You are on page 1of 1

Fighting U-Boatsjrom the Sky

By Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary

An Aeroplane of the American

Flying Squadron in France


enemy Ila August, 19ÍS, Admiral reen, bogan nar vcloped that the supposed submgnnes wer« inch the gnicrnnicn', spurred ¡MÍO ac'ion hy our entrance into patrol, motor boats returning from a trial woo nrst announced two Tau ngainai Germany, is tuoi non- beginning to eotabhok. taken ptanpromptly hy 'he Aero trip. patrol Nevertheless the incident is illuminâtua.< np hciorc ">e Rotary Club of Portland. Me., and ,t Aerial ing, and the officiai statement of the Navy Çtub of imtrica and o few farooehty publie men, who organixoé the Narkmal choir- Department closed with the »ords: "This in¬ ii the honorary issioa. Vko-s9room\rni Thomas R. MertkaU Caaai Patrol M Washington. cident emphasizes the need of hydro¬ .,..7,. idmiral Poary ii rMrstSS. The national Headquarters arethe Far Kantern aeroplane« for naval scouting purposes." former editor of ,', rbarat <?> Secretary Karl Hamilton Smith, John Hays Burra; AmOW§ ill nenher, are Mau ft. Hanley. Henry Woodhouse. The Case of Sperry Norrio Sheppard. Representadle Julius Kahn, RepresentaHammond, jr.. Senator It is also interesting to note what hapYork banker.] Murray Hulbert mid EnutTOOn M'Mtllin, the Sem j pened when lawrence Sperry went out te AS THE çhastly situation on the other f Mosquito Squadron in the gnnual manoeuvres sea one day last summer in his hydroplane

rieht. 1917, The Tribune Association to ndvoeaUt o oyotom e/ aeronautical





It de-




dearer to

us it is evi-

submarines are thal to us and to our allies than more dan^crou: even their mighty armie-, ami it has also become plain, even to lay reader«, that air¬ craft are Ht this time the quickest and most
,v-" '.erman



of comba'ing the? Teutonic

vultures of the

the Atlantic seaboard, the honor of having conducted the first aerial hunt of the enemy submarines in American history went to the civilian aviators who are soon to be a part of the Aerial Reserve Squadron at Governor's Island and to the civilian In¬ I structors and aerial reservists connected phones and serial camerss, could be put in I with the Army Avistion School at Mineóla, active Berrica ia the North Sea within si* Long Island. Eleven fliers participated in months. the hunt, and two of them, Brig-gs and Aeroplane": Arosta. were out three days, landing and I "Curiously enough, these big flying boats Morr Kffcctivp than Chasers at will. originated in America, and, if America is rising from the surface of the s«s on the order of The hunt began in the teeth of a gale that seriously perturbed about the fat« of Ameri¬ Seaplanes, small dirigibles the «Eaglisb "blimp" type, and kite balloons was blowing forty miles an hour, in addition can shipping and American citizens travel¬ have already ahowa themselves to be more to rain and a bad fog Captain A. W. Briggs ling by sea in the vicinity of Europe, it effective in detecting submarines than are and Lieutenant H. F. Wehrle flew 124 miles should not be a difficult matter for America to rig up in a very smsll spsce of time quite submarine chasers or armed liners. in a driving rainstorm. Nor only have the British, French, Orman These hawks of the air darted up and a fleet of seaplane carriers suitable for the and Turkish forces destroyed trawlers, patrol down the coast in search of the enemy, often handling of these big seaplanes. If each sea¬ but sueheats and transports by aircraft, fcubmanne flying as far as eleven miles out to sea. plane ship were armed with guns hsving cessful experiment^ in aeroplane The inlets and bays were searched, vessels a range of five to ten miles, and if the gun¬ haatiaaj have alo been made ia this country. plotted, compass direction and time when lo¬ ners were practised in cooperating with In September. 1010, our rirst Aerial Coast aeroplane spotters, such ships ought to be cated were given. Patrol I'nit, in acting as an auxiliary to ths

