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JIMMA UNIVERSITY Jimma Institute of Technology JIT Mechanical Engineering Department Thermo Fluid Lab Manual Course Outline

: Laboratory I (MEng 3107) Course offered to: year III, Sem-II, 2010-2011 Course offered by:

TABLE OF CONTENTS No. I II I Contents Preface| To the student Instruction for confection of report Laboratory I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12 13 14 Reynolds’s experiment Evaluation of heat exchanger performance under parallel and counter flow 5 9 Page i 1

Measurement of velocity profile and boundary 23 layer growth over a flat plate Measurement of dispersion around turbulent 31 jet Flow Round a bend Duct (Characterization of energy 41 losses in a bend) Measurement of drag and lift of an aerofoil at different angles of attack 51

Comparison of losses in nozzle and diffuser type duct flows 58 Finding pressure distribution over an aerofoil at 65 different velocity and angles Assessments of the variance of lift and Drag on an aerofoil 69 via flaps and slats Verification of Bernoulli’s equation Impact of a Jet Measurements on Free and forced vortex flow Validation of SFEE involving heat, mass and work transfer and work transfers Bibliography 75 83 87 88 89

Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory- MEng 3107”
TO THE STUDENTS,

With your laboratory data you will find the parameters or wanted functions. You will take care in the report of your results the analysis of the uncertainties. This will allow you to delimit the validity of your summations and suggestions. The final report is the entire product of your work in each practice. You will take care that it reflects the quality and the quantity of the realized work and that it shows the variety and wealth of your experiences associated to the development of the practice. When writing the final report you will put emphasis in the clarity, for which you should have in mind, which are the objectives of the practice and the achievements of the same one are. You will also stand out those aspects that you consider that could make original or different the realization of your practice with regard to what could be the usual thing. for example if you used a substance that you proposed, if you used some alternative method to measure some variable or if you developed some interesting explanation for some observed behavior that been able to governess to check that it was important to obtain improvements in your results, etc... This gives an idea of the creativity with which you have approached the task. You will have present to the potential readers of the report, so that when reading it they receive the wanted impression, this is that can appreciate the value of your work. For the time being this is important so that your evaluation is in agreement with the quality of the acquired experience and in the future this ability will mean a lot for your professional development. Another important facet is the realization of the teamwork. This is an important aspect in your vocational training. A very integrated team discusses each one of the activities, takes agreements on the way of carrying out them and it carries out them communicating and discussing the diverse experiences, so that the report is an integrated writing and not merely a bale of small sections without a conductive thread neither internal coherence. The teamwork is a professional activity that can be stimulant when there is a good relationship among the members of the team.
SECURITY There are safe-deposit norms that should be completed strictly to avoid accidents in the laboratory. This regulation is available for its consultation in the same laboratory and it is necessary that you are to the current of its content, reason why, if you have not read it or you don't remember it, it is convenient that you request it and understand before beginning your experimental work. By way of a reminder, it has been mentioned some of the most important points next. 1. The robe use in the laboratory is obligatory when are carried out experiments. To carry out some manipulations of chemical substances gloves, protective eyeglasses and masks they should also be used. For the laboratory sessions, it is advisable to dress simple clothes that protect most of the body and preferably of cotton, closed shoes, with thick soles and without heels or platforms. 2. Not introduce neither to consume or drinks in the laboratory. Not smoke. 3. Only operate an instrument or apparatus when you know how to make it, otherwise to request the instructor's help, of the assistant or of the technician of the laboratory, to acquire the necessary dexterity. 4. Once concluded the use of an apparatus or instrument, to follow the appropriate procedure to turn off it, to disconnect it, to keep it and to give it to the responsible for their custody. 5. When concluding a practice, to lift all the instruments, teams and used accessories, to verify that all the takings of water, gas, air or others in the working place are very closed and to leave clean and you dry the working tables and the floor of the laboratory.

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" Albert Einstein.MEng 3107” "It is never possible to introduce only quantities observables in a theory.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. ii . It is the theory who decides what it should be observed. 1926.

MEng 3107” INSTRUCTIVE FOR THE ELABORATION OF REPORT God willing and we could. The University. The report is an end product of the work carried out in the practice. a bankrupt practice will be repeated with the pertinent improvements. That then has carried out the treatment and the analysis of their data to obtain results whose validity is able to define. the Career. Objective The final report of a practice has the objective of showing that students of the team has developed a coordinated group of activities starting from its theoretical knowledge of the topic of the practice that it has allowed them to design the experiment and to carry out the appropriate mensurations. all written in correct language and printed in typeface and uniform style that indicate an integrated work of team among the students that present it as product of its work. If it is feasible. A bankrupt practice can be an excellent practice. to elaborate a critic based to demonstrate the disability of the theories or of the procedures continued in the realization of the practice. When we notice remarkable likeness between the observed behavior and our theories. and the Subject. Starting from this experience the students are able to discuss and to elaborate their summations and suggestions to improve the realization of the practice or they will be able to. for what includes most of the sections considered in the report that should incorporate the improvements suggested by the professor for the presentation of this report. based on the knowledge acquired in the career. the Career. our laboratory operations and our observations. we acquire bigger certainty to manipulate the materials and to use our predictions like working tools. We are also able to determine which they are the factors that influence and in what measure .in the differences and/or discrepancies among our theories. Experiment number. It will contain the complete identification: The University. the word "It Reports". alternating. cover It is the first page of the report. if the students are able to identify and to evaluate the sources of the discrepancies.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. and the Subject. however there are many aspects that sometimes prevent us to demonstrate with clarity the correspondence between the theory and the practice. when concluding a practice. the word "It Reports” and Title should be written a top center 1 . the Professor's name and the contract date of the report. to share these words of Rostand. The pages of the report will be numbered and they will follow the sequence of the following one: Content 1. the names of the members of the team. of being the case. more the relative sections to the realization of the experiment and the later treatment of the obtained information. the title of the practice. About of make of Report The report will contain the sections that are detailed below.

complete and numbered form the objectives of the realization of the practice. objective of the practice. In concise form it will be informed on the objective of the practice. • If it is required of a calibration of the equipment. 3. The variables and their meaning will be identified in a diagram of each system. Apparatus The main equipment will be described where it carried out the processes. where the models will be elaborated to detail. Procedure The purpose of this section is to determine the elements and necessary procedures for the development of the practice and it consists of the following sub-sections: 2 . • The final expressions (working equations) to determine the estates or variables of interest. 4. when it is pertinent. Summarize executive It is the second page of the report. requested in the results. the team and the main considerations of the model. which clearly indicates the mean of the experiment. this way how the limitations to their validity. Theoretical foundations and their application The purpose of this section is to develop the relationships that allow describing the processes that are carried out in the system. Starting from these relationships they will be considered the quantities or parameters of interest. It will be indicated that the complete development that takes from the principles to the working equations.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. This will include a drawing with the approximate dimensions and a description of processes apparatus that will be carried out in the system. • The solution corresponding to the group of relationships in game. And a list of apparatus used for the experiment should be written. In the body of the work the main components of the mathematical model will be included that are: • The equations that correspond to the thermodynamic numbered relationships. 5. 6. Objectives It will be enunciated in brief.MEng 3107” Experiment number: On left side page next to the date the serial number of experiment to be written 2. those will be emphasized obtained results. The sections and sub-sections will be enumerated with the respective pages of their beginnings. This section consists of the following sub-sections: Hypothesis The pertinent hypotheses that correspond to the simplified physical pattern will settle down. the development that allows to know the calibrated parameter starting from the expressions for an elected system with this end. Mathematical Model It will be defined the systems where the principles and concepts will settle down. The hypothesis will be numbered and each a followed one for a specific justification enough.

or another level of precision).1 mensurations It will incorporate the original sheet of data. the quantities will be identified to be measured and the parameters that it is necessary to know and will intend the way to acquire the necessary information for each one of the previous elements. as well as the repetitions of the readings • If a calibration is required. 6. 0. for isothermic processes) of being necessary. µm. indicating the sufficient quantities.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. 6. The aspects that are considered scoring important for the correct realization of the activities (for example. indicating in each case the required units: • The estimate parameters • The measured parameters • The variables measures. to be given the professor the day that is carried out the practice. as well as the necessary precision (for example. when being carrying out the practice.MEng 3107” 6. to take care that the level of a liquid doesn't surpass certain height that an instrument is dry or that a liquid is introduced sliding maintaining the inclined recipient. a list of the equipment and necessary instruments for the mensurations and another for the materials. When the original sheet of data has suffered bigger modifications. 7. with the all necessary 3 .1 Variables and parameters Starting from the final expressions to determine the variables of interest.5 Development of the practice The practice will be descried in sequential and numbered form of the activities to develop.4 Equipment and materials It will be presented the outline of the installation. to elaborate the necessary previous points to carry out it and to repeat the pertinent ones for the unknown system (the problem) To make a copy of this leaf of data.).3 Sheet of data In a complete sheet a format will be elaborated to put all the necessary data for the realization of the practice. with the experimental information and of the dear.. etc. with their tabulation with regard to other variables (for example with regard to the temperature. mm. complete parameters. 6. Realization of the practice 7. This leaf will contain in its header • The name of the practice • The identification of the team that carries out it and the realization date It will also contain the following fields. a longitude is required in cm..1 mm. with the complete information of the original mensurations and of the parameters and/or securities of the literature. an as amended leaf of data will be elaborated. indicating the sources (you index) of the correlations or securities to use.

. R.4 Discussion and summations The obtained results will be compared with other acquaintances.5 Suggestions and recommendations As a result of their experience. if is consider it convenient. 8. Elementary Principles of the Chemical Processes Addison Wesley Iberoamericana (Second edition). 8. It will also incorporate other required graphs. 1991 That is to say that a referred book includes the following data in form ordinate: • I nickname and the authors' initials (or of the editors) • Title of the book (in italic letter) 4 . Analysis of data and results In this section the treatment of the laboratory mensurations will be made to obtain the parameters or functions proposed as specific objectives of the practice as a result. 9. in the section of references will be included: Felder. according to the developed expressions starting from the model.M. R.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. the members of the team will propose what you consider here that it can improve the realization of the experiment. 7. The graphs will be able to incorporate to the analysis sub-section and results. 8.W. They will be graphing the experimental securities with their uncertainties and the theoretical estimate of the model will be included. & Rousseau. either of the literature or of realized experiments previously for students of previous groups. in the members' of the team opinion.1 calculations The information of the sheet of data will spill in a sheet of Excel. With this information the members of the team will elaborate their conclusions. carried out during the realization of the experiment. they will be elaborated graphic for computer. indicating in what its interest resides for the study matter.3 Graphs If it is the case. and they will be carried out the pertinent operations. with a critical attitude and self-criticism. making a self-critical comment about the changes required by the original sheet. 8. " Corresponding to this mention. 8. only the significant figures will be included in the results. taking into account. A statistical analysis will be made. 8. Reference bibliography The way to mention them will be for example: ".2 Statistical analysis and results In accordance with the scales of the instruments. to find the results. this model is solved in Felder and Rousseau (1991). in the students' opinion or requested specifically in the instructive of the corresponding practice.2 observations A list of the observations of interest will be made.. to report the final results with its uncertainties.MEng 3107” information in it. to represent the behavior of the variables measures.

• Year of publication of the consulted edition If it is a collective book. where the chapters are written by diverse authors and the reference is in particular of a chapter. for example. Appendixes Each Appendix will have a serial number and a name him to indicate its content and it will be mentioned in the text. besides the aforementioned ones on the development of the pattern and the estates of the materials. but whose inclusion in the main text would make it heavy or it would distract the attention of the sequence of ideas toward complementary discussions. followed by the abbreviation "(eds.) " • Editorial • Edition. those that are necessary for the complete documentation of the realized work. • Year of publication of the consulted edition 10. preceded by the letter A. the following order will be continued: • I nickname and the authors' of the chapter initials • Title of the chapter (in Roman letter) • The word "In" • Title of the book or manual (in italic letter) • I nickname and initials of the editors of the book. 5 . In the Appendixes will be included.MEng 3107” • Editorial • Edition.12) it is the equation #12 in the Appendixes. "(A.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. The equations will take serial numeration.

It is extremely important to allow to those students of the first courses of mechanics of the fluids to visualize the difference among the flow to laminar and turbulent and to verify that this difference is reflected empirically in the terms of the number of measured Reynolds. etc.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. Description The flow operation can be derived from any source (net hydria. By means of a special valve. Composition The main components of the group are: • Cylindrical Tank of feeding. bank H89. By means of a channel peculiar of constant jamb the variations of the speed of the flow are eliminated and they are determined condition uniforms of low speed in the load before the entrance of the vertical supporting tube. • Flow indicator. placed to the base of the apparatus. Then the fluid is introduced in the supporting tube. • Tank of feeding color. • Spheres of calm. • Needle of injection color. 6 . given with the apparatus. It is demonstrated analytically that the physical meaning of the number of Reynolds is represented by the measure of the relationship of the inertia of the viscous forces that act on a fluid. • Regulation Valve tints. and it is introduced by means of a diffuser of ring in the cylindrical recipient of feeding.) by means of an appropriate one tube with device for the regulation of the flow. OBJECTIVE: To observe the laminar. The used colored solution is a correspondent to the supporting section through a tube of very small diameter and the value of the color flow it is controlled by a valve in exit of the tank. using an injection technique of the similar color to that of the group experimental original used by the Reynolds.MEng 3107” Practical Lab # 1 Raynold’s experiment INTRODUCTION In the practical engineering is very important to know the flow state.8D. transitional turbulent and velocity profile APPARATUS: Equipment set up: the equipment to determine the flow regime in the stream of fluid is easy construction as showed in the figures. the flow of the fluid is regulated in exit of the supporting section and their value is measured volumetric by means of a flow indicator. with screen background target to evidence the appearance of the color through a mouth with particular profile studied to accelerate it evenly without some spurious inertial effect. The H65D has designed to study the march of the vertical flows. transitory and turbulent laminar and the visible phenomena of superior and inferior critical speed through a calibrated transparent tube. this is possible to determine the values of Reynolds’s number through such as we could by assigned to the transition from laminar or turbulent flow.

