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1. Thick-walled Cylinders

2. Thin-walled Cylinders

THICK-WALL THEORY

• Thick-wall theory is developed from the Theory of Elasticity which yields the state of

stress as a continuous function of radius over the pressure vessel wall. The state of

stress is defined relative to a convenient cylindrical coordinate system:

1. σ t — Tangential Stress

2. σ r — Radial Stress

3. σ l — Longitudinal Stress

• Stresses in a cylindrical pressure vessel depend upon the ratio of the inner radius to

the outer radius ( ro / ri ) rather than the size of the cylinder.

• Principal Stresses ( σ 1 , σ 2 , σ 3 )

2. Equivalent to cylindrical stresses ( σ t , σ r , σ l )

Consider a cylinder, with capped ends, subjected to an internal pressure, pi, and an

external pressure, po,

ri

σr

σl

σt pi

σl σ

r σt

ro

po

FIGURE T4-15-1

†

Text Eq. refers to Mechanical Engineering Design, 7th edition text by Joseph Edward Shigley, Charles

R. Mischke and Richard G. Budynas; equations and figures with the prefix T refer to the present tutorial.

The cylinder geometry is defined by the inside radius, ri , the outside radius, ro , and the

cylinder length, l. In general, the stresses in the cylindrical pressure vessel ( σ t , σ r , σ l )

can be computed at any radial coordinate value, r, within the wall thickness bounded by

ri and ro , and will be characterized by the ratio of radii, ζ = ro / ri . These cylindrical

stresses represent the principal stresses and can be computed directly using Eq. 4-50 and

4-52. Thus we do not need to use Mohr’s circle to assess the principal stresses.

Tangential Stress:

σt = for ri ≤ r ≤ ro (Text Eq. 4-50)

ro2 − ri2

Radial Stress:

σr = for ri ≤ r ≤ ro (Text Eq. 4-50)

ro2 − ri2

Longitudinal Stress:

• Applicable to cases where the cylinder carries the longitudinal load, such as

capped ends.

• Only valid far away from end caps where bending, nonlinearities and stress

concentrations are not significant.

pi ri2 − po ro2

σl = for ri ≤ r ≤ ro (Modified Text Eq. 4-52)

ro2 − ri2

2. External Pressure Only ( p i = 0 )

• Substituting p o = 0 into Eqs. (4-50) and incorporating ζ = ro / ri , the

largest value of each stress component is found at the inner surface:

ro2 + ri2 ζ 2 +1

σ t (r = ri ) = σ t ,max = pi 2 2 = pi 2 = pi Cti (T-1)

ro − ri ζ −1

Shigley, Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 2/10

ζ 2 + 1 ro2 + ri 2

where Cti = 2 = is a function of cylinder geometry only.

ζ − 1 ro2 − ri 2

σ r (r = ri ) = σ r ,max = − pi Natural Boundary Condition (T-2)

σl =

0 Uncapped Ends (T-3b)

1

where Cli = .

ζ −1

2

points on the cylinder: r = ri and r = ro. Substituting pi = 0 into Text

Eqs. (4-50) for each case:

2ro2 2ζ 2

σ t (r = ri ) = σ t ,max = − po = − p o = − poCto (T-4b)

ro2 − ri2 ζ 2 −1

2ζ 2 2ro2

where, Cto = = .

ζ 2 − 1 ro2 − ri 2

r = ro σ r (r = ro ) = σ r ,max = − po Natural Boundary Condition (T-5a)

ro2 + ri2 ζ 2 +1

σ t (r = ro ) = − po = − po = − poCti (T-5b)

ro2 − ri2 ζ 2 −1

pressure and radius while that of an open-ended cylinder remains zero:

σl =

0 Uncapped Ends (T-6b)

Shigley, Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 3/10

ζ2

where Clo = .

ζ 2 −1

150 MPa and an internal pressure of zero. The cylinder has a 25 mm ID and a 50

mm OD, respectively. Assume the cylinder is capped.

Find:

1. the state of stress ( σ r , σ t , σ l ) at the inner and outer cylinder

surfaces;

2. the Mohr’s Circle plot for the inside and outside cylinder surfaces;

3. the critical section based upon the estimate of τ max .

Solution Methodology:

Since we have an external pressure case, we need to compute the state of

stress ( σ r , σ t , σ l ) at both the inside and outside radius in order to determine

the critical section.

1. As the cylinder is closed and exposed to external pressure only,

Eq. (T-6a) may be applied to calculate the longitudinal stress

developed. This result represents the average stress across the wall

of the pressure vessel and thus may be used for both the inner and

outer radii analyses.

2. Assess the radial and tangential stresses using Eqs. (T-4) and (T-5)

for the inner and outer radii, respectively.

3. Assess the principal stresses for the inner and outer radii based

upon the magnitudes of ( σ r , σ t , σ l ) at each radius.

4. Use the principal stresses to calculate the maximum shear stress at

each radius.

5. Draw Mohr’s Circle for both states of stress and determine which

provides the critical section.

