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Part 2

Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing1

— 1999 —
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section/Article Description Page

2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-2


2.1.1 Scope (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-2
2.1.2 Design (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-3
2.1.3 Types (1996). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-3

2.2 Primers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-3 1


2.2.1 General (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-3
2.2.2 Primer (1996). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-4

2.3 Membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-4


2.3.1 Asphalt for Mopping (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-4
2.3.2 Coal-Tar Pitch for Mopping (1994). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-4 3
2.3.3 Fabric (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-4
2.3.4 Felt (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-4
2.3.5 Butyl Rubber (Butyl-based IIR) or EPDM (Ethylene-propylene-diene-monomers) (1994) 29-2-4
2.3.6 Adhesive (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-5
2.3.7 Cement (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-5
2.3.8 Butyl Gum Tape (1994). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-5
2.3.9 Rubberized Asphalt with Plastic Film or Preformed Board Membrane (1994). . . . . . . . . 29-2-6
2.3.10 Cold Liquid-Applied Elastomeric Membrane (1996) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-7

2.4 Membrane Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-8


2.4.1 Premolded Asphalt Block (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-8
2.4.2 Asphalt Plank (1994). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-8
2.4.3 Brick (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-8
2.4.4 Portland Cement Concrete (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-8
2.4.5 Asphalt Mastic (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-8
2.4.6 Coal-Tar Pitch Mastic (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-9
2.4.7 Asphaltic Panels in a Layer or Layers (Engineer’s Option) Not Less Than
³⁄₄ Inches Thick (1994). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-9

1 References, Vol. 35, 1934, pp. 702, 1142; Vol. 36, 1935, pp. 375, 1031; Vol. 37, 1936, pp. 655, 1044; Vol. 41, 1940, pp. 445, 853; Vol. 42,
1941, pp. 353, 877; Vol. 43, 1942, pp. 357, 710; Vol. 54, 1953, pp. 824, 1334; Vol. 59, 1958, pp. 600, 1224; Vol. 62, 1961, pp. 424, 902; Vol.
63, 1962, pp. 314, 689; Vol. 65, 1964, pp. 377, 758; Vol. 68, 1967, pp. 337; Vol. 70, 1969, p. 239; Vol. 71, 1970, p. 243; Vol. 75, 1974, p. 477;
Vol. 76, 1975, p. 217; Vol. 84, 1983, p. 93; Vol. 89, 1988, p. 202; Vol. 94, 1994, p. 146; Vol. 97, p. 230.

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Waterproofing

TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT)

Section/Article Description Page

2.5 Underlayment (1994). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-11

2.6 Sealing Compounds for Joints and Edges (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-11

2.7 Anti-Bonding Paper (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-12

2.8 Inspection and Tests (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-12

2.9 Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-12


2.9.1 General (1996) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-12
2.9.2 Primer (1996) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-12
2.9.3 Membrane (1996) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-13
2.9.4 Protective Cover (1994) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-17

Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-21

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Description Page

2-1 Lapping of Bituminous Membrane Waterproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-14


2-2 Recommended Butyl Membrane Field Seam Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-15

LIST OF TABLES

Table Description Page

2-1 ASTM D 3253. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-5


2-2 Performance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-6
2-3 Performance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-7
2-4 Degree of Resistance to Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-2-10

SECTION 2.1 GENERAL

2.1.1 SCOPE (1994)

a. These specifications apply to materials and construction methods for an impervious membrane and
auxiliary components to protect structures or parts of structures, except roofs of buildings, from the
harmful effects of water.

b. Typical structures which require waterproofing are described in Part 1, Principles Governing the
Waterproofing or Dampproofing of Railway Structures, Section 1.2, Waterproofing (1994).

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Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing

2.1.2 DESIGN (1994)

a. Section 1.2, Waterproofing (1994) and Section 1.3, Dampproofing (1994) of Part 1, Principles Governing
the Waterproofing or Dampproofing of Railway Structures enumerate the principles which shall govern
the waterproofing of railway structures. Structures which require waterproofing shall be designed so
that they can be waterproofed by the methods and with the materials specified herein. Special care shall
be taken to provide flexibility in the waterproofing membrane or in the joints between sections of
membrane at expansion joints or at those locations where deflection deformation may cause excessive
stretching of the membrane. Care shall be taken to seal effectively or flash all places where the
waterproofing membrane terminates, such as along the webs of girders.

b. Right-angle bends should be avoided by using rounded or chamfered edges on outside corners and
suitable fillet on inside corners. An underlayment of portland cement concrete or bituminous mastic may
be used under the membrane waterproofing on bridge deck to cover rough or uneven surfaces or to
provide slope for drainage.

c. Requirements affecting details of waterproofing as may be included in Chapter 6, Buildings and Support
Facilities; Chapter 7, Timber Structures; Chapter 8, Concrete Structures and Foundations; Chapter 15,
Steel Structures; AAR Scale Handbook (included in this manual) – should be observed in the design of
the structure.

2.1.3 TYPES (1996)

The membrane shall consist of one of the following types, as illustrated: 1


a. Two layers of bitumen-treated cotton fabric and three moppings of bitumen (Figure 2-1, Type A).

b. Three layers of bitumen-treated cotton fabric and four moppings of bitumen (Figure 2-1, Type B).

c. Two layers of bitumen-treated felt, one middle layer of bitumen-treated cotton fabric and four moppings
of bitumen (Figure 2-1, Type C). 3
d. Four layers of bitumen-treated felt, one middle layer of bitumen-treated cotton fabric and six moppings
of bitumen (Figure 2-1, Type D).

e. One layer of butyl rubber or EPDM secured as indicated with an approved adhesive (Figure 2-2).

f. Rubberized asphalt with plastic film or preformed board membrane. 4

g. Multiple layers of cold liquid-applied elastomeric membrane with an approved primer.

