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ANSTINE MATHEW AUGUSTINE (32208101006) ARUN KRISHNAN. U (32208101009) MAHESH. J (32208101029) VETRI SELVAN. S (32208101057)

Military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea target by dropping bombs on them. Strategic bombers are designed for longrange bombing missions against strategic targets to damage enemy nations war effort .

Light bombers Medium bombers Dive bombers Fighters bomber Ground attack aircraft Multi role combat aircraft

Major type of aircraft designs
• Conceptual design • Preliminary design • Detailed design

• It depends on what are the major factors for designing the aircraft. • (a) Power plant Location: • The Power plant must be located in the wings. • (b) Selection of Engine: • The engine should be selected according to the power required i.e., thrust required. • (c) Wing selection: • The selection of wing depends upon the selection of • (1) Low wing • (2) Mid wing • (3) High wing - For a bomber the wing is mostly high wing configuration and anhedral. - Sweep may be required in order to reduce wave drag.

Conceptual design

2. Preliminary design:
 

Preliminary is based upon number of factors like Loitering.

3. Detailed design:
 

In the detailed design considers each & every rivets, bolts, paints etc. In this design the connection & allocations are made.

 To design a bomber aircraft  Range of 20000 km & must carry 75000 kg+ of bombs & missiles.  At supersonic & subsonic regimes  To operate at regional bases with low cost of operation & maintenance  The aircraft must also be capable of single pilot operation scenario.  Due to long range pilot work load must be reduced  The aircraft must be all weather , all terrain operation capable including the airbase.  To take up a load factor +8g to +7.5g to -3.5g.

• Collect data of existing aircraft of similar purpose i.e., bomber. • The basic factors of aircrafts performance viz. Weight, Cruise velocity ,Range ,Wing area & Engine thrust. • The performance data of various bomber aircraft with payload capacity between 5000 & 56600 kg was collected.

• • • • • • • •

Mirage IIIE Mirage IVA F-111F F-111F swept Tu-22R Tu-85/1 YB-60 B-2A etc

Preferred Configuration:

From Comparison
Parameters
• • • • • • • • • • • Max takeoff weight (kg) Thrust to weight ratio Aspect ratio Wing loading (N/sq.m) Span to height ratio Span to length ratio Combat radius (km) Pay load capacity (kmph) Max Speed (kmph) Service ceiling (m) Max Speed (m/s)

Values

• • • • • • • • • • •

500000 0.28 8.4 7848 5 1.5 5000 75000 1000 15000 277.77

General rough estimate

  Payload Fuel Structure Power plant Fixed equipments Total

Mass Fraction 0.15 0.45 0.32 0.07 0.01 1.00

h
 

Redefined Mass Estimation
6’ 9000 km  
  1000 km

7’  
 

2 10000 km  
 

3
 

1/2 hr

2’ R
 

8’
1000 km

 
 

 
 

3’   0  
 

4’  
 

5’  
 

1
 

 

9’  
 

10’  
 

Mission profile for Strategic bombing

Analysis of mission profile TSFC values for Bomber
Cruise 0.5 Loiter 0.4

Comparative data of Engines

Engine Selection
Name of the Engine Manufacturer Type Length (m) Diameter (m) Wet weight (kg) Dry Weight (kg) Maximum Thrust (kN) Overall Pressure Ratio Thrust to Weight Ratio Fan Diameter (m) GP-7000 Engine Alliance Turbofan 2 Shaft 4.74 3.16 6800 6712 363 43.9 4.73 2.95

The above engine has been selected from a list of engines.

Redefined Thrust to weight ratio

AIRFOIL SELECTION

content
• • • • • • Airfoil nomenclature Lift coefficient Drag coefficient Types of airfoil Formula used Airfoil

AIRFOIL NOMENCLATURE
The cross-section shape obtained by the intersection of wing with the perpendicular plane is called airfoil.  The major design feature of an airfoil is the mean chamber line ,which is the locus of points halfway between the upper and lower surface ,as measured perpendicular to mean chamber line itself . The most forward and rearward points of the mean chamber line are the leading and trailing edge respectively.