We are rrceivinp ajjrr-eable reports as to *he efficiency of the American destroyer floti'U now nperatinj- again«-! submarines in An unknown naval officer, tne North Sea accerdiag to the new-paper« of May SO, calls fer 'he immediate construction of from I«T to BOO additional American destroyers. Tv al! means let us have this force when H «tea be miadc ready but it would take at least two years to ron««ruct, equip and de¬ liver each a he«\y additional naval tonnage, «hile 200 lighting :«*arlarifs with a full «romplemen! of machine guns, bombs, micro-

¿tnd nine others of the unit have been made ensigns A more complete aerial submarine hunt ?ook plnce on March 26 of this year This were was the real thing, because the fliers looking for German I'-boats. Inasmuch as the Navy Department is still waiting before

objects smaller than the latest type of German submarines I from fifteen to twenty feet below the surface. This unit has since been tsken over bodily by the navy, its commander, F. Trubee Davison, having been commissioned a lieu¬ tenant, junior grade, in the Naval Flying Reof the Atlantic fleet, detected




first and only aeronautical


and failed to return. Two sesplanes and three naval destroyers were sr-nt in search of him. In forty minutes the sesplanes returned with the news that they bad located Sperry floating safely on the water. At the end of the day, after several hours of search, the destroyers esme back without having seen Sperry at all. Those who may still believe that we Amer¬ icans cannot build aircraft and that all the exploits we read so much about in the news¬ papers taking place on the other side are being done in foreign aircraft will be sur¬ prised to know that a large number of the big flying boats now in use in the English navy, harbor and coast defence work are Curtlss machines, designed and built in this country by Americans, with American ma¬ terial and American engines. Great Britain wants all the machines of this type that it csn get, and sees no reason why we cannot do the same thing in pro¬ tecting our own Atlantic geabosrd. I quote from C. G Grey, editor of "The London

and on the tail are the red, white *Painted on the side is the head of the American Redskin. On the wings is the circle and star,in France to distinguish them from blue stripes. All are insignia that have been adopted by the American Flying Squadron "Somewhere in France'* the French airmen. This photograph was taken at an aviation station behind the lines
the very best


tion fiom 200 to .100 per cent. This recom¬ mendation mad» special reference to the sub¬ marine menace and coast patrol. It would also be well to add to each armed

On February 5 I had the honor of msking com s recommendation to the President, in with Senator Morris Sheppard, of psny Texas; former Senator Johnson, of Main», and Representative Julius Kahn, to the ef¬ fect that 1.000 armed and properly equipped seaplanes would increase our coast protec¬

possible in»uranee for Amuri- guard our roasts with aircraft just as they have been able to do. snd goods on the high seas."




carry two and ore aft. A smaller merchantman of from two to four thousand tong could carry These seaplane^ could be launched at one

or two properly armed large merchantman could seaplanes, one on the fore deck


intervals, according to proper conditions of
wind and wave, and in the danger zone could cut circles round the merchantman, scouting for enemy submarine!.