SECTION 2.2 PRIMERS

2.2.1 GENERAL (1994)

Bitumen shall consist of asphalt or coal-tar pitch. The mopped-on material shall be asphalt for use with
asphalt-saturated felt or fabric and coal-tar pitch for use with coal-tar-saturated felt or fabric.

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Waterproofing

2.2.2 PRIMER (1996)

a. Asphaltic Primer. Asphaltic primer shall meet the requirements of ASTM designation D 41.

b. Creosote Primer. Creosote for priming for use with coal-tar pitch shall meet the requirements of ASTM
designation D 43.

c. Cold Liquid-Applied Elastomeric Membrane Primer. Primer shall be of the type compatible with the
substrate and membrane type as recommended by the manufacturer.

SECTION 2.3 MEMBRANES

2.3.1 ASPHALT FOR MOPPING (1994)

Asphalt shall meet the requirements of ASTM designation D 449. This specification requires a choice of Types
1, 2 or 3 based on conditions relating to use. Type 2 asphalt shall be used for membranes on ballasted-deck
railroad bridges.

2.3.2 COAL-TAR PITCH FOR MOPPING (1994)

Coal-tar pitch shall meet requirements of ASTM designation D 450. The use of this specification requires a
choice of Types 1, 2 or 3 based on conditions relating to use. Type 1 coal-tar pitch shall be used for membranes
on ballasted-deck railroad bridges.

2.3.3 FABRIC (1994)

Fabric shall meet the requirements of ASTM designation D 173 covering woven cotton fabrics saturated with a
bituminous substance. The use of this specification requires a choice of asphalt meeting ASTM designation D
449 or coal-tar pitch meeting the requirement of ASTM designation D 450 as a saturant.

2.3.4 FELT (1994)

a. Felts for use with an asphalt mopping shall meet the requirements of ASTM designation D 226. This
specification offers a choice of two weights of felt. The 15-lb weight shall be used for construction of
membranes on ballasted-deck railroad bridges.

b. Felt for use with coal-tar pitch moppings shall meet the requirements of ASTM designation D 227.

2.3.5 BUTYL RUBBER (BUTYL-BASED IIR) OR EPDM


(ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE-DIENE-MONOMERS) (1994)

a. Membrane shall be 0.060 inch, 0.090 inch, or 0.120 inch thick at the Engineer’s option.

b. Membrane shall conform to the properties found in Table 2-1.

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Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing

Table 2-1. ASTM D 3253

Property Type I (IIR) Type II (EPDM)


Shore A hardness, points 60+ 10 60+ 10
Tensile strength, min 1,200 psi 1,300 psi
Modulus at 300% elongation, min 600 psi 800 psi
Elongation at break min% 300 300
Tear resistance, min lbf/in. thickness 150 lbf/in. 150 lbf/in.
Weight change after 166 h at 158 degrees F in water, max % ±2 ±4
Low-temperature brittleness temperature, max –40 degrees F –49 degrees F
Ozone resistance, 100 h at 104 degrees F 20% linear strain no cracks no cracks
(50 pphm) (50 pphm)
Heating aging, air oven:
Elongation retained, min% of original 900, after 166 h 1,200, after 166 h
at 240 degrees F at 240 degrees F
Tensile strength retained, min% of original 210, after 166 h 210, after 166 h
at 240 degrees F at 240 degrees F
Change in linear dimensions +2% max +2% max
Water Vapor permanence, max perms 0.0025 0.06
1
Puncture Resistance at 0.060 inch, lb – 9570

2.3.6 ADHESIVE (1994)

Adhesive for securing membrane and the protective cover shall be in accordance with the recommendations of
the membrane manufacturer. 3
2.3.7 CEMENT (1994)

Cement for splicing either membrane shall be a self-vulcanizing butyl rubber compound conforming to the
following requirements:

a. Viscosity at 77 degrees F Brookfield Viscometer (#3 Spindle at 10 rpm) 1,700-3,400 cps. Total Solids 30%
4
(min).

b. Applied to both mating surfaces at 2 gallons/150 square foot.

2.3.8 BUTYL GUM TAPE (1994)

Butyl gum tape for splicing either membrane shall be black, vulcanizable butyl rubber with an 8 mil
polyethylene film backing. The tape shall be 30 mils (+4) thick, including the backing.

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Waterproofing

2.3.9 RUBBERIZED ASPHALT WITH PLASTIC FILM OR PREFORMED BOARD


MEMBRANE (1994)

Rubberized Asphalt with Plastic film or preformed board membrane shall consist of a preformed layer of highly
rubberized asphalt formed on plastic film or preformed board, with cold applied primer and/or mastic.

a. Performance Requirements, Properties. See Table 2-2.

