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Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists whose independent

exhibitions brought them to prominence in the 1870s and 1880s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari. Characteristics of Impressionist paintings include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on the accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. The emergence of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous movements in other media which became known as Impressionist music and Impressionist literature. Impressionism also describes art created in this style, but outside of the late 19th century time period.

Impressionist techniques
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Short, thick strokes of paint are used to quickly capture the essence of the subject, rather than its details. The paint is often applied impasto. Colours are applied side-by-side with as little mixing as possible, creating a vibrant surface. The optical mixing of colours occurs in the eye of the viewer. Grays and dark tones are produced by mixing complementary colours. In pure Impressionism the use of black paint is avoided. Wet paint is placed into wet paint without waiting for successive applications to dry, producing softer edges and an intermingling of colour. Painting in the evening to get effets de soir - the shadowy effects of the light in the evening or twilight. Impressionist paintings do not exploit the transparency of thin paint films (glazes) which earlier artists built up carefully to produce effects. The surface of an Impressionist painting is typically opaque. The play of natural light is emphasized. Close attention is paid to the reflection of colours from object to object. In paintings made en plein air (outdoors), shadows are boldly painted with the blue of the sky as it is reflected onto surfaces, giving a sense of freshness and openness that was not captured in painting previously. (Blue shadows on snow inspired the technique.)

Pointillism is a technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of pure color are applied in patterns to form an image. Georges Seurat developed the technique in 1886, branching from Impressionism. The term Pointillism was first coined by art critics in the late 1880s to ridicule the works of these artists, and is now used without its earlier mocking connotation.[1]

The name evokes the technique of cloisonné. and then fired. This may be partly because subtractive mixing of the pigments is avoided.[3][4] Expressionism emerged as an 'avant-garde movement' in poetry and painting before the First World War. Gauguin reduced the image to areas of single colors separated by heavy black outlines. The Expressionist stress on the individual perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism and other artistic movements such as naturalism and impressionism. and green light (the additive primaries) are mixed. The painting technique used for pointillist color mixing is at the expense of the traditional brushwork used to delineate texture. The term was coined by critic Edouard Dujardin on occasion of the Salon des Indépendants. in March 1888. dance.[1] particularly in Berlin. but oils are preferred for their thickness and tendency not to run or bleed. to evoke moods or ideas. theatre. Painting is inherently subtractive. Anything may be used in its place.[1][2] Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning of "being alive"[3] and emotional experience rather than physical reality. In a general sense. architecture and music.[2] . and partly because some of the white canvas may be showing between the applied dots. the term is applied mainly to 20th century works. blue. including painting. The cloisonnist separation of colors reflects an appreciation for discontinuity that is characteristic of Modernism. radically distorting it for emotional effect. Its typical trait is to present the world in an utterly subjective perspective. film. In The Yellow Christ (1889). Many of the same painters also described their works as Synthetism a closely related movement. painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco can be called expressionist. literature. filled with powdered glass. In such works he paid little attention to classical perspective and boldly eliminated subtle gradations of color — two of the most characteristic principles of post-Renaissance painting. Paul Gauguin. often cited as a quintessential cloisonnist work. The majority of pointillism is done in oil paints. Louis Anquetin. initially in poetry and painting. The movement was embodied in various art forms. originating in Germany at the start of the 20th century.[1] Artists Émile Bernard.[5] Cloisonnism is a style of post-Impressionist painting with bold and flat forms separated by dark contours. It remained popular during the Weimar years. where wires (cloisons or "compartments") are soldered to the body of the piece.[3] Expressionism was a cultural movement. though in practice. and others started painting in this style in the late 19th century. but pointillist colours often seem brighter than typical mixed subtractive colors. Paul Sérusier.If red. The term is sometimes suggestive of emotional angst. the result is something close to white light (see Prism (optics)).

there are now academies for naïve art. 2° enfeeblement of colors with the distance. The results are : 1° effects of perspective geometrically erroneous (awkward aspect of the works. but is historically more often applied to work from certain cultures that have been judged socially or technologically "primitive" by Western academia. subsaharan African or Pacific Island art (see Tribal art). It has. Naïve art is now a fully recognized art genre. unrefined color on all the plans of the composition. Whereas naïve art ideally describes the work of an artist who did not receive formal education in an art school or academy. 3° decrease of the precision of details with the distance. Especially non-respect of the 3 rules of the perspective (such as defined by the Progressive Painters of the Renaissance) : 1° decrease of the size of objects proportionally at the distance. Simplicity rather than subtlety are all supposed markers of naïve art. "Primitive art" is another term often applied to art by those without formal training. including those of the background who should be shaded off. such as Native American. 3° an equal accuracy brought to details. The characteristics of naïve art are an awkward relationship to the formal qualities of painting. The term naïve art[2] is often seen as outsider art which is without a formal (or little) training or degree. While this was true before the twentieth century. to have little or no formal art training. represented in art galleries worldwide. children's drawings look. The words "naïve" and "primitive" are regarded as politically incorrect and are therefore avoided by many. without enfeeblement in the background. from their works. but the comparison stops there) 2° strong use of pattern. While many naïve artists appear. become such a popular and recognizable style that many examples could be called pseudo-naïve. or Middle Ages' painting look. however. "primitive" inspired movement primitivism.Naïve art is a classification of art that is often characterized by a childlike simplicity in its subject matter and technique. This is distinguished from the self-conscious. for example Henri Rousseau or Alfred Wallis. this is often not true. 'pseudo naïve' or 'faux naïve' art describes the work of an artist working in a more imitative or self-conscious mode and whose work can be seen as more imitative than original. Another term related to (but not completely synonymous with) naïve art is folk art. .

