exact
geometries of smaller valves and
fittings. K for a given valve or fitting is
a combination of two Ks, one being the
K found in CRANE Technical Paper
No. 410, designated KΨ, and the other
being defined as the K of the valve or
fitting at a Reynolds Number equal to
1, designated K1. The two are related
by the following equation:

K = K1 / NRE + KΨ (1 + 1/D)

## The term (1+1/D) takes into account

scaling between different sizes within a
given valve or fitting group. Values for
K1 can be found in the reference
article2 and pressure drop is then
calculated using Equation 7. For flow
in the fully turbulent zone and larger
size valves and fittings, K becomes
consistent with that given in CRANE.
Darby3 expanded on the 2-K
method. He suggests adding a third K
term to the mix. Darby states that the
2-K method does not accurately
represent the effect of scaling the sizes
of valves and fittings. The reader is

## The use of the 2-K method has

been around since 1981 and does not
appear to have “caught” on as of yet.
programs allow for the use of the 2-K
method, but most engineers inclined to
use the K method instead of the
Equivalent Length method still use the
procedures given in CRANE. The
latest 3-K method comes from data
reported in the recent CCPS Guidlines4
and appears to be destined to become
the new standard; we shall see.
mine the total length of all
he pipe. For example, there may
g the valves and fittings into the
able lists the valve and fitting and
e loss as that valve or fitting. For
uld be a length of 2” straight pipe
ch type of valve and fitting by its
y added to the total straight pipe
ent length is then substituted for L

## Pressure losses distributed in the pipes

The calculation of the linear pressure loss, that
corresponding to the general flow in a rectilinear
conduit, is given by the following general formula:

∆p = pressure loss in Pa
Λ = friction factor (a number without dimension)

## p = density of water in kg/m3

V = flow rate in m/s
D = pipe diameter in m
L = pipe length in m

## The expression above shows that calculations of pressure losses

rest entirely on the determination of the coefficient L.

## edule 40, Carbon Steel pipe:

FLUID PARAMETERS

PIPE PARAMETERS

Allowance in Equivalent Length of Pipe for Friction Loss in Valves and Threaded Fittings

Diameter of Coupling or
fitting in 90° std. 45° std. 90° side straight run Gate valve, Globe
inches ell, ft. ell, ft. tee, ft. of tee, ft. feet valve, feet
3/8 1 0.6 1.5 0.3 0.2 8
1/2 2 1.2 3 0.6 0.4 15
3/4 2.5 1.5 4 0.8 0.5 20
1 3 1.8 5 0.9 0.6 25
1 1/4 4 2.4 6 1.2 0.8 35
1 1/2 5 3 7 1.5 1 45
2 7 4 10 2 1.3 55
2 1/2 8 5 12 2.5 1.6 65
3 10 6 15 3 2 80
3 1/2 12 7 18 3.6 2.4 100
4 14 8 21 4 2.7 125
5 17 10 25 5 3.3 140
6 20 12 30 6 4 165

Absolute
Pipe
Roughness
Included here is a sampling of absolute pipe roughness e data taken from Binder (1973). These values are for new pipes; age

Absolute
Pipe Roughness,
Material e
x 10-6 feet micron
(unless
noted)

## drawn brass 5 1.5

copper
commercial 5 1.5
steel 150 45
wrought iron
asphalted 150 45
cast iron
galvanized
Relative pipe 400 120
iron
roughness is 500 150
cast iron
computed by 850 0.2260
to 0.9
wood stave
dividing the 600 to 3000
1000 to mm
concrete
absolute 10,000
3000 to 0.3 to 3 mm
riveted steel
roughness e 30,000 0.9 to 9 mm
by the pipe
diameter D,
Example:

FIRE
HOSE

## P.S.I. Per 100' Single Line

Hose
1" 1½" 1¾" 2½" 3" 4"
U.S. GPM
30 26 4 1.5 --- --- ---
60 --- 9 6 1 --- ---
95 --- 22 14 2 --- ---
125 --- 38 25 3.5 1 ---
150 --- 54 35 5 2 ---
200 --- --- 62 8 3.5 ---
250 --- --- --- 13 5 1.5
P.S.I. Per 100' Dual Line Kpa Per 30 Meter Dual Line
Hose 3"WI Hose 76mm
2½" 3" 65mm
U.S. GPM 2½" CPL L/Min. 65mm CPL
500 13 3 2 1900 90 20
750 32 6 4 2850 220 40
1000 56 10 7.5 3800 390 70
1250 87 15 12 4750 600 100
Add 5 P.S.I. Per Siamese or Wye Add 30 Kpa Per Siamese or Wye
10 P.S.I. Per Portable Monitor 70 Kpa Per Monitor

4
8
12
15
18
22
28
34
40
50
55
70
80

## According to kinematics viscosity According to dynamics viscosity

V = flow rate in m/s p = density in kg/m3
d = pipe diameter in mm V =speed in m/s
v = viscosity of water in mm²/s (or
centistokes) D = hydraulic diameter of the pipe in m
µ = dynamic viscosity in Pa.s (or kg/m.s)
(legal System (S.I) in m²/s = 1000000
centistokes or mm²/s) (kg/m.s = One tenth of a poise = 10 poises)

## The viscosity of a fluid is a characteristic which makes it possible to

determine resistance to the movement of the fluid. The higher kinematic
viscosity will be and the more difficult it will be to move the fluid in the pipe.

fluid.

centistokes)

## v = kinematics viscosity in mm²/s (or

centistokes) - (legal system (S.I) in m²/s =
1000000 centistokes)

Loss pressure

## Laminar flow (Re £ 2000)

In rate of laminar, the nature or the surface quality of the interior walls of the
lines does not intervene in the calculation of the pressure loss.

## The loss pressure is determined by the following function:

Λ = friction factor (a number without dimension)
Re = Reynolds number

The laminar flow meets in practice only in the transport and the handling of
the viscous fluids, such as the crude oil, fuel oil, oils, etc.

## Turbulent flow (Re > 2000)

In the critical zone, i.e. between 2000 and 4000 Reynolds the formula of
computation employed will be treated in the manner that in situation of
mode of turbulent flow.

## In rate of turbulent, the factor of friction is translated by the formula of

Colebrook considered as that which translates best the phenomena of flow
into turbulent mode.

## It is noted that this formula is in implicit form; consequently search can be

done only by successive approaches (iterative calculation)

With:

## Λ = friction factor (a number without dimension)

D = pressure loss coefficient.
k = index of roughness of the pipe.
d = pipe diameter in mm.
Re = Reynolds number.

## Usual value index of roughness (k) in mm

Nature of interior surface Index roughness K
1 Copper, lead, brass, stainless 0,001 to 0,002

## 2 PVC pipe 0,0015

3 Stainless steel 0,015
4 Steel commercial pipe 0,045 à 0,09
5 Stretched steel 0,015
6 Weld steel 0,045
7 Galvanized steel 0,15
8 Rusted steel 0,1 to 1
9 New cast iron 0,25 to 0,8
10 Worn cast iron 0,8 to 1,5
11 Rusty cast iron 1,5 to 2,5
12 Sheet or asphalted cast iron 0,01 to 0,015
13 Smoothed cement 0,3
14 Ordinary concrete 1
15 Coarse concrete 5
16 Well planed wood 5
17 Ordinary wood 1

## In the case of an addition of antifreeze (glycol) to water, kinematics viscosity

(into centistokes) varies in the following way:

t = temperature at 0°C
a = percentage of glycol

## Pipe dia. [d mm.] = 50

Flow Rate l/min = 120

## Flow velocity [m/s] = #DIV/0!

Viscosity [mm^2/s] =

## Kpa Per 30 Meter Single Line

Hose
25mm 38mm 44mm 65mm 76mm 100mm
L/Min.
130 180 28 10 --- --- ---
225 --- 60 40 7 --- ---
350 --- 150 95 14 --- ---
475 --- 260 170 24 7 ---
570 --- 370 240 35 14 ---
760 --- --- 425 55 24 ---
950 --- --- --- 90 35 10
eter Dual Line
76mm
14
28
50
85
Siamese or Wye
er Monitor