Pesos and Dimensions • Dimensions: 600 x 600 x h1950 mm. Supports bell B. Screw of regulation needle J. to exception of solvent and alcohols. • internal Diameter of the supporting tube: 12 mm. leveling Feet of support 7 . Tank of feeding color G. • Weight: 30 kg. Fig. regulation Valve tints I. Spheres of calm N. Flared E. 1 . • maximum Temperature recommended for the supporting fluid: 52°C. The equipment is built totally in plastic and mounted material rigidly on a support of wide base endowed with leveling devices to assure the maximum stability and uprightness of the supporting tube..Synoptic General A. using different fluids. • Maximum flow of the supporting flow: 150 l/h (H2O at 15°C).Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. round Level M. Covers H. Technical characteristics • Longitude of the supporting tube: 900 mm. Required services • Feeding of water from the net of low flow. cylindrical Tank of feeding C. Flow indicator K.MEng 3107” The group H65D is compatible with any elected means to vary the cinematic viscosity of the fluid. 6. Needle of injection color F. • Search of the number of Reynolds. • Study of flows laminar. Experiences The group H65D has been designed to allow the reproduction of some experiments on the nature of the movement to laminate and turbulent. 7. turbulent and their transitory phenomena. In particular: • Experimental determination of the speed. Valve of regulation flow L.. feeding Diffuser D. or altering the temperature of the given fluid (the external circuit for this purpose is not understood in the supply).

(s) Time filled reservoir (6) d. after that repeat the procedure to obtain the variation in the profile an take the measuring and after continue increase de flow velocity and obtain the starting that transversal mixing will be completed and taken again the measurement of the flow. To conclude. the temperature of fluid. (0C) .MEng 3107” O. He was obtained that for Re values the flow is: Re <= 2100  the flow is laminar 2100 < Re <4000  the flow is transitional Re >=2100  the flow is turbulent PROCEDURE Fill the reservoir (2) with the dye connect the feed valve (9) to obtained maximum level. transitional or turbulent flow. d . m2/s Osborne Reynold’s determined that values of Re could be assigned to define from laminar. ρ )/ µ Where: Re: Reynolds’s number v: velocity of fluid.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. it is defined as: Re = (v. open the flow control valve (5) and open the valve inject or dye (7) . to determine the density and viscosity. after observed the profile of the flow fluid in pipe glass (4) conduit. (m3) Volume of water in reservoir t. Bands of Hoffman THEORY Reynolds’s number (Re) is internationally recognized criterion denoting fluid flow . Pa . close the inlet of the dye (7) and close the feet valve of water to reservoir (9) and to finish close the valve (5) to control de flow. controlling the flow to obtain the parabolic profile of the flow of fluid observed and in this moment take the value the flow of fluid employed the reservoir (6) and the chronometer (12) taken the time necessary for completed the volume. (m) T. kg/m3 υ = µ /ρ : Kinematics Viscosity. Data Observation No Visualization condition of profile 1 2 3 Parabolic profile Starting transversal mixing color with water Mixing complete 8 V. m/s µ : Dynamic viscosity of the fluid. OBSERVATION Table 1. diameter of pipe line glass and the liquid water. s ρ : Density of the fluid. Known.

. we can get the viscosity (µ ) in the literature. we obtain: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1. 2 .(m2) v. (s) d.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. (m) T. s A: cross sectional flow area of pipe line glass.1416 .2 Results No Result V.1. m2 With temperature and fluid (water) .(m/s)Re Visualization condition of profile Observ. m3//s …………………………………………. substituting the values. (0C) Q. 1 2 3 Parabolic profile Starting transversal mixing color with water Mixing complete QUESTION • Do the results obtained agree with the statements under analysis? If not account for any discrepancy.1. (m3) t.4 Where. 0C • Viscosity of water (µ ).1.3 A= (3.(m3) A. V: volume of water in reservoir (6). s CALCULATION According to the experiment 1. m • Temperature of water (T) . 9 . Therefore. and 3 will be calculating the flow (Q). Pa. • At what values of Reynold’s number have you observed the critical changes for each state? • What unique features differentiate the flow state you encountered? CONCLUSION Taken in consideration the experiment carry out. with the equation 1. results. m/s ………………………………………………1. as: Q = V/t . m3 t: filled time of reservoir.MEng 3107” Taken technical data • Internal diameter of pipe (d) . analyze and question express yours conclusion about the practice.2 Therefore: v= Q/A . d2)/ 4 ……………………………………….

the same way you should have the reference to the bibliography useful for this practice.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. 10 .MEng 3107” REFERENCE That was explain in the topic of content of the report.

Calculated overall heat transfer coefficients 2. The heat transfer takes place in a coaxial tubular heat exchanger. For all analyzed of design and evaluation of heat – exchanger is very important known of the overall heattransfer coefficient and temperature profile in uniflow and counter flow equipment for that in this practical will be try about of this questions. The closed hot water circuit includes a tank with electrical heater and a circulating pump. heat transfer coefficient and heat loss are determined. Calculated overall heat transfer coefficients 2. 3. Determination of temperature distributions along the length of the heat exchanger 3. Using the system both parallel flow and counterflow operation with their different temperature profiles can be demonstrated. 2. economics plays a key role in the design and solutions of hest-exchanger design problem. After the experiment the key parameters such as heat transfer rate. fill the tank with water up to the middle of the sight glass.MEng 3107” Practical Lab # 2 Evaluation of heat exchanger performance under parallel and counter flow Content: 1. The hot water temperature is kept constant using a thermostat.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. The cold water is drawn from the water mains and is fed to a drain after use. Calculate of mean value of the heat transfer rates in both the cases Learning Objectives / Experiments . The non-linear temperature profile along a heat exchanger can be demonstrated by measuring temperatures at the inlet. a more important case for consideration would be that of double – pipe heat exchanger.Determination of the temperature profile for parallel and counter flow operation . Determination of temperature distributions along the length of the heat exchanger 3.Determination of mean heat transfer coefficient APPARATUS: Technical Description: Using the study unit. As well as the log mean temperature difference (LMTD) OBJECTIVE: 1. In this application one fluid flow on the inside of the smaller tube whiles the other fluid flow in annular space between the two tubes. Precautions 1. Then set the thermostat on the heater to the required temperature level. 11 . size. Calculate of mean value of the heat transfer rates in both the cases INTRODUCTION The application of the principles of heat transfer to the design of equipment to accomplish a certain engineering objective is of extreme importance for in applying the principles to design. A particular application will dictate the rules. Before you start the experiment check that the water level in the heating tank is up the middle of the sight glass provided for the purpose. Eventually. If water level is no visible. weight. The hot water is fed through the inner tube.Determination of mean heat flow for parallel and counter flow operation . the characteristic properties of a heat exchanger can be demonstrated. which one must follow to obtain the best design commensurate with economic considerations. outlet and halfway along the pipe. etc From the standpoint of heat –exchanger design the plane wall is of infrequent application.

1 phase [-] l x w x h: 1385x550x1850mm. In case of doudt clarify your self with the instructor rather than speculating somethimg Specification: [1] Experimental mobile unit to investigate characteristic properties of heat transfer in a coaxial tubular heat exchanger [2] Hot water to be fed through inner tube [3] Parallel and counterflow operation.Q·1 (1) 12 . Give cold water supply connection after carefully identifying the could water inlet part 6.at the outer pipe [7] Sealed hot water circuit. Ball valves mounted in the cold water circuit to be used to choose the operating mode [4] Heat exchanger areas: cold side 40212mm² hot side 30159mm² mean log. Swich on the heater and start the experiment after about 20 minutes since heating may take this time. 8.MEng 3107” 4.. 7. Change the valve settings as per your requirement of the flow.hot water inlet .100°C . Connect cold water inlet to the drain. head 4m [10] Tank capacity 20ltr made of stainless steel Heater 2kW [-] Thermostat 0. flow rate 3800ltr/h max. approx.85°C [-] Copper piping Conductivity of Cu: 384W/mK [-] Cooling water to be supplied: min. Hondle the setup carefully.at the inner pipe . Am ..hot water outlet .. Known Q= Q·2 . 34945mm² length: 1600mm [5] Flow rate measurement with rotameters: cold water measuring range 0…96ltr/h hot water measuring range 0…96ltr/h [6] 6 thermometers 0. ∆ Tln . 9. with the counter flow or parallel flow.cold water inlet . 5.. 50Hz.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. 110kg THEORY Following equation Q=Km .cold water outlet half way along the pipe: . 150ltr/h [-] To be supplied with emergency stop [-] 230VAC. insulated [9] Centrifugal submersible pump 3 stages rating 70W speed 2400rpm max.

The simplest type of heat exchanger consists of two concentric pipes of different diameters called the double pipe heat exchangers. which is specifically designed to realize large heat transfer area per unit volume.flow rate. If the two fluxes found are not equal we use the mean heat flux i. kg/s where. as: Heat exchangers are devices used for heat transfer between two media without direct contact or mixing of the two media. Some examples of heat exchanger are car radiator. ρ .density of fluid. through the partition and from partition to the cold medium is the same . In steady state the heat flux that is passing from the hot medium to the partition. is the compact heat exchanger. Qm = Um*Am*∆Tln (2) Heat flux can also be calculated from the difference between the inlet and outlet heat flux. Heat passes from one medium to the other by convection of each medium and conduction through the partition that is separating the two media.MEng 3107” After that we can find the heat transfer coefficient. it is convenient to express the heat flux with the overall heat transfer coefficient Km .logarithmic mean temperature difference LMTD. Heating from an ambient temperature of 20°C to 60°C requires approximately on 20 minutes. F * 10-3) / 3600 . L/ h (4) (-Qh ) = mhCph(T2h-T1h) . The other type of heat exchanger. ∆ Tm (5) (6) (7) PROCEDURE  Check water level in the tank check and top up if necessary  Switch on master switch  Set desired hot water temperature thermostat (water tank)  Switch on heater. • For uniflow: close ball clocks 2&4 and open 1&3 • For counter flow: close ball clocks 1&3 and open 2&4  Switch on the pump (for hot water circulation) 13 .In the analysis of heat exchanger. if no loss exist Qc & Qh are equal. kg/m3 F. and mean area . There are different types of heat exchangers.Qh )+ Qc )/2 ∆ Tm = (∆ Tmax –∆ Tmin)/ (Ln (∆ Tmax / ∆ Tmin )) Km = Qm. Q =m*Cp(T2-T1) (3) m = (ρ .Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. oil coolers and cooling coils in refrigerator. Am .e Q =((.

0349 m2 CALCULATION For counter flow: Hot water fluid • Average temperature Tm = (Thi + Tho)/2 14 . it is sufficient to observe the two outlet temperatures at thermometers T3 and T6 for uniflow current or T3 and T4 for counter-current. 0C Uniflow F2. Note. 0C t2. 0C t3.  Once thermal stability has been attained. l/h 25 50 75 100 t1.  Attention mush be paid to the thermometer assignment indicated on the worksheet. l/h 100 100 100 100 F1. the heat flux through the heat exchanger will no be correctly determined. C 0 Toutlet t3. 0C T4.the flow of hot water (F1) maintains its direction in both modes OBSERVATION Table 1 Data Hot Water F1. For this purpose. 0C Countercurrent Cold Water F2. This is the case when the temperatures fluctuate by less than 1 0C per minute. 0C t6. mid-section  After regulation flow rate. If thermal equilibrium is not achieved. l/h 100 100 100 100 F1. wait until thermal equilibrium is attained. 0C t2. C 0 Cold Water Tmiddle t2. C 0 Tmiddle t5. as it is not the same for both uniflow and counter –current. 0C t2. 0C Uniflow Taken technical data: Am = 0. C 0 Tinlet t4. l/h 50 50 50 50 F2. 0C t5. 0C T6. 0C t4. 0C t3. l/h 25 50 75 100 t1. C 0 Toutlet t6. 0C t3.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. l/h 50 50 50 50 F1. 0C t6. 0C t4. l/h 25 50 75 100 F2. 0C Countercurrent Hot Water Tinlet t1. 0C t5. 0C t5.MEng 3107”  Set desired flow rates at control valves  Take temperature reading at inlet. l/h 25 50 75 100 t1. take temperature readings and enter them in the worksheet together with the set flow rates.

(J/kg K) in the table of book or manual of equipment. ∆ Tm 15 .MEng 3107” • With Tm for F1(n) (l/h) fine the specific Cph. K Tco – Temperature of cold water outlet. kg/s F1(n).∆ T2) / Ln (∆ T2 / ∆ T1) Q = U .Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. K Cold water fluid • Average temperature Tm = (Tci + Tco)/2 • With Tm for F2(n) (L/h) fine the specific Cpc.Flow rate of hot water.Cpc. • The heat loss flow rate of hot water in kg/s can be calculated for following relation: mh = (F1(n) *10-3 * 1000 ) / 3600 • Thus. K Tci – Temperature of cold water inlet. kg/s F1(n) .( Tci – Tco) Where. (J/kg K) in the table of book or manual of equipment. K Mean heat flux: Qmean = (Qh + Qc) / 2 The fluid temperature difference for counter flow at F2 (n) : ∆ T1 = Thi – Tco ∆ T2 = Tho – Tci ∆ Tm = (∆ T1 . 1000 ) / 3600 • Thus. • The flow rate of hot water in kg/s can be calculated for following relation: mc = (F2(n) . mh – flow rate of water . L/h Cph – heat specific of water at average of temperature. K Thi – Temperature of hot water inlet. with balance equation can be obtained the heat flow rate: Qh = mh*Cph* ( Thi – Tho) Where.10-3 . L/h Cpc – heat specific of cold water at average of temperature.Flow rate of hot water. ∆ Tm Uh = Qh / Am.A. with balance equation can be obtained the cold flow rate: Qc = mc. mc – flow rate of water. J/kg. J/kg. K Tho – Temperature of hot water outlet.

