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Department of EEE Renewable Energy EEE445
Topic: Biomass Energy
Group No. 01
Asraful Haque Nirjhar Rifat Ahsan Rifat Ahmed Rajesh Mondal Sultan Mahmud Mehrin Hossain 2006-1-80-003 2006-1-80-006 2006-2-80-012 2008-1-80-065 2006-1-80-011 2006-3-80-015
What is Biomass? Biomass. lignin. usually including atoms of oxygen. and returns it as it is burned. a renewable energy source. alkaline earth and heavy metals. is biological material from li ing. If it is managed on a sustainable basis. The required energy is produced from light via photosynthesis based on chlorophyll. This is either during woodland or arboricultural management or coppicing or as part of a continuous programmed of replanting with the new growth taking up CO from 2 the atmosphere at the same time as it is released by combustion of the previous harvest. and alcohol fuels. On average. often nitrogen and also small quantities of other atoms. such as wood. Plants in particular combine water and carbon dioxide to sugar building blocks. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. or recently li ing organisms. Why biomass is a renewable source?: Biomass takes carbon from the atmosphere while it is growing. waste. including alkali. between 0. biomass is harvested as part of a constantly replenished crop. (hydrogen) gas. hemicelluloses and cellulose. Chemical composition of Biomass: Biomass is carbon based and is composed of a mixture of organic molecules containing hydrogen. The sugar building blocks are the starting point for the major fractions found in all terrestrial plants.1 and 1 % of the available light is stored as chemical energy in plants. Block Diagram: .
Conversion Technologies: There are a number of technological options available to ma e use of a wide variety of biomass types as a renewable energy source. Biomass Technology Chart Conversion Process Type Thermo chemical Major Biomass Feedstock wood agricultural waste municipal solid waste residential waste Energy or Fuel Produced heat steam electricity Technology Direct Combustion 60% to 95% (mainly depending on design and kind of operation and maintenance. While for some classes of biomass resource there may be a number of usage options. arboricultural activities or from wood processing. Food waste. preparation and processing. Agricultural residues: residues from agriculture harvesting or processing. and post-consumer waste Industrial waste and co-products from manufacturing and industrial processes. such as liquid biofuel or combustible biogas. Energy crops: high yield crops grown specifically for energy applications .Resources: There are five basic categories of material: y y y y Virgin wood.) Gasification 40% to 55% Thermo chemical wood agricultural waste municipal solid waste wood agricultural waste municipal solid waste animal agricultural landfills wastewater manure waste low or medium-Btu producer gas Pyrolysis Thermo chemical synthetic fuel (biocrude) charcoal medium Btu (methane) oil Anaerobic Digestion 25% to 40% Biochemical (anaerobic) gas . Conversion technologies may release the energy directly. in the form of heat or electricity. from forestry. or may convert it to another form. for others there may only one appropriate technology. from food and drink manufacture.
Fig: Estimated Cost of Renewable Energy Options (Cents per kWh) Advantages: y y y Biomass can be found on every square meter of the earth as seaweed. Power plants that burn biomass directly currently generate electricity at a cost of between 7 and 9 cents per kilowatt hour. trees or dung. how it's converted to electricity and the size of the plant.E anol oduction 40% to 50% Biochemical (aerobic) sugar or starch crops wood waste pulp sludge grass straw rapeseed soy beans waste vegetable oil animal fats wood agricultural waste municipal solid waste ethanol Biodiesel oduction Chemical biodiesel Methanol oduction Thermo chemical methanol How Much It Costs: The cost of electricity from biomass energy depends on the type of bio fuel used. It is easy to convert to a high energy portable fuel such as alcohol or gas. It is cheap in contrast to the other energy sources. .
deforested areas). The bigges argume that it produces carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Disadvantages o Biomass energy: y Biomass is not carbon neutral: Biomass generates more carbon than coal. as energy crop fuel contains less mercury than coal. 50 megawatt biomass plant would require roughly 32. If it is produced on a renewable basis using biomass energy does not result in a net carbon dioxide increase as plants absorb it when they grow.g. ¡ . uptaking and sequestering pollutants such as phosphorus and particulates from soils that leach into water bodies.reductions in pollutants causing acid rain (SO2) and smog (NOx) may be realized -. Biomass Energy & Pollution: An additional environmental benefit is in water quality. It is very low in sulphur reducing the production of acid rain. Because energy crop fuel contains almost no sulfur and has significantly less nitrogen than fossil fuels -. energy crop farms using environmentally pro-active designs will create water quality filtration zones. For instance.improving our air quality.500 acres o forest each year if running at f near full capacity and entirely on wood.y y y y Biomass production can often mean the restauration of waste land (e. agains biomass is y y Fig: Carbon Reductions o Renewable Energy Options (Carbon ton/MWh) Biomass energy is ine icient: Biomass sanitizes and mines our orests: The dispersed nature of wood as a fuel source combined with its low energy value means any sizeable energy plant must burn a lot of wood. It may also use areas of unused agricultural land and provide jobs in rural communities. Also.