Table 2-2. Performance Requirements

Property Requirements Test Methods


Membrane Thickness 0.060 inch min
Permeability 0.1 max ASTM E 96, Method B
Water Absorption – 72 hrs (% by wt) 0.25% max ASTM D 1228
Accelerated aging – 400 hr min no decline ASTM D 822 and ASTM E 42
(procedure 4f)
Exposure to fungi in soil – 16 weeks unaffected GSA-PBS-407121 (spec)
Pliability of Rubberized Asphalt – 180 unaffected ASTM D 146
degrees bend over ¹⁄₄ inch
mandrel at 0 degrees F
Peel Adhesion – 7 days dry +7 days @ 5.0 min TT-S-00230 Modified
l20 degrees F +7 days dry (lb/in.
width)
Peel Adhesion - 7 days dry +7 days @ 5.0 min TT-S-00230 Modified
120 degrees F +7 days water
immersion (lb/in. width)
Crack bridging on Application (in.) ¹⁄₄ 100 cycles min TT-S-00230 Modified and TT-
Cycling over crack at –15 degrees S-227 Modified
F (crack opened and closed
from 0 to ¹⁄₄ inch)
Puncture Resistance (lb) 40 min ASTM E 154

b. Certification. Manufacturer shall furnish certification that materials meet specification requirements.

c. Samples. A square foot sample shall be furnished for testing, when required, from each production run
of membrane to be supplied.

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Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing

2.3.10 COLD LIQUID-APPLIED ELASTOMERIC MEMBRANE (1996)

The membrane shall be a 100% reactive spray-applied material.

a. Performance Requirements, Properties. See Table 2-3.

Table 2-3. Performance Requirements

Property Requirements Test Method


Membrane Thickness 2.5 mm (100 mils), min
Percent Reactive 100%
Water Vapor Transmission 6.6 grains/mm2/24 h ASTM E 96-93
Registered method used
Desiccant method
Minimum Elongation at Break 80% ASTM D 638-91
Minimum Tensile Strength 6.4 MPa (930 psi) ASTM D 638-91
Adhesion to Steel 2.0 MPa (290 psi) min ASTM D 4541-89
Adhesion to Concrete 0.7 MPa (100 psi) min ASTM D 4541-89
Crack Bridging Pass @ 25 cycles 1.6 mm (0.0625 inch) ASTM C 836-89
–26 degrees C (–15 degrees F)
Ballast Impact No Damage Test method as described in
1
paragraph b.

b. Ballast Impact Test.

(1) The waterproofing is placed on a deck on which a 600 mm (23.5 inches) diameter metal cylinder is
placed. Ballast is put in the interior of the cylinder in direct contact with the membrane. 3
(2) A metal plate 300 × 300 × 50 mm (12 × 12 × 2″) which transmits a movement of 4 mm (160 mils) and
a cyclic force of 41 to 125 kN (9.2 to 28.1 Kips) corresponding to a 25 tonne (27.5 ton) axle load is
placed on the ballast.

(3) The test is carried out for 2 million cycles.


4
(4) If no damage to the membrane is evident after completion of the test the sample has passed. If there
is damage to the membrane after the test, the sample has failed, protective cover shall be installed
before ballast is placed.

c. Certification. Manufacturer shall furnish certification that the material meets specification
requirements.

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Waterproofing

SECTION 2.4 MEMBRANE PROTECTION

2.4.1 PREMOLDED ASPHALT BLOCK (1994)

Premolded asphalt blocks shall meet the following requirements:

a. They shall be 1¹⁄₄ inches thick. A deviation of ¹⁄₄ inch in length or ¹⁄₈ inch in width or thickness from
these dimensions shall be cause for rejection.

b. These blocks shall be formed from a mixture of asphalt fiber and finely crushed aggregate placed in
molds under a pressure of not less than 3,300 psi of surface. An absorption test shall be made on blocks
dried for 24 hrs at a temperature of 150 degrees F, (65.5 degrees C), and then immersed in water 7 days.
The absorption of moisture under this test shall not exceed 1% of the weight of the block.

2.4.2 ASPHALT PLANK (1994)

Asphalt plank shall meet the requirements of ASTM designation D 517. Asphalt plank used for protection of
waterproofing membranes shall be plain and have a minimum total thickness of 1 inch using one or more
layers.

2.4.3 BRICK (1994)

Brick protection shall meet the requirements of Type “M” industrial floor brick of ASTM designation C 410 or
paving brick, ASTM designation C 7. The size of the brick shall be 2¹⁄₂ ″ × 4″ × 8¹⁄₂ ″.

2.4.4 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE (1994)

a. Materials for portland cement concrete shall meet the requirements of Specifications for Concrete and
Reinforced Concrete Railroad Bridges and Other Structures, Chapter 8, Concrete Structures and
Foundations, Part 1, Materials, Tests and Construction Requirements. The concrete shall be air
entrained, have a minimum cement content of 6 sacks (564 lb) per cubic yard and a maximum water
content of 6 gal (50 lb) per sack. The maximum size of coarse aggregate shall be ³⁄₄ inch.

b. The concrete shall be reinforced with wire fabric which shall meet the requirements of ASTM
designation A 185. The minimum gage of the wires shall be No. 12 and the wire shall have a maximum
spacing of 6 inches in both directions.

2.4.5 ASPHALT MASTIC (1994)

a. Asphalt mastic shall be composed of asphalt mixed with mineral aggregates and mineral filler. The
mastic shall be poured in place and mixed and proportioned in accordance with requirements of
Article 2.9.4.2.

b. Asphalt shall meet the requirements of ASTM designation D 449, Type 2.

c. Coarse mineral aggregate shall be well-graded crushed stone, crushed air-cooled iron-blast-furnace slag,
or washed gravel that will meet the requirements of ASTM designation D 692 size 8 (³⁄₈ inch to No. 8). It
shall be free from soft particles, organic matter and other deleterious material.

d. Fine mineral aggregate shall be well-graded washed sand that will meet the requirements of ASTM
designation C 33 for fine aggregate.

