´To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.

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NUTRITION AND NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT OF CHILDREN
INTRODUCTION Your child's nutrition is important to her overall health. Proper nutrition can also prevent many medical problems, including becoming overweight, developing weak bones, and developing diabetes. It will also ensure that your child physically grows to her full potential. You can also help promote good nutrition by setting a good example. Healthy eating habits and regular exercise should be a regular part of your family's life. It is much easier if everyone in the house follows these guidelines, than if your child has to do it alone. You should also buy low-calorie and low-fat meals, snacks and desserts, low fat or skim milk and diet drinks. Avoid buying high calorie desserts or snacks, such as snack chips, regular soft drinks or regular ice cream. The best nutrition advice to keep your children healthy includes encouraging her to:
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Eat a variety of foods Balance the food you eat with physical activity Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol Choose a diet moderate in sugars and salt Choose a diet that provides enough calcium and iron to meet their growing body's requirements.

The Food Guide Pyramid was designed by the US Dept. of Agriculture to promote healthy nutrition in children over two years of age. It is meant to be a general guide to daily food choices. The main emphasis of the Food Guide Pyramid is on the five major food groups, all of which are required for good health. It also emphasizes that foods that include a lot of fats, oils and sweets should be used very sparingly.

Kids Food Guide Pyramid 
The Food Guide Pyramid for young children (displayed below) was designed by the US Dept. of Agriculture to promote healthy nutrition in children from the age of 2 - 6 years. It is meant to be a general guide to daily food choices.

´To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.µ 
The main emphasis of the food pyramid is on the five major food groups, all of which are required for good health. It also emphasizes that foods that include a lot of fats, oils and sweets should be used very sparingly.  After the age of two or three years, you can begin to use 2%, low fat, or skim milk instead of whole milk.  Your child's diet should resemble that of the rest of the families, with 3 meals and 2 nutritious snacks each day. You should limit milk and dairy products to about 16-24oz each day and juice to about 4-6oz each day and offer a variety of foods to encourage good eating habits later.  Feeding practices to avoid are continuing to use a bottle, giving large amounts of sweet desserts, soft drinks, fruit-flavored drinks, sugarcoated cereals, chips or candy, as they have little nutritional value.  Also avoid giving foods that your child can choke on, such as raw carrots, peanuts, whole grapes, tough meats, popcorn, chewing gum or hard candy.  Your child's nutrition is important to her overall health. Proper nutrition can also prevent many medical problems, including becoming overweight, developing weak bones, and developing diabetes. It will also ensure that your child physically grows to her full potential. The best nutrition advise to keep your child healthy includes encouraging her to:
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Eat a variety of foods Balance the food you eat with physical activity Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol Choose a diet moderate in sugars and salt Choose a diet that provides enough calcium and iron to meet their growing body's requirements. 

You can also help promote good nutrition by setting a good example. Healthy eating habits and regular exercise should be a regular part of your family's life. It is much easier if everyone in the house follows these guidelines, than if your child has to do it alone. You should also buy low-calorie and low-fat meals, snacks and desserts, low fat or skim milk and diet drinks. Avoid buying high calorie desserts or snacks, such as snack chips, regular soft drinks or regular ice cream.

´To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.µ

What counts as one serving? To ensure good nutrition in your child and that they grow up healthy, they will need to eat a large variety of foods. The amount of foods that they eat is much less important. Remember that your child's appetite may decrease and become pickier over the next few years as his growth rate slows. As long as they are gaining weight and have a normal activity level, then you have little to worry about. You can still offer them a variety of foods, but can decrease the serving sizes if they don't eat a lot. Grain group servings include 1 slice of bread, 1/2 cup of cooked rice or pasta, 1/2 cup of cooked cereal, and 1 ounce of ready to eat cereal. Your child should eat 6 servings from this group. Vegetable group servings include 1/2 cup of chopped or raw vegetables, or 1 cup of raw leafy vegetables. Your child should eat 3 servings from this group.

´To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.µ
Fruit group servings include 1 piece of fruit or melon wedge, 3/4 cup of 100% fruit juice, 1/2 cup of canned fruit, or 1/4 cup of dried fruit. Your child should eat 2 servings from this group. Milk group servings include 1 cup of milk or yogurt or 2 ounces of cheese. Your child should eat 2 servings from this group. Meat group servings include 2 to 3 ounces of cooked lean meat, poultry or fish, 1/2 cup of cooked dry beans. You can substitute 2 tablespoons of peanut butter or 1 egg for 1 ounce of meat. Your child should eat 2 servings from this group. Fats, Oils and Sweets  No more than 30% of your diet should come from fats. For a 1600 calorie diet, that would equal 53g of fat each day, with most preschool children requiring even less. The type of fat that you eat is also important.  Saturated fats in foods such as meats, dairy products, coconut, palm and palm kernal oil, raise cholesterol more than unsaturated fats, which are found in olive, peanut, and canola oils, or polyunsaturated fats in safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean and cottonseed oils.  Limit saturated fats to no more than 10% of daily calories.  Sugars supply a large amount of calories, with little nutritional value. They include white sugar, brown sugar, corn syrup, honey and molasses and foods like candy, soft drinks, jams, and jellies. Selection tips:
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use lean meats and skim or low fat dairy products use unsaturated vegetable oils and margarines that list a liquid vegetable oil as the first ingredient on the label read the nutrition label on foods to check for the amount and type of fat it includes limit foods that contain a large amount of saturated fats limit foods high in sugar and avoid adding extra sugar to your foods

Understanding Food Labels
Nutrition Facts

µ Serving Size 1/2 cup (114g) Servings Per Container 4 Amount per serving Calories 90 Fat Cal.´To eat is a necessity. 30 % Daily Value* Total Fat 3g 5% Saturated Fat 0g 0% Cholesterol 0mg 0% Sodium 300mg 13% Total Carbohydrate 13mg 4% Dietary Fiber 3g 12% . but to eat intelligently is an art.