Europe More Capable?
we are more

| peins are


willing to admit that Kurr« capable than we are, we can

well marine by bombs dropped by German naval aviators near Gotland. On July 1, 1916. the Auatrian submarine I quote from The Associated Press report in the Adriatic by a the relative U-11 was destroyed from Tans on May 14 to show French seroplsne, «* h ich swooped suddenly importance of aeroplanes in submsrine at¬ snd dropped three bombs directly on the tacks: deck of »he submarine The craft was de¬ "During the last three months French stroyed and the entire crew of twenty-Are patrol boats have had twelve engagements were lost. with submarines, French hydro-a-eroplanes On July 27, 1915, a German submarine have fouj*ht th«»m thirteen time«, and there in the Dardanelles waa about to launch a have beevi sixteen engagements between torpedo at a British transport filled with armed merchantmen and submarines." troops and smmunition, when British avia¬ Henry Woodhouse, one of the most distin- tor» gave the alarm to the transport, and guished authorities on aeronautics in the immediately began dropping bombs at the (Jolted States, in his standard "Textbook on submarine, which had to submerge and es¬ Neva! Aeronautics," publiihed by the COB« cape hurriedly, without launching Its tor¬ tary Company, has assembled the following pedo da's on submarine and aeroplane combats: Handed Bombed Oa May i. 1916. the German Admiralty On August 19, 1915. the Turkish Wir Of¬ an engagement between a German reported dirigible gnd several British submarines in fice stated that an Allied submarine had the North Sea The submarines fired on the been sunk in the Dardanelles by a Turkish dirigible without success, wheress bombs aeroplane On August 26 the Secretsry of the British from the dirigible sank one submarine. On May II, lill, the German Admiralty' Admirslty snnounced that Squadron Com¬ announced the sinking of a Russian sub- mander Arthur W. Bigsworth in a singleas

handed attack bombed and dtatrojat g man submarine off Oatend. Lieutenant Viney received the Cross and Lieutensnt de Sincsy *n », ommended for the Legion of Honor fe,**, ing flown over a Germsn submarina u«, stroyed it with bombs off the Belpm t,



November IP. «lill Early in 1916 an Austrian gggplgga g

th« French gubmgnne Fo«je«ult


by seaplenes snd the smsl! cosst ft dirigibles. What the Europesns bava been doini. including the Turks, we certginly o«j* be able to do, unless we have grown K with easy living and self satisfaction g be hopelessly outclassed la modern Bart

in the agg Adriatic Lieutensnt « gleteny .».. pilot and the observer ugj T.ieutcaaeti Klinburg After cnpp'.mg the lubaaj, they then performed ths remsrksb!» f« calling another Austrian seaplgng and >, ing the entire French crew, two oin*«*»«, twenty-seven men. in spite of the fun* a high sea was running st the time A few weeks ago Sir Edwsrd Csi*SSaVl Lord of the Britiah Admirglty, offleisllfi ported g great many other incidenti g sinking of submgrines with bomba èr*\

A New Calendar
designed a method for measthirteen months of tuenty-eight days each, with rering NOM, which proiides and with or the 3t>ôth day-Christmas-not falling in any monththis week, the
John (linton Parker,

Adventures of "The


Aeronautical Information
¿ngr aeronautics in this column etery Sunday. Be specific name and address; otherutse questions u-ill not be ansii-ercd.

rT*HE Aeronautical Editor of The Neu York Tribute will

»newer aurstiotu



An Account of Thrilling Air Exploits in France, as Chrontcled by "The London Daily Telegraph"

and gut per]