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Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing

e. Mineral filler shall be portland cement, finely ground limestone or finely ground silica. The portland
cement shall meet the requirements of Chapter 8, Concrete Structures and Foundations; Part 1,
Materials, Tests and Construction Requirements. The finely ground limestone and silica shall meet the
following requirements:

• Passing a No. 200 (74 micron) sieve min 75%

• Passing a No. 30 (590 micron) sieve min 100%

2.4.6 COAL-TAR PITCH MASTIC (1994)

a. Coal-tar pitch mastic shall be composed of coal-tar pitch mixed with mineral aggregates and mineral
filler. The mastic shall be poured in place and mixed and proportioned in accordance with the
requirements of Article 2.9.4.2.

b. Coal-tar pitch for mastic shall meet the requirements of ASTM designation D 450, Type 1.

c. Requirements for coarse mineral aggregate shall be the same as shown above in Article 2.4.5c of this
section.

d. Requirements for fine mineral aggregate shall be the same as shown above in Article 2.4.5d of this
section.

e. Requirements for mineral filler shall be the same as shown above in Article 2.4.5e of this section. 1
2.4.7 ASPHALTIC PANELS IN A LAYER OR LAYERS (ENGINEER’S OPTION) NOT LESS
THAN ³⁄₄ INCHES THICK (1994)

Asphaltic panels shall meet the following requirements:

2.4.7.1 Manufacture 3
a. Each panel is formed as a 5-layer member, including a core of a selected blend of asphalt and inorganic
mineral filler particles, a bottom reinforcing cover of asphalt-saturated felt and on the top, a cover of
asphalt-saturated felt or fiber glass mat that is weather coated and has bond breaking film or coating.

b. Asphalt and inorganic mineral filler particles shall be blended to form the core, with the asphalt forming
the matrix of the blend to carry the particles. The mineral filler particles function to impart increased 4
density and enhance stiffness and body in the core.

c. The inorganic mineral filler particles constitute an aggregate bound in the asphalt matrix which will
permit points of ballast rock to penetrate a short distance into the core to secure a good seating position.
The aggregate will then resist further penetration and will support the ballast rock.

2.4.7.2 Workmanship

The protection course shall be free from defects affecting its serviceability and appearance; it shall have
straight edges and square corners.

2.4.7.3 Properties

a. Asphaltic panels shall have the dimensions specified or shown on the plans. Tolerance of ± ¹⁄₁₆ inch in
thickness, ± ¹⁄₈ inch in width and ± ¹⁄₄ inch in length shall be permitted.

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Waterproofing

b. Weight per square foot minimum (0.375 inch thickness) 2.60 lb per square foot.

c. Weight per square foot minimum (0.50 inch thickness) 3.50 lb per square foot.

d. Water absorption, max, ASTM D 545 (10) 1.0%.

e. Thickness of asphalt weather-coating, rivuleted average, 0.020 inch minimum.

f. Asphalt saturated felt liners Max 15 lb per 100 square foot after saturation.

g. Asphalt content, core ASTM D 147 (3a) (4a) 50-60% by weight.

h. Inorganic mineral filler particle contents core ASTM D 147 (3a) (4a) Min 25% by weight.

i. Resistance to decay, ASTM E 154 (10) (11) No effect.

j. Flexibility, No cracking or breaking.

k. Brittleness at 390-430 degrees F, ASTM D 994 (7.2) No cracking or shattering.

l. Heat distortion ASTM D 994 (7.1) 0.3125 inch max.

m. Mineral Filler, Carefully selected and graded inorganic mineral filler particles shall be blended with the
asphalt to form the matrix of each panel.

n. Weathercoating, Asphaltic weathercoating shall be flowed on the exterior top surface of the protection
course. This coating shall be of sufficient thickness to provide complete dimensional stability to the
material, when stored outdoors in direct sunlight. A suitable bond breaking film or coating shall be
applied, to function as a release sheet. During installation, the asphalt-saturated felt side shall be placed
against the membrane waterproofing; the side with the bond breaking film or coating shall be exposed to
the ballast rock.

o. Resistance to Penetration, Dynamic Loading.

(1) The degree of resistance to penetration, when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1883, modified as
described below, shall meet the requirements found in Table 2-4.

Table 2-4. Degree of Resistance to Penetration

Temperature,
Dynamic Load, lb Penetration, inch
degrees F
100 225 0.10 maximum
77 350 0.10 maximum
40 600 0.10 maximum

(2) Pertinent modifications to ASTM D 1833:

(a) Section 2.1 Loading Machine – as described, except that the movable head is capable of traveling
at a uniform rate of 0.025 inch per minute.

(b) Section 2.7 Penetration Piston–as described, except that the diameter of the piston shall be 1.0
inch.

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Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing

(c) Section 2.8 Gages, as described.

(d) Section 3 Sample, Test three specimens 6″ × 6″, cut from each board sample.

(e) Section 4 Preparation of Test Specimens. The test specimens shall be conditioned in a chamber
maintained at the selected test temperature (±3 degrees F) for a minimum of 2 hours prior to
testing.

(f) Section 5.1, The test specimen, after conditioning, shall be immediately placed on the platform of
the loading machine and the piston placed in the center of the specimen.

(g) Section 5.2, As described.

(h) Section 5.3, Apply the load on the penetration piston so that the rate of penetration is
approximately 0.025 inch per minute. The penetration shall be recorded at an applied load
reading of 40 lb intervals, except where the load increases too fast to record (40 degrees F test).