If the portion of the food that you eat is more or less than the serving size. Serving Size The serving size refers to the average amount or portion size that a person eats at one time. you should choose foods that are low in fat. just click on the topic you are interested in. low in calories. then you must double the nutrient and calorie values. For example. who should not have their fat intake restricted. If your preschool age child eats a portion that is one-half the serving size. the portion size for younger children is likely to be less than the serving size.000 calorie diet. then cut the nutrient and calorie values in half too.µ Sugars 3g Protein 3g Vitamin A 80% Vitamin C 60% Calcium 4% Iron 4% * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2. except for children under two years of age.  The new food labels are designed for children over 4 years of age and adults. Conversely. if you eat twice the amount listed in the serving size. Serving Per Container .  In general.  To learn about the new food labels. low in cholesterol and high in fiber.´To eat is a necessity. then you need to adjust the nutrient and calorie values. but to eat intelligently is an art. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.

you might think you were only consuming 90 calories. which has four servings. but the whole container actually contained 4 servings. . These values may be higher or lower depending on the amount of calories in your diet. potassium and protein are based on a 2. In the above example. if you eat the whole package or container of food. vitamins and minerals. dietary fiber. A common mistake that people make is to just look at the calorie and nutrient information and not take into account how many servings are in the container. Your diet each day should reach 100% for total carbohydrate.´To eat is a necessity. carbohydrate. if you eat the whole container of food. take into account how many servings you have had when determining how many calories you have eaten.000 calorie diet. but to eat intelligently is an art. Again. In the above example. which would equal 360 calories. Amount Per Serving Refers to the number of nutrients and calories for each serving of food. Calories Refers to the number of calories for each serving of food. cholesterol. sodium. then you must multiply nutrient and calorie values by four.µ Refers to the number of servings in the container of food. % Daily Value The percent daily value for fat.

´To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.µ
Nutrients
Total Fat  Fats provide 9 calories per gram. Except for infants and toddlers, most children should limit their fat intake, especially saturated fat. Foods with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fats (such as olive, peanut, canola, sunflower, corn or soybean oil) are better choices. You should try and give your child a diet with no more than 30% of calories coming from fat.  The reference values for fat intake for children age 2-4 years is based on a diet of 1300 calories a day, with 30% of calories coming from fat, however, there are no established guidelines for fat intake for children of this age. Daily Intake Values 2-4 years Total Fat Saturated Fat 40g 12g over 4 years 65g 20g

Cholesterol Like fat, too much cholesterol can contribute to an increased risk of heart disease. Children over 4 years and adults should eat a diet low in cholesterol and should have less than 300mg of cholesterol in their diet each day.

Sodium Too much sodium or salt in your diet can contribute to high blood pressure. There aren't clear guidelines about the daily requirements for sodium for younger children, but in general you should provide a diet low in sodium and avoided adding extra salt to the foods you prepare for your children.

´To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.µ
Daily Intake Values 2-4 years Sodium ? over 4 years 2400mg

Total Carbohydrate Carbohydrates provide 4 calories per gram. Most of the calories in your diet (about 50-60%) should come from carbohydrates, including sugars, starches and fiber. Daily Intake Values 2-4 years Total Carbohydrate Dietary Fiber ? ? over 4 years 300g 25g

Protein Proteins provide 4 calories per gram. Most Americans consume too much protein in their diet. Protein should make up only about 10% of the calories in your diet. Daily Intake Values 2-4 years Protein 16-24g over 4 years 50g

´To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.µ
Vitamins and Minerals
Your goal should be for your child to have 100% of each vitamin and mineral each day. This is best accomplished by eating a variety of healthy foods. Vitamin A Milk and formula are excellent sources of Vitamin A, which is a fat soluble vitamin. A deficiency can occur in children with fat mal-absorption or with a very poor diet. Too much Vitamin A can also be harmful. Vitamin C Although many parents exceed the recommended daily requirements of Vitamin C to prevent colds and upper respiratory tract infections, there is little research that supports this practice. Too little Vitamin C can lead to scurvy, which is now uncommon, but can occur in infants under one year of age who are exclusively fed cow's milk. Iron Iron is another mineral that is important for your child's growth. Having a diet with foods that are high in iron to meet daily requirements is necessary for the development of strong muscles and production of blood. It is generally good to choose foods high in iron. Younger children require about 10mg of iron each day, while older children and adolescents need about 12-15mg a day. Calcium Calcium is a mineral that is mostly present in your child's bones. Having a diet with foods that are high in calcium to meet daily requirements is necessary for the development of strong bones. It is also an important way to prevent the development of osteoporosis in adults. Younger children require about 800mg of calcium each day, while older children and adolescents need about 1200-1500mg a day. On food labels, the calcium content is usually represented as a percentage, such as 4%, 15% or 30%, etc. What does that percentage mean? It is the percentage of the daily value of calcium that you would get by eating one serving of the particular

´To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.µ
food and it uses 1000mg as 100% daily value. So, if a food label that says that it has 30% calcium has 30% x 1000, or 300mg.

Calcium Requirements 
Calcium is a mineral that is mostly present in your child's bones. Having a diet with foods that are high in calcium to meet daily requirements is necessary for the development of strong bones. It is also an important way to prevent the development of osteoporosis in adults.  Toddlers (age 1-3 years) require about 500mg of calcium each day (about 2 glasses of milk).  Preschool and younger school age children (age 4-8 years) require about 800 mg of calcium each day (about 3 glasses of milk).  Older school age children and teens (age 9-18 years) require about 1300 mg of calcium each day. This higher level of calcium is especially important once they begin puberty (about 4 glasses of milk).  Since milk has a lot of calcium in it, children who routinely drink milk each day usually easily meet their daily requirements of calcium. Children with milk allergies or who just don't like milk are a little more of a challenge to meet these requirements, but it is still easy if you learn to read food labels.  See the table below for the calcium content of common foods and check the nutrition label to choose foods high in calcium when you prepare your families diet. Also choose foods that are fortified with calcium.  The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently changed their recommendation for Vitamin D supplements for kids, which may affect kids who do not drink much milk. The AAP now advises that, to prevent rickets and Vitamin D deficiency, children will need a supplement with 200 IU of Vitamin D each day if they are exclusively breastfed or not drinking at least 500ml (17 ounces) of Vitamin D fortified milk or infant formula. Older children and teens who do not get regular sunlight exposure and who do not drink at least 500ml of Vitamin D fortified milk each day will also need a supplement. examples: Food Milk, whole or low-fat Servings 1 cup Calcium Content 300 mg

