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Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country

in the Maghreb. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, by Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest. It is named after the Roman province of Mauretania, even though the modern state covers a territory far to the southwest of the old province. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast. The civilian government of Mauritania was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup

d'état led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, General Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won. In Mauritania about 20% of the population live on less than US $1.25 per day>

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Mustafa Ould Salek ousted Daddah in a military coup d'etat. 1979 - Muhtar uld Daddah was allowed to go into exile in France in August. 1980 Organized an opposition group, the Alliance pour une Mauritanie Democratique (AMD). 2001 - Ould Daddah was allowed to return to Mauritania. Med Hondo

the voice actor in (Shrek- Oscar winner as best Animation Movie (born Mohamed Abid Hondo, 1936) is a Mauritanian film Muhtar uld Daddah director, producer, screenwriter, actor and voice actor. He emigrated to France in 1959 and began to work in film during the 1960s. He received critical acclaim for his 1967 directorial début Soleil O. Hondo was born in 1936 in Ain Oul Beri Mathar in the Atar region of Mauritania. His mother was 1924 - Born on the 25th of December to an important marabout family of the Ouled Birri tribe in Boutilimit, Mauritania. Studied law in Paris, and graduated as the first Mauritanian to hold a university degree. 1950s - Returned to Mauritania, then joined the centre-left Progressive Mauritanian Union, and elected President of the Executive Council. 1957-1961 Appointed Prime Minister of Mauritiana. 1959 Muhtar uld Daddah established a new political party, the Mauritanian Regrouping Party. 1961-1978 Served as the 1st President of Mauritiana. 1971 Daddah served as President of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). 1978 - On 10th of July, Lt. Col. Mauritanian and his father Senegalese. In 1954 he went to live in Rabat, Morocco to train to become a chef at the International Hotel School there. He emigrated to France in 1959 and found work first in Marseilles and then in Paris, variously as a cook, farm labourer,waiter, dockworker and delivery man.He found that he, and other African immigrants, were unable to find jobs in their chosen professions, and in the menial jobs they could find, were paid less than the French.The difficulty of making a living during this time, as well as racism he experienced, eventually provided

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inspiration for his films, including Soleil O and Les 'bicots-Nègres' vos voisins. Hondo began to take classes in acting and directing, and studied under French actress Françoise Rosay, acting in classic plays by Shakespeare, Molière and Jean Racine. He was unable to fully express himself with French repertoire theatre, and in 1966 formed his own theatre company with Guadelopean actor Robert Liensol. Named Shango (from Shango, the Yoruba god of thunder), and later Griot-Shango, the company produced plays relating more to the experiences of Black people, including work by René Depestre, Aimé Césaire,Daniel Boukman and Guy Menga. In the late 1960s, Hondo started taking small roles in television and films.At the same time, he began to learn the craft of film making by careful observation of the work of others, and began to get work behind the camera. He began his first film, Soleil O in 1965.Made on a budget of $30,000, Soleil O was financed by Hondo' work dubbing American films into French.It played at during International Critics' Week at the 1970 Cannes Film Festival where it received critical acclaim. It received a Golden Leopard Award at the 1970Locarno International Film Festival. Some of Hondo's acting work has been as a voice actor, in films and television series like Funky Cops and Asterix and the Vikings. He has worked on the dubbing of many English language films into French, voicing characters of Eddie Murphy, Danny Glover (on the rare occasions when he was not dubbed by white actor Richard Darbois), Sidney

Poitier, Morgan Freeman and Ben Kingsley. He has dubbed several of Eddie Murphy's films including The Nutty Professor and the part of Donkey in 2001's Shrek. Med Hondo explains on his website that he met with Danny Glover in 1991 and exposed his then current project to him : a biopic of Haitian revolutionary Toussaint Louverture. An enthusiastic Glover would have then voiced his interest in playing the main part and taking part in the production, before cutting all communication with Hondo and co-writer Claude Veillot. Hondo now claims that Glover's current Louverture biopic project, financially backed by Hugo Chavez, was inspired by his own original screenplay and addressed an open letter to Glover in which he denies assertions from Glover's "Louverture Films" company that the script was a commission paid by Glover to Hondo. Hondo also mentions his meeting with Glover in an Englishspoken interview on French international news channel France 24.