(3) Inspection. Sample from each lot shall be examined for appearance, straightness of edges and
squareness of corners, and measured for width and length. They shall be calibered at four standard
points each, with a micrometer having flat bearing surfaces at both contact points of not less than ³⁄₄
inch diameter. The average of the readings shall be considered the thickness of the protection course.

(4) Flexibility Test

(a) Three specimens 3″ × 12″ shall be conditioned at 770 ± 50 degrees F for not less than 2 hours 1
immediately prior to being subjected to test.

(b) Place specimen with the 12 inch dimension perpendicular to and centered over the axis of a
horizontal cylinder having a diameter of 19 ± 1 inch.

(c) Clamp one end and grasp the other end of the samples and bend around the cylinder at the
uniform rate to complete bend in 60 ± 10 seconds until the specimen is in full contact with the 3
surface of the cylinder.

(d) Examine for any cracking or breaking of the sample.

SECTION 2.5 UNDERLAYMENT (1994) 4

Portland cement concrete and bituminous mastic for underlayment shall meet the requirements of similar
materials specified in Article 2.4.4 and Article 2.4.5.

SECTION 2.6 SEALING COMPOUNDS FOR JOINTS AND EDGES (1994)

a. Hot-poured elastic-type joint sealer shall meet the requirements of ASTM designation D 1190.

b. Plastic cements for cold application for sealing joints and edges are generally proprietary products. The
literature of the several manufacturers should be studied, and the engineer shall select a material which
will best serve the purpose as governed by conditions of use.

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Waterproofing

SECTION 2.7 ANTI-BONDING PAPER (1994)

Anti-Bonding paper shall be a tough paper that shall be impervious to the bituminous material applied to the
membrane. It shall have a weight not less than 5 lb per 100 square foot.

SECTION 2.8 INSPECTION AND TESTS (1994)

a. Materials shall be sampled and tested by the current methods recommended by ASTM.

b. The acceptance of any material by the inspector shall not be a bar to their subsequent rejection if found
defective. Rejected material shall be promptly removed from the job and replaced with acceptable
material.

c. No material shall be used until it has been accepted by the Engineer.

SECTION 2.9 CONSTRUCTION

2.9.1 GENERAL (1996)

a. Bituminous membranes and Rubberized Asphalt with Plastic film or Preformed Board shall not be
applied when atmospheric temperatures are below 50 degrees F. Butyl Rubber Membrane shall not be
applied when atmospheric temperature is below 10 degrees F without written permission of the
Engineer. Surfaces to be waterproofed shall be clean, smooth, dry, and free of fins, sharp edges, oil,
grease and loose or foreign materials. Projections or depressions on the surface on which the membrane
is to be applied that may cause injury to the membrane shall be removed or filled as directed by the
engineer.

b. There shall be no depressions or pockets in horizontal surfaces of the finished waterproofing. The
membrane shall be carefully turned into drainage fittings. Special care shall be taken to make the
waterproofing effective along the sides and ends of girders and at stiffeners, gussets, etc.

c. Cold liquid-applied elastomeric membrane shall be applied when substrate temperatures are in the
range of 0–40 degrees C (32–104 degrees F) providing that the substrate is above the dew point. The
condition of the substrate shall meet the Manufacturer’s recommendations and is approved by the
Engineer. Material shall be sprayed on horizontal or vertical surfaces up to, around or into details.

2.9.2 PRIMER (1996)

a. Surfaces to be protected with asphalt waterproofing shall be given one coat of asphaltic primer before the
first mopping of asphalt. Surfaces to be protected with coal-tar-pitch waterproofing shall be given one
coat of creosote primer before the first mopping of coal-tar pitch. A minimum of 1 gal of primer per 100
square foot of surface shall be used. The primer shall be applied approximately 24 hr before applying the
waterproofing membrane.

b. At construction joints, the primer shall be omitted for a width of 9 inches of each side of the joint, and a
strip of anti-bonding paper 18 inches wide laid thereon before the membrane is applied.

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Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing

c. Surfaces to be protected with a cold liquid-applied elastomeric membrane shall be given one coat of
Manufacturer approved primer prior to the application of the membrane. The primer shall be applied by
either spray, brush, roller or a method as approved by the Manufacturer.

2.9.3 MEMBRANE (1996)

2.9.3.1 Bituminous Membrane

a. Coal-tar pitch shall not be heated above 300 degrees F. Asphalt shall not be heated above 350 degrees F.

b. The surface to be waterproofed shall be mopped in sections slightly wider than the strip of fabric or felt
to be placed. While the mopping of bitumen is hot, a strip of cotton fabric or felt shall be laid on the
mopping and pressed into place. The amount of bitumen used for each mopping shall not be less than
4¹⁄₂ gallons per 100 square feet of surface.

c. Lapping of layers of felt or fabric shall be in accordance with one of the types shown in Figure 2-1. Ends
of fabric and felt shall be lapped a minimum of 12 inches where necessary to splice the material in a
strip.

d. On surfaces that are vertical or nearly vertical, the strips of fabric or felt shall be laid vertical or in the
direction of the slope. On other surfaces the strips shall be lapped in accordance with one of the types
shown in Figure 2-1, beginning at the lowest part of the surface, to be waterproofed. Sufficient fabric or
felt shall be allowed for suitable lap or anchorage at the upper edge of the surface to be waterproofed.
1
e. At expansion joints of bridge decks protected with bituminous membrane waterproofing, a strip of anti-
bonding paper 18 inches wide and a sheet of 22-gage galvanized metal shall be laid and centered on the
joint both above and below the membrane before the protective cover is applied.

f. The work shall be regulated so that at the end of the day, all fabric or felt that has been laid shall have
been mopped.
3
g. The waterproofing membrane shall be free from punctures or folds. Patching shall be done only with
permission of the engineer. Where patching is permitted for defective waterproofing, it shall extend a
minimum of 12 inches beyond the outermost edge of the defective portion. The second and each
succeeding ply of the patch shall extend at least 3 inches beyond the preceding ply.