## Input Data Output Data

Fluid Parameters
Flow rate (Q) = 100 GPM Velocity (V) = 2.52 Ft/s
Kinematic Viscosity (v) = 0 Ft /s2 Reynold's Number (Re) = 69527.96
Pipe Parameters Velocity Head (Hv) = 0.1 Ft
Inside Diameter (D) = 4.03 Inches Friction Factor2 (f) = 0.02
Length (L) = 100 Ft
Specific Roughness (ε) = 0 Ft Friction Loss1 (Hf) = 0.63 Ft

## Input Data Output Data

Fluid Parameters
Velocity = 2.52 Ft/s Flow Rate = 100 GPM
Kinematic Viscosity = 0 Ft2/s Reynold's Number = 69527.96
Pipe Parameters Velocity Head (Hv) = 0.1 Ft
Inside Diameter = 4.03 Inches Friction Factor =
2
0.02
Length = 100 Ft
Absolute Roughness = 0 Ft Friction Loss1 = 0.63 Ft
1. Friction head loss calculation based on Darcy-Weisbach equation.
2. Friction factor calculation based on approximated Colebrook equation (Swamee-Jain equation) when Re>5000.

## Common Fluid Properties

Fluid Kinematic Viscosity, v (Ft2/s)
Water, clear (32°F) 0
Water, clear (40°F) 0
Water, clear (60°F) 0
Water, clear (85°F) 0
Saltwater, 5% (68°F) 0
Saltwater, 25% (60°F) 0
Propylene Glycol, 35% (20°F)1 0
Propylene Glycol, 25% (40°F)1
0
Ethylene Glycol, 35% (20°F)1 0
Ethylene Glycol, 25% (40°F)1
0
NOTE:
1. Aqueous solution, concentration in volume percent.

## Common Piping Material Properties

Material Specific Roughness, ε (Ft)
Steel and wrought iron 0
Cast iron 0
Galvanized steel and iron 0
Copper and brass 0
Cast iron, tar coated 0
Cast iron, cement lined 0
Plastic 0
Fiberglass 0

Visit us at http://www.syncroflo.com/

## Copyright  2003, SyncroFlo, Inc.

The information contained on this chart has been carefully prepared and is believed to be correct.
SyncroFlo makes no warranties regarding this information and is in no way responsible for loss incurred from the use of such information.
Wall drag and changes in height lead
to pressure drops in pipe fluid flow.

## To calculate the pressure drop and

flowrates in a section of uniform pipe
running from Point A to Point B, enter
the parameters below. The pipe is
assumed to be relatively straight (no
sharp bends), such that changes in
pressure are due mostly to elevation
changes and wall friction. (The default
calculation is for a smooth horizontal
rounded to 3 significant figures.)

## Note that a positive ∆z means that B is

higher than A, whereas a negative ∆z
means that B is lower than A.

Inputs
Pressure at A (absolute): kPa
Average fluid velocity in pipe, V: m/s
Pipe diameter, D: cm
Pipe relative roughness, e/D: m/m
Pipe length from A to B, L: m
Elevation gain from A to B, ∆z: m
Fluid density, ρ: kg/l
Fluid viscosity (dynamic), µ: cP

Select
desired
output
units for
next
calculatio
Reynolds Number, R:1.00 × 105 n.
Friction Factor, f: 0.0180
Pressure at B: 95.5 kPa kPa
Pressure Drop: 4.50 kPa
Volume Flowrate: 7.85 l/s l/s
Mass Flowrate: 7.85 kg/s kg/s

## Calculate Again Default Value s

Hint: To Calculate a Flowrate

## You can solve for flowrate from a

known pressure drop using this
calculator (instead of solving for a
pressure drop from a known flowrate
or velocity).

