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Green HRM is the use of HRM policies to sustainable use of resources within business organizations and generally promotes the cause of environmentalism. Green HRM initiatives are increasing as a result of mounting concern over global warming and the adverse effects of excess business activity on the environment. They often form part of Corporate Social Responsibility. The kinds of action taken within Green HRM initiatives include educating employees about climate change, other environmental issues, training and use of methods that reduce the use of resources, promoting more sustainable means of travel, car sharing, cycling, public transport, and providing employee benefits to eliminate those methods that are environmentally degrading. Some initiatives also make use of employee volunteering to support environmental charities and projects meant to develop green initiatives at work. Where trade unions are present, Green HRM may involve consultation and joint working with union. Union representatives who are trained to promote green agenda at work to advance sustainable business practices. There is a growing need for the integration of environmental management into Human Resource Management (HRM) – Green HRM – research practice. A review of the literature shows that a broad process frame of reference for Green HRM has yet to emerge. A concise categorisation is needed in this field to help academics, researchers and practitioners, with enough studies in existence to guide such modelling. This article takes a new and integrated view of the literature in Green HRM, using it to classify the literature on the basis of entry-to exit processes in HRM (from recruitment to exit), revealing the role that HR processes play in translating Green HR
Following issues related to GREEN HRM are gaining importance with the passage of time: 1. policies and/or practices that support or inhibit change around environmental issues 5. market and other external forces on the approaches to environmental management adopted by firms 2. mapping the terrain in this field. part time work. International differences in Green HRM practices 6. Companies are quick to layoff when times are tough before realizing the future implications of losing that knowledge capital.policy into practice. economic. Specific HR philosophies. The role played by trade unions and employee representatives in environmental management 8. The Role of the HR function in environmental management 7. video conferencing and interviews. Green HR involves reducing your carbon footprint via less printing of paper. etc. Discussions of how and to what extent HR policies and practices can improve the environmental performance of organizations 4. Workforce development needs created by increasing demand for employees in the newly emerging green economy 3. The contribution of this article lies in drawing together the extant literature in this area. Changing attitudes and behaviors related to environmental issues in the work-place 9. and in proposing a new process model and research agenda in Green HRM. etc. The influence of social. Green HR initiatives help companies find alternative ways to cut cost without losing their top talent. furloughs. A critique addressing the pros and cons for research and/or practice of focusing narrowly on environmental management versus addressing environmental concerns as part of a more .
. learning organization. those related to strategic competitiveness. and 11. Discussions of how current theoretical perspectives and frameworks (e. Green job candidates use Green criteria when applying for jobs 5. focusing on the Triple Bottom Line or striving for “sustainability”) 10.. to inductions (familiarisation) e. And green goals included into managerial job descriptions 3.g. knowledge management. Graduate perceptions of EM practises (use of Green criteria) 4.expansive approach (e. Green/EM (Environmental Management) job descriptions for employees 2. levels . becomes part of the interview schedule 7. Green employer branding (green employer of choice) 8. Becoming a green employer may produce other HR benefits. Recruitment of employees who are ‘Green aware’ 6. Any additional theoretical. review or model-building contributions in Green HRM GREEN HRM PROCESSES RECRUITMENT: 1. empirical. such as: • • • increased staff motivation and/or engagement reductions in labour turnover and increasing workforce health PERFORMANCE MAANGEMENT AND APPRAISAL 1. communities of practice) can be applied by reflective practitioners to create an eco-friendly organizational culture. Health & Safety 9.g.g. Green intro. Green performance standards & indicators in PMA at all dept.