2.9.3.2 Butyl Rubber or EPDM Membrane


4
a. For surfaces to be waterproofed with rubber membrane secured with adhesive, the adhesive shall be
applied to ballast retainers and ends of deck in a solid area extending a minimum of 36 inches. At the
engineer’s option, adhesive may be applied to the entire surface to be waterproofed. Adhesive shall be
applied in a thin layer (by using a roller or brush as recommended by the manufacturer) at a minimum
rate of 1 gallon per 60 square foot based on both mating surfaces.

b. Membrane sheets shall first be positioned and drawn tight without stretching. Half of the membrane is
then uniformly rolled up in a direction away from the starting edge or subsequent splice. Adhesive is now
applied to the exposed area. Allow adhesive to dry so as to not stick to a dry finger touch and all solvent
is evaporated. The membrane is now unrolled and pressed firmly and uniformly in place, using care to
avoid trapping of air. The same procedure is repeated for the remaining half of the membrane sheets.
Wrinkles and buckles shall be avoided. Each succeeding sheet shall be positioned to fit the previously
installed sheet and spliced.

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Waterproofing

Figure 2-1. Lapping of Bituminous Membrane Waterproofing

c. Splices shall be of tongue-and-groove or lap type as specified by the Engineer. Splices shall be made as
shown in Figure 2-2. All seam, lap and splice areas shall be cleaned with heptane, hexane, toluene,
trichloroethylene or white gasoline, using a clean cloth, mop or similar synthetic cleaning device. Cement
shall be spread continuously on seam, lap and splice areas at a uniform rate of not less than 2 gal per 150
square foot based on both mating surfaces. After cement is allowed to dry until it will not stick to a dry
finger touch, apply butyl gum tape to cemented area of membrane, extending firmly into place, obtaining
full contact. Bridging and wrinkles shall be avoided. Corner splices shall be reinforced with two
continuous layers of rubber membrane over one layer of butyl tape.

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Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing

Figure 2-2. Recommended Butyl Membrane Field Seam Assembly

d. All projecting pipe, conduits, sleeves, etc., passing through butyl rubber membrane waterproofing shall
be flashed with prefabricated or field-fabricated boots, fitted coverings, etc., as necessary to provide
watertight construction. Butyl gum tape shall be used between layers of rubber membrane.

e. At expansion joints of bridge decks protected with butyl rubber membrane waterproofing, a strip of anti-
bonding paper 18 inches wide and a sheet of 22-gage galvanized metal shall be laid and centered on the
joint both above and below the membrane before the protective cover is applied.

f. Any holes in the membrane sheeting shall be patched with a minimum overlap of 4 inches and in
accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

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Waterproofing

g. During construction, care shall be exercised to prevent damage to the waterproofing membrane by men
or equipment.

2.9.3.3 Rubberized Asphalt with Plastic Film or Preformed Board

a. Surface Preparation.

(1) All concrete or masonry surfaces shall be cured for a minimum of seven days and shall be surface dry.
Surfaces shall be broom cleaned, shall be free of voids, loose aggregate, sharp protrusions, form
release agents or other contaminants. Horizontal concrete or masonry surfaces shall be wood float
finished.

(2) All concrete or masonry surfaces shall be primed with manufacturer’s recommended primer, applied
by brush or roller at the rate of 100 to 250 square foot per gal. Primer shall be dried one hour or until
tack free. Primed surfaces not covered within 36 hours shall be reprimed. Dense surfaces such as
metal shall not be primed, but shall be clean, dry and free of grease, oil, dust, or other contaminants
before being primed. Wood shall be primed.

b. Application Procedures.

(1) Rubber Asphalt with Plastic Film shall be overlapped 2¹⁄₂ inches to adjacent material surfaces.
Rubber Asphalt with Preformed Board shall be butt-jointed with 6 inches gusset tape applied
directly over the joints.

(2) All corners shall be double-covered with a double layer of membrane by applying an initial 12 inches
strip centered along the axis of the corner.

(3) Construction and control joints shall be double covered with membrane. Prior to waterproofing over
expansion joints, a minimum 12 inches wide galvanized 16 gage steel plate shall be placed and
centered on the joint, then an inverted strip of membrane (plastic side down) 4 inches wider shall be
centered on the galvanized plate. This should then be covered over with a full width of membrane,
centered on the joint.

(4) The perimeter of the membrane placed in any day’s operation and all outside edges of membrane
shall have a trowelled bead of cold applied rubberized asphalt mastic applied after the membrane is
placed.

(5) Areas around drains, posts, bolts, or other protrusions shall have a double layer of membrane and
shall be liberally coated with mastic adjacent to seams and protrusions after application of the
membrane.

(6) Immediately before covering the membrane, a careful inspection shall be made and any ruptures,
misaligned seams or other discontinuities shall be patched with membrane.

2.9.3.4 Cold Liquid-Applied Elastomeric Membrane

a. Surface Preparation.

(1) All concrete surfaces shall be cured for a minimum of seven days and shall be surface dry. Surfaces to
be waterproofed shall be clean, smooth, dry and free of oil, grease and loose or foreign material.

