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R. Pricto, R. Asensi, J.A. Cohos, 0. Garcka and J . Uceda

Universidad Politknica de Madrid. E.T.S.I.I.

Div. de Ingenieria ElectrBnica
Jo& Gutidrrez Abascal, 2
28006 Madrid SPAIN
Tel: 34-1-411 75 17 Fax: 34-1-564 59 66 E-mail:

Abstract: A model Jk tlie capacitive efects in magnetic the design procedure o f the whole power electronic circuit (SMPS)
components for Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) has been is itnprovect .
developed. It can be upplied to multiwinding transformers. A Finite
Element Anabsis (FEA) tool is used ta compure the frequency 2. THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE
behavior of the magnetic component, taking into account geometry MODELS
ami materials. The parameters ofthe model can be calculated belfi,re
the magnetic component is built. A n acciirute capacitancesmodeling Depending on the degree of accuracy desired, it is pssbile to use
is expected to be crucial j ) r common-mode EM1 transini,s.rion different tnodels with several degrees of f r d o m to model the
modeling. The model takes into account winding Jloating voltages capacitive effects in the magnetic cotnponent. Four different levels
and the capacitance among each winding. Several model leveb with are presented in this paper. The accuracy level depends on the
diyerent degrees offreedom are proposed. Some experimental resiilts degrees t ) f freedom taken into account in each level.
cumparing the actual mugneric component results with the beliavioral
simulator resulrs, are presented. 2. I. Level I Model

I .INTRODUCTION The first level model assumes only two degrees of freedom, which
are tlic voltage applied to tlie first winding and the offset voltage
Magnetic components are widely used in pnwer supplies. They are among the different windings.
i n d d one of the most important coinponents in pnwer electronic All voltages are referred to one of the first winding terminals, and
devices. Accurate models are necessary to ohtain accurate coinputer the rest o f the winding voltages are ohtained by means of the turns
simulations. It is necessary to obtain the actual wavefonns of the rat ic ) .
circuit to control cotnp'nent stresses and ElectroMagnetic
Interferences (EMI). 2.1. I . Two winding transformers
The classic model of the transformer capacitive effects is not
enough to obtain accurate waveforms. Furtherinore, the calculation The electric energy stored in a volume can be obtained by means
of their parameters is only possible once the magnetic component has o f (1):
been built.
This work presents a procedure to calculate a model of the
capacitive effects in a magnetic component, inlcuding multiwinding
transfonners. The inodel is hased on the physical description The t i n t level has only two degrees of f r d o m (variables).
(geometry and materials) of the magnetic cotnpnnent. Thercfi)re, using only two variables, voltage applied to the first
The parameters of the model are calculated by tntfans of a Finite winding ( V , ) and offset voltage hetween first and second winding
Elecrnent Analysis (FEA) Tool, s o it is not necessary to huild the (V<?&,the fiirinula (1) Iwmnes in (2):
tnangetic coinponent, which ineaiis time and money in the design
There are only few references o f the capacitive effects description
in high frequency transformer [ I]-[4]. The use of FEA tools in the
capacitive effects modeling has lieen studied in [51 for high power
transfonners, but it is necessary to build the transfonner to obtain an
experirnental constant that is necessary Rir the capacitances
calculation. Some authors present capacitive effect tnodels based on
reference [6],but these tnodels are only accurate for high voltage
transfimners and cylindric windings.
The present work propnses a theoretical inodel that coinpleinents
the High Frequency Transfnriner Windings Model presented iii [ I ] , The three terms that coinpose the energy can be associated to
so a full model of the magnetic cimponent hased on the coinponent three capacitors:
gmmetry (it is not necessary to build it) is ohtained. One cap:icitor to store part of the global energy of the
An accurate inodel helps tc) ihtain accurate simulatims o f the trnnsfi)riner referred to the primary winding (C,).
electrical waveforms and the electroinagnetic interferences (EMI). s o Onc capacitor to store part of the offset voltage energy (C&.