15% or 30%. What does that percentage mean? It is the percentage of the daily value of calcium that you would get by eating one serving of the particular food and it uses 1000mg as 100% daily value. but to eat intelligently is an art. you can also find foods that are good sources of calcium by looking for the following terms on the packaging: y "High in Calcium. And keep in mind that older kids need more than 100% DV. add up the mg to get close to the daily requirements described above. raw Cheddar cheese Yogurt. medium 1 cup 1/2 cup 1 cup 1/2 cup 1 cup 1.´To eat is a necessity. or 300mg. With a daily requirement of 1300 mg. In addition to actually reading the nutrition label. the calcium content is usually represented as a percentage. mashed 1/2 cup  On food labels.µ Soy or Rice Milk White beans Instant Oatmeal Broccoli. .  Since younger children don't need 1000 mg." are found on foods that have at least 20% daily value of calcium or 200mg (and often up to 30-35% calcium). they instead need 130% DV of calcium. such as 4%. if a food label that says that it has 30% calcium has 30% x 1000. etc. calcium fortified Orange. instead of adding up the percentages of the foods they eat. cooked Broccoli.5 oz 8 oz 1 cup 1 300 mg 113 mg 100 mg 35 mg 35 mg 300 mg 300 mg 350 mg 40-50 mg 44 mg Sweet potatoes. So. low-fat Orange juice. "Rich in Calcium" or "Excellent Source of Calcium.

350mg per 3/4 cup calcium fortified soy milk . if you have two type of orange juice and one has 4% calcium and another has 15% daily value of calcium. even of the same brand. can have up to 35% or 350mg." "Provides Calcium" or "Good Source of Calcium. but to eat intelligently is an art. while other flavors of juice. but not a very healthy choice) animals low fat yogurt .160mg per slice (you might look for a whole wheat bread with calcium though) yoo-hoo chocolate drink . you can see why reading food labels is so important. It is the One A Day Kids Scooby Doo Calcium Chews. but you will have to read the label to find them." are found on foods that have at least 10-19% daily value of calcium or 100-190mg.150mg in 2 crackers Quaker Fruit & Oatmeal Bites . Some will have 0% daily value of calcium.300mg per cup Iron Kids bread . boosting its calcium content to over 500mg When looking at different brands and flavors of orange juice. Some good choices. So.250mg per 8 oz serving (a good source of calcium. include: y y y y y y y y y y y Golden Grahams cereal .150mg per cup Honey Maid Graham Crackers (look for the ones that say 'Now a good source of calcium) . "Calcium Enriched".´To eat is a necessity. And compare food labels to choose brands or types of foods that have a higher percentage of the daily value of calcium.µ y "Contains Calcium. then the one with more calcium can say the it is calcium enriched or fortified. For a school age child." are found on foods that have more than 10% daily value of calcium as compared to similar foods without as much calcium. There are vitamins with higher calcium levels.adds 250mg of calcium to a glass of milk. and they won't provide enough calcium for your child if they are your child's main source of calcium. "Calcium-Fortified" or have "More Calcium. often up to 20% daily value of calcium or 200mg. which look and taste like a tootsie roll candy . There is a new calcium vitamin that has 500mg of calcium. What about vitamins? Many parents think that their child is getting enough calcium if they are getting a 'complete' daily multivitamin. Examining the label of these 'complete' vitamins shows that they usually only have about 75-100mg of calcium.200mg per serving Nestle Carnation Instant Breakfast mix . y So choose food products that are high in calcium to get your child the calcium he needs. that would only be about 9-12% of their daily requirement.

µ and most kids should like taking. it is probably better to try and reach his daily requirements or recommended daily allowance by providing him with a well balanced diet. Consuming a diet with the minimum number of servings suggested by the Food Guide Pyramid will provide your child with the recommended daily allowance of most vitamins and minerals. A deficiency can occur in children with fat malabsorption or with a very poor diet. although this is generally not necessary for most children with an average diet. and may be good options for older kids with your Pediatrician's approval.´To eat is a necessity. may need vitamin and mineral supplements to prevent deficiencies. children may need fluoride supplements if they do not drink fluoridated water. . Too much Vitamin A can also be harmful. This vitamin does contain 'dried milk solids' and so is not a good choice for kids with a milk allergy. y Vitamins and Minerals  It is estimated that a daily multivitamin is given to 25-50% of children in the United States. especially those that lead to fat malabsorption.  Although you may give your child an age appropriate multivitamin if you or your Pediatrician feels that your child needs one.  Preterm infants and children who are exclusively breastfed may also need vitamin supplements. like Viactiv. liver disease or other chronic medical problems. Some children that have a poor or restricted diet. which is a fat soluble vitamin. but to eat intelligently is an art. provide 500mg of calcium per serving. Tums and adult type calcium supplements. Vitamin A Milk and infant formulas are excellent sources of Vitamin A.  Also. such as cystic fibrosis.

. Vitamin K Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin that is necessary for proper blood clotting. It is also an important way to prevent the development of osteoporosis in adults. there is little research that supports this practice. It is generally good to choose foods high in iron. Fruits and vegetables are excellant sources of Vitamin C. such as milk and infant formulas. especially if they have very dark skin or if they have limited exposure to sunlight. Having a diet with foods that are high in calcium to meet daily requirements is necessary for the development of strong bones.´To eat is a necessity. in some infants that are exclusively breastfed. It can be deficient in some newborn babies. while older children and adolescents need about 1200-1500mg a day. while older children and adolescents need about 12-15mg a day.µ Vitamin C Although many parents exceed the recommended daily requirements of Vitamin C to prevent colds and upper respiratory tract infections. but to eat intelligently is an art. causing Rickets. Calcium Calcium is a mineral that is mostly present in your child's bones. Younger children require about 800mg of calcium each day. Vitamin D Vitamin D is another fat soluble vitamin that can be deficient. especially if they did not receive a Vitamin K shot after they were born and they are being breastfed. Iron Iron is another mineral that is important for your child's growth. Having a diet with foods that are high in iron to meet daily requirements is necessary for the development of strong muscles and production of blood. Vitamin D is mostly found in fortified foods. which is now uncommon. Too little Vitamin C can lead to scurvy. Younger children require about 10mg of iron each day. but can occur in infants under one year of age who are exclusively fed cow's milk.