(2) The surface preparation shall be performed by means approved by the Engineer. The surface profile
is not to exceed 6.3 mm (¹⁄₄ inch) (peak to valley). Test method ASTM D 4541 shall be used to verify
that the surface preparation meets the required adhesion/pull off values of 0.7 MPa (100 psi) for
concrete and 2.0 MPa (290 psi) for steel surfaces.

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Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing

(3) Steel substrates shall be cleaned to a near white SSPC SP-10 specification or to a condition that
exceeds the Manufacturer’s minimum requirements. Special attention shall be given to welds, bolts,
rivets, etc., so that preparation complies with Manufacturer’s recommendations. Primer is to be
applied within 4 hours of preparation.

(4) Other methods of surface preparation recommended by the manufacturer may be used as approved
by the Engineer.

b. Application Procedures.

(1) Immediately prior to the application of any component of the system, the surface shall be dry. Any
remaining dust or loose particles shall be removed using a vacuum or clean, dry, oil-free compressed
air.

(2) Where the area to be waterproofed is vertical, the system shall be capable of being sprayed at the
specified thickness.

(3) The membrane shall be carefully sprayed around and into drainage fittings to ensure proper runoff
of water. Special care shall be taken with the spraying of the system to get full coverage along the
sides and ends of girders, stiffeners, gussets, and over welds, bolts or rivets, etc.

(4) Where the membrane is to be joined to existing cured material the new application shall overlap the
existing material by at least 100 mm (4 inches). No preparation shall be necessary unless the existing
materials are dirty or contaminated in which case the overlap area shall be wiped with solvent (e.g.
acetone).
1

(5) The membrane shall be applied in a methodical manner to ensure proper coverage. Wet film
thickness shall be checked once every 9 m2 (100 SF).

(6) If required by site conditions, or for application to small areas, or touch-up the membrane can be
applied by brush or trowel in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations. 3
(7) The membrane shall be fully cured before it is covered. Membrane shall be inspected prior to
covering and any surface defects or damage shall be repaired in accordance with manufacturer’s
recommendations.

(8) Protective cover in accordance with Article 2.9.4.1c(2) shall be installed prior to placing ballast if the
cold liquid-applied elastomeric membrane does not pass the Ballast Impact Test or if recommended 4
by the manufacturer.

(9) Other application procedures may be used as recommended by the manufacturer and approved by
the Engineer.

2.9.4 PROTECTIVE COVER (1994)

2.9.4.1 General

a. The protective cover shall be placed over the membrane as soon as practicable within 24 hours after the
membrane has been laid. Dirt and other foreign material shall be removed from the surface of the
membrane before the protective cover is placed. Protective cover shall be shielded with permanent cover
within 48 hours, unless a temporary cover, approved by the Engineer, is placed.

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Waterproofing

b. At expansion joints of bridge decks protected with butyl rubber membrane waterproofing, a strip of anti-
bonding paper 18 inches wide and a sheet of 22-gage galvanized metal shall be laid and centered on the
joint both above and below the membrane before the protective cover is applied.

c. One of the following methods of protection shall be used:

(1) Bituminous Membrane

(a) A layer not less than 1¹⁄₂ inches thick of hot-laid bituminous mastic.

(b) A layer of asphalt block or asphalt plank not less than 1¹⁄₄ inches thick.

(c) A layer of reinforced portland cement concrete not less than 2 inches thick.

(d) A course of brick not less than 2¹⁄₂ inches thick.

(e) A layer or layers of asphaltic panels not less than ³⁄₄ inch total thickness.

(2) Butyl Rubber or EPDM Membrane and Asphaltic Rubber with Plastic Film or Preformed Board

(a) A layer of asphalt block or asphalt plank not less than 1¹⁄₄ inches thick.

(b) A layer or layers of asphaltic panels not less than ³⁄₄ inch total thickness.

2.9.4.2 Bituminous Mastic

Bituminous mastic shall be poured in place and be either asphalt mastic or coal-tar-pitch mastic. The asphalt
mastic shall be used with membranes where asphalt is used for mopping and the coal-tar pitch mastic is used
where coal-tar pitch is used for mopping.

a. Proportioning.

(1) Asphalt, aggregates and mineral filler for poured-in-place asphalt mastic shall be mixed in the
following proportions by weight. The proportions shall be varied within the specified limits to give a
mastic of the greatest density and stability. The exact proportions are to be specified by the
Engineer.

Asphalt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9% to 12%
Coarse aggregate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33% to 40%
Fine aggregate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33% to 37%
Mineral filler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15% to 19%

(2) The coal-tar pitch, aggregates and mineral filler for poured-in-place coal-tar-pitch mastic shall be
mixed in the following proportions by weight. The proportions shall be varied within the specified
limits to give a mastic of the greatest density and stability. The exact proportions are to be specified
by the Engineer.

Coal-tar pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12% to 16%


Coarse aggregate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30% to 40%
Fine aggregate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30% to 40%
Mineral filler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15% to 20%

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Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing

b. Mixing.

(1) The bitumen for poured-in-place mastic shall be melted in kettles approved by the Engineer and
shall be of the type that will permit accurate control of the temperature. During preheating and
mixing the coal-tar pitch shall not be heated above 300 degrees F and the asphalt shall not be heated
above 350 degrees F.