## Proceed by guessing the velocity and

inspecting the calculated pressure
drop. Refine your velocity guess until
the calculated pressure drop matches

## Changes to inviscid, incompressible

flow moving from Point A to Point B
along a pipe are described by
Bernoulli's equation,

## where p is the pressure, V is the

average fluid velocity, ρ is the fluid
density, z is the pipe elevation above
some datum, and g is the gravity
acceleration constant.
Bernoulli's equation states that the
total head h along a streamline
(parameterized by x) remains
constant. This means that velocity
head can be converted into gravity
versa), such that the total head h
stays constant. No energy is lost in
such a flow.

## For real viscous fluids, mechanical

energy is converted into heat (in the
viscous boundary layer along the pipe
walls) and is lost from the flow.
Therefore one cannot use Bernoulli's
energy) to calculate flow parameters.
Still, one can keep track of this lost
equation to get,

## where D is the pipe diameter. As the

flow moves down the pipe, viscous
Still, the total head h (or energy)
remains constant.

For pipe flow, we assume that the pipe diameter D stays constant. By continuity, we then know that the fluid velocity V stays c

## where L is the pipe length between

points A and B, and ∆z is the change
in pipe elevation (zB - zA). Note that
∆z will be negative if the pipe at B is
lower than at A.
The viscous head term is scaled by the pipe friction factor f. In general, f depends on the Reynolds Number R of the pipe flow,

## The roughness measure e is the

average size of the bumps on the pipe
wall. The relative roughness e/D is
therefore the size of the bumps
compared to the diameter of the pipe.
For commercial pipes this is usually a
very small number. Note that perfectly
smooth pipes would have a roughness
of zero.

For laminar flow (R < 2000 in pipes), f can be deduced analytically. The answer is,

## For turbulent flow (R > 3000 in pipes),

f is determined from experimental
curve fits. One such fit is provided by
Colebrook,

## The solutions to this equation plotted

versus R make up the popular Moody
Chart for pipe flow,

The calculator above first computes the Reynolds Number for the flow. It then computes the friction factor f by direct substitutio
>> Unit Conversion Guide

Area

## To convert Into Multiply by

square centimeters
square meters (m²) (cm²) 10000

## square meters (m²) square feet (ft²) 10.76

(statute) square miles
square kilometers (km²) (mi²) 0.39

## nautical square miles

square kilometers (km²) (nm²) 0.29

(mi²) acres 640

## hectares(ha) acres 2.47

Reset

Length
To convert Into Multiply by

Reset

Mass

## kilograms (kg) pounds (lb) 2.2

grams (g) ounce (oz) 0.04

Reset

Pressure

## To convert Into Multiply by

atmospheres (atm) millibar (mb) 1013.25

## atmospheres (atm) feet of water (at 4°C) 33.9

inches of mercury (at
atmospheres (atm) 0°C) 29.92

## atmospheres (atm) centimeters of mercury 76

atmospheres (atm) kgs/cm² 1.03

Reset
Reset

Speed

Reset

Temperature

## To convert Into Multiply by

Fahrenheit (°F)-32 Celsius (°C) 9-May

## Fahrenheit (°F)+459.67 kelvin (K) 9-May

Celsius (°C)+17.7778 Fahrenheit (°F) 1.8
Celsius (°C)+273.15 kelvin (K) 1

Reset

Volume

## cubic meters (m³) cubic centimeters (cm³) 1,000,000

cubic meters (m³) cubic feet (ft³) 35.31
cubic meters (m³) U.S. gallons (gal) 264.17
liter(l) U.S. gallons (gal) 0.26

Reset

Plumbing Conversions
To Change To Multiply By

## Atmospheres Pounds per square inch 14.7

Atmospheres Inches of mercury 29.92
Atmospheres Feet of water 34
Btu/min. Foot-pounds/sec 12.96
Btu/min. Horsepower 0.02
Btu/min. Watts 17.57
Centimeters of mercury Atmospheres 0.01
Centimeters of mercury Feet of water 0.45
Cubic inches Cubic feet 0
Cubic feet Cubic inches 1728
Feet of water Atmospheres 0.03
Feet of water Inches of mercury 0.88
Gallons Cubic inches 231
Gallons Cubic feet 0.13
Gallons Pounds of water 8.33
Gallons per min. Cubic feet sec. 0
Gallons per min. Cubic feet hour 8.02
Horsepower Foot-lbs/sec. 550
Inches Feet 0.08