Navy-That-Flies had been in France country on some plateau or hillside, with return home at that height. As was to be it will forated. time before the army heard very the ceaseless murmur of the guns in their expected, his adventures were by no means P. E.-Y«?s; one of the most faa much about its doings. This was not so ears, each of the squadrons rigged its flag- terminated by this decision. An astonished company of German cav¬ "Eve- the year as it passes around the sun within much the fault of the army as the outcome Staff, and hoisted the white ensign, set up military aviation schools m France a 4 I CORDING to the Philadelphia circle of cated at Pau, where the V» right brett **. nmg Ledger" there is a new agitator the compass of time. Outside the of the taciturn silence in which the Navy- the gray painted huts, and the ship's hell alry drew rein and peppered him with rifle astonished the world b) their tint M infinite space. The six wheels may shots as he whisked over the top of their man who time is That-Flies set to work. It had been bidden that divided the day into ship-watches, in the field <>f hydrography-a flights. Carroll Dana Window's "1 also represent the six working days, and the "Alba¬ to observe the traditions of the silent navy, slung their hammocks, and announced that lances. Five minutes later another has devised a brand new scheme for the seventh the the- French Flying Co'p'" will gin: day of rest. calendar. The Philadelphia paper gives In commenting upon his new calendar, and it observed them, forbearing even to they were ready to "cooperate" with any- tross" attacked him. a description of an American's expen¬ He rocked the machine in giddy sweeps line with the gun are lightly armored and diere. of Boche machines it body or anything. The Army-That-Flies this account of the matter: which he has named "Calabuy," Mr. Parker publish the number K. G.-The statoscope 1« an ana "va ithin the next two weeks John Clinton said : accounted for day by day. But there came laughed at the ship's bell, and the rest of until within fifty yards of his opponent deflect the small percentage of bullets the and side-looped over him (this, remember, that strike the propeller. The second barometer which indicates any chana a Philadelphias will present to arkcr, "There is one point to whieh I would par¬ a time when its light could no longer be the naval shibboleth, but it took the visiHydrographie Bureau in Washington a new ticularly like to call attention in the dia- laid under a bushel. "Hullo!" said the tors to its heart. With hands deep in the at 200 feet from the ground), fired a short method consists in gearing the trigger the elevation or rise and fall of an tim .nethod for the arrangement of time as now «grasa. The working days are axled to the generals and others concerned with the pockets of its "slacks" and pipe in mouth, burst, and drove the Hun off for a moment of the machine gun to the engine or pro-; C. L S.- You will find some trotibk The peller shaft by means of a system of cams being ailmittedis to the Aviation Cent expressed by the calendar. Simultaneously points of a star, representing our ideals form affairs of the entrenched army, speaking it came over and examined the fighting ma¬ while he regained equilibrium. the working wheels, hearing noticeably defective Mr Parker Brill present his method to Con¬ belts, which turn Then once more the enemy swooped upon and levers in such a manner that when a your one of the most themselves, "What about it?" They chines of the Navy-That-Flies and the "doowheel. This propeller blade is in iine with the gun cause is a keen senseimportant thiite1 societies a star surrounding the centre mover and among reader er« s-men, engineer», engineering of hearing; 1» consulted the Army-That-Flies, hickies" thereof, and it said things under him. From this point onward the «sea b' considered as the prime the trigger cannot be pulled, thus pre- aviation and tr twenty-seven foreign governments. be warned against vertigo. The pilot's renting firing until the blade has passed wi«e the aviator would not he able M governor. may Now, the Army-That-Flies had been con¬ its breath. Thi«. calendar is to be dedicated to "the "Like the early railway strap-iron tracks,, own version, the bald official report of the the muzzle, when the trigger is released when his engine is not working prope has been elongating and fronted in the early days of the war with, The Navy-That-FIiesdid not waste much -oirfrs of mankind and to men who have the track of progress affair, requires no embellishment or com¬ and the firing continued. It should be, Since the motor is the life of thi a in waves from hammering of the perhaps, the toughest proposition that was time up looking about it. One fire-eater, set-' ment, though the latter is not easy to sup¬ understood that in both cases the gun is plane and the very life of the a vieta bein loyal to duty at a great personal sac- curling which make friction and war. The wheels r-.