THE FORWARD AND REARWARD POINTS OF THE MEAN CAMBER LINE ARE THE LEADING AND TRAILING EDGES. CHORD LINE THE STRAIGHT LINE CONNECTING THE LEADING & TRAILING EDGES. MEAN CAMBER LINE THE LINE BETWEEN UPPER &LOWER SURFACES. CHAMBER MAXIMUM DISTANCE BETWEET THE MEAN CAMBER LINE & THE CHORD LINE
.

LIFT COEFFICIENT
• The lift coefficient (CL or CZ) is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by an aerodynamic body such as a wing or complete aircraft, the dynamic pressure of the fluid flow around the body, and a reference area associated with the body. It is also used to refer to the aerodynamic lift characteristics of a 2D airfoil section, whereby the reference "area" is taken as the airfoil chord. It may also be described as the ratio of lift pressure to dynamic

Drag Co-efficient:
The drag coefficient (commonly denoted as Cd, Cx or Cw) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment such as air or water. It is used in the drag equation, where a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag. The drag coefficient is always associated with a particular surface area.

TYPES OF AIRFOIL
• CHAMBERED AIRFOIL • SYMMETERICAL AIRFOIL

CHAMBERED AIRFOIL
• It is also called as unsymmetrical airfoil . • Upper surface of the airfoil is not equal to lower surface. SYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL: • Surface above the chord line and below the chord line are equal.

FORMULA USED

FORMULA USED

6. Airfoil selection and Wing Geometry estimates
• Main Parameter Selection: • Wing Loading:

Thickness based Reynolds Number

Flap selection:

Wing geometry

Critical Mach number for the airfoil

LANDING GEAR TYRE SELECTION • Load Distribution • Typical load of aircraft while landing ;WL=WT -O.8WF • While aborting mission ; WL=WT-O.1WF • During static condition ; WL=WT

CONTACT AREA

• Ww=Ap x P • Ap=2.3 √ dwww(dw/2-Rt) • Rt=(dw/2-Ap/(2.3 √dwww)) *RUN WAY LOADING Runway loading=load on each wheel/area of contact

Runway Loading

DIMENSIONAL ESTIMATES • Span to height ratio=b/ha ≈5 • Span to length ratio=b/la ≈ 1.5 • CONFIGARATION OF TAIL • Horizontal stabilizer • Horizontal stabilizer sizing 15% of wing area;sh/s=0.15 • Vertical stabilizer geometry • Vertical stabilizer sizing 9% of wing area ;sv/s=0.09

Configuration of tail

Airfoil NACA 0012

• PREPARATION OF LAY OUT • Wing location and C.G estimation Wfuselage X fuselage + W wing (X +X wing) = (Wfuselage+Wwing) (X+Xfinal) • Where X is the location of wing root L.E from the nose fuselage and Xfinal is the reaction of cg from the L.E at root • X final=0.35(Xcr - Xct)

Wing Detail for cg estimation

Three views of Aircraft

Front view

Side view

DRAG POLAR • Drag equation for entire Aircraft:Cd=Cdwing+Cdothers+KCL^2 • *wetted surface area • Fuselage =Wfuselage*hfuselage • Engine =4* π/4d^2 • Nose landing gear=dw*Ww*4 • Main landing gear=dw*Ww*12 • Main landing gear=dw*Ww*8 • Flap=Lflap * Wflap

• Take off performance =Cdpermanent+CdLG+Cdflap+Cdwing • Landing performance=Cdpermanent+CdLG+Cdflap+Cd
wing

• Cruise performance=Cdpermanent+Cdwing

Drag polar

Lift to Drag Ratio

• Thrust required and Thrust available analysis: • W1= 25% of Fuel and 100 % of Payload • W1= 3185533.292 N • W2= 50% of Fuel and 100 % of Payload • W2= 3784962.23 N • W3= 75% of Fuel and 100 % of Payload • W3= 4384391.173 N

Performance Calculations

Thrust scenarios at Sea level for different weights

Thrust scenarios at 11 km altitude for different weights

Thrust scenarios at 25 km for different weights

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