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Education In India

Education in India has a history stretching back to the ancient urban centres of learning at Taxila and Nalanda. Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj. Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled. India has made a huge progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India. Much of the progress in education has been credited to various private institutions.The private education market in India is estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008

Literacy Statistics
An understanding of the literacy statistics across the different states of the country, across men and women, across different age groups is vital to embarking on any literacy intervention. Information published by the Indian government is shown here. The literacy rate in India per 2001 census was 65.38%
• • Male literacy rate 75.85% Female literacy rate 54.16%

and will increase to $68 billion by 2012.[4] However, India continues to face challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 35% of the population is illiterate and only 15% of the students reach high school. As of 2008, India's post-secondary high schools offer only enough seats for 7% of India's college-age population, 25% of teaching positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors lack either a master's or PhD degree. As of 2007, there are 1522 degreegranting engineering colleges in India with an annual student intake of 582,000,plus 1,244 polytechnics with an annual intake of 265,000. However, these institutions face shortage of faculty and concerns have been raised over the quality of education. Three Indian universities were listed in the Times Higher Education list of the world’s top 200 universities — Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management, and Jawaharlal Nehru University in 2005 and 2006. Six Indian...

Nowadays education is one of the most important subjects to discuss. Why is education so important? Why do parents call upon their children to receive a decent education? First of all, we should clearly specify what the world demand for highly educated employees is connected with. The chief reason is that technology does not stand still. As a consequence, more and more complex machines are invented. In spite of the fact that manufacturers of these

Schools are more worried about making their students happy that they've lost sight of the fundamentals. as said above. most of such attempts are vain. they completely forget about whether the products full of their newest technologies will be easy to handle. I have manipulated the education system to work in my favor.machines constantly assert that they do everything in their power to make their products as labour-saving as possible. but with the recent violence in schools this has changed. Let us bring this to a close. ... Nowadays. The growing need for skilled cadres is dramatic and. these specific students are being setup for failure by telling them it's ok to have outbursts or misbehave because it's a psychological problem. and have lost sight of their educational goals. the importance of having a decent education has become far greater now than it was 30-40 years ago. Students had a natural fear of teachers then. About 30-40 years ago you could come to a company to apply for a well-paid job having received only some compulsory education. Second. The grading scale is less standard and more personal. fraternized with the faculty to increase my grades. Teachers need to show authority not comfort. In summary. and a couple passes at the teachers themselves. I was amazed At what I could do with a few nice compliments. Without the power to punish students. Give teachers more authority in the schools. Implementation of something new often creates a need for workers who have the appropriate qualifications. Trying to invent technologies which would allow workers to spend less time doing physical work. Schools have become the nurturing influences on students. Especially for the minority of the kids that are outcasts and disciplinary problems. but in recent years and through personal experience this has become more relaxed. Students show teachers very little respect anymore. I passed classes without doing work.. Let's get into a little more detail. I see this to be a very large problem. I feel we need to bring back some of the older policies. most managers of big companies have begun realizing that the volume of production greatly depends on what kind of people works in their company. The time when only the presidents of the transnational enterprises were aware of the paramount importance of recruiting first-class employees elapsed a long time ago. the students themselves now have control of the classroom. Nurturing is something the parents are responsible for not our school systems. the considerable need for educated people is directly connected with the advent of modern technologies. Public education used to have a more standardized grading scale. Teachers no longer have the authority they once did. Employers and post secondary schools will not have similar regard to such problems and holding a job or getting a college education will be near impossible. Therefore. Education Reform Public education has changed drastically in the last 50 years. Let's move on to what I feel is a more detrimental part of the system. At one time a teacher had the authority to paddle an out of line student. Bring back a more. everyone is eager to get the most skilled employee. and were less likely to have disrespected them.