Link EM in PMA to Pay & Reward. Mgmt. familiarisation. appraisals assess no. & recycling / Safety representatives to give data on green courses 11. Managers are set green targets. processes & material use. Roles of managers in achieving Green outcomes included in appraisals (e. est./reduction (e. Integrating training to increase staff knowledge in EM 9. Train staff to produce green analysis of workspace 7. Integrating EM training. use TNA in EM 3.2. suggestions. & knowledge in EM . Development of employee skills. Kodak. firm-wide dialogue on green matters 3. Training in EM aspects of safety. Train front-line teams to analyze their work areas in Environmental Management (EM) 2. waste mgmt. stop EM as a ‘fad TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (T&D) 1. Use discussion packs . use of Green teams in EM 6. Penalties for non-compliance on targets in EM 8.g. & successful communication of environmental policy 7. BFI) 6. use of environment responsibly. Communication of Green schemes for all via procedures/auditing to all levels in PMA scheme. Green standards for all dept’s in on-site use. interactive media as tools for EM training 10. Develop Green personal & tacit skills.g.’s EG&G. energy efficiency. Socialisation in Green values/management. of green incidents. Integrating training on instruction and generation of eco-values 4. goals and responsibilities 4. waste management. & encourage EM learning) 5. and competence building in EM 5. Job rotation to train green managers of the future 8.
g. which are difficult to be taught in classroom. EM focus on developing personal skills/team-building in global firms 10. Low level of management eco-literacy 3. 9. EM problems are complex. Kent County Council (KCC): KCC faces barriers to increased ownership in EM: • Lack of commitment/will by seniors . Unions want sustainability included into apprenticeships Training & Development: E. EM affects job skills. Needs employee development to increase tacit skills in EM. Lack of take-up in training/education in EM 2. 6. Hence. Re-train staff losing jobs in pollution causing industries (union role) 13.12. Union representatives should be given time to attend Green training 15. just like most qualitative skills 5. time needed to Educate & train employees in EM business practices 4. Need to broaden EM specialists into managers. Unions must include EM in training of union activists Problems faced in T&D: 1. knowledge management in this sphere might turn oiut to be oth time consuming and difficult. so union role here would be to help out 14. Few Green courses at Universities – poses recruitment issue for some firms. Challenge is to install eco-values as there are few models out there to support eco-investment. 8. 7. A combination of environmental management skills and business management skills is rare. so knowledge is important to understand & utilise.
productive maintenance (cleaning. in EM Staff give token response/hostile rejection to EM Difficult to maintain EM due to other priorities Establishing EM onto dept agendas. Employee help-line for guidance in Green matters 5. transport & waste. < paper consumption. Staff independence to form & experiment with green ideas 3. SMEs) . Tailor Green EI scheme to industry/firm standards (esp. greasing) 4. KCC faces problems such as: KCC is scoring some success. green purchasing. Employee Involvement & Participation (EI&P) in EM suggestion schemes/problem-solving circles (encourages concern/applies skills) 2. Integrate EI&P to EM .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cynicism of importance/relevance of issues Lack of resources/time Green fascism/policing New bureaucracy Cost constraints Communication/mentoring issues Lack of training Knowledge gaps Few staff being trained effectively Green teams view other staff not resp. such as: EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS / INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 1. promoting resource efficiency. plans & projects Embracing EM agenda (achieving culture change) Helping departments to gain access to funding Implementing programmes in EM (like water/energy efficiency.
g. Wheeling-Pittsburgh Firms may establish firm policies to support employee eco-initiatives. Unions EM agreements train union representatives 8.7bn of pollution/ saved $850m pollution control/raw material costs) • • • e. and education.g. GE Plastics. resources Barriers to EI in EM: • • • Lack of management support for EM (e.g. by: .6. Encouraging employees to use green transport 10.g’s: Firms may use EI as it can motivate workers in EM. Rover/KCC/Accenture) Unions may lack access to EM information. dismissal for EM breaches 11. networks. E.500 solutions/waste release halved/saved $300m. e. Other examples include schemes at Chrysler/Jeep.g.000 pounds of aluminium cans (gain of $40.000) e. Increase line/supervisory support behaviours in EM 7. EM grievance & discipline procedure. Allowing them to detect leaks in production processes Increase team knowledge of causes of waste. unlike pay which may be a more direct concern Firms may use EI to generate revenue & reduce pollution: • e. & how to reduce these (as this is delegated to them).g. Introduce EM whistle-blowing help-lines.g.750 projects globally/preventing £1. AT&T. American Airlines flight attendants recycled 616. 3M. & use supervisors to support employee EM actions: • • • e. & training in EM – all of which undermine union bargaining power Workers may not see EM as an issue ‘for them’. Green elements into Health & Safety. Lucent Technologies. exposure to fumes/chemicals 9. & later estimates of 4. (2. Dow Chemicals 173% ROI in 1st year. Use/develop social capital in EM.