-'-cc." It is planned to have the new chro¬ world needs an invention like the modern ever faced by mortals of even their imper¬ ting off to explore the country some thirty immovably fixed to the aeroplane, sight¬ pends upon the «moothn^ss with «gíchí In numerical inferiority miles behind the German lines, came upon press. "These operations." he states, ing being accomplished by steering the engine runs, and since hearing if pt* on Monday, December 24, T rail that will not curl and can be se¬ turbable courage. nology commcrue several times with a slight machine itself. cally the only way of detecting ttft curely spiked down to the graded course of to the enemy, it had been called upon to a school of "Quirks." Quirks, it may be "were repeated IH1 variation in the way I looped over him W. B.-The usual charge to learn to fly fundamental defects in the eng'ne, you« There have been six waves of maintain a ceaseless photographic recon¬ Cnder the proposed calendar every year progress. explained for the benefit of bipeds, are flying against a head wind ). frictional disorder in the Christian era. is $1 per minute in air with or without a see how important hearing i« Hoar« the enemy's trenches; would begin on Monday and end on Sunday. "We are on the crest of the seventh wave, naissance far behind young Boche aviators in an embryonic behind pilot. There is a minimum and maximum in the physical examination which iii" "When he was about 150 yards Tsre daVfl are devoted by it to the Christmas with good prospects that a league of nations to spot for the guns of the army along a stage. for the course at each school, which to candidates for admission to the H me. I looped straight over him. and coming charge fsstival e.ery leap year. According to the will follow. With the track well fastened suddenly extended front ; to 'keep the wind tion Corps, tests of eye ight. hoannf < From the convenient ambush of a cloud out of the loop dived at him and fired a \aries considerably. obvi¬ the circle of time, progress new arrangement a year consist« of rî>i4 days down to r.erves are very vigorous. R. H. W.-What is a spiral spin? up" the Boche so that for every ten of our he watched their antics for a while as they and more rapid than ously will be grouped in Iftj-tws weeks, distributed over ever before. steady good long burst. I saw nearly all the bul¬ There is a minimum speed capable of P. G.--(l) Yea; danger ef fire ii machines that crossed the German lines about above their aerodrome; and lets go into the pilot's back, just on the thirteen month-. The number of days and "Our present method of dividing time, ex¬ barely one of his would dare to cross ours. flopped holding an aeroplane in the air which of the most serious danger« t«h> a»* then, descending like a thunderbolt, he edge of the cockpit. week« are the «ame in each month. The same pressed by the existing calendars, is not at This is called aerial varies inversely with the spread of the has to -confront. The L'nited and they supremacy, "He immediately dived straight into the wings. When a projection of the vertical specifications require that tire exfirf**! all simple. It is quite cumbersome. Their ori¬ tumbled three over, scattering the rerrralnanti maintained it with fewer gin and growth are most interesting. The established ground. I then went over the German side areas of a seaplane or aeroplane are ers be mounted on a convenient brw der, and returned to make his report. Kgyptians were the first to institute a sacred and worse machines than they care to talk The trenches filled with soldiers, and was fired incorrectly proportioned and the areas on all planes and flying boat.-. squadron listened gravely to the on by machine guns, rifles and small field rhead of the centre of calendar, m which every day almost everv about to-day. are too' (2) The most common tente of fir»! hour had its special religious ceremony. story, and concluded that the Golden Age guns, in or out Ive gods and little fishes) great the machine will gravity to tend "Of course, we know all about these pivot due ?