K Tci – Temperature of cold water inlet. K Thi – Temperature of hot water inlet. kg/s F1(n) . mc – flow rate of water. L/h Cph – heat specific of water at average of temperature.Flow rate of hot water.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. kg/s F1(n). • The flow rate of hot water in kg/s can be calculated for following relation: mc = (F2(n) *10-3 * 1000 ) / 3600 • Thus. K Tho – Temperature of hot water outlet. with balance equation can be obtained the cold flow rate: Qc = mc*Cpc* ( Tco – Tci) Where. J/kg. K Mean heat flux: Qmean = (Qh + Qc) / 2 The fluid temperature difference for parallel flow at F2 (n) : 16 . ∆ Tm Um = (Uh + Uc) / 2 For parallel flow: Hot water fluid • Average temperature Tm = (Thi +Tho)/2 • With Tm for F1(n) (l/h) fine the specific Cph. • The heat loss flow rate of hot water in kg/s can be calculated for following relation: mh = (F1(n) *10-3 * 1000 ) / 3600 • Thus. (J/kg K) in the table of book or manual of equipment. mh – flow rate of water.MEng 3107” Uc = Qc / Am. J/kg.Flow rate of hot water. with balance equation can be obtained the heat flow rate: Qh = mh*Cph* ( Thi – Tho) Where. K Cold water fluid • Average temperature Tm = (Tci = Tco)/2 • With Tm for F2(n) (L/h) fine the specific Cpc. K Tco – Temperature of cold water outlet. (J/kg K) in the table of book or manual of equipment. L/h Cpc – heat specific of cold water at average of temperature.

Table 2 Calculated and result F1. ∆ Tm Um = (Uh + Uc) / 2 The step of calculation should will be repeat for each flow rate F1(n) for n=1 to n = 4. l/h 25 50 75 100 F2. ∆ Tm Uc = Qc / Am. l/h 25 50 75 100 F2. kJ/s Q2.A. l/h 25 50 75 100 ∆ Tmax ∆ Tmin ∆ Tm Tmh ρ h ∆ Tmax ∆ Tmin ∆ Tm Tmh ρ h Cph Tmc Cpc ρ c Uniflow ∆ Tmax ∆ Tmin Tmh ρ h Cph Tmc Cpc ρ c Countercurrent ∆ Tmax ∆ Tmin ∆ Tm Tmh ρ h Cph Tmc Cpc ρ c Countercurrent Cph Tmc Cpc ρ c Uniflow Table 3 Calculated and result (continuation) F1.∆ T2) / Ln (∆ T1 / ∆ T2) Q = U . l/h 50 50 50 50 F2. Result and discussion The result of experiment must be analyzed using the result shown in the table 2 for uniflow and counter – current flow experiment. to obtained the following results. l/h 50 50 50 50 F1. ∆ Tm Uh = Qh / Am. l/h 25 50 75 100 Am Q1.MEng 3107” ∆ T1 = Thi – Tci ∆ T2 = Tho – Tco ∆ Tm = (∆ T1 . l/h 25 50 75 100 F2. l/h 100 100 100 100 F1.kJ/m2sK 17 .Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. l/h 100 100 100 100 F1. l/h 100 100 100 100 F2. kJ/s Qm Km.

6 74. Counter flow 60 50 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 24. for both in 1 . l/h 50 50 50 50 F1.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory.MEng 3107” F1. /h 10 0 10 5 U iflo n w C u te u n o n r-c rre t C u te u n o n r-c rre t U iflo n w Temperature Counter flow Temperature 18 .2 3 96 25 1 49.2 1 0 .8 0 .2 0 0 5 0 FL .4 74.8 uniflow and counter flow: 1 .kJ/m2sK F2. kJ/s Q2.2 2 25 Distance 49. l/h 25 50 75 100 Am Q1. kJ/s Q2.4 1 . l/h 25 50 75 100 F2. l/h 50 50 50 50 F2.2 40 30 20 10 0 Um.4 74. l/h 100 100 100 100 F1. as showed in following figure: The inlet and outlet temperatures Tinlet and Toutlet.1 Distance 48. as well as the temperature Tm after half the heat-exchange distance.6 0 .4 0 . kJ/s Km.kJ/m2sK Drawing the temperature measurements at different flow rates could be obtaining the temperature profile for uniflow current. J/kg.kJ/m2sK Am Q1.2 96 2 24. kJ/s Km.6 97. l/h 25 50 75 100 Am Q1.6 1 . K And with different values of the Um to different cold – water flow rate obtained the following C e ie t o h a tra s r o ffic n f e t n fe figure which showed the relation of flow and heat coefficient transmission. In the following figures showed the typical graphic for counter current temperature profile. kJ/s Q2. were plotted on the chart.1 48.6 3 97.6 74. kJ/s Km.

REFERENCE That was explain in the topic of content of the report.Manual for “Thermo-fluid Laboratory. analyze and question express yours conclusion about the practice. 19 . results. the same way you should have the reference to the bibliography useful for this practice.MEng 3107” Question • What is heat transfer? • How is defined the coefficient of heat transmission? • How is defined the heat flux? • How is defined the logarithmic mean of temperature? Conclusion Taken in consideration the experiment carry out.

lecture theatre demonstrations and project work. A flat plate is placed at mid height in the section. and experiments are quickly attached or removed. The bench. The experiment modules enable a complete first course in airflow. The equipment is easy to set up and install. Various test facilities may be attached to a 350 mm x 300 mm opening in the plenum chamber.. and the high levels of built-in safety make the equipment ideal for student experiments.Laboratory 1……. having 100 mm x 50 mm working section. An aerodynamically shaped contraction it has been supplied with the bench to provide an entry to a number of experiments. the exhaust air passing through a pipe let into the bench top and terminating at the rear. The fluid in immediate contact with a surface moves with it. A fine Pitot tube may be traversed through the boundary layer at the section near the downstream edge of the plat. One side of the plate is smooth and the other is rough so that by turning the plate over. enable a complete first course in airflow. The following figure 2 shows the arrangement of the test section attached to the outlet of the contraction of the Airflow Bench. with a sharpened edge facing the oncoming flow. This tube is the delicate instrument. when used with the modules (AF11 to AF18). . A fan delivers atmospheric air via a flow control valve to a plenum chamber. Extensive use is made of toggle fasteners so that no tools are required for fitting the various experiments to the bench. OBJECTIVES · To Investigation of the velocity distribution on a plane plate in a longitudinal flow · To Investigation of the thickness of the boundary layer for turbulent flow APPARATUS: Airflow Bench Description A compact and mobile airflow bench which supports interchangeable experiment modules and provides a controlled. Practical Lab # 3 Measurement of velocity profile and boundary layer growth over a flat plate INTRODUCTION It is a fact well established by experiment that when a fluid flows aver a solid surface there is no slip at the surface. which is called the boundary layer. variable flow of air. which must be handled with extreme care if damage is to be avoided. Discharge from the experiments is normally downwards. This arrangement allows flexible ducting to be fitted (when experiments using smoke are in progress) to lead waste smoke safely away (figure 1). and the relative velocity increases from zero at the surface to the velocity in the free stream trough a layer of fluid. results may be obtained on both types of surface.

In the boundary layer on rough and smooth plates. With the liners removed. A sensitive. In the boundary layer on plates subject to an increasing or decreasing pressure gradient in the direction of flow (using the removable duct liners supplied). Experiments which may be carried out include the measurement of the velocity profile: 1. Both laminar and turbulent layers may be formed. In laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Pressure Po in air box Flow from air box Liners may be fitted to produce pressure gradient Plate smooth in one side and rough on other side. wedge shaped Pitot tube mounted in a micrometer traverse allows velocity measurements to be made in the boundary layer. The end of the tube is flattened so that it presents a narrow slit opening to the flow. . Fine pitot tube Exhaust to atmosphere Figure 2. 3.. Liners may be placed on the walls of the working section so that either a generally accelerating free stream may be produced along the length of the plate. The traversing mechanism is spring loaded to the prevent backlash and a micrometer reading is used to indicate the displacement of the Pitot tube. In the boundary layer at various distances from the leading edge of the plate. depending on which way round they are fitted. 4. Test Section Boundary Layer Apparatus Pitot pressure P Traversing crosshead with micrometer A flat plate is placed in the l00mm x 50mm transparent working section so that a boundary layer forms along it. uniform free-stream flow conditions obtain over the plate length. 2.Laboratory 1…….

where the streaming velocity U is constant over the length of the plate. shown in before figure as the thickness where the velocity reaches the free stream value. This transition is produced by small disturbances which. a transition to turbulence is observed..This is defined as the thickness by the existence fluid outside the layer is displaced away from the boundary by the existence of the layer. is not an entirely satisfactory concept. but if the plate is sufficiently long. so the distance Y at which we might consider the velocity to have reached U will depend on the accuracy of measurement thickness ∗ δ . General characteristics of boundary layer over flat plate Definition of thickness: A little consideration will show that the boundary layer thickness δ . The motion in the boundary layer is laminar at the start. THEORY Consider steady flow over a flat smooth plate as show in the figure. as indicates schematically in the following figure 4: . beyond a certain distance. grow rapidly and merge to produce the apparently random fluctuations of velocity which are characteristics of turbulent motions.Laboratory 1……. The parameter which characterizes the position of the transition is the Reynolds number Rex based on distance x from the leading edge: Rex = Ux ν U U δ X Laminar Transition Turbulent Figure 3. It is found that the thickness of the boundary layer grows along the length of the plate as indicated on the figure 3. The velocity in the boundary layer increases towards U in an asymptotic manner .

If there were no boundary layer. 2ϕ L Cf = L Where ϕ L is the momentum thickness at distance L from the leading edge.Laboratory 1……. we can obtain that. which satisfies the condition. U=U. for h α. L: length of the plate Shape factor (H): ∗ H=δ / ϕ . ϕ ϕ=∫ α 0 u u (1 − ) dy U U The overall skin friction coefficient. The reduction in volume flow rate (per unit width normal to the diagram) due to the reduction of velocity in the layer is therefore: ∆Q = ∫ (U − u ) dy 0 h When h is any arbitrary value. the free stream velocity U would persist right down to the boundary as shown by the line CA. u U B A δ ∗ U-u h y C By the streamline O approaching B the distribution of velocity u within the layer is shown as a function of distance y from the boundary as curve OA . Velocity distribution and displacement thickness of boundary layer.. rearrangement and introducing some consideration. ∆Q = ∫ (1 − 0 α u ) dy U Momentum thickness. B’ A’ Figure 4.

36 x/ (Rex)0. substantial changes take place in the boundary layer development.. . ∗ δ = 0.046 x/ (Rex)0. The boundary layer grows more rapidly and the shape factor increases in the downstream direction. H= 2. the velocity profile has been calculated. the reverse effects are observed. dP dU − ρU ( ) dx dx ∗ The boundary layer grows less rapidly than in zero pressure gradient and transition to turbulent is inhibited. to measure the static pressure.2 With the shape factor is. the Pitot probe can be very precisely adjusted using a micrometer drive. The displacement and momentum thicknesses are frequently expressed as. The shape factor is. a plate bracket. a Pitot probe for velocity measurements and the bracket for the probe. For a decelerating free stream. For an accelerating free stream.59 For a turbulent boundary layer along a smooth flat plate there are no corresponding calculated results. frequently the velocity the distribution is expressed in the form. If. For laminar boundary layers along a flat plate with uniform free stream velocity.Laboratory 1…….29 The effect of pressure gradient We have saw as boundary layer development along a smooth pate with uniform flow in the free stream.2 ϕ = 0 . To be able to measure the flow field in a horizontal direction. the velocity distribution in the air flow can be determined. PROCEDURE Boundary Layer Plate with Probe The experimental set-up is placed in the measuring section of the Air Flow Bench.664 x√ Rex from which it may be noted that the thickness along the plate grows in proportion to √x. which varies from 5 to 8 as the value of Rex. If the free stream is accelerating or decelerating. 1 u Y n =( ) U δ Where n is an index. the measuring gland on the bracket is connected together with the probe connection to a slanted tube manometer. H= 1. The set-up consists of 2 plates of different surface roughness. δ = 1. the pressure falls in the direction of flow.721 x√ Rex ϕ = 0 . To be able to measure the velocity at different flow lengths. the pressure gradient being by differentiating Bernoulli’s equation in the free stream as. the plate can be moved in the direction of the flow.

14 y. but care should be taken that the restriction is not too severe. if this is not the case.0 19..8 15. which leads to difficulty in obtained average readings on the manometer.4 15. so the traverse is stopped as soon as contact is indicated either by the electrical circuit or by the readings becoming constant as the micrometer is advanced towards the surface.0 16. Data Micrometer reading (mm) 21.0 18.0 20. 640. values of y shown in the table are obtained from the micrometer reading at which the tube just touched the surface. L = 0.6 15.  As the Pitot tube reading being to fall. To obtain the boundary layer velocity profile.0 17. Damping may be provided by squeezing the connecting plastic tube.  The reading does not fall to zero as the tube touches the wall because of its finite thickness .0 P. indicating that the traverse has been started in the free stream.Laboratory 1……. N/m2 550 555 Taken technical data .2 15.  the pitot tube is set at about 10 mm distance from the surface  and the desired wind speed is established by bringing the pressure Po in the air box to the required value. (mm) 6. Readings obtained in turbulent boundary layer are subject to unsteadiness.5 16. Table 1. the step length of the traverse should be reduced so that at least 10 readings are obtained over the range of reducing readings. which can led to false readings.0 15. OBSERVATION a) Turbulent boundary layers on smooth and rough surfaces Air temperature = 190C Barometric pressure 1010 mb Pressure in air box: 640.265 m Barometric pressure 1010 mb Readings of Pitot pressures P are tabulated in the following table. 640.06 5. 640 N/m2 Length of plate from leading edge to traverse section. go back and start with an initial setting further from the plate.  Readings of total pressure P measured by the pitot tube are then recorded over the range of settings should be substantially constant.