In the Middle Ages Mauritania was the cradle of the Almoravid movement, which spread Islam throughout the region and for a while controlled the Islamic part of Spain. European traders began to show interest in Mauritania in the 15th century. France gained control of the coastal region in 1817, and in 1904 a formal French protectorate was extended over the territory.

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Morocco opposed the country's independence in 1960 and for a time tried to absorb it. But Morocco's King Hassan II later improved ties as part of his plan to divide Western Sahara. The eventual deal in 1976 brought more problems, though, with Mauritania coming under attack by Polisario Front guerrillas, who opposed Moroccan control of Western Sahara, and the subsequent downfall of the leader since independence - Moktar Ould Daddah - in a military coup. Peace was agreed with the Polisario in 1979, but this in turn worsened relations with Morocco, until a detente in 1985. More recently, ties with Senegal have been strained over the use of the Senegal River, which forms the border between the two countries. Mauritania officially banned slavery in 1981. The government has denied accusations that it is still being practised. One of the world's poorest countries, Mauritania has pinned hopes for future prosperity on the exploitation of its offshore reserves of oil and natural gas. The Chinguetti and Tiof fields are expected to yield millions of barrels of oil. The country forged diplomatic ties with Israel in 1999, one of three Arab nations to have done so, but suspended them in January 2009 in protest at Israel's military operation in Gaza. It closed the Israeli embassy in March. Under former President Maaouiya Ould Sid Ahmed Taya, Mauritania was an ally of the US in its "war on terror". American special forces were despatched to train Mauritanian troops. Al-Qaeda militants operating in Mauritania, Algeria and Mali have become increasingly active, kidnapping and killing several foreigners. Mauritania's response has been to take an increasingly tough line against the militants, refusing to negotiate with al-Qaeda over hostages. The train carrying iron from Zouerate to the coast at Nouadhibou, is probably the world's longest train. Normally its length is as much as 3 kilometres. The whole journey takes around 12 hours, where almost 700 kilometres are covered. If you want to come to, or leave, Nouadhibou, there are no good alternatives to this train. But it should not be avoided anyway. Nowadays, normal compartments have been put up. Up until a few years ago, sitting on top of the wagons, was all offered. This is still used, but it's unpleasant. The cost of travelling is just around $5 one way (1 ougiya per kilometre.)

The Ben Amera is probably Mauritania's best kept secret, as it is the second largest monolith in the world. The famous Ayers Rock is the only one bigger. There are some other monoliths nearby, like the Aicha monolith (picture to the left). Ben Amera is one of the best attractions on the route for the desert train between Nouadhibou and Zouerate.

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Tourism Investment The importance attached by the Mauritanian state of the tourism sector, as embodied in the huge interest in investing in this vital sector, and a variety of areas of public investment in the tourism sector, which included the maintenance and valuation of the national cultural heritage, which is the most important tourist attractions, creating public institutions involved in this aspect, also included the establishment of public facilities to provide special services for tourists, such as creating a private company organized a season to receive European tourists, a company "Somasert" of the company "SNIM", which was entrusted with the organization of an annual season to receive and regulate the entry of tourists to areas popular to them.

Mauritania are by virtue of its geographical location, and the diversity of landscapes, that make it global tourist destination, and provides the tourism sector in Mauritania a number of chances to invest in the processing areas of tourism, and services .. Of transport and restaurants, and sectorof tourism provides thousands of jobs in various multi-facilities of the tourism sector. Various opportunities Elements of tourism and tourist attractions in Mauritania are various , including the desert areas and beaches popular with tourists, Europeans, and Westerners in general, and areas of fishing birds that cares mainly by Gulf tourists, in addition to the rare treasures of ancient manuscripts that fill the libraries of ancient cities, such as "The Ath" and " Chinguetti "and" Laden ", and other archaeological sites classified by the" UNESCO "World Heritage, are the places where the largest proportion of the demand of foreign tourists to Mauritania.

starting from the current year 2011 , Mauritania state adopted plan for the establishment of cultural festivals in the ancient cities, which aims primarily to draw attention to tourist potentia of these cities, and the State has decided under this approach, to deduct 1 per cent of revenues Customs to finance this investment of tourism.

The industrial products of traditional Mauritanian, which consists of two aspects, one tourist and other cultural, represent genius and skillful people of Mauritania, another aspect of the attractions, as reflected in this genius in industrial products like traditional utensils, swords Arab horses, jewelry, furnishings (carpets, mats), home decoration, which is what attracts most tourists to the city of Ath, and historical example.