nuts and dried beans.´To eat is a necessity. but to eat intelligently is an art. For most children. as it helps with growth and sexual maturation. which is permanent white to brown discoloration of the enamel of the teeth.µ There was once thought to be little need for supplements of Vitamin D in most children if they have sunlight exposure. commercially prepared pre-mixed infant formulas do not contain an adequate amount of fluoride. they can get this fluoride from the water they drink. especially for adolescents. although the AAP now recommends that all children receive Vitamin D supplements. Also.6 ppm). supplement your infant with extra tap water. so consider using a powder or concentrated formula and mixing it with tap water.  It is in general better to have your child drink water that is supplemented with fluoride instead of giving extra fluoride drops or supplements. Foods high in zinc include meats. seafood. dairy products. whole grains. Zinc Zinc is an important mineral. and they are drinking tap water. Infants require about 3-5mg of zinc each day. It is easier to get fluorosis if you are giving your child fluoride drops and he is still getting fluoride from his diet. but exclusively breastfed infants need to take 200 IU of Vitamin D each day. breads and fortified cereals. although some brands of bottled water (or nursery water) do have fluoride added to it. while adolescents need about 10-15mg. .Infants and children who drink 16-17 ounces of formula or Vitamin D fortified milk won't need a supplement. if they are in an area where the city water supply has an adequate amount of fluoride in it (greater than 0. Fluoride  All children need supplemental fluoride after they are six months old to help prevent cavities..  Sources of water that generally don't have enough fluoride include well water and filtered or bottled water. Too much fluoride can cause fluorosis. or talk to your Pediatrician about giving fluoride supplements.

but does consume eggs vegan: avoids all foods that contain animal products.´To eat is a necessity. since vegetarian diets are generally high in fiber. seafood and poultry and milk products. seafood and poultry. but does consume milk products and eggs lacto-vegetarian: avoids meat. y y y y y semi or partial vegetarian: avoids red meat only ovo-lacto-vegetarian: avoids meat. if well planned.  In addition. It may be helpful to see a nutritionist that specializes in . seafood and poultry. and even some Pediatricians. And the more restrictive the diet. think that it is unhealthy for children to be on vegetarian diets. can feel reassured that they can safely raise their kids to be vegetarians too. milk products and eggs Vegetarian diets can lead to health problems in children and deficiencies of certain vitamins and minerals if the diet is not well planned. low in cholesterol and low in saturated fats (all characteristics of a healthy diet). including meat. high blood pressure and Type II diabetes. they may actually be more healthy than most American diets and may lead to a lower risk of obesity. seafood and poultry and eggs. who do not eat any foods that contain animal products. especially if they are vegetarians. but does consume milk products ovo-vegetarian: avoids meat. ranging from those that just avoid red meat (semi-vegetarian) to vegans. a vegetarian diet can provide all of the nutrients that your child needs to be healthy. Types of vegetarians: There are actually many different types of vegetarians. but to eat intelligently is an art. heart disease.µ Vegetarian Diets  Although many parents.  Parents. the higher the risk of problems.

especially broccoli. including fortified soy milk and some meat substitutes. great northern and navy beans. so your child will need to take supplements or eat foods that are fortified with Vitamin B12 (check nutrition labels). so most children do not have problems with Vitamin D deficiency. rice. Check the nutrition label to choose foods high in iron. then you should consider Vitamin supplements or a soy milk that is fortified with Vitamin D. nutritional yeast as a great way to get B-12. legumes. vegetables and fruits. This vitamin is only absorbed from animal products. nuts and seeds. Your child will need to take supplements or eat foods that are fortified with zinc to get enough of this important mineral. If your child is not exposed to the sun very often. In general. Also. Zinc is also found in whole grains. Some areas that you should pay special attention to if your child is on a vegetarian diet include: y y y y y y y Energy/Calories. Vitamin B12. which have absorption rates of only about 5%. Although it isn't necessary to count calories each day. Zinc. especially if your child's diet is very restrictive. sweet potatoes. if your child is eating a well balanced and varied vegetarian diet. brown rice. Iron. it is usually not absorbed as readily as the iron from meats. Protein. legumes. choose foods that are fortified with iron (cereals. egg yolks. and spinach. . Vegetarian diets may have less calories than diets that include meat and dairy products. In general. you should ensure that your child is receiving enough calories for their optimal growth. This means that even though some vegetables and fruits contain iron. This vitamin is present in fortified milk. You can also give your child soy milk or orange juice that is fortified with extra calcium. Your body also makes Vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. such as a macrobiotic diet. Calcium is a mineral that is mostly present in your child's bones. It is also an important way to prevent the development of osteoporosis in adults. Having a diet with foods that are high in calcium to meet daily requirements is necessary for the development of strong bones. and fish. with a lot of energy. You can make sure that your child gets enough protein and amino acids by eating a good balance of grains. bread. then he is probably getting enough calories. the absorption of iron from meat. Vitamin D. since the best sources of zinc are meat and yogurt. and leafy greens. Many vegetables contain calcium. is gaining weight and developing normally and is active. but to eat intelligently is an art. chicken and fish is much higher.µ vegetarian diets for children. and pasta) and consider a vitamin suppletment that contains iron. around 15-30%. Calcium. than other sources.´To eat is a necessity.

Foods can also make you sick if they are contaminated with pesticides or other toxins. In most people symptoms are mild and clear up quickly. abdominal cramps. About food poisoning  Almost any food can become contaminated by a virus.  To protect your child from germs that cause food poisoning.µ Food Safety Guide  Illness caused by contaminated or improperly prepared foods cause up to 81 million people to get sick each year. thoroughly washing fruits and vegetables. promptly refrigerating leftovers and not leaving foods at room temperature for more than a few hours.  The most common symptoms of food poisoning include vomiting. utensils and kitchen surfaces after handling uncooked poultry and meat. but food poisoning can lead to dehydration. with almost 9000 of these illnesses leading to death. diarrhea. Fruits and vegetables can also be contaminated with viruses such as hepatitis A and parasites. Children are among the people most at risk for serious illness from food poisoning. avoiding fish and shellfish from noncommercial sources. and eggs (Salmonella). Unpasteurized milk . fish or eggs. washing your hands. chicken (Salmonella). nausea and fever and they begin a short time after eating a contaminated food. not serving hamburgers rare. kidney failure and even death. coli). it is important to practice the following food safety techniques. or parasite and cause food poisoning. but to eat intelligently is an art. pork (bacteria and trichinella worms).´To eat is a necessity. defrosting foods in the refrigerator. and keeping your refrigerator set to at least 40 degrees Fahrenheit and your freezer to 0 degrees. seafood (especially shell fish which can be contaminated with hepatitis A and other viruses and bacteria) . meat. not giving your child unpasteurized dairy products or fruit juices.  Foods most likely to cause illness include raw or undercooked ground beef (E. bacteria. which include not giving your child undercooked or poorly refrigerated poultry.