204 kg/ m3 Coefficient of viscosity µ = 1. The free stream velocity U is obtained from: ½ ρ U2 = 550 N/m2 where.2 • 0.40 Where. u = U P P0 Where Po is the Pitot tube readings in the free stream. t = 0.2 x 292 = 1. As shown in the table.s Thickness of the Pitot tube. and measurements were made in the boundary layer formed on the smooth surface and then an the rough surface. making allowance for the initial displacement t due to the thickness of the Pitot tube. displacement of tube center from surface when in contact.265 x10 5 1. Air temperature = 190C = 292K Barometric pressure 1010 mb = 1.80 x10 5 kg/m .010 x10 5 N/m2 Air density ρ = 1 .010 x10 5 N/m2 / 287.204 U= 30.Laboratory 1……. 2t = 0. U = 2x550 1.2 m/s ν Re = 5.37 x105 Re = UL = 30 . From the manual of equipment CALCULATION a) Turbulent boundary layers on smooth and rough surfaces The plate was installed in the test section without the lines fitted.49 ..20 mm.

4 u/U 0.0 19.8 15.Laboratory 1…….0 19. to compare the velocity profile on smooth and rough plate.2 0.0 16.06 5. Re = 5.4 15.8 1 smooth Rogh With help the Microsoft Excel you can obtain the following graphic to allow compares the velocity profile in both smooth and rough case.0 16.0 18.0 24.0 23.10 y.10 7.00 0.3 16.5 16.0 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results should be given as shown in following tables: Table 2 Velocity distribution in boundary layer on smooth flat plate.37 x105 Micrometer reading (mm) 25.0 21.00 Velocity distribution Table 3.0 18.6 0..0 20. the same way you should have the reference to the bibliography useful for this practice.6 15.06 P. REFERENCE That was explain in the topic of content of the report. N/m2 550 555 550 u/U 1.5 17.5 16.10 8.00 1.00 1. .0 17.5 17. CONCLUSION To express how it carry out the experiment. N/m2 540 540 525 u/U 1.0 20.99 10 9 8 7 6 Y (mm) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.00 1.0 15.10 P.14 y.2 15. Re = 5.37 x105 Micrometer reading (mm) 21. Velocity distribution in boundary layer on rough flat plate. (mm) 6.0 22. (mm) 9.

To observe the decay of centre-line velocity. . which is arranged so that a diametrical traverse may be made at various sections along the jet axis. is fitted to the plenum chamber. as is the case when a smooth water jet passes through the atmosphere. 3. By analysis of the velocity profiles. Practical Lab # 4 . In this experiment we establish the shape of an air jet as it mixes in a turbulent manner with surrounding air.. to show how the mass flux in the jet increases. OBJECTIVE: APPARATUS: Round Turbulent Jet Apparatus A cylindrical tube having an aerodynamically rounded entrance. as is the case when a smooth water jet passes through the atmosphere.Laboratory 1……. has importance in many engineering applications. It is convenient to refer to such a jet as a "submerged" jet to distinguish it from the case of the "free" jet where no mixing with the surrounding medium takes place. Round Turbulent Jet Apparatus AF13 THEORY In this experiment we establish the shape of an air jet as it mixes in a turbulent manner with surrounding air. The exhaust from a gas turbine is an obvious example. Experiments which may be carried out include the following 1. Measurement of dispersion around turbulent jet INTRODUCTION The behavior of a jet as it mixes into the fluid. To obtain velocity profile at various distances along the jet and observe the development and spread of the jet. It is convenient to refer to such a jet as a "submerged" jet to distinguish it from the case of the "free" jet where no mixing with the surrounding medium takes place. The total pressure in the emerging jet maybe measured by means of a pitot tube mounted in a traverse gear. the kinetic energy flux decreases and the momentum flux remains constant along the length. Several diameters may be traversed to check the symmetry of the jet. which surrounds it. 2.

If the Reynolds number of a submerged jet (based on the initial velocity and diameter of the jet) is sufficiently small. the jet remains laminar for some length — perhaps 100 diameters or more. but the vast majority of engineering applications occur in the range of Re where turbulent jets are produced.. For a short distance from the end of the tube the layer does not extend right across the jet. The momentum of the jet is therefore conserved. The kinetic energy of the jet decreases in the downstream direction because of the turbulent dissipation. . The essential features of a round turbulent jet are illustrated on fig. and that the very severe turbulence in the jet will cause instantaneous velocity profiles to vary considerably from these mean ones. Fig. Further down-stream the shear layer extends right across the jet and the velocity uo on the jet axis starts to fall as the mixing continues until ultimately the motion is completely dissipated. There is entrainment from the fluid surrounding the jet by the turbulent mixing process so that the mass flux in the jet increases in the downstream direction. so there is no force in the direction of the jet. Schematic Representation of a Round Turbulent Jet The width of the layer increases in the downstream direction as shown on the diagram. The sharp velocity discontinuity at the edge of the tube gives rise to an annular shear layer which almost immediately becomes turbulent. In this case the mixing with the surrounding fluid is very slight.1. It should be emphasized that the velocity profiles indicated on fig. where a typical diameter may be 1 mm.Laboratory 1……. and the jet retains its identity. 1. of cross-sectional radius R. so that at section 1 shown in the figure there is a core of fluid moving with the undisturbed velocity U. The static pressure is assumed to be constant throughout. 1 are mean velocity distributions. The jet starts where fluid emerges uniformly at speed U from the end of a thin-walled tube. Laminar jets are important in certain fluidic applications. the velocity in the shear layer rising from zero at the outside to U at the inside. placed in the body of a large volume of surrounding fluid.

e. when the length of the core ceases to have influence.040 Fig. The λ r/ u/u0 value r/x = 1. where x/R is large. 0.8 1. Velocity profiles of this type.5 3. 2 Annular Element of Round Jet . If we assume that the flow pattern is independent of Reynolds number.2 0. in the sense that a single expression is used to characterise the velocity distribution at any number of chosen sections.095 0.25 2.at any position (r. When comparing x. so we might ignore the dependence upon — and write simply (4) far downstream.8 2.6 1.287 is included.6 0.0 4.5 is easily identified on the velocity profile. with experimental results it is useful to have this value.5. (2) where c is a constant. The velocity u. Using certain assumptions about the nature of the turbulent processes. 1.28 1. i.925 Table 1 Calculated Velocity Profile of Round Jet. then we might expect the velocity on the jet axis to depend on position in the dimensionless form (1) In the core of the jet. it is possible to show that equation (4) should take the form (5) where X is a constant which is to be determined by experiment. we have already observed that Far downstream. since the radius at mm which u/u0 = 0.4 1. We might reasonably expect that the velocity distribution across the section would not depend appreciably on the precise detail of the flow near the tube exit.x) in the jet may also be written in the dimensionless form (3) Consider now the velocity distribution over a section far downstream. as this makes u/uo = 0..0 0.980 0. in which the velocity ratio depends on a parameter.0 1. viz. Velocity Distribution and Momentum Flux Consider the jet of fig.4 0.Laboratory 1……. 0 0 0. Values of u/uo computed from this expression are presented in table 1. there is some theoretical justification (supported by experiment) for expecting centerline velocity to decay inversely as x.0 2. are frequently called "similar".

Coming now to mass. with the results (9) . we see in fig.. The area of the element is So the mass flux 6m through it is The total mass flux through the section of the jet is (6) The momentum flux J through the section is similarly found to be (7) and the kinetic energy flux E to be (8) It is convenient in many instances to relate these to the corresponding fluxes at the tube exit.Laboratory 1……. momentum and energy flux. 2 an annular element of the jet through which fluid of density ρ is flowing with velocity u. viz.

The inlet of the tube is rounded to prevent separation so that a substantially uniform velocity distribution is produced at the tube exit. (10) (11) PROCEDURE The round jet is produced by discharging air from the air box through a short tube as indicated in fig.3. The readings of total pressure P fluctuate violently because of the turbulence and some damping is required. A traversing mechanism is supported on the tube so that a Pitot tube may be brought to any desired position in the jet.Laboratory 1……. Arrangement of Jet Apparatus The Pitot tube is first brought into the exit plane of the jet and the scale readings are noted for which the axial position x and the radial position r are zero. Measurements are normally made in one plane. 3. The latter may be obtained by taking the mean of the readings when the tube is set in line with one side and then the other side of the tube. excessive damping should however not be used.. It is recommended that graphs of total pressure P against radius r be plotted as the experiment proceeds to ensure that the profile is well-established by a sufficient number of readings in the critical regions. the traversing mechanism may be rotated as a whole to any desired position. . but if it is desired to check on the symmetry of the jet about the axis. The pressure Po in the air box is then brought to a convenient value and traverses are made at various axial stations along the length of the jet. Fig.

the results being presented in table 2 and fig. 4.025 x io5 N/m2 = = 1. OBSERVATION Table 2 Data x. and further downstream it starts to fall more rapidly as the shear layer extends to the .Laboratory 1…….8 mm 900 N/m2 22°C = 295 K 1025 mb = 1.30x105 The velocity along the axis of the jet was first found by traversing axially. P.82x10 -5 kg/ms = 1. For the initial portion the centre line velocity u o is seen to be almost constant.50 x 10-5 m2/s = 870 N/m2 Reynolds number Re at tube exit Re = x 10s Re = 1.210 kg/m3 1.6 mm 25. mm N/m2 0 870 50 860 75 845 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 350 400 450 Taken technical data CALCULATION Diameter D of jet tube Radius R Pressure Po in air box Air temperature Barometric pressure Air density ρ Coefficient of viscosity Coefficient of kinematics viscosity Velocity U at tube exit: = µ 51..

76 0. centre. 5.63 0.96 0.Laboratory 1…….8 x.98 0.(a) Fig.. Centerline Velocity along Jet Fig.94 0.92 0. mm N/m2 0 870 50 860 75 845 100 835 125 830 150 810 175 775 200 730 225 675 250 620 300 505 350 430 400 340 450 280 u0/U 1.99 0.57 =1 shows the Table 3 Velocity Distribution at Various Sections of the Jet Fig.84 0.88 0. 4.70 0.99 0.98 0.00 0.(b) . Extrapolating the falling curve backwards to the line length of the core to be RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results and Calculations Table 2 Velocity Distribution along Jet Axis xc = 175 mm or = 6. P. 5.

The curves for x = 300 mm and x = 450 mm are virtually indistinguishable. Further downstream. Dimensionless Velocity Profiles in Jet A check on momentum conservation may be made by application of equation (10). 5(a) to 5(d). indicating similar profiles — similarity having the meaning of the previous discussion.Laboratory 1……. Fig.. The transition from the square-topped profile at the tube exit to the similarity profile is clearly demonstrated on this figure. however. The curve calculated from equation (5) (values being shown in table 1) is also plotted. and this established that there was no appreciable departure from roundness. 5 (c) Fig.7 the curves of are drawn as functions of for each of the sets of radial traverses. 5. and at x = 150 mm there is still some evidence of a flat top to the profile. 6. The areas under these curves represent the integrals . There is good agreement with the similarity profile near the centre of the jet. On fig. 6 a dimensionless comparison of the profiles is made by dividing the radius by the radius at which the velocity ratio is 0. On fig.5. 5. The profile at x = 75 mm shows a distinct region of constant velocity in the core. but equation (5) over estimates u/u0 at the outer edge. Fig. this has disappeared. It may be noted that for x = 300 mm a check was made to find whether the velocity distribution was symmetrical about the axis.(d) The results of radial traverses made at various values of x are shown in table 3 and on figs.

so the apparent rise must be due to experimental error. The areas. 7. to a profile which may be characterized by the single parameter r/x. The first part of the jet is found to have a central core of almost constant velocity which extends for a length xc = 6. measured by planimeter. but rise significantly as the jet develops. Obtain the angle at which the jet spreads by establishing the trajectory along which u/uo = 0.5. and so are a measure of momentum flux. which must be constant in a constantpressure atmosphere. The values do not remain constant at 1. Compare the variation of centerline velocity with equation (2). 2. Table 4 Momentum Flux in Jet Fig. The momentum flux in the jet.Laboratory 1……. The most likely source is turbulence which could have the effect of giving a mean velocity pressure which is in excess of the pressure corresponding to the mean velocity.8R along the axis. Thereafter the centerline velocity reduces and the velocity profile rapidly tends to similarity.e. The discrepancy is attributed to measurement error due to turbulence. appears to rise by about 14% along its length.0 as expected. .. i. Momentum Flux in Jet CONCLUSION The diffusion of a turbulent air jet into the surrounding atmosphere has been measured by velocity traverses along the centerline and along several radii. Suggestions for Experiments 1. There can be no doubt that the momentum flux does not increase since there is no force acting in the direction of the jet. lead to the results of Table 4.