## Inches of water Pounds per square inch 0.04

Inches of water Inches of mercury 0.07

## Inches of water Ounces per square inch 0.58

Inches of water Ounces per square foot 5.2
Inches of mercury Inches of water 13.6
Inches of mercury Feet of water 1.13

## Inches of mercury Pounds per square inch 0.49

Ounces (fluid) Cubic inches 1.81

## Pounds per square inch Inches of water 27.72

Pounds per square
inch Feet of water 2.31

## Pounds per square inch Atmospheres 0.07

Length (Unit of length of S.I. = meter)

US & Imperial >>: Metric system Metric system >> US & Imperial
1 Inch (in) - US 25.40005 mm 1 millimeter (mm) 0.03937 in (US)
1 Inch (in) - Imp 25.39996 mm 1 millimeter (mm) 0.03937 in (imp)
1 Foot (ft) = (12.in)
- US 0.3048006 m 1 meter (m) 3.28083 ft (US)
1 Foot (ft) = (12.in)
- Imp 0.3047995 m 1 meter (m) 3.28083 ft (imp)
1 Yard (yd) = (3.ft)
- US 0.9144018 m 1 meter (m) 1.093611 yd (US)
1 Yard (yd) = (3.ft)
- Imp 0.9143984 m 1 meter (m) 1.093611 yd (imp)
1 Mile (mi) =
(1760.yd) - US 1.609347 km 1 kilometer (km) 0.6213699 mi (US)
1 Mile (mi) = 0.6213724 mi
(1760.yd) - Imp 1.609341 km 1 kilometer (km) (imp)
1 Nautical mile 0.5396127 n.mi
(imp) 1.853181 km 1 kilometer (km) (imp)

## Surface (the unit of area of S.I. = square meter)

US & Imperial >> Metric system Metric system >> US & Imperial
2.471044 acre
1 Acre - US 0.4046873 ha 1 hectare (ha) (US)

## 1 Acre - Imp 0.4046842 ha 1 hectare (ha) 2.4711 acre (imp)

1 Square inch (sq 1 Square 0.1549997 sq. in
in) - US 6.451626 cm2 centimeter (cm2) (US)
1 Square inch (sq 1 Square
in) - Imp 6.451578 cm2 centimeter (cm2) 0.1550 sq.in (imp)

## 1 Square foot (sq 1 Square meter 10.76387 sq.ft

ft) = 144 sq in - US 0.09290341 m2 (m2) (US)
1 Square foot (sq
ft) = 144 sq in - 1 Square meter
Imp 0.09290272 m2 (m2) 10.7639 sq.ft (imp)

## 1 Square yard (sq 1 Square meter 1.195985 sq.yd

yd) = 9 sq.ft - US 0.8361307 m2 (m2) (US)

## 1 Square yard (sq 1 Square meter

yd) = 9 sq.ft - Imp 0.8361245 m2 (m2) 1.1960 sq.yd (imp)
1 Square mile (sq
mi) = 640 acres - 1 Square kilometer 0.3861006 sq.mi
US 2.589998 km2 (km2) (US)
1 Square mile (sq
mi) = 640 acres - 1 Square kilometer
Imp 2.589979 km2 (km2) 0.3861 sq.mi (imp)

