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BATTERY • • • • • • Battery is an electrochemical device that stores and provides electrical energy.

the ignition switch ‘ON’, an energy conversion occurs that results in current flow through the circuit to operate the load. Electrical energy is produced by the chemical reaction that occurs between two similar metal plates that are immersed in an electrolyte solution. Discharging, it is an chemical energy into electrical energy. Charging, it is an electrical energy converted into chemical energy. “parasitic load” is the electrical loads that are present when the ignition switch is off; the electrical power is still needed to maintain the memory and to keep clock going.

BATTERY TYPES 1. Conventional battery • The battery consists of grid, positive plates, negative plates, separator, elements, electrolyte, a container, cell covers, vent plugs and cell containers. • The grids are made of lead alloyed with 5 percent antimony for strength. • A positive plate consists of a grid filled with lead peroxide as its active material (Lead peroxide (PbO2) is a dark brown, crystalline material). • The negative plate is sponge lead (Pb). • An element is a group of positive and negative plates. • A separator is placed between two groups to prevent contact between the positive and negative plates. • The element placed inside the battery case and immersed in electrolyte, it becomes a cell. (A 12 volt battery has six cells, each cell has approximately 2.1 volt) • The electrolyte of a full charged battery is usually about 64% water and 36% sulfuric acid. 2. Low maintenance batteries • The majority of battery today is either low-maintenance battery. • A battery will require additional water substantially less than a conventional battery • A battery still equipped with the vent plug. 3. Free maintenance batteries • A battery does not have removable cell covers or caps. • They are small gas vents that prevent gas-pressure buildup in the case. • Never added water to maintenance free battery

Checks battery terminal. Inspect the case of cracks. 2.FACTOR AFFECTING BATTERY LIFE 1. metal parts and trays for corrosion damage. loose terminal posts and other signs of physical damage. BATTERY MAINTENANCE • • • • • • • Making visual inspection of battery Cleaning the battery top. Improper electrolyte levels • Under filling cause a greater concentration of acid sulfuric. • Overcharging can also cause excessive heat 4. • If a vent cap battery requires frequent addition of water. Check the heat shield for proper installation on vehicle so equipped . • This problem reduces battery capacity and lead to premature short circuiting between plates. Undercharging • possible causes by: o charging system malfunction o defective connections in charging system o slipping alternator drive belt o excessive load demands on battery o defective battery o self-discharge resulting from the battery sitting idle for long periods 5. which reduces the efficiency of the battery. • It can loosen the plate connections. Check for missing cell plug cover and caps. 6. cable connectors. 3. Cycling • Cycling is simply the discharging and recharging of the battery. • Fortunately. which deteriorates the plate more rapidly. Corrosion • Corroded connections increase resistance at the battery terminals. the new envelope design reduces this problem. cable connections or even crack the battery case. Checks the electrolyte level. • Over filling causes weakens the concentration of acid sulfuric. terminal and cable clamps. Overcharging • Overcharged by either the vehicles charging system or a battery charger. Poor mounting • Loose battery holding or cover allow the battery vibrate or bounce during vehicle operation. which reduces the applied voltage to the electrical system.

To retard corrosion. rinse the battery and cable connections with clean water and dry it’s. ROUTINE CLEANING • • • • • Top terminals battery may corrode around the terminals and clamps. Using the bristle. coat the terminals and cable clamps with anticorrosion compound. Apply a solution of baking soda (45 cc) and water (1 Lt) or ammonia and water.• Testing the battery. brush the battery top and sides with the baking soda and water solution After cleaning. Vent plug Shell connector Grid Separators Plates Container and cover .