For the most part. or behavior problem (Crowe. Society is in a fast-paced. with certainty. Primary Care Version (DSM-IVR) (Journal for Clinical Psychology. and reveal strategies and techniques of teaching children who display behavior disorders. and in the attitudes and behaviour of the current generation must also be taken into account. the presence of such children makes it very difficult for school systems to educate students effectively. Fourth Edition. reform in education has also been increasingly seen as an imperative of our macro environment. of relating. Every wind tee we raise into the gales of the future tells us that people had better find new ways of acting. The following examples of behavior disorders are from the DSM-IVR diagnostic. As a result. Also. and for the sake of this paper. For instance. Revised 1999). I received my information from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. the impact of reform has either . This paper is intended to describe different types of emotional and behavior disorders. Teachers often report that one in three of all public school children exhibit some sort of academic. psychosocial. emotional. there is no way to know. It get better grades is said that a child possesses a certain disorder when the symptoms occur frequently and are severe. 2010). Whilst conjecture has been rife. recent reform has failed in its task to significantly and positively reshape education.. First of all. Para. the influence of changes to society.Education Reform Teaching Children with Behavior Disorders Behavior and learning disorders are becoming more and more common in the general population of young children in our kindergarten through 12th grade classrooms. The important role of education in preparing its citizens for such a society has demanded a phase of reassessment according to the fundamental questions: “What is required of the human being in order to survive and/or succeed in the changing modern world?” and “How can education/pedagogy best cater to this need?” In dealing with the second question. Over past decades. the pressures of public opinion and accountability. The DSM-IVR contains descriptions of specific characteristics that are used to determine if a child or young adult has a behavior disorder. A diagnosis of a behavior disorder is based on one of several classification systems. Identifying a behavior disorder can be very difficult. The questions of who or what is responsible are almost limitless. of dealing with their environments. or the “passing of the baton” in terms of educational and political leadership. defining different types of disorders and learning how to recognize them is the first step to helping children with behavior disorders. 1998. constant state of flux and redefinition affecting “practically every field and condition of individual and social life and activity” (UNESCO. identify nationwide resources and programs designed to help in education. it can not be said that a parent did something wrong to influence any type of disorder in a child.. “…something is wrong. overwhelmingly. that something is wrong in the brain causing the child to exhibit bad behavior. 2). it appears we need a new human nature” (Leonard. Just to survive. Introduction Reform in education has traditionally been driven by professional motivation to implement newer and/or better practices. The most familiar.

The most distinctive feature about India is the huge income disparity and the diverse cultural fabric. while the latter . that man does not live by bread alone.the process of developing and training the powers and capabilities of human beings. As the gentlemen seated in the seats discuss about the impact of recession on the Indian growth story a boy of about fourteen. Essay Topic: Educational Reforms And Employment Opportunities. ” A 2007 report by the state-run National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS) found that 25% of Indians. .John A.been negative. is not limited to the ordinary instruction of. by failing to take a. II. Privitisation Of Higher Education In India: Higher Education must lead the march back to the fundamentals of human relationships. minimal or illusory... some give away some food that they had been carrying. or 236 million people. It helps man indoctrinate values and apply the technical know-how in real life situations. Hannah Education has always been and continues to be one of the most important needs of mankind.. to the old discovery that is ever new. Picture to yourself a crowded scene in a train crossing through the rural belt of India. He is at work. living in abject poverty. The former figure comes from the PPP conversion rate. So on one hand we have IITs and IIMs aiming at achieving international standards to match MIT and Harvard whileat the other hand we even have many villages without a primary school. The train stops for some time for track clearance and a couple of kids in rags enter the compartment with brooms. a large investment is required. This is particularly so in the public domain. lived on less than 20 rupees per day with most working in "informal labor sector with no job or social security.. The Government of India cannot absolve itself from the responsibility of providing higher education to its citizens. In its broadest sense the word comprehends not merely the instruction received at school... Definition of ‘Education’ and the need for the Privatization of Higher Education in India The term ‘Education’ has been clearly defined as . Public education. or college but the whole course of training moral."(Ref: Wikipedia: This figure has been variously reported as either "2 dollars per day" or "0.Private partnership as far higher education is concerned? Would the disadvantages of Privatization outweigh its advantages? Would Privatization in India lead to monopolization of Higher Education by the Private Sector? These are some of the compelling questions that this paper attempts to answer. Would it be feasible to have a Public. This he accepts as payment. With the same dirty hands that he had swept the passages he licks up a bowlful of rice someone was generous enough to give him. In order to cater to these needs.5 dollars per day". there has been an increasing trend towards privatization of higher education in India. brushes the area below their seats. But in India lack of adequate funds continues to be a major hurdle.. intellectual and physical. Of late. In the given context. There are several schools of thought in this regard and the term ‘privatization’ raises several issues. Some generous folks drop a coin or two on his hands. But what is the pay? After having swept the whole compartment he comes and begs. The Government is thus obliged to not only strive towards providing access to higher education to all its citizens but must also try and improve the quality of higher education in India. there is a pressing need for the Private Sector to pitch in and that at the risk of privatization and monopolization of higher education by the Private Sector.