Consider using a plastic cutting board to prepare foods. Do not buy or use foods without intact packaging. instead of leaving them out at room temperature. before you begin to prepare a new food and again before you serve the food.µ and fruit juices (especially apple cider) can also be contaminated with bacteria and should be avoided. Keep pets away from all areas where you prepare foods. follow these guidelines when buying and preparing their meals: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Keep your refrigerator at or below 41 degrees F and your freezer at 0 degrees. Wash dishcloths in hot water after using them to clean up after raw meats and poultry. Wash your hands for twenty seconds with soap and warm water before preparing foods. . Also be careful to use a separate plate for cooked foods then the one you used when the food was still raw. Poultry should be cooked to an interior temperature of 180 degrees F and until the juices run clear. Rinse fruits and vegetables before serving or eating. Refrigerate leftovers and do not leave foods out at room temperature for more than two hours.´To eat is a necessity. quickly return home and refrigerate perishable foods and place bags that contain meats. fish and eggs separately from other foods to avoid contamination. Preventing food poisoning To help prevent your family from getting sick from eating contaminated foods. Avoid cross-contamination of foods by washing utensils. Red meats should be cooked to an interior temperature of 160 degrees F and make sure the inside is brown or gray to make sure it is fully cooked. Do not buy or use cans that have been dented or that are bulging. Hamburgers especially should not be served rare. since bacteria can become trapped in the grooves of wooden cutting boards. and all kitchen surfaces that come in contact with raw meats and poultry before preparing a new food with them. When shopping for foods. Thoroughly cook foods to kill germs and consider using a meat thermometer to ensure proper cooking temperatures. Throw away partially eaten foods and beverages. but to eat intelligently is an art. cutting boards. Thoroughly reheat leftovers before eating. Do not eat raw eggs. poultry. Thaw and marinate foods in the refrigerator.

'* Kids 'who eat breakfast are more likely than children who skip breakfast to consume foods with adequate levels of minerals. attend school more frequently. and folate.'* Kids 'who skip breakfast do not make up for the missed calories at other meals. phosphorus. and improved student behaviors' Children who eat a healthy breakfast 'meet their daily nutritional needs. and vitamins.µ y y y Do not drink unpasteurized milk or fruit juices (especially apple cider that is not pasteurized or heat treated). and B12. be safe and throw it out. have lower blood cholesterol levels. right? Here is some proof: y Study showed that 'students who ate breakfasts before starting school had a general increase in math grades and reading scores. reduced nurse visits. look or smell unusual. vitamins A. and make fewer trips to the school nurses office complaining of tummy aches. But everyone knows that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. such as calcium. such as riboflavin. 40% of kids don't. Kids and Breakfast Do your kids eat breakfast? By many reports. magnesium.´To eat is a necessity. If you are unsure if a food is still good.'* y y y . C. Do not use foods or beverages that taste. keep their weight under control. but to eat intelligently is an art. increased student attention.

candy bars. these can include: y y y y y y ready-to-eat cereal with fruit and milk toasted bagel with cheese fruit-filled breakfast bar and yogurt toasted waffle topped with fruit and yogurt fruit smoothie (fruit and milk whirled in a blender) peanut butter on whole-wheat toast If you can't provide a healthy breakfast for your child at home. but to eat intelligently is an art. Healthy Snacks The nonprofit group Center for Science in the Public Interest has released a list of unhealthy snacks that are commonly served in vending machines in schools.´To eat is a necessity. But remember that breakfast doesn't have to mean home-made waffles or french toast every day. cookies. Another big problem is that many kids use these vending machines and 'snacks' as an alternative for lunch. Oreo and other fatty cookies . Among the 'Worst Vending Options' are: y Chips Ahoy!. There are many quick and easy breakfasts that you can give your kids that are also nutritious.µ So why aren't your kids eating breakfast each day? Most likely it is because your family is already rushed in the morning and you don't feel like you have time to provide a nutritious breakfast.' plus a list of more healthy choices. According to the American Dietetic Association. which are often 'filled with soda. chips and other low-nutrition foods. you might also look at breakfasts offered at your child's school or daycare.

FruitWorks. . but for the average child who is growing and developing normally and has a normal activity level. counting calories is usually not necessary. but to eat intelligently is an art. Calorie Requirements  Parents often ask how many calories their children need.´To eat is a necessity. Snickers and other candy bars Starburst Fruit Chews and other sugary candies Are there better options for snacks at school? Sure. The CSPI offers these 'Better Vending Options': y y y y y y y y Applesauce cups (unsweetened) Bottled water Chex Mix. Oats µN Honey Orange juice (100%) Raisins and unsweetened dried fruit And these healthy snack choices aren't just for school vending machines. Traditional Dole or Del Monte fruit cups Low-fat or fat-free milk Nature Valley Crunchy Granola Bars. and other ³fruit´ drinks Hostess HOHOs and other snack cakes Keebler Club & Cheddar Sandwich Crackers Kit Kat Big Kat. They can help guide your choices of snacks that you offer your kids at home.µ y y y y y y y Chocolate whole or 2% milk Coca-Cola. Pepsi and other soda Fruitopia.

in general. who are gaining weight well. Boys 11-14 years 15-18 years Average Calorie Needs Each Day 2500 3000 Girls 11-14 Average Calorie Needs Each Day 2200 .µ  In general though.  Being familiar with calorie requirements can also be helpful in evaluating children with failure to thrive.´To eat is a necessity. but to eat intelligently is an art. A very active teen at the top of the growth charts will likely need many more calories than a smaller and/or less active child. with boys. body composition and level of activity. calorie recommendations and average energy needs depend on their age. requiring more calories than girls. and for children who are overweight. calorie requirements are also determined by their sex. Remember that these are just averages though. Age Average Calorie Needs Each Day 0-5 months 650 5-12 months 1-3 years 4-6 years 850 1300 1800 7-10 years 2000 In addition to age. for older children. Other factors include a child's size. The amount of calories that allows your child to grow normally is likely what is 'enough' for him. some children will require more calories and some will require less. knowing how many calories your child needs each day can help you plan your child's nutrition and make sure he is eating a healthy diet.  For younger children.

