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∗

∗ Text

of a plenary presentation at the 2007 NCTM Annual Meeting, March 23, 2007, in Atlanta. I wish to thank Tom Parker for his many insightful suggestions.

Mathematics education is

mathematical

engineering

I am not making an analogy. I am not using “engineering” as a metaphor. Rather, I am giving a precise description of what mathematics education really is.

. iPod. Lysol.Engineering is the customization of abstract scientiﬁc principles to satisfy human needs. shampoo. Electrical engineering: Electromagnetism −→ computers. Chemical engineering: Chemistry −→ the plexi-glass tanks in aquariums. . . . the gas you pump into your car. motors. lighting in this hall. . . . power point.

. The hard drive weighed over a ton and stored 5MB of data. These hard drives are built on the same scientiﬁc principles.Striking example of electrical engineering : In 1956. Today’s hard drives weigh only a few ounces and hold 100. IBM launched the ﬁrst computer with a hard disc drive. But 50 years of continuous engineering have created reﬁnements that make them enormously better adapted to the needs of consumers.000 times as much data.

This is the job of mathematics educators: How to engineer the abstract mathematics for use by students and teachers in K–12. .Mathematical engineering (Mathematics education of K–12): Abstract mathematics −→ mathematics that meets the needs of students and teachers in the K–12 classrooom.

Products that engineering cannot produce: Mechanical engineering: perpetual motion machines. 100% eﬃcient engines. . b d b+d mathematics that can be learned like whole language. Chemical engineering: machines that extract oxygen from water without use of energy. Mathematical engineering: c a+c a + = .

any more than it should produce any product that is useless though scientiﬁcally correct. . (2) user-friendliness of the ﬁnal product.Engineering cannot cater to any human need no matter how scientiﬁcally absurd. Engineering must mediate between two extremes: (1) inviolable scientiﬁc principles.

Deﬁnitions: Bedrock of the mathematical structure (no deﬁnitions. . It solves speciﬁc problems. Reasoning: Lifeblood of mathematics. it is clear what is known and what is not known. core of problem solving. At any moment. no mathematics).What are the inviolable scientiﬁc principles in mathematical engineering? Precision: Mathematical statements are clear and unambiguous. Purposefulness: Mathematics is goal-oriented. Coherence: Every concept and skill builds on previous knowledge and is part of an unfolding story.

e. the teaching of geometry in high school. mathematics educators) bring into the K–12 classroom must respect these f ive basic characteristics of mathematics Here are three examples that do not: the teaching of fractions in grades 5–7..What mathematical engineers (i. FASM. .

No reasoning. therefore no a c ac reasoning. Students are not learning fractions because fractions are not being clearly explained.Fractions: The statement “fractions have multiple representations” is meaningless. insisting that school mathematics be like the mathematics they do? NO.g. “Fractions are such diﬀerent numbers from whole numbers!” Is this the kind of criticisms only mathematicians enjoy. No def inition. No deﬁnition. E. WHY is × = ? b d bd No coherence. .

T he mathematics: T he engineering product (school geometry): Either it (1) follows Euclid. and therefore does not address students’ learning capacity. Very user-unfriendly. no theorems. . POOR engineering in both cases. and no proofs.Geometry Both Euclid’s version and Hilbert’s reformulation go directly from axioms to theorems to proofs. or (2) has no deﬁnitions. is just experimental geometry and therefore does not respect the basic characteristics of mathematics.

School mathematics is the mathematics of rational numbers. Any excursion into irrational numbers depends on FASM.1 + 2 × π 2 + = π 5.1 √ √ Ex. . 3 3 × 5. The use of FASM in school mathematics is good engineering provided it is made explicit (the precision of mathematics).1 π × 5.FASM (Fundamental Assumption of School Mathematics): All the information about the arithmetic operations on fractions can be extrapolated to all real numbers. The fact that FASM is never mentioned in textbooks in schools or in college textbooks for teachers is POOR engineering.

Mathematicians’ input has been missing . mathematical engineering urgently needs the close collaboration of mathematicians and educators. What has been done for fractions does not touch on the fundamental issue that the teaching of fractions violates all ﬁve basic characteristics of mathematics. Almost nothing has been done about geometry. .The non-learning of fractions and geometry has been among the most notorious problems in school mathematics education. . while students’ non-learning continues. As of 2007. .

and they also need to know that the concept of area requires the designation of a unit area. For example. In addition. The customization of mathematics begins with knowing the classroom needs at each grade level.The reasons that mathematical engineering is intrinsically bound to both mathematics and education: 1. even third graders need to know the concept of length before taking up area. This requires knowledge of the school mathematics curriculum. . what third graders need to know about area is diﬀerent from what tenth graders need to know about the same concept.

. or (c) deﬁned by use of coordinates.2. This requires solid content knowledge. the meaning of reﬂection in the plane can be (a) taught by folding papers. or (b) deﬁned by using perpendicular bisector of a segment. but not for 10th graders. (a) is appropriate for 5th graders. For example. The varied nature of the needs requires the ability to devise more than one correct approach to a given topic.

i. This requires a deep knowledge of both pedagogy and mathematics: how to reach out to students on their own terms without sacriﬁcing the basic characteristics of mathematics. without making precise what it means (what does “of” mean. and what does sugar have to do with fractions??). This violates precision. .e..3. It is all too tempting to push aside these basic characteristics in the name of reaching out to students. it is easy to do defective engineering. 2 5 Ex. The nature of the need dictates the choice of the best approach among the alternatives. Deﬁne 2 × 5 to be “ 3 of 8 pounds of 3 8 sugar”.

No chemical engineer can function without knowing the fundamental principles of chemistry. No electrical engineer can function without knowing the fundamental principles of electromagnetism. No mathematical engineer can function without knowing the basic characteristics of mathematics. .

Mathematicians generally know mathematics. It consists of engineers who know both physics and the real world. and educators generally know education. School of engineering is not just a collection of physicists and marketing researchers in various aspects of life. The separation of mathematicians from educators in the U. .S.But we have no mathematical engineers as of 2007. of the recent past has led to a deterioration of the mathematics in mathematics education.

old and new. especially in fractions and algebra. and professional development materials. • has adversely aﬀected mathematics education research. • has corrupted oﬃcial curricular standards. • has inﬁltrated standardized assessments.The deterioration: Mathematics that does not respect some or all of the basic characteristics of the discipline • has crowded K-12 textbooks. . • has been taught far too often in the school classroom.

departments of electrical engineering would have been shut down long ago.If electrical engineers produce defective products over several decades. The job of educators and mathematicians has been cut out for them: SHORT TERM: Work together to improve every aspect of mathematics education. . The crisis in mathematics education is real. LONG TERM: Let there be mathematical engineers.

because we cannot aﬀord to lose another generation of students. . many more steps are needed to ensure a better mathematics education in our nation. The recent Focal Points of NCTM is a ﬁrst step among several of this kind of collaboration. But many.Let us put aside professional prejudices. Let us work together.

Proceedings of International Congress of Mathematicians. Madrid 2006.pdf . 2006.edu/∼wu/ICMtalk. Z¨rich.berkeley. u http://math. 1676-1688. Volume III.Wu’s article on mathematical engineering : How mathematicians can contribute to K-12 mathematics education. European Mathematical Society.

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