Among the most important reforms adopted by the State is also in the development of tourism, organization of tourist activity and the profession of tourist guide agencies and travel offices, and classification of tourism enterprises, and adopt strategies for eco-tourism in each of the Hzirti Arkin and Jauling, and the establishment of training center hotel, and the development of infrastructure.

The other area of mauritania , in the east and south,is the focus of attention of big part of tourists, especially in areas adjacent to the eastern border of Mauritania, adjacent to the State of Mali, which has a share of demand of tourist arrivals to the territory of Mauritania.

But these reforms and public investments in the tourism sector, are still confronted with many obstacles and challenges, including lack of professionalism of national actors, and lack of foreign private investment, and the limited supply and promotion.

It seems that the parties public supervising the development of the tourism sector, is trying to overcome these obstacles through the joint adoption of reforms in the coming period of the most important, develop a regulatory framework (a

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precise definition of the roles of both the State and the private sector, and improve the services available, and oversight, regulation, and the adoption of incentives in the area of taxation, and encourage more private sector participation, in addition to the definition of tourist products (information, communication, Ashharrat), and then the adoption of more elements of the plans Valuation of national tourism.

The civilian government of Mauritania was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'étatled by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, General Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won. In Mauritania about 20% of the population live on less than US $1.25 per day

The aim of the Mauritanian state from behind the adoption of these reforms and achievements in the tourism sector, to achieve the goal of attracting 70.000 tourists per year in the future, and increase the capacity of the reception to 30.000 beds.

Statistics and Figures

here some episodes about Adrar in Mauritania Adrar (Arabic: ) is a large region in Mauritania, named for the Adrar Plateau. Its capital is Atar. Other major towns include Choum, Chinguetti and Ouadane. The region borders Western Sahara and the Mauritanian region of Tiris Zemmour to the north, Mali and the Mauritanian region of Hodh Ech Chargui to the east, the Mauritanian region of Trarza and Tagant to the south and the Mauritanian region of Inchiri to the west. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iq2vF92aZF0&feature =related 11 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xT30bR7NibY 12 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=05fRk0Q3Mxg 13 in this link video about Adventure in Mauritania , fishing and so many with Jimy Rogers ... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uPw3EI8WprU

Data from the National Office of Tourism, for the season 2009 - 2010 that the number of tourists coming to Mauritania reached 15 903 tourists, broken down by way of entering the country, the tourists arrived via Nouadhibou, and the number 10 735, and tourists arrived by air and numbered 1710 tourists, while the totalnumber of tourism arrivals for 3458 business tourists.

The figures, which come from the National Office of Tourism, the tourism sector to the Mauritanian witnessing a steady growth rate of about 18%..

By rabi a Malainain Translated by Blue Line

Videos For Safari in Mauritania
videos Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, by Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest. It is named after the Roman province ofMauretania, even though the modern state covers a territory far to the southwest of the old province. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast.

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Melhafa: is worn by women in Mauritania is the only outfit common as putting on a formal and informal. Renbaya: the cloak that is worn underthe Melhafa

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" Aldraa: A garment worn by men and Mauritanians are mostly has 2 colors blue and white and there is rarely Darraa have a different color.

By Rabi a malainain

A group of seasoned travelers braves the desert dunes that cover about half of Mauritania.

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Getting there is half the fun. The crossing from Atar is shocking, where narrow roads follow the mountain sides, even when this has made some turns of the road so sharp that they can't be done in one turn. The nature is totally wild. The result is that this remote place is the most frequently visited tourist spot in Mauritania. But by Mauritanian standards, this is close to nothing, anyway. The old city is fairly old, the western side dates back 700 years. The age has to do with most of old Chinguetti being constructed from stones. The main attraction in the city is the old mosque. But as Chinguetti once was really venerated as one of the most holy cities in Islam (ranked, even today, as number 7), this is off limit to non-Muslims.

Pakistan: officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. Tajikistan also lies very close to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Strategically it is located in a position between the important regions of South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East.