$4.00 0 1995 IEEE

0-7803-2730-6/95 678
One capacitor to store part of the offset energy and part of the Sitnicktion 2
global energy (Cl@).
One of the possibilities to place these capacitors in the model is The same voltage is applied to all the turns of the secondary
shown in figure I: winding. All primary winding tums are grounded (see figure 3).
cv, = 0; vo,# 0)

Fig. 1. Level 1 Model for two winding transformer Fip. 3. Second simulation for the extraction of the
parameters of the niodel
The energy associated to this inodel is represented in (3):
The energy of this system is given by equation (8):
I = -1c , v : +1- c o f f ~1 f f + - c ~ ~ v= l - v o b ) ~
2 2 2
1 1
= -2 (C,+ Cl0$ v: + 5(COff+ C,& vof4- (3)
It can be seen that:
- CiMVi V& = 11 + III + IIII
Comparing (2) and (3) the parameters o f the no del can he
z, = Ii I, = lii
obtained. The resulting parameters are given by equations (4), ( 5 ) The FEA tool post processor can save the value of the field E,,
and (6): D,, Eta and Do,, so I,,,(see equation (2)) can be obtained applying hte
superposition theorein. C,, CO, and C,, can be obtained using
equation (4). ( 5 ) and (6).

2.1.2. Three winding transformer

Puramrtrrs rxtruction

The three capacitors can he calculated hy means of two different

simulations in the FEA tool, and applying the superposition theorem.
One of the degrees of freedom (voltages) has to be zero in each

Siiniclution 1

A voltage is applied to the priinary winding. The voltage in the

Fig. 4. Level 1 niodel for three winding
secondary winding is given by the turns ratio. The offset voltage has transfomier
to be zero (see figure 2). (VI # 0; y f l = 0 )
In n three winding transformer there are three degrees of freedom
for the level 1 no del:
Voltage applied to the primary winding (V,)
Offset vol~igehetween primary and secondary winding (VmJ
Offset voltage between primary and third winding (Vm3)
The energy in this transforiner is given by (9):

Fig. 2 . First siniulation for the extraction of the parameters of the
The energy in this sirnulation is given by equation (7):

2 . Applying the same voltage to all the turns of the secondary
winding. The rest of the windings are grounded.
VI = 0;v,,, ;r 0; vw, = 0
DrCf12and EdfI2are calculated.
3. Applying the same voltage to all the turns of the third winding.
The rest of the windings are grounded.
VI = 0;v,,, = 0 ; V&IJ # 0
D,, and E,+f,, are calculated.
Each o f these simulations tnakes zero all the degrees of freedom
except one o f them.

1 ----
+ - 2[ [ l ( D o f f l Z .E0ff13 + D0/f13 . E 0 f / 1 3 ) d v =
= I, + II1+ I,,, + I,, + I , + I",

There are six terms of the energy to consider, so six capacitors

should be placed in the model to store the energies. Figure 4
represents the level 1 model for a three winding transformer. The
energy stored in those capacitors is given by (10): Fig. 5 . Sindolions nccdid for [hi,rxrraction of the parameters for
o rhrw winding tronsfomrerfor level I model
I = -
1 ceqe T1c 0 f f l 2
+ + l V
3'0ffl3 2off13 +