However. barley and the like are seasonal crops. Crop processing residues. it is estimated that the total annual amount of recoverable agricultural-crop residues in Bangladesh is about 42 MT of which 63% are field residues and 37% are proce ss residues. Accordingly. especially trout. Animal wastes and poultry droppings: Manure from cattle. Since cooling need is greatest in warm weather. in developed countries. The economy of Bangladesh depends principally on agriculture. The 138. vegetables. Such residues represent an important source of energy both for domestic and industrial use. Agricultural residues: There are two types of agricultural crop residues: field residues and processing residues. Corn. fire-wood. millet. wheat. No specif ic data is available concerning the common practices in Bangladesh or the neighboring Asian countries. jute. They are not available all year. Not all field residues are recoverable.1 million citi ens of Bangladesh produce huge amounts of human waste and municipal solid waste (MSW) annually. coconuts. either at the same time or after the primary crop has been harvested. removal of water from rivers occurs just when flows are lowest. pulses. including higher water temperatures that negatively impact fisheries. The main crops produced are rice. buffaloes and sheep are the common animal wastes in Bangladesh.y y Biomass energy uses large amounts of water: A large-scale biomass plant (50 MW) uses close to a million gallons of water a day for cooling. Trees are also a slow growing resource even though they are renewable. mostly by bailin g. it has been established that only about 35% of field crop residues can be removed without adverse effects on future yields. Unavailability of Resources: Biomass crops are not available all year. Most of that water is lost from the watershed since appro imately 85% is lost as steam. The percentage of field residues of a crop to be recycled onto the land depends upon the specific local climatic and soil conditions. and fish are most susceptible to temperature stress. The quantity of waste . Other sources of biomass are farm-animal wastes and poultry droppings. Water channeled bac into a river or stream typically has a pollution cost as well. wheat. on the other hand. cotton and groundnuts. Agricultural crops generate large quantities of residues. This would also tend to be a negative on the side of biomass fuels. Biomass resources in Bangladesh. Crop residues can be collected. sugar cane. have a 100% recovery factor. goats. mai e. Studies in some neighboring Asian countries produced useful residue-to-yield ratios for several agricultural crops. tree residues and saw dust from the forestry industry.
Accordingly. type of feed and level of nutrition. it is estimated that the total annual amount of recoverable animal wastes and poultry droppings in Bangladesh is 20.73 0.57 Percent 64.27 0.8 0. the generation rate i s only 0. The recovery/collection factors for animal waste and poultry droppings were reported in several studies to be 60% and 50% respectively. the total annual amount of the biomass available from these two sources in Bangladesh is 14.16 0.01 1. Human waste and MSW: The total quantity of human waste generated in Bangladesh has been estimated as 4.15 g/capita/day.09 g/capita/day).produced per animal per day varies depending on body si e.4 to 0. In rural areas of Bangladesh.03 g/bird/day respectively.5 in Indian cities.94 0.619 MT.49 10.52 0.4 3.9% 1. The average amount of droppings (on air dry basis) produced by broilers and layers are 0.4 g/capita/day whereas the rate varies between 0.537 MT of dry matter/year (corresponding to 0.793 MT. Area distribution of Different Land use Category Table -1 Land Use Category Agriculture State Forest Classified Unclassified Private Forest Homestead Tea/Rubber Garden Urban Water Other Total Area (Million Hectare) 9.5 7.02 and 0.3 5 1.9 6. Considering that human waste and MSW are 100% recoverable. The rate of generation of MSW in the urban areas of Bangladesh is 0.2 100 .
07 0.3 Forest Area Managed by FD Category of Forests Area Hectare) (Million Percentage 4.88 0.81 10.52 Table .08 Forest Department Managed 1.13 Plain Land Sal Forest Total 0.60 Forests Mangrove Plantations 0.83 17.54 4.67 Natural Mangrove 0.73 0.30 Hill Forests 0.52 Forests Unclassed State Forest Village Forest Total 0.52 .2 Total Forest Land of Bangladesh Category of Forests Area Hectare) (Million Percentage 10.12 1.95 1.30 4.Table .27 2.
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