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Abdus Salam (1926 1996), who was born at Jhang in Pakistan, attended Punjab University and Cambridge University, where he received his PhD in 1952. From 1951 to 1954 he was a professor of mathematics at the Government College of Lahore, concurrently with a post as head of the mathematics department of Punjab University. From 1954 until 1956 he lectured at Cambridge and from 1957 to 1993 he was a professor of theoretical physics at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. He was largely responsible for the establishment in 1964 of the International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, as an institute to assist physicists from developing countries. He was director of the center from its inception until 1994, dividing his time between there and Imperial College. Salam's work was concerned with the theories describing the behavior and properties of elementary particles; for this he received the 1979 Nobel Prize for physics, shared with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg. Although the three men did most of their work independently, they each contributed to the development of a theory that could take account of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. One of their predictions was the phenomenon of neutral currents and their strengths, which was first confirmed in 1973 at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and later by other groups. A further prediction of the theory is that of the existence of intermediate vector bosons with high masses. The discovery of a vector boson was reported in 1983 by two teams (comprising 180 scientists) working at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics near Geneva.

Mohammad Iqbal (born Nov. 9, 1877, Sialkot, Punjab, India died April 21, 1938, Lahore, Punjab, Pak.) Indian poet and philosopher. He first won fame for his poetry, which was written in the classical style for public recitation and became known even among the illiterate. His perspective grew increasingly PanIslamic, as revealed in the long poem The Secrets of the Self (1915), which he wrote in Persian in order to address a broader Muslim audience. Calling for a revitalization of Islam, he advocated the separate Muslim state that would eventually be realized with the founding of Pakistan in 1947, and he was acclaimed after his death as the father of that country. His poetic masterpiece is "The Song of Eternity" (1932). He is considered the greatest 20thcentury poet to write in Urdu.

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The construction of Noor palace was undertaken by Nawab Subah Sadiq the fourth, who was also known as the Shan Jahan of Bahawalpur for his passion of constructing beautiful buildings. Mr. Hennan, an Englishman who was the state engineer, designed the building. The foundation of Noor Palace was laid in 1872. A map and coins of the state were buried in its foundation as a good omen. Most of the palace's materials and furniture were imported from England and Italy. The construction of the palace was completed in 1875 at a cost of Rs. 1.2 million. Noor Palace covers an area of 44,600 square feet (4,140 m2). It has 32 rooms including 14 in the basement, 6 verandas and 5 domes. The design encompasses features of Corinthian and Islamic styles of architecture with a tinge of subcontinental style. The Corinthian touch is visible in the columns, balustrade, pediments and the vaulted ceiling of Durbar Hall. The Islamic style is evident in the five domes, whereas the angular elliptical shapes are a stroke of subcontinent style. Nawab Muhammad Behawal Khan the fifth added a mosque to the palace in 1906 at the cost of Rs. 20,000. The design is based on the mosque of Aitchison College. In 1956, when Bahawalpur State was merged into Pakistan, the building was taken over by the Auqaf department. The palace was leased to the army in 1971; in 1997 the army purchased it for the sum of 119 million. The building was declared a protected monument

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in September 2001 by the Government of Pakistan's Department of Archeology, and it is now open for general visitors, students trips and other interested persons.

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The construction of Noor palace was undertaken by Nawab Subah Sadiq the fourth, who was also known as the Shan Jahan of Bahawalpur for his passion of constructing beautiful buildings. Mr. Hennan, an Englishman who was the state engineer, designed the building. The foundation of Noor Palace was laid in 1872. A map and coins of the state were buried in its foundation as a good omen. Most of the palace's materials and furniture were imported from England and Italy. The construction of the palace was completed in 1875 at a cost of Rs. 1.2 million. Noor Palace covers an area of 44,600 square feet (4,140 m2). It has 32 rooms including 14 in the basement, 6 verandas and 5 domes. The design encompasses features of Corinthian and Islamic styles of architecture with a tinge of subcontinental style. The Corinthian touch is visible in the columns, balustrade, pediments and the vaulted ceiling of Durbar Hall. The Islamic style is evident in the five domes, whereas the angular elliptical shapes are a stroke of subcontinent style. Nawab Muhammad Behawal Khan the fifth added a mosque to the palace in 1906 at the cost of Rs. 20,000. The design is based on the mosque of Aitchison College. In 1956, when Bahawalpur State was merged into Pakistan, the building was taken over by the Auqaf department. The palace was leased to the army in 1971; in 1997 the army purchased it for the sum of 119 million. The building was declared a protected monument in September 2001 by the Government of Pakistan's Department of Archeology, and it is now open for general visitors, students trips and other interested persons.