Laboratory 1……. REFERENCE That was explain in the topic of content of the report. the same way you should have the reference to the bibliography useful for this practice. Investigate the effect of initial turbulence in the jet by placing wire gauze over the exit of the tube and comparing the results with these obtained with a plain exit. 3. ..

the fluid mechanics o f such flows are sometimes extremely complicated. In this experiment we investigate the flow round 90 deg bend in a duct of rectangular section. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the flow round 90 deg bend in a duct of rectangular section. 5 Flow Round A bend Duct (Characterization of energy losses in a bend) INTRODUCTION The engineer is frequently presented with problems of flow contained within tubes and ducts.. It is sometimes required to shape a duct in such a way that particular requirements are met. 45° radial section – 9 tappings 4. called external flows. Measurement of the radial pressure distribution and comparison with that predicted assuming free vortex velocity distribution. AF15 Flow around a Bend . it may be necessary to change the shape of the cross-section from square to rectangular with a small loss of total head.Laboratory 1……. Outer wall – 10 tappings 3. or it may be required to form a bend in such a way that the distribution of velocity at the exit is as nearly uniform as it can be made. using pressure tapings along the walls to establish pressure distributions. Experiments which may be carried out include: 1. pressure tappings in the wall are grouped and identified as follows: 1. Measurement of the pressure distribution along the curved inner and outer walls. 2. and readings taken. Separation may be produced where pressure rises in the direction of flow. For example. using the quick release couplings. Such flows may be classified as internal flows to distinguish them from flows over bodies such as aerofoils. APPARATUS: Flow Around a Bend AF15 A transparent bend of l00 mm x 50 mm cross-section is attached to the contraction. Reference at inlet – 1 tapping These may be rapidly connected to the multitube manometer in groups. Due to the presence of boundary layers along the duct walls. using pressure tapings along the walls to establish pressure distributions. Practical Lab # . Inner wall – 10 tappings 2.

followed by a region of severe turbulence in which there is mixing between the main flow and the region of recirculating flow (often called the separation bubble) near the wall.separation. This shows a duct of increasing cross-sectional area in which the flow decelerates with an accompanying rise of pressure. Fig. It should be emphasized that the flow shown in the figure is schematic only.. Ultimately the main flow reattaches to the wall. Separation of flow from one wall is shown. 1 (a). Separation and Secondary Flow in Ducts (a) Schematic representation of a separating and reattaching flow (b) Formation of secondary flow in a bend . The turbulent mixing leads to loss of total pressure. Due to the presence of boundary layers along the duct walls. the size of this loss depending on the extent of the . the fluid mechanics of such flows are sometimes extremely complicated. Separation may be produced where the pressure rises in the direction of flow. as illustrated in Fig.Laboratory 1……. 1.

Air from the contraction section is blown along the duct and is exhausted to atmosphere. as indicated in the figure. 2 indicates flow approaching a bend with a uniform velocity U. and in some cases the separation is intermittent. superposed on the main stream.Laboratory 1……. the curvature of the streamlines in the boundary layer is more severe. 1 (b) shows one example of the formation of a secondary flow in a gently-curving duct of rectangular cross-section. 3 shows the dimensions of the bend and the positions of the pressure tappings. The pressure gradient extends over the whole section. one set of 10 along the inner curved wall and a set of 9 along a radius of the bend. The size of the separated zone often fluctuates violently. The motion emerging from the curve in the duct is therefore a pair of contra-rotating spirals. This gives rise to a net inward-directed flow adjacent to the upper and lower walls. Fig.. given by (1) . Within the bend we shall assume a free vortex distribution of velocity. and three sets of tappings. Separation might occur over more than one surface and would not normally take place uniformly over one side as shown for illustrative purposes in the figure. THEORY The separation line is rarely steady. Fig. which sets up a secondary flow in the form of a double rotation. There is a reference pressure tapping 0 on the side face near the entry. so that the boundary layers on the upper and lower walls are subjected to the same pressure gradient as the main flow. A further complication arises from secondary flow which is again due to boundary layer effects. the strength of which depends on the amount of curvature and on the thickness of the boundary layer. But because the streaming velocity in the boundary layer is less than in the main part of the flow. 2 Assumed Velocity Distribution in Bend Simple theory of flow in a bend In this experiment. one set of 10 along the outer curved wall. we investigate the flow round a 90° bend in a duct of rectangular section. The Fig. using pressure trappings along the walls to establish pressure distributions. Fig. The curvature of the flow is accompanied by a pressure gradient which rises across the section from the inner to the outer wall.

(6) Where. viz: (5) where po is the static pressure upstream and p is the pressure at radius r in the bend. The constant C may be found by applying the equation of continuity as follows:(2) where b is the width of the section of the duct.. where u is the streaming velocity at radius r from the centre of curvature of the bend. PROCEDURE • The pressure tappings along the outer wall. in dimensionless form. Separation and secondary flow will be neglected.Laboratory 1……. Substituting for u from equation (1) and performing the integration leads to the result (3) so the velocity distribution is. It is convenient to express p in the form of a dimensionless pressure coefficient c p where. A comparison with measured values of c p may be made as indicated below. the reference tapping 0 and the pressure tapping in the air box are all connected to the manometer. (4) The corresponding pressure distribution may be found by assuming that Bernoulli's equation may be applied between the upstream section and a section within the bend. . p= pi  Tappimgs pressures (i=1 to 10) P= air box pressure pi= tappings pressure P p0 pi From equation (5) this may be written (7) which may be evaluated for any radius r by substituting the appropriate value of u/U obtained from equation (4).

Laboratory 1…….. • The air speed is adjusted to a value slightly below the maximum, as indicated by the air box pressure, and the pressures are recorded. (The setting of air speed slightly below the maximum is to ensure that the same setting may be repeated in later tests). • The tappings on the inner wall are then connected in place of the ones on the outer wall. • The air box pressure is adjusted to the previous value and a further set of readings are recorded. • Finally the procedure is repeated with the third set of pressure tappings. In the following table record the pressure relative to atmosphere datum and the pressure coefficients c p are calculated from equation (6).

Fig. 3. Dimensions of Bend and Positions of Pressure Tappings Air box pressure P 630 N/m2 Reference tapping pressure p0 80 N/m2

Laboratory 1……..

OBSERVATION Table 1.0 Data Measured Pressure
Tapping no. Outer wall Pi mm H2O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Inner wall Pi mm Pi mm Pi mm H2O H2O H2O Radial wall Pi mm Pi mm H2O H2O

Table 1 Measured Pressure and Pressure Coefficients
Tapping no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Outer wall P (N/m2) 90 145 Cp 0.02 0.12 Inner wall P (N/m2) 70 40 Cp -0.02 -0.02 P (N/m2) -265 -265 Radial wall Cp -0.63 -0.63

35 0

-0.08 -0.15

10 0

-0.13 -015

295 -

0.39 -

Taken technical data Note:-Write down pressures in manometer with respect to atmosphere and convert the readings to gauge pressures in Pascal have and then calculate the pressure coefficient Cp Based on pressure Pascal’s

CALCULATION Velocity pressure of uniform flow along duct P - Po = where, = 550 N/m2, P p0

Laboratory 1…….. Air box pressure Reference tapping pressure And velocity: U =
2( P − p 0 )

P p0

ρ

From Fig. 3, the inner and outer surfaces of the bend have radiu r1 = 50 mm r2 = 100 mm From equation (4) the velocity distribution across the section according to the free vortex assumption is therefore

where r is expressed in mm. In Table 2 we compute this ratio and the corresponding value of c p from equation (7) for a number of values of r.
Table 2 Calculated Pressure Coefficients

Figure 4 shows the distribution of measured pressure coefficient over the curved walls and compares the measured and calculated values across the radial section. It may be seen that the pressure across the inlet section is nearly uniform.

It is convenient to express this loss ∆ p in terms of the velocity pressure 1/2 ρ U2 in the uniform approaching flow by the expression K= (9) ∆ p = p0-p10_outlet where K is the dimensionless loss coefficient. This indicates that the curvature of the flow is also likely to be substantially constant. 4. The distribution of Cp over the radial section follows the calculated curve quite closely. and this difference represents a pressure loss round the bend. The measured pressure distribution varies rather less steeply than calculated. the value K=0. indicating a vortex strength C somewhat less than given by equation (3).Laboratory 1……. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As the flow approaches the bend. however. the pressure on the inner wall falls rapidly and on the outer wall rises rapidly to values which remain substantially constant round most of the curve. the wall pressures readjust until at the duct exit the pressure is substantially constant across the section. a little lower than the reference pressure at inlet. Fig. from the change in Cp from the inlet to the outlet sections. give a fairly accurate distribution of the pressure field. together with the assumption that Bernoulli's equation applies to the flow.15 CONCLUSION (10) . It is. indicating that the assumption of a free vortex velocity distribution made in equation (1). In this case we find.. Distribution of Pressure Coefficient cp Over Walls Downstream of the bend.

downstream of the bend. and positive and almost constant round the outer wall. Show that Cd is given by . where b. Using equations (2) to (5) show that Q is given by 2.Laboratory 1……. The value of loss coefficient K is 0.15 for this bend. 2 Noting that the measured pressures do not quite agree with the theoretical values. Across the 45° cross-section the pressure distribution may be predicted with reasonable accuracy by assuming free-vortex velocity distribution over the section. The distribution of pressure over the curved walls of a 90° bend of rectangular section has been established by pressure plotting. and can you suggest how this might be investigated? It has been proposed to measure flow rate Q in a duct system placing pressure tappings on the inner and outer walls at the 45° section of any convenient 90° bend which occurs in the line of the duct. 3. The pressure coefficient is negative and almost constant round the inner wall. this equation may be modified to in which Cd is a discharge coefficient.. r and r2 are defined on Fig. Do you consider that there is likely to be any separation of flow any where in the bend. and measuring the differential pressure ∆ p between the tappings. Questions for Further Discussion 1. and can you suggest any way by which this might be investigated? Do you consider that there might be any secondary flow in the stream.

. and hence find Cd from the experimental results. (Cd = 1.Laboratory 1…….P5outlet)Pressure tappimgs (5) at the inner and outer walls at the 450 section REFERENCE That was explain in the topic of content of the report.06) ∆ p = (p5inner . . the same way you should have the reference to the bibliography useful for this practice.

With this type of tunnel. the airfoil experiences a force FR. The nozzle. Discussion of lift and drag starts usually with the introduction of an airfoil. the air is taken from the atmosphere and returned to the atmosphere. A flow rectifier at the inlet ensures a low degree of turbulence. It is also possible to process the data via PC-data acquisition (available as an accessory). The airfoil cross section of an airplane wing is long in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the drawing and the flow can be considered as two-dimensional. diffuser and fan. It is driven by a speed-controlled motor with frequency converter. The fan is connected permanently with the diffuser. This principle makes flying possible. An axial fan with guide wheel is used which is characterized by its low noise level and high efficiency. Practical Lab # 6. angles of attack Measurement of drag and lift of an aerofoil at different INTRODUCTION When a solid body is placed in a fluid flow and a nonsymmetrical situation occurs the direction of the force on the body does not coincide with the direction of the (undisturbed) flow. The wind tunnel consists of the following components: inlet hopper with flow rectifier. In this practice you should obtained the form experimental the values of the components of the force FR OBJECTIVE: To measure the drag and lift of an aerofoil at different angles of attack APPARATUS: HM 170 Air Flow Bench (wind tunnel) Technical Description The educational wind tunnel HM 170 (figure 1) is a so-called "Eiffel type" of open subsonic wind tunnel. .. defined by the angle of attack. Velocities of around 100km/h are reached. nozzle. z is vertical) The airfoil is tilted with respect to the (undisturbed) flow direction. inlet hopper and the measurement sections are mounted on a guide rail and can be moved in order to access the measurement section. The measured values are displayed on a measuring amplifier. An electronic 2component force transducer permits the measurement of resistance and buoyant forces at various objects. A carefully designed nozzle shape guarantees the constant distribution of velocity within the closed measurement section. α.Laboratory 1……. A slanted tube manometer is used to display the current air velocity at the inlet into the measurement section. The fan is mounted on rubber elements to minimize vibration during operation. measurement section. (x is the direction of the horizontal flow.

volumetric flow: 9000m³/h Motor output: 2.500Pa ..Laboratory 1……. nozzle and diffuser made of FRP [5] Speed-controlled fan motor with frequency converter [6] Electron.5N and 0..... 2-components force transducer with measuring amplifier and digital display [7] Flow rectifier Technical Data Measurement section Cross-section wxh: 292x292mm Length: 450mm Max.. wind velocity: 28m/s Fan Pressure difference: 500Pa Max. rotational speed: 2850rpm 2-component force transducer Measuring range: 0. cross-section of flow 292x292mm [4] Inlet hopper.25kW Max. 250kg [3] 450mm Plexiglas measurement section. Figure 1. Specification [1] Open wind tunnel on mobile carriage [2] Experimental set-up lxwxh 2890x860x1670mm..10N Slanted tube manometer 0.

. The lift and drag forces are expressed as: FL = 0. Considering an airplane it is very useful to decompose the force FR into components FL and FD perpendicular and parallel to the flow direction. the resistance to be balanced by the propulsion force generated by the engines. the airfoil experiences a force FR. FD is the drag force. FL is the lift force. The airfoil is tilted with respect to the (undisturbed) flow direction. The designer of an airplane tries to maximize CL and to minimize CD.5 C L ρ A u 2 FD = 0. Discussion of lift and drag starts usually with the introduction of an airfoil.. the cross section of an airplane wing) is long in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the drawing and the flow can be considered as two dimensional. z is vertical) FL FR z x FD direction of fluid flow Figure 2. The net power required is the product of drag force times flow velocity.150. it carries the plane. 1m length perpendicular to the plane of the drawing u = velocity of the undisturbed flow Note that the expression for FL and FD differ only in CL and CD.g. Usually the CL drops sharply and CD increases strongly at α = abt.g. The force on the airfoil is the result of the integration of pressure around the perimeter. defined by the angle of attack. This principle makes flying possible.Laboratory 1…….5 C D ρ A u 2 with: FL and FD = lift and drag force CL and CD = lift and drag coefficient ρ = density of the fluid A = projected area of the airfoil with e.α. CL and CD are dependent on the angle of attack. and by definition it does not do work. THEORY When a solid body is placed in a fluid flow and a nonsymmetrical situation occurs the direction of the force on the body does not coincide with the direction of the (undisturbed) flow. For an enormous number of airfoil profiles CL and CD have been measured or calculated. (x is the direction of the horizontal flow. Angle fo attack angle of attack α The airfoil (e.

But when the curvature is small as with a rowing blade. As the force is the resultant of the pressure on the surface the direction of the force cannot be different from perpendicular to the surface (shear forces neglected). Assume now that the forces are in the horizontal plane as is the case with rowing. the situation cannot be very different from a flat plate. therefore. See Figure. There is. CD and CL as function of the angle of attack. FL FR z FD direction of fluid flow x Figure 3. FL FR direction of fluid flow Figura 4. Forces diagram An aerofoil is shaped so that air flows faster over the top than under the bottom. a greater pressure below the aerofoil than above it. Flow direction FD . When not an airfoil but a flat surface with zero thickness is placed in a flow a lift and drag force can be distinguished as well. Between the two the next relation exists: CD = tan α CL When a curved surface with zero thickness is placed in a flow the force on every surface element is perpendicular to that element but as the angle of attack varies and also the pressure distribution not much can be said over the position and the direction of the resulting force.Laboratory 1……. This includes that CD and CL cannot be independent of each other. Angle of Attack is the difference between where the wing is pointed and the direction of the air flowing over the wing as shown in this schematic. For an elaboration of the idea see section 5.. This difference in pressure produces the lift.

