 Organisational development (OD) comprises a special set of organisational change of methods.  Its planned , systematic process of organisational change based on behaviour science research and theory.  The goal of OD is to create adaptive organisations capable of transforming and reinvesting themselves , so as to remain effective.  OD draws heavily from psychology, sociology and anthropology .  OD is not a single approach but a collection of techniques.  It is based on many well-established principles regarding the behaviour of individual and groups in an organisations.

Characteristics of OD :
 Planned change :Also called change intervention , it makes OD different from other approaches for change in org.  Comprehensive change : OD efforts generally involve a total system .The change occurs the entire environment.  Long-range change : OD takes months or years to implement.  Emphasis upon work groups: Although some OD efforts are aimed at individual and organisational change ,most are oriented towards groups.  Participation of a change agent :The services of an outside expert are generally retained to implement the OD process.  Collaborative management: In the contrast to the traditional mgt structure in which orders are issued at upper levels & simply carried out by lower levels, OD stresses collaboration among levels.

OD interventions
Several OD interventions ,also called techniques ,have evolved over time. The most successful of them possess three key characteristics :  They are based on valid information about the functioning of the org, usually collected by the employees.  The intervention provides employees with opportunities to make their own choices regarding the nature of the problems and their preferred solutions.  Interventions are aimed at gaining the employees personal commitment to their choices.

Four categories of interventions
    Human process interventions Technostructural interventions Human resources management interventions Strategic interventions

Human Process Interventions
 This OD techniques in this category aim at improving employees interpersonal skills.

an extension off the managerial grid concept developed by BLAKE and MOUTON is usually carried out on an organisation-wide basis.  Ten to fifteen employees are brought together in a free and open environment . or formed to solve a specific problem. greater sensitivity to the behaviour of others. The purpose is to provide them with the insight and skills needed to analyses effectively their own and others behaviour so that they can intelligently solve interpersonal and intergroup problems. greater openness . Grid Training  Grid organisational development . Steps in Grid OD       Training Team development Intergroup development Organisational goal setting Goal attainment Stabilization Technostructural intervention . and increased understanding of group processes.  Individual personality and group interaction. improved listening skills.  This technique is widely called as sensitivity training. increased tolerance of individual differences and improved conflict resolution skills.  Grid training seeks to promote organisational excellence by fostering concern for production and concern for people. away from work places . processes and relationships become the focus of discussion. a new group which may have been created through a merger or other structural change in the organization. Sensitivity or T-Group training  Sensitivity training is to provide the employees with increased awareness of their own behaviour and how others perceive them.  Facilitator is no teacher.  Second.  No formal agenda. an existing or permanent team made up of a manager and his subordinates often called family group. which may be called the special group. especially the role of the leader in relation to other group members. Team building can be directed at two different types of teams of working groups:  First.  It gives particular attention to work procedures and interpersonal relationships within it . aided by a facilitator.  Specific results sought from sensitivity training include increased ability to empathize with others. in which participants discuss themselves freely . Team Building  Team building is the process of diagnosing and improving the effectiveness of a work group.

Strategic Interventions  There have been constant addition to the basket of OD techniques the newest addition is the integrated strategic mgt. methods.  Choosing a desired strategy and organisation design.  Preintervention measure of behaviour are not taken  Those doing the evaluations of OD programmes have vested interest in proving success.  Monitoring the process and the measuring of results Effectiveness of OD Programming  It is difficult to measure the number .  As compared with human process interventions. .  The introduction into the system of a behavioural science consultant. Pre-requisites for OD  Perception of organisational problems by key people and perception of the relevance of the behavioural sciences in solving these problems.  Involvement of personnel and industrial relations/ human resources mgt people and congruency with personnel policy and practice . and job designs of organizations.  Designing a strategic change plan.  Effective mgt of the OD process and stabilization of changes . and magnitude of confounding variables. training.  Development of internal OD resources and facilitative skills. including the formal leader . but focus more directly on productivity improvement and efficiency.  Implementing a strategic change plan . and performance appraisal can mould employee commitment . increasingly involved in using action research to enable employees to analyse and change their firms personnel practices. Human Resource Management Intervention  Human resource mgt practices such as hiring. reward system. such technostructural interventions (as well as the human resource mgt interventions and strategic interventions described later) generally utilize the traditional OD action research approach. motivation and productivity . Experts in OD are increasingly relying on efforts to change the structure .  OD practitioners are therefore . and workforce diversity programmes.  Participation of work teams.This approach consists of four steps :  Analysing current strategy and organization design.  Targets of change include the firms appraisal system . nature.

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