and inspired related movements in music. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures. collage elements. surfaces. According to Cooper there was "Early Cubism". when the Surrealist movement gained popularity. The first branch of cubism. the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. the movement as such lasted only a few years. Synthetic Cubism.[1][2] The leaders of the movement were Henri Matisse and André Derain. Juan Gris and others between 1912 and 1919. and re-assembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint. While Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910. and had three exhibitions. the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919. (from 1906 to 1908) when the movement was initially developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque.[1] In cubist artworks. Synthetic Cubism was the second main movement within Cubism that was developed by Picasso.) Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"). The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space. pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.There also exist the terms "naïvism" and "primitivism" which are usually applied to professional painters working in the style of naïve art (like Paul Gaugin. analyzed. removing a coherent sense of depth.[3] Fauvism can be classified as an extreme development of Van Gogh's PostImpressionism fused with the pointillism of Seurat[3] and other Neo-Impressionist painters. Braque. In its second phase. English art historian Douglas Cooper describes three phases of Cubism in his seminal book. known as Analytic Cubism. a short-lived and loose group of early twentieth-century Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong colour over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism. one of cubism's distinct characteristics. Mikhail Larionov. literature and architecture. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles. and finally Cooper referred to "Late Cubism" (from 1914 to 1921) as the last phase of Cubism as a radical avant-garde movement. Paul Klee. Sergey Zagraevsky etc. (from 1909 to 1914) during which time Juan Gris emerged as an important exponent. The Cubist Epoch. The paintings of the Fauves were characterised by seemingly wild brush work and strident colours. the second phase being called "High Cubism". papier . objects are broken up. that revolutionized European painting and sculpture. while their subject matter had a high degree of simplification and abstraction. was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1907 and 1911 in France. in particular Paul Signac. Cubism was a 20th century avant-garde art movement. 1904–1908.

[8] which includes oil cloth that was printed to look like chaircaning pasted onto an oval canvas. Less pure than Analytic Cubism. Furthermore. and the three primary values. The works avoided symmetry and attained aesthetic balance by the use of opposition. rather than being carefully applied. and less shading. red. Whereas Analytic Cubism was an analysis of the subjects (pulling them apart into planes). Synthetic Cubism is more of a pushing of several objects together. white. De Stijl (Dutch pronunciation: [də ˈstɛɪl]. also known as neoplasticism. splashed or smeared onto the canvas. . creating flatter space.[9] Newspaper clippings were a common inclusion. Action painting developed in an era where quantum mechanics and psychoanalysis were beginning to flourish and were changing peoples perception of the physical and psychological world. In a narrower sense. Action painting sometimes called "gestural abstraction". De Stijl proposed ultimate simplicity and abstraction. most commonly seen in carpentry. The name De Stijl is supposedly derived from Gottfried Semper's Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten oder Praktische Ästhetik (1861–3). and civilization’s understanding of the world through heightened self-consciousness and awareness. At the upper left are the letters "JOU". which appear in many cubist paintings and refer to the newspaper titled Le Journal. A product of the post-World War II artistic resurgence of expressionism in America and more specifically New York City. sheet music. this is best exemplified by the construction of crossing joints. both in architecture and painting. Dutch for "The Style". and like items were also included in the collages. JOU may also at the same time be a pun on the French words jeu (game) or jouer (to play). English: /də ˈstaɪl/). It is essential for the understanding of Action painting to place it in historical context. physical pieces of newspaper. and rope framing the whole picture. This element of the movement embodies the second meaning of stijl: “a post. with text. Picasso and Braque had a friendly competition with each other and including the letters in their works may have been an extension of their game. and blue. is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled. by using only straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular forms. Synthetic Cubism has fewer planar shifts (or schematism). Considered the first work of this new style was Pablo Picasso's "Still Life with Chaircaning" (1911–1912). and grey. was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917. black. It was the beginning of collage materials being introduced as an important ingredient of fine art work. yellow. their formal vocabulary was limited to the primary colours. the term De Stijl is used to refer to a body of work from 1917 to 1931 founded in the Netherlands.collé and a large variety of merged subject matter.[1] The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. In general. jamb or support”. which Curl[2] suggests was mistakenly believed to advocate materialism and functionalism.

Action painting was clearly influenced by the surrealist emphasis on automatism which (also) influenced by psychoanalysis claimed a more direct access to the subconscious mind. The paintings of the Action painters were not meant to portray objects per se or even specific emotions. in the moment. Instead they were meant to touch the observer deep in the subconscious mind. .Action painting took this a step further. creating a powerful arena of raw emotion and action. This was done by the artist painting "unconsciously. evoking a sense of the primeval and tapping the collective sense of an archetypal visual language. using both Jung and Freud’s ideas of the subconscious as its underlying foundations." and spontaneously.