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people of world. God said : even that I'm warning them but there are people will come and will commit to murdering each others. Prophet Mohammad SAW for Muslim warriors in battles ; you are not allowed to kill woman , old man , child , you are not allowed to cut a tree or to kill a farmer or any one serving his land , you are not allowed to destruct a house or any cultural , historical , or religious land marks. If you fight the one fighting you and if you got the victory then all people are allowed to practice their religious rituals. Islam in Pakistan & Afghanistan! it's weird statement for me , I think better to say ' Afghanistanian/ Pakistanian Islam ' Perhaps I'm its strict statement and would not satisfy most of people in those countries. But it's the truth , as they apply Islamic religion strictly , so they have respect the other opinion because our prophet Mohammad (SAW) said : who worked hardly to give opinion and was correct then he has double reward , and who worked hard to give opinion but was wrong then he has single reward. So this is my opinion , if any one rejected my opinion that I will explain it in this topic , then I'm right , it's Afg/Pak Islam . Since the manifestations and applying of Islam is different in these countries from other Muslim countries like Egypt , Middle East and Indonesia which I will explain how later on - then its Afg/pak Islam This is proved by Quran and Hadith ( talk of prophet ) , if killing and destruction was prohibited through the battle, is it allowed in other days and situations when we see attacks adopted by those titled ( Mujahedeen ) against or to destruct public places? how come they kill woman because she is out with a boy or because she elected herself for political position ext....? Islam and woman: Patterns of women's employment vary throughout the Muslim world: as of 2005, 16% of Pakistani women were "economically active" (either employed, or unemployed but available to furnish labor), whereas 52% of Indonesian women were. Women are allowed to work in Islam, subject to certain conditions, such as if a woman is in financial need and her employment does not cause her to neglect her important role as a mother and wife. It has been claimed that it is the responsibility of the Muslim community to organize work for women, so that she can do so in a Muslim cultural atmosphere, where her rights (as set out in the Qur'an) are respected. Islamic law however, permits women to work in Islamic conditions. The work should not require the man or the woman to violate Islamic law (e.g., serving alcohol), and be mindful of the woman's safety. If the work requires the woman to leave her home, she must maintain her 'modesty' just as with men. Due to cultural and not religious beliefs, in some cases, when women have the right to work and are educated, women's job opportunities may in practice be unequal to those of men. In Egypt for example, women have limited opportunities to work

Islam & killing people: God said in Quran " if any one slew a person unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people then although there came to them our apostles with clear signs, yet, even after that, many of then continued to commit excesses in the land" that means if you murder someone or any one , black or white , Muslim or Christians , American or Chinese , Man or woman , its like you killed whole

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in the private sector because women are still expected to put their role in the family first, which causes men to be seen as more reliable in the long term. An indicator of the attitude of the Qur'an to women in the workplace is indicated by the quotes used to justify women working. These are the examples of two female shepherds Qur'an 28:23, and Khadijah (prophet Muhammad's wife), who was an eminent businesswoman. Khadijah is called up as a role model for females in the Qur'an. Now is it Afg/pak Islam or it is Islam in Pakistan and Afghanistan? Reasons of Extremism : The main reason is the media that regularly gives negative message about people from minority

groups. Violence is increasingly glamorized by media. Extremist groups target susceptible young people, those people might be lonely, lost or un educationed. But family members sometimes encourage for extremism. Unemployed young adults give them good purpose to live. Misunderstanding of religion of Islam, because of the long distance between center of Islam and those countries of extremism. written by Abdulla Abbadi

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Iraq
is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert. Iraq is bordered by Jordan to the west, Syria to the northwest, Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, and Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to the south. Iraq has a narrow section of coastline measuring 58 km (35 miles) on the northern Persian Gulf. The capital city, Baghdad is in the center-east of the country. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run through the center of Iraq, flowing from northwest to southeast. These provide Iraq with agriculturally capable land and contrast with the steppe and desert landscape that covers most of Western Asia.
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https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?se t=a.125857314161102.31175.11433527 8646639 see these pictures to know more about Iraq

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.