g. & focus on H&S concerns re.g. Sony. who do defects/waste glass & < energy use • Be reluctant to involve unions in EM as they see EM as a mgmt issue (e. Cable & Wireless Union Role : • • Unions may act as allies to Environmental Managers (EM’s) to generate self-directed Green initiatives from workers. Use of monetary-based EM rewards (bonuses. cash. Need for a Green pay/reward system to manage waste. e. EM processes. Tailor packages to reward green skills acquisition 3. Hazardous/damaging substances & refusal to handle toxic waste • Seek legal rights for workers to paid time-off to attend training in EM.g. & use worldwide Green forums to share info.• • • • Chrysler/Jeep (recycling) AT&T (waste disposal) 3M/Kodak/DuPont/Procter & Gamble (all waste reduction) See gains from EI in improvements in EM & workers H&S.e. CBI oppose mandatory Green audits/union role in them. &/or offer help-line for staff . e. & see them as tools for mgmt control/assessment) PAY & REWARDS 1. U. & gain knowledge (such as chemistry re.g. DuPont/3M. emissions) 2. & be informed of outcomes on monitoring discharges/emissions • Employers may encourage union members to be involved in Green programmes.K. Campaign in EM to incl. co-operation with green groups. premiums) this to < glass .g. Re. e. & the development of more knowledgeable employees/supervisors in EM as a whole • Est.
at EG&G for individual/team/division contributions to waste < Xerox company-wide team excellence awards Body Shop pay staff to complete Green community service/events FedEx give 3 months paid leave to work on EM projects . goals in EM . feedback) 7.g. % of mgmt monthly pay bonuses dependent on outcomes achieved in EM DuPont & Neste Oy use exec pay/bonuses for middle mgrs/seniors partly based on stewardship practices/perf.part of bonus system • ICI set EM targets for senior mgmt PRP grading Use recognition-based rewards for mgrs: • • E. advance by helping staff in EM) 8. leave. & to reward it Use monetary-based Green reward systems: • • E. Use of non-monetary based EM rewards (sabbaticals. BFI.g. Monsanto/Dow/ICI/Coors (present awards at public meetings) Duke Power (awards publicised via news articles) Make recognition at different levels: • • • • E.4.g. Develop positive rewards in EM (e. gifts) & recognition-based ones (awards. Link EM suggestion scheme to reward system & participation in EM initiatives to career gains (mgrs. imp. Use green tax breaks to motivate employees in EM • Difficult to assess staff efforts/results in EM. external roles. publicity. daily praise) 5. Develop negative reinforcements (criticism. suspensions for lapses) 6. warnings.g.
Staff can be offered financial substitutes for car allowances encouraging car pooling/sharing. E. Company cars can be limited to journeys beyond public transport.g.’s: • • • • • • Car mileage for company cars can be extended to cover bike journeys/loans.g.Organisations may provide EM incentives. more flexible working). E. reward for them was a new car! Hence… EMPLOYEE EXIT • • • • • • • Dismissal/exit de-briefings could include an EM dimension. & provide legal protection for users of them Employers avoid stereotyping of whistle-blowers & use of ‘reverse’ whistle-blowing practices Managers to ask if Green issues are reasons for resignations (too little EM? moving to a more Green employer?) Exit interviews & whistle-blower accounts to gauge firm Greenness Employers may need policy in EM & to respond to ‘Green belief’ requests by employees (e. Rover. Tax incentives/exemptions can be used to loan bikes/safety equipment to staff. more recycling facilities. Organisations can use a less polluting car fleet. to avoid claims that EM beliefs are ignored . for less travel.g. used suggestion scheme where if savings made by staff were over a certain level. as managers need to know why staff leave Employers formulate & use whistle-blowing codes.
Specialists (Yesterday?) Non-Green .Green HR Roles HR Environmental Generalists (Tomorrow?) Green HR Environmental Specialists (Tomorrow?) Dark Green HR Generalists (Today?) Light Green HR Non-Environ.
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