(2) The coarse and fine mineral aggregates shall be mixed and heated to temperature not less than 225
degrees F nor more than the temperature of the bitumen. The aggregates shall then be mixed with
heated bitumen with a suitable mechanical mixer or iron stirring rods until all pieces of the
aggregate are covered with bitumen and the aggregates distributed uniformly throughout the
mixture. The mineral filler shall then be added and uniformly incorporated in the mixture. Care
shall be taken during the mixing process to avoid local overheating of the mixture. All equipment
used in preparing and placing the mastic shall be clean with special precautions used to avoid mixing
asphalt and coal-tar materials.

c. Placing.

(1) Bituminous mastic may be laid on one thickness of anti-bonding paper placed on top of the
membrane. The mastic shall be poured in place while hot and shall be placed in layers not more than
³⁄₄ inch thick except by written permission of the Engineer. The thickness of the layers shall be gaged
by wood or metal strips held in position by suitable weights and the layers brought to the required
thickness with spreaders and floats. Joints shall be lapped not less than 6 inches.

(2) The top layers of the bituminous mastic shall be finished to the required grade and to a smooth
1
surface. As soon as the top layer of the mastic is finished it shall be given a mopping of hot bitumen
of the same type as used in the mastic and sanded to a walking surface while hot.

2.9.4.3 Asphalt Block and Asphalt Plank

a. Both asphalt plank and asphalt block protection shall be laid in hot asphalt applied at not less than 5 3
gallons per 100 square foot. As successive planks or blocks are laid, the edges and ends of adjacent planks
or blocks already laid shall be coated heavily with hot asphalt. The asphalt used with the asphalt plank
or asphalt block protection shall be the same as specified for mopping in Article 2.3.1. Both planks and
blocks shall be held tightly against those previously laid so that the asphalt will completely fill the joints
and be squeezed out of the top. After all of the planks or blocks have been laid, any joints not completely
filled shall be filled with hot asphalt.
4
b. For use with a butyl rubber membrane the asphalt plank and asphalt blocks shall be laid in a coating of
bonding adhesive or laid loose. The bonding adhesive shall be the same as specified in Article 2.3.7. The
adhesive shall be applied at a rate of not less than 1 gal per 100 square foot. Voids between the joints
should be filled with a compatible material.

2.9.4.4 Portland Cement Concrete Protection

Portland cement concrete shall be mixed in accordance with the requirements of Specifications for Concrete
and Reinforced Concrete Railroad Bridges and Others Structures, Chapter 8, Concrete Structures and
Foundations; Part 1, Materials, Tests and Construction Requirements for Railway Engineering. It shall be
reinforced with one layer of wire fabric. Traffic shall not be allowed on the concrete until it is adequately cured
as judged by the Engineer.

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Waterproofing

2.9.4.5 Brick Protection

Brick Protection shall be laid over the entire membrane except that concrete shall be used around drainage
castings and other places shown on the plans. The joints between bricks shall be filled with hot bitumen
immediately after the bricks have been laid except that when used on a vertical wall or a steep slope, the brick
shall be laid in portland cement mortar.

2.9.4.6 Asphaltic Panels

a. Asphaltic panels are available in various thicknesses. To obtain the thickness of ³⁄₄ inch, the
recommended application is in two layers with the joints staggered. The panels shall be laid tight jointed,
with or without an approved adhesive. The adhesive shall be the same as specified in Article 2.3.1 when
used with Bituminous membrane or in Article 2.3.6 when used with Butyl rubber or EPDM membrane.
Any voids between the panels shall be filled with a material compatible to both the membrane and the
panel.

b. Where edges or protrusions of asphaltic panels are exposed to prolonged sunlight exposure, coat exposed
areas with Fibre Aluminum Roof Coating meeting ASTM D 2824, Type 2 at a rate of 12 square feet per
gallon (¹⁄₈ inch thickness).

2.9.4.7 Underlayment

Portland cement concrete for underlayment shall be in accordance with Article 2.9.4.4. Bituminous mastic for
underlayment shall be proportioned, mixed, and placed in accordance with the requirements of Article 2.9.4.2.

2.9.4.8 Sealing Joints and Edges

a. Joints shown on the plan to be filled with a joint sealing compound shall be filled where possible with a
hot-poured elastic-type joint sealer or with an approved hot or cold elastic-type joint sealer. Steeply
sloped or vertical areas shall be sealed with cold-applied mastic.

b. The following precaution (from ASTM Specifications, designation D 1190) should be observed in using
hot-poured elastic-type joint sealer:

Some, if not all, of the known materials conforming to these specifications may be damaged by heating to
too high a temperature for too long a time. Care should be exercised to secure equipment for heating that
is suitable for the purpose. The material should be heated in a kettle or tank, constructed as a double
boiler, with the space between the inner and outer shells filled with oil for heat transfer. Positive
temperature control and mechanical agitation should be provided. Direct heating must not be used.
Control of the treatment of the material may be effected through flow tests made on specimens prepared
from the material. The flow should not exceed 2.0 cm.

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Specifications for Membrane Waterproofing

COMMENTARY

The purpose of this part is to furnish the technical explanation of various paragraphs in Part 2, Specifications
for Membrane Waterproofing. In the numbering of paragraphs of this section, the numbers after the “C-”
correspond to the section/paragraph being explained.

C - SECTION 2.1 GENERAL

C - 2.1.2 DESIGN (1994)

a. Roll, sheet or liquid applied systems that, when applied to concrete and masonry surfaces, will prevent
the ingress of moisture in both its liquid and gaseous forms. Systems are suitable for application on and
below grade as well as railway structures of all types, including bridge structures.

b. Selected materials must be suitable for, and capable of handling, the inherent pressures of a hydrostatic
head.

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