## Volume (the unit of volume of S.I. = cubic meter)

US/imp >> Metric Metric system >>
system ----- US/imp -----
Volume ----- ----- -----
1 Cubic inch (cu 1 Cubic centimeter 0.06102509 cu in
in) - US 16,3871 cm3 (cm3) (US)
1 Cubic inch (cu 1 Cubic centimeter 0.0610241 cu in
in) - Imp 16.38698 cm3 (cm3) (imp)
1 Cubic foot (cu ft) 1 Cubic decimeter 0.03531544 cu ft
- US 28.31702 dm3 (dm3) (US)
1 Cubic foot (cu ft - 1 Cubic decimeter 0.0353148 cu ft
(Imp) 28.31670 dm3 (dm3) (imp)
1 Cubic yard (cu 1.307943 cu yd
yd) - US 0.7645594 m3 1 Cubic meter (m3) (US)
1 Cubic yard (cu 1.307957 cu yd
yd) - Imp 0.7645509 m3 1 Cubic meter (m3) (imp)
Measure of
capacity ----- ----- -----
1 fluid ounce (fl oz) 29,5735 cm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter
- US ml) (dm3) 33.814 fl oz
1 fluid ounce (fl oz) 28,4131 cm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter
- Imp ml) (dm3) 35.195 fl oz
35.23829 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter
1 Bushel (US) litre) (dm3) 0.0283782 bu (US)
36.36770 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 0.02749692 bu
1 Bushel (imp) liter) (dm3) (imp)
3.785329 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 0.2641779 gal
1 Gallon (US) liter) (dm3) (US)
4.545963 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 0.2199754 gal
1 Gallon (imp) liter) (dm3) (imp)
0.4731661 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter 2.113423 liq.pt
1 Liquid pint (US) liter) (dm3) (US)
1 Pint(pt) = 20 fl oz 0.5682454 dm3 (or 1 Cubic decimeter
- Imp liter) (dm3) 1.759803 pt (imp)

## Mass (the unit of mass of S.I. = kilogram)

Attention not to confuse mass and weight.

kilogram.

volume.

## Weight is a force which depends on terrestrial attraction and it is the

equivalent of the mass of a body by the acceleration of gravity (9.80665 at the
sea level) and is measured in Newton [ N ].

For example a man of 75 kg (it is its mass, and not its weight contrary to the
current expression), has a weight of: 75 * 9.80665 = 735,5 N on the sea level.

## US/imp >> Metric system Metric system >> US/imp

0.01543236 gr
1Grain (gr) - US 64.79892 mg 1 milligram (mg) (US)
0.01543236 gr
1Grain (gr) - Imp 64.79892 mg 1 milligram (mg) (imp)
0.03527396 oz av.
1Ounce (oz) - US 28.34953 g 1 gram (g) (US)
0.03527396 oz av.
1Ounce (oz) - Imp 28.34953 g 1 gram (g) (imp)
1Pound (Ib) = 16 2.204622 lb av.
oz - US 0.4535924 kg 1 kilogram (kg) (US)
1Pound (Ib) = 16 2.204622 lb av.
oz - Imp 0.4535924 kg 1 kilogram (kg) (imp)

1Short
hundredweight(sh 0.02204622 sh.cwt
cwt)= 100 Ib - US 45.35924 kg 1kilogram (kg) (US)
0.02204622 ctl
1Cental (imp) 45.35924 kg 1 kilogram (kg) (imp)
1Long ton (l tn) = 0.9842064 l.tn
2240 Ib - US 1.016047 t 1 ton (US)

## 1Ton (imp) 1.016047 t 1 ton 0.9842064 tn (imp)

Specific Gravity
The density of gas, relative to air, is called specific gravity. The specific gravity
of air is defined as 1. Since propane gas has a specific gravity of 1.5,
propane-air mixtures have a specific gravity of greater than 1.
Design 1:
(1) Determine the total length of all horizontal and vertical straight pipe runs.

2) Determine the number of valves and fittings in the pipe. For example, there may be two gate valves, a 90o elbow and a

(3) Determine the means of incorporating the valves and fittings into the Darcy equation.

(4) The total equivalent length is usually added to the total straight pipe length obtained in step one to give a total pipe equ

(5) This total pipe equivalent length is then substituted for L in Equation 2 to obtain the pressure drop in the pipe
o gate valves, a 90o elbow and a flow thru tee.