Laboratory 1……. 4. Make sure that the model is secured in respective position when the tunnel is on! 5. Aerofoil 1. Data No Angle of attack 0 3 6 9 11 13 15 17 19 Lift force(Fl) in N Drag force(Fd) in N Lift coefficient (Cl) Drag coefficient(Cd) 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Area of the holder rod is 0. In other words. If the vibration amplitude is high stop the experiment. From the explanation above follows: the distinction between lift and drag is not of a physical nature but it is a functional one (carrying and resisting) or a geometrical one (perpendicular and parallel to the flow direction) but the observation made before that the lift force does not do work is of importance. the lift force does not waste energy. OBSERVATION Table 1 . All angles will be measured with reference to this angle position. After the desired wind speed is reached set the aerofoil to the zero angle of attack.000125m2 Drag coefficient for cylindrical rod is 1. Figure 5. Set the force at the measuring amplifier to zero with the help of offset potentiometer. Mount the aerofoil model in the middle of the working section (take care of the lever arm of 310 mm of the force balance) 2. Polar diagram is a graph showing the relationship between the drag and lift coefficients PROCEDURE Figure 5. At high angles. Measurement the drag and lift at different setting angles. 3. the vibration of the aerofoil indicates flow turbulence.1 Length of the aerofoil 100mm .. Started the wind tunnel.

Sometimes you'll see a team change a Gurney flap during a pit stop and that's the next Race Tech story coming soon. A few years ago most airlines changed their procedures and you don't see planes landing at high angles of attack any more. Notice the angle of attack at that point is a negative value. the pilot manipulates the controls so that the nose of the plane comes up and. If the plane has to climb and the pilot tries to bring the nose up. What he really needs is more airspeed. there is some drag at zero lift. As the nose of the wing turns up. Notice. There is. Since an airplane wing is fixed to the fuselage. As the angle of attack increases from 12 to 19 degrees for this particular design. Calculate drag and lift coefficients of an aerofoil 2. angle of attack increases. the wings generate enough lift to take the plane into the air. Think about the last time you took a trip on an airplane. Then drag goes way up. Under conditions of low speed and high lift. You see that happening at pit stops during a race. angle of attack and Cl vs. The shape of this curve is why you read about airplane crashes during stormy takeoffs and landings. Front wings on racecars are fabricated so the angle of attack is easily adjustable to vary the amount of downforce needed to balance the car for the driver. You get a lot of lift without much drag—until you get to about 12 degrees angle of attack on this curve. but not as quickly as lift. Where the curve crosses the Drag axis is where the wing is generating zero lift. Rear wings are also adjusted by changing the angle of attack but that takes too much time for a pit stop. and lift increases. no free lunch. We say the wing is “stalled” when lift decreases at increasingly higher angles of attack. he gets more drag and not much more lift. Draw Cd vs. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. the plane is rotated up there near the top of the curve. CONCLUSION . that is. Draw the polar diagram. there isn’t much increase in lift but you have a lot more drag. angle of attack in one graph 4. CALCULATION. Draw a graph showing the variation of lift and drag with variation in angle of attack at the same graph 3. During take-off an airplane builds Figure 6. truly. The graphs below (figure 6) shows how lift and drag changes with the angle of attack for a typical wing design. A wing is fairly efficient. without creating much more lift. That means a typical wing has to point down to get to zero lift. the whole plane has to rotate to increase the wing's angle of attack.. also. Drag goes up also.Laboratory 1……. at some angle of attack. Lift and drag coefficients up to a certain speed and then the pilot “rotates” the plane.

. . You should be the comparison the drag and lift of an aerofoil at different angles of attack.Laboratory 1……. according to the result obtained and its analysis. the same way you should have the reference to the bibliography useful for this practice. REFERENCE That was explain in the topic of content of the report.

dynamic pressure. see Stoll. The latter are insensitive to angle of attack up to 40°. Sci. cit... large flask and measurement cylinder. 16. The low-pressure tap is connected to the throat of the inner venturi. Am. Included are the impact tube for boundary-layer measurements and shielded totalpressure tubes. This is accomplished by employing a pair of concentric venturi elements in place of the pitot probe. 963–969 (1951). Practical Lab # 7 Comparison of losses in nozzle and diffuser type duct flows OBJECTIVE Comparison of the lost in nozzle and diffuser type duct flows using a venturi-meter and determine the coefficient CD of venturi-meter. which require relatively small openings for their insertion into a duct. Mech. 147–223 (1975)] reviews the use of the pitot tube and allied pressure probes for impact pressure. static pressure. For a discussion of performance and application of this flow element. and flow measurements.Laboratory 1……. This gives about a 40 percent increase in pressure differential as compared with standard pitot tubes and is an advantage at low velocities. flow direction and local velocity.. APPARATUS Venturimeter. skin friction. INTRODUCTION Special Tubes a variety of special forms of the pitot tube have been evolved. A reversed pitot tube. The pitot-venturi flow element is capable of developing a pressure differential 5 to 10 times that of a standard pitot tube. which in turn discharges into the throat of the outer venturi. There are commercially available very compact types of pitometers. Folsom (loc. also known as a pitometer. 73.) gives a description of many of these special types together with a comprehensive bibliography. Aerosp. Eng. Chue [Prog. Trans. has one pressure opening facing upstream and the other facing downstream. Coefficient CD for this type is on the order of 0. Soc. .85.

.Laboratory 1……..

Y = expansion factor. . and upstream tap located 0. w = weight rate of discharge. 17) are entrance cone angle α 1 = 21 ± 2°. The straight and conical sections should be joined by smooth curved surfaces for best results. cit. p1. β = ratio of throat diameter to pipe diameter.5 pipe diameter upstream of the entrance cone. ρ w= q1. Y. dimensionless. It consists in three parts: • • • A short converging part Throat Alverging tube Venturi Meters The standard Herschel-type venturi meter consists of a short length of straight tubing connected at either end to the pipe line by conical sections (see Figure).. A2 2 gc ( p1-p2) . Figure _ Herschel-type venturi tube.. gc = dimensional constant. A2 √ = CD . Y. ρ 1 1 1 where A2 = cross-sectional area of throat.Laboratory 1……. Recommended proportions (ASME PTC. dimensionless. ρ 1 = CD. adopted by the ASME Research Committee on Fluid Meters for use with either gases or liquids. p2 = pressure at upstream and downstream static pressure taps respectively. dimensionless. is w= q1. and ρ 1 = density at upstream pressure and temperature. p. exit cone angle α 2 = 5 to 15°.25 to 0. op. q1 = volumetric rate of discharge measured at upstream. The practical working equation for weight rate of discharge. ρ 1−β 4 2 gc ( p1-p2) . CD = coefficient of discharge. THEORY Venturimeter is advice used for measurement rate of a fluid flowing through the pipe. throat length = one throat diameter.

Laboratory 1……. ρ √ 1−β 4 where g = local acceleration due to gravity and Z1. Discharge coefficients vary widely for different types... J. k. where r = p2 /p1 and k = specific heat ratio cp /cv. 39–45 (1972)]. Eng. is given by for venturi meters and flow nozzles. op. A2 [2 gc ( p1-p2) + 2 g. A value of 0. For the flow of gases.n. They require less space for installation and are generally (although not always) characterized by a greater pressure loss than the corresponding Herschel-type venturi meter. Equation is accordingly modified to give m= q1. expansion factor Y. and on the Gentile flow tube (also called Beth flow tube or Foster flow tube) by Hooper [Trans. Mech. which allows for the change in gas density as it expands adiabatically from p1 to p2. cit. ρ ( Z1-Z2)]. 19. and β . Eng.000. Basic Eng. 94..and 3-in-diameter pipes. For flow measurement of steam and water mixtures with a Herschel type venturi in 2a. 1099–1110 (1950)].984 can be used for pipe Reynolds numbers larger than 200. 93. Mech. Soc... expansion factor Y is unity. 33. . (10-21) are given in Fig. ρ = CD. Value of the discharge coefficient CD for a Herschel-type venturi meter depends upon the Reynolds number and to a minor extent upon the size of the venturi. Results of tests on the Dall flow tube are given by Miner [Trans. Am. The use of a multi-venturi system (in which an inner venturi discharges into the throat of an outer venturi) to increase both the differential pressure for a given flow rate and the signal-to-loss ratio is described by Klomp and Sovran [J. Control Syst. 72. The change in potential energy in the case of an inclined or vertical venturi meter must be allowed for. Am. p. 1006–1009 (1960)]. Values of Y computed from Eq. Soc.. Basic Eng. For the flow of liquids.. 78. A variety of short-tube venturi meters are available commercially. A plot of CD versus pipe Reynolds number is given in ASME PTC. see Collins and Gacesa. 11–21 (1971). and individual calibration is recommended if the manufacturer’s calibration is not available. 10-16 as a function of r. 475–479 (1956)] and Dowdell [Instrum. increasing with diameter. Z2 = vertical heights above an arbitrary datum plane corresponding to the centerline pressure reading locations for p1 and p2 respectively.

PROCEDURE • Check if all valves are in right position. • Set the flow and close valve exit in the reservoir of the hydraulic bench.. • Switch on the hydraulics bench. • Take reading of flow rate.Laboratory 1……. by take the time and volume of liquid • Repeat the procedure for different flow rates. . • Take differential manometers reading for each point.

C1 .79 18.10 16. for the actual condition and for theoretical calculation.. (C2 / 2g) = h1 – h2 + (C12 / 2g) and the actual flow rate will be: Q= Volume of fluid (m3) / Time. C1= Q/ A1 C1= (0. A B C D E F G H I J K L For actual condition the coefficient can be calculate by: h1 .Laboratory 1……. s Q= (12.0004905 m3 / s Q= A1 .4 s ) Q= 0. OBSERVATION Table: Data Collected Pieszometric Xn (mm) A -12 B 7 C 19 D 33 E 48 F 63 G 78 H 93 J 108 K 123 L 143 Taken technical data Dn (mm) 26 32.924 m/s = 924 mm/s . (26x10-3)2) C1= 0.84 23.21 26.10 21.7854 .00 Hn(mm of H2O (Cp)a (Cp)a CALCULATE AND ANALYSIS With the data that you took in the carry out practical for different piezometer position it can be calculated the coefficient Cp for each position.47 20.hn Cpa = (C 2 / 2g) 2 2 Where.58 25.2 18.4 16.0004905 m3 / s ) / ( 0.95 x 10-3 m3 ) / (26.

m2 Then.. Where.08 3 C D .[ ] Where: D2 throat diameter D1 inlet diameter Example. for D2 4 (Cpht )A = DA [ [ ] .2 ]4 – (0.[ 0. and A1 area the flow in section 1. (Cp ht)A = 0 For (Cpht )B = D2 DB D2 D1 ]4 As the relation between D2= 16 mm and D1= 26 mm is: [ D2 D1 ]= 16 (Cpht )B = [ 32..615)4 (Cp ht)B = 0.[ ]4 . The result should be shown in the following table: Section (Cpht)i A 0 B 0.. 1000) 305.L - . As D2= 16 mm and D1= 26 mm. h1 = 292 mm h2 = 30 mm (C22 / 2g) = (C22 / 2g) = h1 – h2 + (C12 / 2g) 292 –30 + (9242 / 2(9. but D1= DA. 2 (C2 / 2g) = Where.0828 The same way for each section “A” to “L” you can obtained the (Cpht). in this section is obtained that.51) .. C1 is the velocity of fluid in section 1.Laboratory 1…….5 mm After that it should be calculated the theoretical piezometric head coefficient (Cpht) for each section: D D2 2 Cpht = 4 4 D1 Dn [ ] .615 D2 D1 section A: ]4 section B.

5 mm..5 (Cpa ) = (C 2 / 2g) 2 (Cpa)B = 0. A2 2 gc ( h1-h2) 4 1−β √ where. (C22 / 2g) = 305. Section A B C D .. h1 . = 292 .. h1 . A2 2 gc ( h1-h2) √ 1−β 2 Q theoretical - - - - L - = CD.016/0.013 ..288 305. .. h1 =hA .... it is obtained..hB which one was calculated before. After that you can calculate the Cpa coefficient (Actual piezometric head coefficients).(Cpa)i 0 0..026 = 0.h2 Cpa = (C 2 / 2g) 1 For section A: ∆h h1 . β = Α 2/Α 1 = D2 / D1 = 0.Laboratory 1……. the same way you should obtained the values for another section. The results can be shown as represent in following table.ha Cpa = (C 2 / 2g) 2 2 1 as... (Cpa)A = 0 For section B: as.1 For venturi meter the flow rate equation is: Q theoretical = CD.0131 Subsequently..615 h1: it is taken in inlet of the venturi and h2 in throat.

You should do the analysis of conclusion about the chart of results.016) 1 − (0. we can graph the length of venturi meter (mm) vs. Cpht 0. m m (Cp)a (Cth)a CONCLUSION In this point.0005783 CD= 0. reflect on the calculation.. .8 Cpa.81) (292 – 30) 1000 Q theoretical = 0.6 0. discussion point.0004905 / 0.2 0 -5 15 35 55 75 95 11 13 5 5 Length. you should realize the analysis about the results. Q theoretical = 0.4 0. Through the analysis of the calculate data and you can construction the graph that may help you for obtained the comparison of calculated values. we can realize the analysis theses results and the discussion of it. pressure along the length of the venturi meter (mm of water) and the different coefficients vs.0004905 m3/ s The relation between actual flow rate (Qactual) and theoretical flow rate (Q theoretical) we can obtain the discharge coefficient of venturi meter. analysis of the result. Now. as shown in the following figures: Pressure.615) 4 √ 2 (9. m m 1 0.85 that is the coefficient of discharge of the venturi meter. CD= Qactual / Q theoretical = 0.0005786 m3/ s Actual flow rate as was calculated before is. for this condition. and take in maid the loss in the venture meter tube and how influence is the present of frictional losses about the flow. Then the theoretical flow rate can be calculated without CD as. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION After realized the calculated and analysis. the length.Laboratory 1……. Qactual= 0. mm of water 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Length.7854 (0.