Firstly. At a time like this.. The above stated move by the government brought out the students.. Over the years. the government’s decision to bring out legislation to implement a 27% quota for OBCs adds further fuel to the fire. The government of that day introduced the concept of reservations so that there would be equal progress of all sections of the society. This has all happened because of the growth of education in the public sector and participation of . Enrolment ratio in higher in India was 10 percent in 2007. Also note that this figure does not contradict the NSS derived figure. After nearly 60 years of independence now. general or open category people has remained more or less the same. Moreover. India's Reservation Policy In Higher Education Institutions India’s Reservation Policy in Higher Education Institutions The term “Reservation” has been doing the rounds within the Indian media circuit of late owing to the government decision to implement 27% quota for the OBCs in the educational institutions of higher learning. When our country achieved independence. Introduction: Education at the college or university level represents higher education in India. India is becoming a genuine knowledge society. With a large percentage of illiterate unemployed youth this manifests. It just uses a more inclusive poverty line) With the second largest population in the world there is a huge pressure on economy and ensuring a basic standard of living becomes a mammoth task. which uses calorie consumption as the basis for its poverty line. There are a large number of failings in the reasons publicized by the government for implementing this decision. a large section of the society was leading a miserable life. Globalization has brought about a spectacular growth in higher education. high fees and regulatory bottlenecks. the condition of the people of reserved categories has improved at a fast rate while that of the middle class. knowledge economy and aiming to be a global super power. None of us would hesitate to say that these doctors. Privatization of these institutions has brought in a host of issues to tackle such as poor quality. Higher education in India has expanded many folds since independence.php?save_ Role Of Higher Educational Institutions In Corporate Social Responsibility Abstract Higher educational institutions in India have been contributing to the knowledge base of our country. 5 lakh teachers and 112 lakh students today. 18064 colleges. They have been enrolling students at the rate of 10 percent in the year 2007. The reserved category candidates occupy nearly 52% of the government jobs today. most people feel that this is just another way of wooing the voters. resident doctors and even the faculty members of AIIMS and many other hospitals to protest against the government. /login. These issued have resulted in the erosion of quality in education. on the percentage of the OBCs in the population. the products of these institutions have not been contributing to the welfare of the Indian society. They had been exploited for ages and the false beliefs in the society at that time further worsened their condition. There are 400 Universities. Then what is the immediate need to increase the quotas? Though the government would not agree to it.comes from the official exchange rate. the government has rooted its decision in a survey conducted by the Britishers prior to Independence.. general category people have started to feel that they are being subjugated and that the odds have been stacked against them.. Time has come to study the significance of this matter and see its consequences on the country in the future.

they are resisted. in the period 2002 ' 2007. and has Been expanded phenomenally during the last five decades. The conventional university system in India.private sector. if enforced. Higher Education Reform in India: Prospects and Challenges The system of higher education now existing in India was originally Implanted by the British rulers in the mid-19th century to serve the colonial Economic. 9.. and in particular.. to Consolidate and maintain their dominance in the country. weakening of student motivation. and 887 polytechnics. the trend in the universities is toward reducing everything to the lowest common denominator or leveling down quality rather than raising it. they are ritualized. They amount.000 teachers and caters to 6. has proved itself to be incapable of introducing any significant educational innovation or effectively implementing any educational reform. what has been achieved in reality is only moderate reformism. Critical appraisals undertaken by the governmental committees and independent academicians have highlighted the crisis confronting the system: ‘over-production of “educated” persons. Most private institutions offer education in a few disciplines like engineering. the demoralizing effect of the irrelevance and purposelessness of most of what is being done. The fate of such innovations as the .755. increasing educated unemployment.000 students. confronting as it is a systemic crisis. deterioration of standards.’ While the politicians and policy makers have often spoken about the need for radical reconstruction of the system. frequent collapse of administration. Given the mounting pressure for increasing accessibility and overdemocratization. It was inherited by The state managers after independence (in 1947) as a colonial legacy. The system now employs 321.703 colleges. 38 institutions ‘deemed-to-be universities. The massive system of higher education in India consists of 214 (198 state and 16 central) Universities. the share of private institutions in higher education increased from a third to over half of all enrolment and this trend is expected to continue into the future. medicine and management. According to the Planning Commission reports.’ 11 institutes of national importance. When experiments or innovations are introduced from outside. increasing unrest and indiscipline on the campuses. political and administrative interests. and above all. The Indian university system is extraordinarily rigid and pronouncedly resistant to change: The impetus to change does not come from within the system.