1 1 2.2. Level 2 model
+ -c12(v1
- 'off12I2 + TCl,("l - ' 0 f f I 3 ) ~ -+

A model with higher accuracy is obtained by adding a new degree

+ 1
,~ofp3("offlz - VOfflJ - 5'c,, + C t z + C I 3 ) * + of freedom to the Level 1 model. In the level 2 model, the voltage
in all the windings is a new degree of freedom, so it is not given by
+ 51 (COfflZ + Cl, + C0fy23"&2 +
the turns ratio. This way, the effect of the leakage inductances is
1 modelled with mi)re accuracy in the whole model of the magnetic
+ Z('ofll3 + '13 + 'ofy23 . '?ff13 - component. All the volhges are referred to one of the primary
1 winding terminals
- - c2
12vlvofflZ -c13vlvoff13 -coffL3voff12voff13 = For siinplicity, only two winding transformer is described in level
= II + 111+ 1111+ I,, + I , + I,, 3, mc)del.
The electric energy, using three degrees of freedom, is given by
The model presents the same structure as the two windings one: (1 I):
One capacitor referred to the primary winding, that stores part
of the global energy C,.
One capacitor that stores part o f the offset energies in each pair
cif windings (CO,,).
One capacitor that stores part o f the offset energy and part o f
the global energy (Cy).
So it is necessary to add additional offset capacitors tc) obtain the
desired nuinlxr of parameters.
The parameters extraction has the same process than in the two
winding transformer.
Energies are calculated by means of the FEA tool
The energies are asociated to the capacitors
The superposition theorem is applied

Puruinrtrrs rxtructinn

Three simulations are enough to cil,tain all the paraineters o f the There art) SIX terms i i f the energy, so six capacitor are needed to
model: store thebe eiiergic5. A six parameters tnodel is obtained for a two
1. Applying voltage t o the primary winding. The rest 11f the winding tr.insf)riner (see figure 6):
winding voltages are given by the turns ratio:
VI f 0 ; V,,? = 0 ; VC,ff,? = 0
All the windings are referred ti) ground. D, and E, are
. r----

2 4


volf Fig. 8. LtveI 3 model for two winding tramformer

FQ. 6. Level 2 model for two winding transformer The voltage in the secondary winding is given by the turns ratio.
The energy associated to the system of figure 6 is given hy (12): There are three degrees of freedom in this model: VI, V, and V,.
Voltage applied to the primary winding (VI)
Floating voltage of the primary winding (Val)
Floating voltage of the secondary winding ( Vo2)
1 1 The electric energy associated to this system is given by (13):
+ -C,,(V, - v0,y + -C2,(- vo,,- V2)2 =
2 2

Puroineters rxtruction

For a two winding transformer, three simulations are enough to

obtain all the parameters of the level 2 model (applying the
There are six terms of the energy to be stored in six capacitors
superposition theorem):
(figure 8). The electric energy stored in these capacitors is given by
1. Applying voltage to the primary winding (referred to ground)
and grounding the second winding.
VI # 0; v, = 0; v, = 0
D, and E, are calculated.
3. Applying voltage to the secondary winding (referred to ground)
and grounding the primary winding.
v, = 0; v, = 0; VI # 0
D, and E, are calculated.
3. Applying the same voltage to all the turns of the secondary
winding and grounding the primary winding.
v, = 0; v2 = 0; V& # 0

D,#f and E, are calculated.

l Puranirtm rxtrciction

The way to extract the parameters of the model is the same as in

level I and level 2 models.
a) b) c) For a two windinc- transformer three siinulations are needed (one
o f the degrees o f freedom should he zero in each simulation).
The ground reference should be chosen in the core.

2.3. Level 3 model 2.4. Level4 model

Level 3 model is similar to level I tnodel. For simplicity, for two ~ 1 lh ~ i ~ cOlnp~ex This all the
winding transformer is descrihd for level 3 model. The difference voltages t~l,ntillg, the in the windings are not given
is that the voltage of the windings are not referred to ground hut they
are floating voltages. Figure 8 shows the iinpleinentation o f this
I , ~ tLlrll\ ratl,l hut they are also a degree of freedom.
TI^^ resulting Inodel filr a two winding is shown in
model for a two winding transfixiner figure 9