Solution:

OD 50 mm ID 25 mm

ro = = = 25 mm ; ri = = = 12.5 mm

2 2 2 2

ro 25 mm

ζ = = = 2.0

ri 12.5 mm

Shigley, Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 4/10

Then,

ζ2 (2) 2

Clo = = = 1.3333 mm 2

ζ − 1 (2) − 1

2 2

ζ2

σ l (r = ri ) = σ l (r = ro ) = − po 2 = − poClo = (−150MPa)(1.3333 mm 2 )

ζ −1

σ l = −200 MPa

2ζ 2 2(2) 2

Cto = 2 = = 2.6667

ζ − 1 (2) 2 − 1

2ro2

σ t (r = ri ) = σ t ,max = − po 2 2 = − poCto = (−150 MPa)(2.6667)

ro − ri

σt (r = ri ) = −400 MPa Compressive

ζ 2 + 1 (2)2 + 1

Cti = = = 1.6667

ζ 2 − 1 (2) 2 − 1

ro2 + ri 2

σ t (r = ro ) = σ t ,min = − po = − poCti = (−150 MPa)(1.6667)

ro2 − ri 2

σ 2 = σ l = −200 MPa σ 2 = σ l = −200 MPa

σ 3 = σ t = −400 MPa σ 3 = σ t = −250 MPa

σ 1 − σ 3 0 − (−400)

Inner Radius (r = ri ) τ max (r = ri ) = = = 200 MPa

2 2

Shigley, Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 5/10

σ 1 − σ 3 (−150) − (−250)

Outer Radius (r = ro ) τ max (r = ro ) = = = 50 MPa

2 2

5. Mohr’s Circles:

Inner Radius (r = ri )

τ

FIGURE T4-15-2

τ max = 200 MPa

σ 1 = 0 MPa

σ

σ 3 = -400 MPa

σ 2 = -200 MPa

Outer Radius (r = ro )

τ

FIGURE T4-15-3

• τmax = 50 MPa

σ 2 = -200 MPa

Critical Section

Shigley, Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 6/10

THIN-WALL THEORY

• Thin-wall theory is developed from a Strength of Materials solution which yields the

state of stress as an average over the pressure vessel wall.

• Use restricted by wall thickness-to-radius ratio:

t 1

According to theory, Thin-wall Theory is justified for ≤

r 20

t 1

In practice, typically use a less conservative rule, ≤

r 10

2. Radial Stress is insignificant compared to tangential stress, thus, σ r 0.

3. Longitudinal Stress, σ l

S Exists for cylinders with capped ends;

S Assumed to be uniformly distributed across wall thickness;

S This approximation for the longitudinal stress is only valid far away

from the end-caps.

can be determined without computation of Mohr’s circle plot.

FIGURE T4-15-4

di

t

FV

FHoop FHoop

Pressure Acting over

Projected Vertical Area

Shigley, Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 7/10

The internal pressure exerts a vertical force, FV, on the cylinder wall which is

balanced by the tangential hoop stress, FHoop.

FHoop = σ t Astressed = σ t {(t )(1)} = σ t t

¦ Fy = 0 = FV − 2 FHoop = pd i − 2σ t t

pd i

σt = Hoop Stress (Text Eq. 4-53)

2t

• Comparison of state of stress for cylinder under internal pressure verses external

pressure:

Internal Pressure Only

pdi

σt = Hoop Stress

2t

σr = 0 By Definition

pdi σ t

σl = = Capped Case (Text Eq.4-55)

4t 2

pd o

σt = Hoop Stress

2t

σr = 0 By Definition

pd o σ t

σl = = Capped Case

4t 2

(po = 150 MPa, pi = 0, ID = 25 mm, OD = 50 mm).

Find: The percent difference of the maximum shear stress estimates found using

the Thick-wall and Thin-wall Theories.

Shigley, Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 8/10

Solution Methodology:

2. Use the Thin-wall Theory to compute the state of stress

3. Identify the principal stresses based upon the stress magnitudes.

4. Use the principal stresses to assess the maximum shear stress.

5. Calculate the percent difference between the maximum shear stresses

derived using the Thick-wall and Thin-wall Theories.

Solution:

t 12.5 mm 1 1 1

1. Check t/r Ratio: = = ² or

r 25 mm 2 20 10

cylinder is thus not justified.

wall theory estimates.

− po d o − (150 MPa )(50 mm)

σt = = = −300 MPa

2t 2(12.5 mm)

−p d σ

σ l = o o = t = −150 MPa

4t 2

σ 1 = σ r = 0 MPa

σ 2 = σ l = −150 MPa

σ 3 = σ t = −300 MPa

σ 1 − σ 3 0 − (−300 MPa )

τ max = = = +150 MPa

2 2

Critical Section:

Shigley, Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 9/10

τ max,Thin − τ max,Thick

% Difference = ∗100%

τ max,Thick

(+150) − (+200)

= ∗ (100%) = −25%

(+200)

Shigley, Mischke & Budynas Machine Design Tutorial 4–15: Pressure Vessel Design 10/10

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