offer milk shakes made with a cup of whole milk. vegetables. substitute whole milk. pudding can also provide a lot of calories if you add 1/2 cup of dry milk powder to the milk and instant pudding mix. half and half. instead of milk. which may have calories. but are usually low in protein. etc.µ years 15-18 years 2200 Boosting Calories A Pediatric nutritionist can suggest ways that you can provide your child with more calories by offering high calorie foods that are high in protein with lots of nutrients. over 12 months of age. when baking and cooking. which has 30 calories/ounce (vs 20 calories/ounce for whole milk) 2-3 times a day. your infant's formula can be concentrated to provide more than the regular 20 calories/ounce. under the direction of your Pediatrician or a nutritionist. for older children. evaporated milk or condensed milk mixed with dry milk powder for water or milk. add cheese as a topping for sandwiches. for younger children.´To eat is a necessity. but to eat intelligently is an art. including (disclaimer: only use these suggestions for increasing the calories that you are giving your child under the guidance of your Pediatrician or a Pediatric nutritionist): y y y y y y y y avoid junk foods. or mix whole milk with a packet of instant breakfast powder (adds 130 calories) or dry milk powder (adds 33 calories per tablespoon) to increase calories. a packet of instant breakfast powder and a cup of ice cream blended together (can provide over 400 calories). for high calorie snacks. . you can offer Pediasure. especially since he will need additional calories to help him catch-up with his growth. such as candy.

As the table indicates. Also. fish and seafood are good sources of heme iron and beans are good sources of nonheme iron. which have absorption rates of only about 5%. meat. and pasta). but to eat intelligently is an art. eating both of these foods at the same time will increase the absorption of iron. make high calorie jello by substituting fruit juice for water in its preparation serve meats and breads with added butter. and that meat proteins and vitamin C will improve the absorption of nonheme iron though. crackers. Some foods.  Remember that heme iron is absorbed very efficiently by your body.  Younger children require about 10 mg of iron each day. like from cow's milk. may be fortified with 100% of the Daily Value (DV)* for iron.  In general.  The following tables suggest dietary sources of heme and nonheme iron. margarine. around 15-30%. poultry. can decrease the absorption of iron.  See the table below for the iron content of common foods and check the nutrition label to choose foods high in iron when you prepare your families diet. rice. than other sources (non heme iron). as will eating foods high in Vitamin C.µ y y y y y use peanut butter (about 100 calories/tablespoon) as a snack and as a topping for vegetables. bread. gravy or sauces serve fried foods. many foods are fortified with iron. Having a diet with foods that are high in iron to meet daily requirements is necessary for the development of strong muscles and production of blood. ice cream or yogurt make a high calorie fruit snack using fruits canned in heavy syrup. add sugar or yogurt to fresh fruit or add a packet of instant breakfast powder to strained fruits. such as cereals. chicken and fish (heme iron) is much higher. Also choose foods that are fortified with iron (cereals. and fruits or blended with milk. This means that even though one serving of meat and one serving of baked beans both have 3 mg or iron. However.´To eat is a necessity.  Adolescents require about 12 (males) to 15 (females) mg of iron each day. In addition. . the absorption of iron from meat. such as fish and chicken and add breading or flour before cooking Iron Requirements  Iron is another mineral that is important for your child's growth.which is one of the reasons that drinking too much milk can contribute to a child developing iron deficiency. and that nonheme iron is not as well absorbed as heme iron. calcium. your child will get much more iron into his body by eating the meat serving.

chuck. fresh bluefin. leg. light meat. cooked. dry heat. 3 ounces Oysters. broiled. cooked. 3 ounces Chicken.8 0. blue crab. tenderloin. 1. 3 ounces Crab. breaded.2 1. 3 ounces Turkey. white. 3 ounces Tuna. 3 ounces Beef. braised. 3 ounces 1. cooked.2 3. blue crab. roasted.7 1. 3 ounces Pork. 3 ounces Tuna.8 .5 3. dark meat.9 0. meat only.1 1 cup Chicken. roasted. moist heat. but to eat intelligently is an art.8 0.µ Foods Rich in Heme Iron Food Chicken liver. canned in water. loin. 6 Beef. 3/4 cup Beef. roasted.´To eat is a necessity.1 1. flaked & pieces. breaded and fried. roasted. 3 ounces Halibut. fried. roasted. cooked.0 0. breast. eye of round. moist heat. 3 ounces Clams.0 1.1 40 25 20 15 15 10 10 6 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 4 Crab.0 3.0 2. dry heat. 3 ounces Turkey. meat only. cooked.0 4. roasted. 3 ounces Milligrams %DV* 7.

1 packet prepared Oatmeal.0 9. DVs are reference numbers based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The DV for iron is 18 milligrams (mg). 1 cup Lima beans. Percent DVs are based on a 2. mature. instant. The percent DV (%DV) listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels tells adults what percentage of the DV is provided in one serving. moist heat. They were developed to help consumers determine if a food contains a lot or a little of a specific nutrient. boiled. 1 cup Milligrams %DV* 18. cooked. enriched. cooked. cooked. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. boiled. 100% fortified. Foods Rich in Non Heme Iron Food Ready-to-eat cereal. 50% fortified.µ Shrimp. 3/4 cup Soybeans. boiled. cooked. boiled.´To eat is a necessity. cooked.2 3.6 100 50 50 35 30 25 25 25 25 20 20 . Foods that provide lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet.4 4. cooked.7 4 * DV = Daily Value.6 4. 1 cup Lentils.0 8 6 5.2 4. white. boiled. 1/2 cup Kidney beans. boiled. cooked.000 calorie diet. but to eat intelligently is an art.8 3. Grits. 1 cup Navy beans. boiled. 1 cup Pinto beans. 3/4 cup Ready-to-eat cereal. 1 cup Black beans. 4 large 0. cooked. mixed species. fortified. 1 cup. instant.1 5.