> a leak in the gasolene tank M and the Then there are the Hebrew calendar had dawned. But sterner work lay ahead, of range. There were many shells burst¬ around its nose or tail. This spiral insta¬ ping on the exhaust, causing ignitrt*' Mahometan, Republican, Chinese, Julian and r.aval johnnies," said the Army-That-Flies ; the German trenches." bility may not be revealed until the en¬ the inflammable liner ««>.er;ng of J Gregonan calendars, the latter being the one "they'd steal gray paint from their dying and a fair sample of it is contained in a ing in and about The report concluded with estimates of gine stalls rounding a sharp turn or when wooden framework o( the luseleg* orb* of another young gentleman who used by us at the present time. It is the re¬ in report the strength of various hodie« of infantry insufficiently banked on a low rate of in which the pilot an«l his i bser-**et' a: formed .Julian calendar, introduced by the grandmothers, and they fear nothing went scouting single handed over the Ger-' and cavalry, movements of convoys and I speed. The nose then will drop and the seated. During aerial fight? bul!«« ?**' bull of Pope Gregory XIII, in 1682, but was the heavens above nor the earth beneath man lines what time the "Gentlemen of in England until 170 years later. not adopted artillery, noticed during the intervals be-' tail start to swing round, describing a sometimes pénétra te«! the gas tank Si nor the waters under the earth. They are "When we consider that the world suffered England" were, if not abed, cracking the tween aerial somersaults. The pilot landed circle larger than that of the nose. The the same result. If fire occur« it» *.* that things are getting a bit for 1900 years to gratify the vanity of the complaining their breakfast eggs. at the first aerodrome he saw, adding in circles described by the nose and the tail btt°n J altitude the chance of e**< We might first of Lmperor Augustus, who had the then present dull along the coast. explanation of such an irregular proceeding will be apparently concentric. Occurring aviator can land is small. ape calendar altered so as to give August as many show them a thing or two «if they cared to A Fight Against Odds that his machine was badly shot about. near the ground, a loss of speed is cer¬ K. T.-The days as July, one would have thought that join up with us for a while." "Let's ask aeroplane m tain to result in a smash-up. If high in facturers with leading r.ear v* aa would have been >«". factories (the Gregorian calendar so far an advance them," said the army. So the Navy-That- He was attacked by two single-handed Canada's uith the air the machine will come down in a are: The Standard Aero i onitruf* »«lopted at once, a« it was "Albatross" machines and a Halberstadt Even to this day the Flies was invited to "cooperate with the m the right direction. whirlpool, ».pinning like a match in the Returned Soldiers Plainfield, \. J The W Julian calendar is used by both Russia and Royal Flying Corps on such portions of fighter. Into the engine of the latter he Mechanum nf the H Month (alendar waste of a basin. The machine makes a Company. Eastern. DeKalb Avenue, Brooklyn. I THE Conference of Chanties and pivot of the corner of one wing and Greece, whose dates consequent.y are now where its experience of escort work emptied a tray of cartridges, with the re¬ Corrections, held in Pittsburgh last revolves »bout it. The first turn is very The New York Aero ( onstructiof) day of tne week ha.» the «ame éott is >»ry thirteen days behind those of other Christian the line and offensive patrols would prove of the sult that it immediately went spinning week, developed no more interest¬ glow, but the speed ncreases with each pany. High Street, Newark, N- «W month. Christma«, the mmtb day. doe« rot countries. "It i« not mv purpose to change the num¬ value." Or words to that effect. oown; to make assurance doubly sure he ing topic than that brought from Canada revolution. The only hope for the aviator L. W. F.. College Point. Leng greatest It i« made the orrie La »iv week or morth ber of month«, but to add another fired another fifty rounds into the whirling, by Miss Helen R. Y. Reid, director of the is to make the machine dive into the vor¬ The Gallaudet Aircraft Corporation Sending of Its Best keystone day r,f 'he year, "to celebrate the month, making thirteen, each containing an office in the Marbridge Building.1 The Navy-That-Flies accepted the invi¬ wreck as it fell. By this time a veritable Women's Patriotic Fund of Canada, who tex of the whirlpool. Even then, if the Broadway, and the Aer.manne Plat**' .nal triumph sf 'he ChriStSBSfl spirit over twen'y eight dava. That would give a total fold a moving story of the pitfalls that, motor is turned on. the planes will fold of 3M day», with Chnatmaa not coming in tation with suppressed exultation, and de¬ hornets' nest appears to have risen about N. J«. rgi»i»m, »Balte sad »»r'' beset the returned soldier and of how up like a book. Among accidents to be¬ Motor Company, of Keyport. The old Gregorian cal¬ Toe emtet Biri Is is 'he calendar represents any week or month an office in the Times Building. of fighters. It his ears. social agencies were organized to assist ginners this, next to faulty landing, is the endar end« on December 22, 1917. Christmas tailed certain squadrons tMas d vided ir.'o '*,*>. inv«. tne number« lea« is advanced two days to December 23. The admits having selected picked pilots, be¬ Three more "Albatross" machines, him. Z -The firat air raid on most common. leeeatiag *n» Sunday«« Three hundred and new calendar begins on December 24. Fach cause there wa* the credit of the old Navy whirred to the attack, and in his subse- Miss Reid told of the changed mental at- A. B. C.