Wind Tunnel and HM 170.09 Drag Model "Aero Foil" Instruments: Manometer. The aerofoil is painted red and is fitted with guide panels at the ends.α. The model consists of an aerofoil section made of plastic and mounting bracket made of corrosion-resistant steel. The airfoil cross section of an airplane wing is long in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the drawing and the flow can be considered as two dimensional. the same way is use in this case. These ensure that the flow is optimally aligned with the aerofoil. The model is placed in a 2-component force transducer. it was presented in before practice. but in this case we consider pressure distribution over an aerofoil at different velocity and angles.. Technical Description The aerofoil drag model is intended for usage in the measuring section in the HM 170 Educational Wind Tunnel. profile NACA 15. OBJECTIVE To measure the pressure distributions on an aerofoil APPARATUS HM 170 Air Flow Bench Win Tunnel. Aerofoil Specification [1] Drag model for experiments on bodies in flows [2] Aerofoil made of plastic. d=4mm . an aerofoil mode with pressure topping on bottom and copper surfaces. Dial gage of pressure. Figure 1. Finding pressure distribution over an aerofoil at different velocity and angles INTRODUCTION The airfoil is tilted with respect to the (undisturbed) flow direction. lxwxh 100x100x15mm [3] Bracket made of corrosion-resistant steel.Laboratory 1……. the airfoil experiences a force FR. Practical Lab # 8. In this practice you should obtained the form experimental the values of the components of the force FR . this indicates the drag force and lift as a measured value when the body is placed in a flow. defined by the angle of attack.

The force on an object due to aerodynamic drag can be calculated using: where F = aerodynamic drag force [N] Cd = drag coefficient A = frontal area [m ] ρ = density of fluid [kgm ] v = velocity of object relative to fluid [ms 2 -3 -1 ] Figure 2. [4] Force transducer section up to the middle of the model 239mm [5] Model painted in RAL 3000 Technical Data Profile: NACA 15 Dimensions and Weight l x w x h: 100 x 15 x 289 mm Weight : ca. 0.Laboratory 1……. • Finally we started the wind tunnel and measured the pressure at different portion along the aerofoil length. • Then we connect all the pressure topping along the length of bottom and top surfaces of the aerofoil model to the manometer. Forces Diagrame PROCEDURE • First we mount the model in the middle of the working section. ..3 kg THEORY Drag Coefficient A dimensionless value that allows the comparison of drag incurred by different sized and different shaped bodies. • After that we measure initial atmospheric pressure acting on the aerofoil before starting the wind tunnel. And the we set the aerofoil at 10 0 C of angle of attack.

Free stream velocity CP . Data The data collected X P∞ in cm of H2O 1 2 .5 . OBSERVATION The measurement to realize should be taken as is shown in the following table: Table 1. U∞ 2 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .0.Patm ρ = Patm / RT ρ = 0958 kg/ m3 Patm.Laboratory 1……. CP= [ (Px)y – (P∞)y ] / 0.82 mbar R = 287 T= 25 0C = 298 K . calculate the pressure coefficient. n Calculated as tabulated Patm (Pa) P x_gange (Pa) in Pascal Cp CALCULATION Subsequently we shown the example. ρ Where: (Px)y – Gange pressure at x distance of the aerofoil (P∞)y .Gange pressure of free stream ρ . how we can calculate of the pressure and C p we can carry out it known the experimental values. To measure pressure distribution in aerofoil.Density of air U∞ ..Pressure coefficient (Px)y = Px_gange .

Laboratory 1…….. Show the result with help of the graph same as is shown in the following figure 3, with the values calculated. Cp

X

Figure 3. Result CONCLUSION You should be boarding the aspect in relation with behavior the Cp and pressure in different positions of the aerofoil. REFERENCE That was explain in the topic of content of the report, the same way you should have the reference to the bibliography useful for this practice.

Laboratory 1…….. Practical Lab # 9. Assessments of the variance of lift and Drag on an aerofoil via flaps and slats INTRODUCTION The airfoil is tilted with respect to the (undisturbed) flow direction, defined by the angle of attack, α. the airfoil experiences a force FR. The airfoil cross section of an airplane wing is long in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the drawing and the flow can be considered as two dimensional. In this practice you should obtained the form experimental the values of the components of the force FR , but consider assessments of the variance of lift and Drag on an aerofoil via flaps and slats. OBJECTIVE To find but the effect of flaps and soft on lift and drop control. APPARATUS
HM 170 Air Flow Bench Win

Tunnel, it was presented in before practice; the same way is use in this case. Instruments: • Potentiometer • Aerofoil models • Measurement amplifier • Measurement drag an lift force • Thermometer THEORY
An aerofoil is shaped so that air flows faster over the top than under the bottom. There is, therefore, a greater pressure below the aerofoil than above it. This difference in pressure produces the lift.

Figure 1. Aerofoil The lift generated by a wing is based on the principle that the pressure in a fluid decreases as its velocity increases (Bernoulli′s Principle) The aerofoil is long in the direction perpendicular to plane of the drawing and the flow can be considered as two dimensional the aerofoil is filled by the angle to the flow direction, defined by the angle of attack, α the aerofoil express a force Fr.

Laboratory 1…….. Considering un aero plane it is very useful to decompose the force Fr in component FL and FD perpendicular and parallel to the flow direction FL is the lift force, it carries the plane and by definition it darts not do warp. F D is the drag force, the resistance to be balanced by the propulsion force generated by the engines. The net power required is the product of drag force times flow velocity. The lift and force are expressed (the same way that in before practice) as: FL= 0.5 C L. ρ .A. C2 FD= 0.5 .C D .ρ A. C2 Where: FL, FD – Lift and drag force. C L ,C D - Lift and drag coefficient. ρ - Density A- Projected area An aerofoil is sloped so that air flows faster aver the top than under bottom. There is, therefore a greater pressure below the aerofoil than above it. Angle of attack is the difference between where the wing pointed and the direction of the air flowing aver the wing. Some values of drag coefficient according to values of Re, shape and area:
Circular flat plate

Cd = 1.12 Re ~ 106 A = πd2/4

Sphere

Cd = 0.45 Re < 2x106 A = πd2/4 Cd = 0.2 Re > 2x105 A = πd2/4

Solid Hemisphere

Cd = 1.17 Re = 103 A = πd2/4 Cd = 0.38 Re = 103 A = πd2/4

Solid Hemisphere

• What we done next it that the wind tunnel started and after the derived wind speed is reached we settled the aerofoil in the zero angle.000125 m2 CALCULATION . • At high angle the vibration of the aerofoil is team turbulence. 5 Measurement Replica 5.08 0.02 0.06 0.02 0. • After that we measured the drag and lift force at but the measured valve of the drag and lift force is there the condition of four different cases which are aerofoil with but having both the flaps and slats aerofoil having or with flaps. • It the vibration amplitude in high stop the experiment. Taken technical data Aph = 0.08 L -0. 15 Measurement Replica 7.3 Temperature = 26 0C You can take replicas as in each carry out experiment for obtained more exactly result en performance of the practical. This is achieved by turning the holder until the model is directed to zero angle of attack.02 L 0.06 L -0..Laboratory 1…….02 D 0. 19 Measurement Replica 0.04 0.1 D 0. Angle of attack With not slats and flaps (case 1) With flaps (case 2) With slats (case 3) With slats and flaps (case 4) D 1.3 -0. The determination of the force is done by the variation of angle at different position. • Then you adjusted the force at the measurement amplifier to zero with the help of the off set potentiometer. PROCEDURE • We mounted the aerofoil models in the middle of the working section by tubing care of the lever arm of 310 mm of the force balance.27 D 0. OBSERVATION Table 1. Data No. 0 Measurement Replica 3.27 -0. and our up measured for the aerofoil with having slats and aerofoil with both the flaps and the slats.1 0.04 L 0.

Drag Coefficient: A dimensionless value that allows the comparison of drag incurred by different sized and different shaped bodies.FD h = FDmeam . 299 K = 0. C ρ d þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ m2 kgm-3 ms-1 A density of fluid.105 Pa / 287 J/kg.955 kg/m3 FD h = Cb h Aph (ρ C2 / 2) = 9.82 .45 x 10-4 N FDmeam = CDmean Ap (ρ C2 / 2) Where: Ap= 0. F þÿ N You can find the software on line for calculate the drag force following Internet site : http://www..1 . P/ρ = RT . we have ρ = Pjimma / R T = 0.co. The force on an object due to aerodynamic drag can be calculated using: where F = aerodynamic drag force [N] Cd = drag coefficient A = frontal area [m ] ρ = density of fluid [kgm ] v = velocity of object relative to fluid [ms 2 -3 -1 ] Top of Form Aerodynamic Drag drag coefficient frontal area.01 m2 C= 12 m/s CDmean = 1.9.Laboratory 1…….diracdelta.html With equation. v aerodynamic drag force.45 x 10-4 N FDac = FDmeam .uk/science/source/d/r/drag%20coefficient/source. velocity.

00 CL CD Case 2 α .5 ρ . C2) = (0. 0. when angle of attack is α =00 C L= FL/ Ap. and the same calculation should be realized with flaps. 144) C L= 0. 0.01 ..82 barr T= 26 0C For example. and realize the comparative analysis over theses resulted obtained. C2) = (0. 144) C D= 0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION You should be present the result in different charts or table (table 2) for different situation and angle of attack. With not slats and flaps.02.1/0.Laboratory 1…….FDh) / ( Ap. we advise it the following form: Table 2. .01) ( 0. Pjimma = 0.955 . and CD vs α .9.5 . with slats or with slats and flaps for each angle of attack.145 C D= (FD . 00 CL CD 50 150 190 50 150 190 50 150 190 50 150 190 Whit theses result that you have obtained of the calculates in each experiment to realized. you can show in the graph CL vs α .955 .45 x 10-4 N ) / ( 0.5 . 00 CL CD Case 3 α . Results Case 1 α . (0. 0.02776 Then realize the same calculate for each angle of attack with slats and flaps. (0.5 ρ . 00 CL CD Case 4 α .

2 -0.4 -0. 0.Laboratory 1…….8 CL_case1 Figure 2.4 0.6 -0.. . the same way you should have the reference to the bibliography useful for this practice.8 0. and CD vs α CL_case4 Cd_case2 Cd_case3 CONCLUSION With the result of the before point you should arrive to the conclusion on the influence of the employment of one or another model in these carried out experiment.2 0 -0. REFERENCE That was explain in the topic of content of the report.6 0. Result CL vs α .

related to atmospheric pressure. it was presented in practice number 2.1. Air is blown through the passage. APPARATUS: Air Flow Bench.. and liners placed along the inside walls of the duct produce a passage which contracts to a parallel throat and then expands to the original width. from which it may be noted that the convergent portion is shorter than the divergent portion. Pressure tappings are connected from the air box and from the Pitot-static probe to a multitube manometer. Figure 1. OBJECTIVE: The continuity equation and the energy equation (Bernoulli) can be checked in experiments: · Measurement of the dynamic pressure component on constriction of the flow crosssection · Measurement of the static pressure component. and a probe may be traversed along the centre line to measure the distribution of total pressure P and static pressure p. Practical Lab # 10.Laboratory 1……. Description of Apparatus A duct of rectangular section is fitted to the exit of the contraction which leads from the air box. 3. and investigates the application of Bernoulli's theorem to flow along a convergent-divergent passage. This probe is a Pitot-static probe. The shape of this convergent-divergent passage is indicated on fig. Verification of Bernoulli’s equation INTRODUCTION The experiment demonstrates the use of a Pitot-static tube. Arrangement of Apparatus for Experiment on Bernoulli's Equation .

Consider how the equation is applied to the present case. The pressure recorded by the Pitot tube is therefore the local value of total pressure P. Now the total pressure P is measured with comparative ease by an open-ended tube facing the flow. so that in equation (1) the local value of u Figure 2. and arriving at the mouth of the Pitot tube. According to Bernoulli's equation the total pressure P. Measurement of Total and Static Pressure is zero. . 2 shows the duct as a stream tube.Laboratory 1……. Fig. If Bernoulli's equation applies along the whole length of the streamline from the air box. 2 shows a streamline starting from the air box. provided the flow is steady and that the air is incompressible and in viscid. passing along the duct. The motion is arrested at this point.. THEORY The aim of the experiment is to measure the distribution of total pressure P and static pressure p along the duct and to compare these with the predictions of Bernoulli's equation. Fig. then we should expect the measured value of P along the passage to be everywhere the same as Po. if Bernoulli's theorem is valid for this motion. The value of Po may be found easily from a pressure tapping in the wall. then P should everywhere be the same as the initial total pressure Po. defined by P = +P (1) should be constant along this tube. If Po denotes the total pressure in the air box. since the air velocity in the box is so slight as to make the difference between total pressure and static pressure quite negligible.

viz. 2 shows a further streamline emanating from the air box and flowing close to the surface of the probe. For equation (3. assuming the velocity over any chosen cross-section to be uniform over that section. To compare the measured values of p with the result of calculations we must use the continuity equation as well as the Bernoulli equation. so (4) The velocity ratio following from continuity may therefore be calculated simply from the dimensions of the convergent-divergent passage.Laboratory 1……. viz.. Provided that the holes in the surface of the probe are placed far enough from the tip of the tube as to be unaffected by the disturbance in this locality (which means in practice about 6 tube diameters away from the tip) then the flow is undisturbed by the holes. This now may be compared with the velocity ratio inferred from pressure distribution using Bernoulli's theorem. cross-sectional area is proportional to width. static pressure p.4) t _ at the throat is (6) . Taking the flow as onedimensional.1) gives the local velocity as (5) and in particular the velocity u so from equations (5) and (6) (7) The right-hand side of this equation may be evaluated from the measured pressure distribution and compared with the values from equation (3. which therefore measure the undisturbed pressure. The velocity distribution along the duct may thus be written in the form of the ratio (3) and since the depth of the duct is constant. The variation of static pressure p may be measured by the static pressure tube. Fig. then the continuity equation for incompressible flow gives the volume flow rate as Q= uA = utAt (2) (The suffix t indicates conditions at the throat).