5 1. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.7 mg 3 mg . 1 slice Raisins.8 1. cooked. 1/2 cup Black-eyed-peas. drained solids 1/2 cup Tofu.2 2. The DV for iron is 18 milligrams (mg).µ Spinach. cooked. DVs are reference numbers based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). enriched. but to eat intelligently is an art. boiled. frozen. 50 3. boiled. Percent DVs are based on a 2.9 0. 1 cup Spinach. The percent DV (%DV) listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels tells adults what percentage of the DV is provided in one serving. firm. seedless. boiled 1/2 cup Whole wheat bread. They were developed to help consumers determine if a food contains a lot or a little of a specific nutrient. other examples: Food Hamburger Lean Steak Servings Iron Content 3 oz 3 oz 2. 1/2 cup Spinach.4 0.8 1. 1 slice Molasses.000 calorie diet. drained. 1 Tablespoon White bread.9 0.´To eat is a necessity. Foods that provide lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet.8 0. cooked.5 20 10 10 10 8 5 5 4 2 * DV = Daily Value. canned.

This means no beef. chicken.µ Pork Chop Chicken (dark meat) Chicken (white meat) Fish Peanut butter Green peas. and don't have as many food allergies. nuts. no milk. .1 mg 3 mg 1. cheese. Instead a vegan eats fruits. They are sick less often. vegetables.4 mg 2. pork or veal.3 mg 2 mg 1 mg 1 mg 1. grains and legumes. fish. Even vegan junk food is healthier than regular junk food. Children raised on a vegan diet eat more fruits and vegetables than their meat-eating counterparts. eggs.´To eat is a necessity. lima beans Baked beans Whole grain bread Raisins 3 oz 3 oz 3 oz 3 oz 4 tbsp 1/2 cup 1/2 cup 2 slices 1/2 cup 3. but to eat intelligently is an art. or cottage cheese. growing child? Absolutely.  Is a vegan diet healthy for an active.1 mg Raising Vegan Children  A vegan does not eat any foods that contain animal products.2 mg 2. butter. sour cream.

find out what the host is serving and drop your child off with the vegan equivalent of those items. carrots. simply give your vegan child samples of food from your own plate and see what she likes.´To eat is a necessity. Feeding Vegan Infants The first foods any child eats are usually mashed fruits. apple. hot dogs and sandwich slices made of tofu and other meat substitutes Whole wheat bread (3-4 slices each day) Grilled soy cheese sandwiches . Below are some suggestions for things most vegan children will enjoy and will ensure that he has a well balanced and varied diet: y y y y y y y Spaghetti with tomato sauce Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches Chicken-Free nuggets (soy protein nuggets that taste just like breaded chicken) Baked french fries with ketchup Burgers. Family and friends may worry that your child will be ostracized at school if he brings tofu and sprouts. and iron fortified rice cereals. So send your child to school with a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. but to eat intelligently is an art. After that. At birthday parties. soft veggies. and whole wheat flour instead of white flour. and fruit-sweetened cookies and no one will know your child is eating a "special" diet.µ containing fruit juice instead of sugar. Avoiding cow's milk and eggs are probably good advice for the first year of any child's life anyway. Feeding Vegan Children As your child gets older you can incorporate the things most kids enjoy eating. This affords a vegan baby an even better chance for short and long term health. All of these items are vegan so nothing special needs to be said for starting solids. Feeding Vegan Babies The breast milk of vegan women is refreshingly void of many toxins and pesticides that are found in the breast milk of meat-eating women.

Iron-fortified cereal with calcium-fortified soy milk supplements: a vegan multivitamin to provide Vitamin B12 and zinc. and a gummy bear substitute that isn't bad made with fruit juice. including green leafy and deep yellow vegetables Baked potato with broccoli and tofu sour cream (non dairy) Rice and beans Vegetable stew Spinach lasagna Calcium-fortified orange juice Calcium-fortified soy milk (3 cups each day). but to eat intelligently is an art. Is a Vegan Diet During Pregnancy Safe? During pregnancy it is vital to maintain a healthy diet for the safety of the developing fetus. and pies are abundant though. and extra iron and calcium Snacks: y y y y y y y y Fruits. cut up into bite sized pieces for children under 4 (4-5 1/2 cup servings with at least 2 servings of citrus fruit or juice each day) Raisins Trail mix Applesauce Fresh berries and sorbet (all fruit without sugar) Fruit smoothies Popcorn Vegans can't eat white sugar. But there are some vegan chocolate companies that make some good stuff. Pregnant vegans have a tremendous advantage since their diet is naturally high in the vitamins and minerals the baby needs. donuts.µ y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Mashed potatoes Veggie pizzas with soy cheese Oatmeal with apples and cinnamon Pancakes with pure maple syrup Waffles with fruit Barley and vegetable soup Romaine lettuce salad Vegetables. Vegan cakes. As long as her diet is varied and incorporates a reliable source of B12.´To eat is a necessity. cookies. and most candy is made with it. a vegan woman can be reasonably sure she is meeting her daily .

Suggested foods It is important to eat a varied diet during pregnancy to ensure an adequate supply of many vitamins and minerals. A visit to a registered dietician who specializes in vegan diets can help ease her mind if she is unsure of her particular diet. Below is a list of some food choices that are healthy and rich in the nutrients a woman needs during pregnancy. o Baked potato with broccoli and tofu sour cream (non dairy) o Falafel sandwich with humus or tahini o Split-pea soup Dinner: o Whole wheat pasta with marinara sauce o Sweet potatoes o Vegetarian pizza with no cheese o Vegetable stir fry with brown rice o Potato-lentil stew o Vegetable stew o Spinach lasagna Snacks: o popcorn with nutritional yeast o dried fruits o grapes o fruit juice with sweetened cookies o nuts o trail mix . y y y y Breakfast: o Whole grain cereal with soy milk o Whole grain pancakes with pure maple syrup o Fruit smoothies o Oatmeal with dried fruit or apples and cinnamon o Whole wheat toast with all fruit preserves Lunch: o Romaine lettuce salad with chopped vegetables and low fat dressing o Veggie sandwich on whole grain bread with avocado.µ requirements.´To eat is a necessity. but to eat intelligently is an art. lettuce. tomato. and onions. These items are good choices even for non-vegan women.