-Write to the chief signal offi¬ was made January 19. 1915 ni ra»* »ixty-rv» and ¡"UV*, represent the "aeyatone" year end« on the shortest day. which is De- to consider. Karh squadron was intrusted quent report he noted with artistic enjoy- t'tude of the returned soldier from the cer, Brigadier General George 0. Squier, loas of life, including Wednesday'«* rember 21 or 22 in the old calendar Every trenches, of his new view on life formed by 531 person«. lay» rrrri.»ry >,, BSSSSitHe the r.rcuit around month and every year begins on Monday io to the care of a seasoned veteran of fully ment that the head of one pilot precisely the months of regulsr discipline gnd life in Washington, D. C, for blanks to join the' S. 0.-Eugene Ely was the first » the SBS f"r regular and leap years The next the new calendar, and the same date of the Often when men return and ar« Aerial Reserve Corps. twenty-five summers, and of the flight filled the ring of his sight. This eye for the army R. B.- (1) Linen is used for the cov¬ f-om the deck of a ahip He arcompi'»' inner «.rcie represen*» the fifty-two weeks. «ame week has the «agme dgte in every month. rgnks they gre leaders there was one that had even turned detail enabled him to recall the fact that I ischarged from the the old kind ofnot physi- ering of the of the .. «*H life, and Th» name» of the original thirteen Amenran This is simplicity personined, and to my mind wings and the fuselage or this feat from the deck lally fit to take up In short, the Navy-That-Flies he saw three bullets actually strike the rather than learn any new trade they will body of aeroplanes and hydro-aeroplanes. j P.irmingham November 14. Itt* Beleaiee era u»*d tr, teaejeamui th» thirteen i« a sensible and logical way to overcome a twenty-one. with the not surprising result loaf and shirk their responsibility to the It is drawn up taut and covered over with cial platform had been erected f»*" ' 'wenty-eight days each The inner complicated problem. that time is the meas¬ was sending of its best; and its worst was pilot's head, «-,'-?' "We must not forget indeed. They flew away from that the would-be avenger heeled over and family Many a man finishing his term of Hope or varnish According to govern- pur-pose -re thirteen week« in (»rh qu»r- ure of motion i rr.r g not the motion itheif. It ia very good Ml «Ice would rather reenli»t than face the ment Specification 100*2 the linen must M. P. W. The Curtiss aeroplaM to the ground. of supporting hi« family. t«r. Tbt «e'.er'h month 1» the "keystone" th« enveloping circle of our sphere of life, the coast and the sea, and their motor spun .«truggle have tensile strength t .ries are located at Buffalo. N V thought, knowledge and action. It is the transport rumbled through the empty By this time he had been driven down to These aim» problems are going to face this of per square yard a the mor," seventy pounds with filling and manufacture aeroplanes and have bonton of lif» beyond which is spgee without for we gre in The rer're\ ruo be considered a« measure It plains of I- ranee, till they closed upon the a height of *JO0 feet above G>rman occu- lountry. a« ( anada. and the same geographic eighty pounds with the warp. planes and flying boats, and la ,n elastic circle which per location when o«jr loved onea pied territory, and having lost sight of the go "over seas" to figh* «» .ire saying gond-by 1*2) No substitute for linen has been tracted for the construction of rtf* representing the «un ard the »ii wheels a« mils eternal growth indefinitely, without a fringe of the entrenched army. found because linen weighs only from 3\ ngibles ot the English "Blimp" Here, per« hed above the surrounding remainder of hu aggressors he decided to for many weary months J sajas »ming the earth st different time» of brea«.."
lum <uch days devoted to Christmatt in leap year. By month. ame day of the ueek has the same date in every


S. P.-Count von Zeppelin's first air¬ made its first flight July 2, 1900. F. A. W.-A machine gun may be fired through the propeller in two distinct ways. By the first method the gun may be fired at any desired moment irrespective of the relative position of the propeller. In order to protect the latter from damage the portions of the blades which come in




per square yard; it taa at less than M ««'nts per yara,i not rip like cotton when it is|













Enf^ J