Air gap inclusion
Different rnagnetic coinponents: transformer and inductors
The different tests developed are small signal ones. The use of
higher accuracy levels (level 2, 3 and 4) should have great advantage
in large signal tests, bwause of the EM1 conduction modeling.
Therefore. all the tests have been developed using level 1 model.
Future developinents will include EM1 tests with level 2, 3 and 4
niodels to coinpare the difference among all the presented models.
Level I intldel has Ixen tested with different magnetic
TEST1 : Two winding transformer. RM12 core Philips 3F3
Fw. 9. Lcvd 4 ntocicd for two wincirng tmnsfonner material. Primary with 37 turns in two layers and
secondary with 18 turns in one layer. Solid wire of
This model considers four degrees ( i f freedom for a two winding
Voltage applied to the primary winding (V,)
TEST?: Inductor. RM12 core. Philips 3F3 material. 18 turns
in one layer. Solid wire of 0.751nm0.
Voltage applied to the secondary winding ( V2)
TEST3: Inductor with air gap of 1 .Sinin. RM14 core. Phflips
Floating voltage of the primary winding ( Vo,)
3C85 material. 24 turns in one layer. Solid wire of
Floating voltage of the secondary winding (V,)
The electric energy is given hy (15):



+ 2i I I / , ( q . q + q . q ) d v+ 2i / / l ( & . q + q + G ) d v =

= II + 41 + 4, 4 v
+ + I v I,,
+ + I,,, + I,,, + 4, + I,
There are ten tenns of the energy to compute. ThereRlre. ten
capacitors should be included in to the inodel to store the energies
(figure 9). The energy stored in these capacitors is given by (16):

1 Fig. 10. Trnnsfomier TEST 1. Open circuit

I = -(C + c, + c, + Cb + cc+ c,>e,t
2 '
+ -(C, + c, + c, + c,, v: +
+ -(CA t c, + ca+ c, + cc+ C,)G2 t

Several magnetic components have been tested to validate the
accuracy of the presented model.
The model has been tested with:
Different core sizes: RM 12 and RM 14 Fix. 11. Iruliumr TEST 2. Frequency hehnvior
Different core inaterink: Philips 3F3 and Philips 3C85
Figure 10 si1ciws tlie open circuit test in TEST1 transformer.
Figure 1 1 shows tlie frequency behavior of TEST2 inductor. Figure
17- slinws the fryucncy I~ehaviorofTEST3 inductor. Figure 13 show
tlie open circuit test in TEST4 transformer. All figures show the
coinparistin between ineasured (using an HP4195 impedance
analyzer) and simulated (using ELDO behavioral simulator) results.


A new theoretical model to take into account the capacitive effects

in high frequbncy magnetic cninpnents has been presented. The
procedure allows calculate the parameters of the model using only
tlie geoinetrical description and materials of the magnetic
components. The model considers a distributed representation of the
capacitive effects by means of n set of lumped capacitances. The
advaiit:ige cif this models in EM1 conduction analysis will be studied
in future developinents. Experimental results show the accuracy of
the level I inodel.

[ 11"A It111 procedure to model high frequency transfonner
windings", R. Asensi, J.A. Cohos, 0. Garcia, R. Prieto and
J . Uceda, Power Electronics Speciulists Conference, 1994.
[21 "Entian c d C r(iss-Co upled-SwondariesModel for Multiwinding
Transfirmers", H.A. Owen jr.. V.A. Niemela and T.G.
Wilson, P o w r Electronics Speciulists Conference, 1992.
1t+04 131 "Issues Regarding the Capacitance of 1-10 MHz
Trausfmners", L.F. Casey, A.F. Goldberg and M.F.
Schlecht, A p p h f Power Electrc>nic.sConference, 1988.
(41 "At1 accurate method for inodeling transforenner winding
1 ~ 0 3 capacitances" ,J .A. Collins, Iruircsrriul Electronics Conference,
3w02 IS] "Transient overvoltage study and model for shel-type power
transformers", V. Woivre, J.P. Arthaud, A. Ahmad and N.
Ti. 13. Trancformer TEST4. Open circuit Burais, IEEE Trurrsuctions on Power Delivery, vol. 8, no. 1,
January 1993.
TEST4: Two winding transformer. RM12 core. Philips 3F3 161 "Einfaclie Niherungsftmneln fur die Eigenkapazitiit
material. Primary 36 turns in two layers and mzlirlngigen Spuleri", Von Harry Zuhrt, Elekrrorec/inische
secondary with 35 turns in two layers. Solid wire of$,5 , July 1934.