Considering the chronic paucity of resources. where structured inequalities have been entrenched. mean that all private institutions are necessarily good. annual self-appraisal report. which is expected to function as an agency of change. however. As in any commercial operation in a market economy. faculty-improvement program. Thus. Some of them are brazenly commercial establishments out to swindle gullible people looking for better-quality education at affordable prices. however. should itself be resistant to it. gradually unburdening itself of the additional responsibility for higher education may be advisable for the government. college-development council. adaptability and quality.merit promotion scheme. semesterization of courses. curriculum-development centers. there is enormous scope for educational innovations and initiatives. academic-staff college and refresher and orientation courses are too well known. significant educational innovations and experiments are currently taking place in institutions outside the university orbit and in the private sector. In a polity such as India’s. The economic trail of liberalization and globalization demands it. Privatization of higher education is apparently a fledgling but welcome trend: Higher education requires it to maintain creativity. vocationalization of courses. This requires the social supervision of the private sector and effective measures for offsetting imbalances resulting from unequal economic capacities of the population. we again confront a dilemma: Theoretically. Thus. is not without social costs. it could better utilize the scarce resources for realizing the goal of universalization of elementary education and for improving the quality of school education. Privatization of higher education. privatization is sure to reinforce existing inequalities and to foster inegalitarian tendencies. such establishments get exposed. This does not. In view of the rapid expansion of and increasing variety in knowledge and skills. It is indeed ironic that higher education. . The void created by the paralysis and drift of the conventional university system is being filled by private entrepreneurial initiatives. Instead. The private institutions have been more responsive to the demands of the economy and industry and the changing employment scenario. They have also shown their ability to match relevance with flexibility both in costs and regulation.

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body for curriculum related matters for school education in India.[22] The NCERT provides support and . how do we control the private sector without curbing its creativity and initiative? That is the challenge in higher education at the beginning of the new millennium.how do we advance equality without sacrificing quality? Practically. Overview Children lining up for school in Kochi.

[23] In India. in which the majority of Indian children are enrolled. the various curriculum bodies governing school education system are: The state government boards. . • • • • • • The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) board. or autonomous. Challenges • Huge demand supply gap – not just in terms of number of seats available but more so in terms of seats available in institutions who offer quality education Eg. Islamic Madrasah schools. Autonomous schools like Woodstock School.technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies. ○ IIT-JEE – > 3. the students in “open” category face much stiffer competition than indicated above) • India has birth rate of 25 million per year – developed countries have 1/3rd of students going to college. whose boards are controlled by local state governments. entrance exam for admissions to IIMs – only 1700 get admission – only 1 out of every 170 students who take CAT will make it to the IIMs. it will need 8-9 million graduate seats in college and it has only 4. medicine as only choices for graduation – they are unable to appreciate attractiveness of new specialized industry oriented programs that are launched in the country India has a very large number of talented students but many of these feel dejected for not making it to IITs and IIMs due to lack of capacity – they end up going abroad for education • • • • . International schools affiliated to the International Baccalaureate Programme and/or the Cambridge International Examinations. Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula. Regulatory framework – antiquated. Auroville. ○ About 2 lakh students compete for the 77 seats available at AIIMS – a premier medical education institution in India ○ 9. The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) board. If India were to meet the same standard. Number of applicants went up by 28% in 2008.95 applicants in 2009 competing for ~7000 seats – average 56 students competing for 1 seat. “not for profit” requirement to set up educational institutions – major obstacle in attracting serious players and investments There is huge obsession with capacity creation – but emphasis should be much more on quality – how is it that we can create quality capacity? Parents only treat engineering. 290000 applications received for CAT – 2008.5 million today.500 seats in National Institutes of Technology (NIT) invited more than two lakh applications (if you factor in seat reservations. or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband. The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (ICSE) board.

Also. today. He also emphasised the need of a facilitative eco-system that encourages transparency. He added that. And at this juncture.Reforms:our education system tends to churn out people who are good at certain skills. doing out-ofthe-box lateral thinking. The Quality teaching and involvement of the Teaching faculty and their accountability should be mandatory for the development of quality education. He felt that the reforms should bring about a broadbased education that combines liberal arts with technology and science. employability. employment and employability.There should not be permanent incumbancy of teaching staff and extraordinary people should be called for teaching jobs. there would be a lot of genetic diversity in business models such as: increased classroom experimentation. The real debate is not of private versus public or foreign versus Indian — but about a good college or a bad college. and employment. For the appointment of the Teachers should not be stick to the principle of NET/SLET/PhD qualification. if public money was made available for both private and public delivery. one should be able to regulate the incompetence. and more employability. the regulatory system in education. increased adoption of technology in classrooms. but not necessarily efficient at problem solving or.The appointment in Higher Education should be based on merit not on caste/creed . encourages the production of dwarfs. But the need is to encourage the production of babies. which one observes sometimes in private education or the lack of performance management that is observed in the public sector. private investment and autonomy. He felt that the time for reform in education in India is now. He talked about the interlink of the three Es: education. Most of the Teaching faculty runs after getting more financial benefit rarely there are devoted teachers in College and University now a days.