-95 25 p. and a probe may be traversed along the centre line to measure the distribution of total pressure P and static pressure p. and arriving at the mouth of the Pitot tube. . N/m2 800 800 800 . N/m2 750 780 785 .2 shows a streamline starting from the air box. 780 780 P. . Air is blown through the passage. a Pitot. . since the air velocity in the box is so slight as to make the difference between total pressure and static pressure quite negligible. . The set-up consists the contraction which leads from the air box. PROCEDURE The experimental set-up is placed in the measuring section of the Air Flow Bench. 279 304 .5 29 . mm 4 16. Fig. N/m2 195 35 -130 .  The variation of static pressure p may be measured by the static pressure tube  Readings of total pressure P measured by the Pitot tube are then recorded over the range of settings should be substantially constant. . OBSERVATION Table 1. The motion is arrested at this point. . . . 800 800 P0. . . . 1 2 3 . This probe is a Pitot-static probe.Laboratory 1……. .  Now the total pressure P is measured with comparative ease by an open-ended tube facing the flow. 3. passing along the duct. Data No. and liners placed along the inside walls of the duct produce a passage which contracts to a parallel throat and then expands to the original width.  The value of Po may be found easily from a pressure tapping in the wall. 16 17 X. . . To measure the distribution of total pressure P and static pressure p along the duct and to compare these with the predictions of Bernoulli's equation.. .  the Pitot tube is set at about 10 mm distance from the surface  and the desired wind speed is established by bringing the pressure Po in the air box to the required value. Pressure tappings are connected from the air box and from the Pitot-static probe to a multitube manometer.

2 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Air temperature 22°C Barometric pressure 1028 mb = The profile of the convergent-divergent passage is shown in fig.e. By measuring pressures at longitudinal spacings of 12. Dimensions of Convergent-Divergent Passage may vary somewhat from one test rig to another. These pressures are "gauge pressures" i. 3.5 and 25 mm.7 So Bt/B = 44/62. The values of B t /B are calculated from the known dimensions of the contraction.44) x = 62. because the static pressure holes lie 25 mm downwind of the tip.028 x 105 N/m2 = 59. The initial value. P and p are obtained at identical stations but at different probe settings.74 295 K 1.(76.Laboratory 1……. Any convenient starting value may be chosen. Note that the readings of P and p in a single line of the table do not represent the same physical position of the probe. measured relative to atmospheric pressure.(76.7 = 0. P and p are recorded as the probe traverses along the duct. In table 1.. x = 4 mm.1. when x = 204 mm B=76.701 and in the diverging section. For example.44) x So Bt/B 44/59. measurements of Po. when x = 29 mm B=76.2 = 0. in the converging section. was a convenient starting point with the particular equipment under test and . CALCULATION Figure 3. the subsequent calculations being changed accordingly.

16 17 Total and Static Pressure Distributions X.440 0. ..582 0. . . along which significant velocity changes take place.5 29 . is compared in fig. . . 780 780 195 35 -130 -95 25 Fig. despite the considerable fluctuation of static pressure p. . where the pressure falls in the direction of flow the growth of boundary layer thickness is retarded. 279 304 . The total pressure P is seen to remain very close to the air box pressure P o over the whole length of the duct. 5 are consistent with this concept. The distribution of velocity. 1 2 3 . Table 1.703 0. mm 4 16. the measured pressures agree closely with those calculated from the variation in duct width so the boundary layer has scarcely any effect. The converse is true. 4 and 5 show the results in graphical form.Laboratory 1……. . 4. In the converging section and the throat.1 No. measured by the Pitot-static probe. however.583 0. N/m 2 P. thickening of the boundary layer would give the appearance of the cross-section of the duct enlarging less rapidly than Fig. N/m 2 p. . the results are almost identical. . . where the main stream is decelerating) than in regions where the pressure is constant. and it is found experimentally that the growth in thickness is more rapid in regions of rising pressure (i.790 800 800 800 . 0. The air stream is apparently decelerating less quickly than the geometrical shape of the passage would indicate. Bernoulli's equation has therefore been verified for the streamline along the centre of the duct.e. . . . 5 with the velocity distribution inferred from the continuity equation. . The thickness of the layer increases in the direction of flow. N/m 2 Bt/B 0. In the diverging section. 750 780 785 .613 0. It will be seen in a later experiment that a boundary layer forms adjacent to any fixed surface along which air flows.653 0.701 . . and in this layer the velocity reduces from the free stream value down to zero at the surface. The results presented in fig. but in the diverging section downstream of the throat a steadily increasing discrepancy arises.653 0. . 800 800 P0. In the converging section.643 0.

5. and this may be explained by the growth of boundary layers on the walls of this portion. We may therefore conclude that the experiment as a whole has demonstrated that Bernoulli's equation is sensibly valid along the central streamline of the convergentdivergent duct. The calculated pressure distribution. Fig. it actually does.. . since the total pressure has been shown to be virtually constant along its length.Laboratory 1……. which depends on the concept of continuity as well as constant total pressure. the retarded air in the thickening boundary layer presents a partial blockage to the flow. shows a significant discrepancy from the measured results in the divergent portion.

REFERENCE That was explain in the topic of content of the report. you may assume that the static pressure and temperature there are approximately the same as in the air box. What suggestions have you for improving the experiment? How might you check whether there is in fact a boundary layer of significant thickness at exit from the duct? A possible project would be to devise and construct a suitable simple traversing gear for a Pitot tube which would measure the velocity distribution. What is the Mach number at the throat of the duct? For approximate calculation. What difference to the results would you expect if the flow direction were reversed? You may check your prediction by reversing the liners. and the acoustic velocity a may be estimated from the equation in which : is the ratio of specific heats = 1. 5. 5? 2. Would it be necessary to traverse along more than one axis? CONCLUSION You should realize the analysis according to result and discussion to you will obtain the conclusion of the practice. QUESTION 1. the same way you should have the reference to the bibliography useful for this practice. 4. . you can help also with the answer given below. The air velocity at the throat may be found from the Pitot-static reading.2 J/kg K T: is the absolute temperature in K 3.Laboratory 1……. Can you infer this from the graph of fig. What boundary layer thickness do your results lead you to expect..4 for air R is the gas constant = 287.

The nozzle and vane are contained in a transparent cylinder. This produces a water jet which impinges on a vane in the form of a flat plate.6 kg Distance of vane center to pivot = 0. A = 78. s = 35 mm .15 m Height of vane above nozzle-exit.Laboratory 1…….. terminating in a tapered nozzle. w = 0. the water supply from the hydraulic bench is led to a vertical pipe. The lever may be balanced (as indicated by the tally suspended from it) by placing the jockey weight at its zero position and adjusting the knurled knob above the spring. After this initial adjustment. the force generated by the impact of the jet on the vane may now be measured by moving the jockey weight along the lever until the tally shows that the lever has been restored to its original balanced position.5 mm2 Mass of jockey weight. An outlet at the base of the cylinder directs the flow to a catch-tank for measuring the flow rate. Experiment Title: Impact of a Jet Objective of the Experiment: the objective of the experiment is to: • Measure the force generated by a jet of water striking a flat plate and a hemispherical cup • Compare the results with computed momentum flow rate in the jet. The following quantities are required for data analysis: Diameter of nozzle = 10 mm Cross-sectional area of nozzle. The vane is attached to a pivoted beam which carries a jockey weight and is restrained by a light spring. APPARATUS As shown Fig 1.

bounded by a control surface S which encloses the vane as shown...…………………. (3) If we neglect the effect of change of elevation on jet speed. THEORY: FORCE DUE TO THE IMPACT OF A JET Let the mass flow rate in the jet be m. we assume that β2 = 180°... then u1 = u2.2gs) ………………. inclined at an angle β2 to the x-direction. 2 2 uo = u1 .(5) Momentum flow in jet at impact for flat plate is J.(4) This is the maximum possible value of force on the hemispherical cup which is just twice the force on the flat plate.. neglecting the effect of gravity. Imagine a control volume V.. so that cosβ2 = −1... and the loss of speed due to friction over the surface of the vane. is atmospheric. so F = 2m u1…………………………. so that it leaves the control volume with velocity u2. irrespective of the value of u2 is: F = m u1 For the case of a hemispherical cup.. and determine uo by given u1 and the distance of the plate above the nozzle-exit (s) is 35 mm. x (measured from the zero position at the hinge) so that it creates a clockwise moment about the pivot point that will . J = m uo .. neglect head loss.. and F = m(u1 + u2) …………….(6) Momentum flow in jet at impact for hemispherical cup is J.………. so that cos β2 = 0. uo is somewhat smaller than the nozzle-exit velocity u1 due to the deceleration caused by gravity.. Note that the velocity of the jet just before it hits the plate.. apart from that part where it flows over the surface of the vane.Laboratory 1…….….. the changed direction of the jet is due solely the force generated by pressure and shear stress at the vane's surface.……….2gs 2 uo = √( u1 .. namely: F = m (u1 − u2 cosβ2 ) …………………………………. Now the pressure over the whole surface of the jet. Therefore.……. If this force on the jet in the direction of x be denoted by Fj. J = 2m uo .(2) For the case of a flat plate.. The velocity with which the jet enters the control volume is u1. β2 = 90°. then the momentum equation in the x-direction is: Fi = m(u2cos β2 − u1)…………………………………….…(1) The force F on the vane is equal and opposite to this.(7) The jockey-weight can be slid along the lever by a distance. Using conservation of energy. It follows that the force on the flat plate. in the x-direction... The jet is deflected by its impingement on the vane.

Increase the flow rate to its maximum value. 2.Laboratory 1……. PROCEDURE 1. Moreover. Record a total of ten different jockey positions (x) for gradually decreasing flow rates (Q). Experimental data: Flat Plate Qty(m3) t(s) x(mm) m(kg/s) u1 (m/s) u0 (m/s) J(N) F(N) Experimental data: Hemispherical cup Qty(m3) t(s) x(mm) m(kg/s) u1 (m/s) u0 (m/s) J(N) F(N) . which is much easier than finding the point of balance by sliding the jockey weight. Using the balance of moment for the lever: F*0. The experiment should be run twice.] 4. such that the jockey weight is moved to the left in roughly equal distance..0 ……………………………………………………………………. [The best way to set the conditions for reduced flow rate is to place the jockey weight exactly at the desired position.15 = w. This measured value F determined from the moment balance (Equation (8)) should closely match the theoretical value J determined from Equation (6 or 7 depending on cases).81m/s2 =4. record the position of the jockey weight. and then to adjust the flow control valve to bring the lever to the balanced position. exactly balance the counter-clockwise moment caused by the impact of the jet.6kg and x is in meters. the range of settings of the jockey position may be divided neatly into equal steps. Balance the lever (as indicated by the tally) with the jockey weight at the zero position. first with the flat plate and then with the hemispherical cup. where w = 0. g = 9.(8) Where F is the force on the plate required to balance the lever. The condition of balance is thereby found without touching the lever. and measure the flow rate using the catch-tank and the stopwatch 3. Admit water into the nozzle by adjusting the bench valve.

DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 1.. F. Does the linear fit to the data pass through the origin? If not. If the slope of the above graph is different from what you expected.1 mm. Determine u1from the measured data and then determine u0 from u1. What is the slope? 3. speculate the possible reasons that cause the discrepancy. Fit a least-squares line to the data. 2. What do you expect the slope to be? What is the correlation coefficient? 4. Distance L from centre of vane to pivot of lever in error by 1 mm. What would be the effect on the calculated force on the flat plate if the jet were to leave the plate not absolutely horizontal. b. If the experiment were to be repeated with the vane in the form of a cone with an included angle of 60° (half angle 30°). 5.001 kg. Mass of jockey weight in error by 0. J vs. What would be the effect on the calculated value of the vane efficiency of the following systematic errors of measurement: a. Diameter of water jet emerging from nozzle in error by 0. 2. Force on vane. how would you expect the results to appear on Figure J vs F? . c.Laboratory 1……. Plot rate of momentum flow in Jet. why not? Questions for Further Discussion 1. but inclined upwards at an angle of 1°? 3.

Laboratory 1……. Title of the experiment: Forced vortex flows Objective of the experiment: • To plot the shape of a free vortex by measurement of the surface profile cor ordinates. Measurement of angular velocity of the water Calculation of angular velocity S. velocity and ω is the vortex angular r is the vortex radius. •  ω2  2 h = Verification of the formula  2 g r for forced vortices where h is the height    of the surface of the water above the datum point. from the table the average angular velocity of the water will be ω av = ω1 + ω 2 + ω3 3 . and thus vortex that V = constant where V is the speed and r is the radius of the vortex • To plot the surface profiles of various forced vortices formed under different speed conditions..No Number of revolution Time taken (sec) Angular velocity 2πN t 1 2 3 100 100 100 Hence.

radius and ∆h = S.Laboratory 1…….No 1 2 3 4 5 6 h Height difference. ∆ (cm ) Distance from the center r 2 (cm 2 ) Observed and calculated value of height. Observed data S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 ∆ (cm ) h r 2 (cm 2 ) ω2 2g r2 ∆h = ω2 2g r2 Discussions and results ..No Height of the surface h(cm ) Distance from the center r (cm ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Height difference from its maxi with respect to distance from the center S.

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