Babylon: was an Akkadian city-state (founded in 1867 BC by an Amorite dynasty) of ancient Mesopotamia, the . . . " " . ." " " " . . 2100 . 43 . " " remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers (55 mi) south of Baghdad. Babylon, along with Assyria to the north, was one of the two Akkadian nations that evolved after the collapse of the Akkadian Empire, although it was rarely ruled by native Akkadians. All that remains of the original ancient famed city of Babylon today is a mound, or tell, of broken mud-brick buildings and debris in the fertile Mesopotamian plain between . . . . . . . . . . . . theTigris and Euphrates rivers. The city itself was built upon the Euphrates, and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Available historical resources suggest that Babylon was at first a small town which had sprung up by the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. The town flourished and attained independence with the rise of the First Amorite Babylonian Dynasty in 1894 BC. Claiming to be the successor of the ancient Eridu, Babylon eclipsed Nippur as the "holy city" of Mesopotamia around the time an Amorite king named Hammurabi first created the short lived Babylonian Empire, this quickly dissolved upon

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his death and Babylon spent long periods under Assyrian, Kassite and Elamite domination. Babylon again became the seat of the NeoBabylonian Empire from 612 to 539 BC which was founded by Chaldeans and whose last king was an Assyrian. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. After the fall of Babylon it came under the rules of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman and Sas sanid empires. It was dissolved as a province after the Arab Islamic conquest of the 7th century AD. . 1975 1979 .

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Al Kindus
(died c. 870) First prominent Islamic philosopher. He worked in Iraq under the caliph s al-Mamun and al-Mutasim. One of the first Arab students of the Greek philosophers, he translated important Greek works into Arabic and tried to combine the views of Plato and Aristotle into a new system. His short treatises considered the philosophical questions set forth by Neoplatonism. He also wrote over 270 scientific treatises on such subjects as astrology, Indian arithmetic, sword manufacturing, and cooking.

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: , , , . . 8 ( ) ) 600 . Father of Chemistry Jabir ibn Hayyan (active latter 8th century), called Geber by Europeans, was reputedly the father of Moslem alchemy and chemistry.

). . It seems clear that there was a real person called Jabir ibn Hayyan about whom we know little except that he lived in al-Kufa, an important city of Abbasid Iraq, and that he had the reputation for skill in alchemy. There exists a vast body of Arabic writings attributed to this Jabir which could not possibly have been written by someone living in the late 8th century .

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Attributions to Jabir: Scholarship has shown that there was a sizable corpus of alchemical works attributed impossibly to the historical Jabir. The first references to these works by Jabir appear in the latter half of the 10th century. The corpus contains a great percentage of what medieval Islam knew of the scientific knowledge of the ancients, viewed through Islamic spectacles, and it appears impossible that the 9th- or 10th-century Jabir could have been a single man, however industrious. The Islamic point of view from which this encyclopedic collection of late Hellenistic

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science is viewed in the works of Jabir is an extremely heterodox one, and this is doubtless the reason for assigning its authorship to a long-deceased but actual Jabir of the 8th century. Jabir's science of al-kimiya, from which Arabic word both "alchemy" and "chemistry" stem, was based upon the Hellenistic idea that all metals are fundamentally the same substance, but with varying impurities. The main object of alchemy was to discover a method which would transmute the base metals into the purest form of metal, gold; this could be done by means of a supposed substance called "red sulfur" by the Moslems and "the philosophers' stone" by Europeans. In the process of searching for red sulfur, Jabir and other Moslem alchemists developed a great many sound facts and processes which formed some of the basic building blocks for the science of chemistry. In terms of practical methods evolved by Jabir and set forth in the almost 100 works ascribed to him, we are indebted to Moslem alchemy for methods of distillation, evaporation, crystallization, filtration, and sublimation.

Methods of producing a considerable number of chemical substances are described: nitric acid, sulfuric acid, mercury oxide, lead acetate, and others.

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born September 12, 1957 in Mosul, Iraq), is an Iraqi singer, composer, and poet. He has been dubbed the "Caesar of Arabic Song", "Elvis of the Middle East", "Robbie Williams of the Middle East", "Iraq s Diplomatic Ambassador to the world", and "Iraq s Ambassador for Peace". Kadim Al Sahir, whose first name is also written alternatively as Kazem, Kadhem, Kazim and his family name alternatively as Saher, el Saher and al Saher, has established himself as one of the most successful singers in the history of the Arab World, having sold more than 30 million albums since the start of his career. Ranging from big romantic ballads to more political work, from pop to Arab classical music.

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