During holidays it's wise to find vegan equivalents to favorite holiday treats. Halloween can be tough. There is no need to supplement with water. Feeding Your Newborn  Your baby will get all of his nutrition from breast milk or an iron fortified infant formula until he is four to six months old. a vegan Easter basket can include vegan chocolate eggs and plastic eggs with coins in them. and carve pumpkins too. juice or cereal at this time.´To eat is a necessity. For example. Serve vegan cupcakes and confections in the shapes of monsters. But providing your child a vegan diet will give him an early start on leading a long and healthy life. but one idea is to get together with other vegan parents and have a Halloween party. He will probably be eating every two to six . With a little forethought and creativity. rewarding.µ Handling The Opinions of Others It isn't always easy being a vegan. but to eat intelligently is an art. a vegan child can enjoy the same holidays non-vegan children do. Not everyone understands the nature of the diet or how healthy it really is. Handling Holidays It's important that a vegan child not feel different just because their diet may not be shared by those around them. Bottom Line Raising a vegan child is just as exciting. Let the kids dress up in costume and enjoy activities like bobbing for apples. The best way to deal with people who challenge the safety of a vegan diet is to arm yourself with information. and filled with challenges as raising any child.

putting cereal in the bottle.  Most breast feeding babies will eat for 10-15 minutes on each breast every 1 1/2 to 3 hours and formula feeding babies will take 2-3 ounces every 2-4 hours. introducing solids before 4-6 months. putting the bottle in bed or propping the bottle while feeding. By 4-8 weeks your baby should be on a more predictable schedule.µ hours and if feeding on-demand and following your baby's cues remember that not all cries are µhunger-cries' and you may have to set some limits (for example. heating bottles in the microwave. avoid the use of low iron formulas. Breast milk contains easily digestible proteins. or feeding goats milk. It is also low in cost and requires no preparation. And breast feeding will burn up almost 500 of mom's calories each day.  Despite all of these advantages of breast feeding. feeding honey. and other factors that aid indigestion. Breast Feeding  In most cases. but to eat intelligently is an art. There are many formulas available that will provide your baby with good nutrition to promote his growth and development. ear infections. Breast fed babies are also less likely to have colic. constipation. many factors that support your new baby's immature immune system. not allowing to feed every hour). Iron fortified formulas do not cause colic. .´To eat is a necessity.  Feeding practices to avoid are giving a breastfed baby a bottle before he is 4-6 weeks old. These types of infant formula do not contain enough iron and will put your child at risk for developing iron deficiency anemia (which has been strongly associated with poor growth and development and with learning disabilities). breast milk is the most perfect food for your baby.  Also. asthma or allergies. you should not feel guilty if you decide that you would rather feed your baby formula. which are nutritionally inadequate to meet the needs of a growing infant. upper respiratory infections. constipation or reflux and you should not switch to a low iron formula if your baby has one of these problems.

Your baby may accept formula prepared with cold water. since many cans that look like they are the same size do not make the same amount of formula. If you live in a city with sanitized water and you are preparing bottles one at a time. Do not warm formula in the microwave. you could use 'sterile' bottled water instead. then boiling water or sterilizing the bottles and nipples isn't necessary.´To eat is a necessity. If you don't want to boil the water first. including those that are ready to feed. and require dilution with water on a 1:1 basis (one ounce of water for one ounce of concentrated formula). Check with your doctor. Powder formulas are prepared by mixing one scoop of formula with two ounces of water. You may be able to use this water out of the tap and bottles can be washed in hot soapy water or in the dishwasher. Ready to feed formulas are usually the most expensive. Powder formulas are usually the least expensive. but to eat intelligently is an art. Bottled water that isn't marked sterile should probably still be boiled.       Homemade Baby Food Homemade Baby Food . Boiling the water when preparing infant formula was universally recommended and was then thought to be unnessesary. ready to feed formula must be refrigerated and used with forty eight hours. If you are using ready to feed formula or are preparing concentrated or powder formulas with bottled or filtered water. Once opened. the American Academy of Pediatrics does recommend that water that is going to be used for infant formula be boiled. You should discard any formula in the bottle that is not finished during the feeding. Formula can also be concentrated in 13 oz cans. When comparing formula prices. If you are not convinced that your water supply is safe or if you are using well water. or he may prefer to have the formula warmed. using a bottle warmer or on the stove. which comes in 32oz cans and requires no preparation. as it can produce hot spots in the bottle that can burn your baby.µ  How do I prepare my infant's formula? Infant formulas are available in many different forms. In 1993. However. You may warm formula by briefly placing it under hot running water. then you should boil the water for five minutes before preparing formula. And always test warmed formula before feeding it to your baby. an outbreak of cyclosporiasis from contaminated water in Milwaukee prompted officials to again recommend that water be boiled when preparing infant formula. then you may need to give your baby fluoride supplements when he is older. check to see how much formula the can makes.

and it is easier clean up. retains more nutrients than other cooking methods.Cook the food in the microwave or use a stovetop method of steaming. Although water will slightly dilute the food's nutritional value. Over time you build up a large variety of single-serving baby food cubes in the freezer. and offers your baby an introduction to foods rich in variety. Cover and place them in the freezer for eight to 10 hours or overnight. Baby food cubes stay fresh for up to two months.µ  The BIG secret: It takes less than 30 minutes per week  Making baby food can be healthier for your baby.Wash.  Step 3: Puree . You should not use detergent or bleach when washing fruits and vegetables because these chemicals can leave a residue that will be absorbed by porous food like produce. Place the cubes in a freezer storage bags or stackable containers (Label the bag/containers with the date and the type of food).it is super easy and takes less than 30 minutes per week. Foods must be cooked well. the difference is not significant enough to worry about. They are done when the can be pierced or mashed easily with a fork. If you prefer the stovetop method of cooking foods. and return them immediately to the freezer.  Step 2: Cook .´To eat is a necessity. Sample Recipe: Apple Puree 6 medium golden delicious apples Step 1: Prep . You want your baby to have food that is soft and velvety in texture. With this method. All of your friends (and your mother-in-law) will think you are a super parent for making your baby's food.Pour the food puree into ice cube trays. You may need to add water to some foods to get the right consistency. Food consistency is created during this step.  Here are the four basic steps of making baby food with the ice cube tray method:  Step 1: Prep ± Depending on the type of baby food you are preparing.  A common approach to making baby food is called the "ice cube tray" method. simply open the package. core and cut apples into one-inch (3 cm) slices. The big secret -. DO NOT boil food. but to eat intelligently is an art.Pour the food and cooking juices into a food processor or a blender and puree. maybe twice.  Step 4: Freeze . The concept is simple: make large quantities of basic food purees using a standard blender or food processor and freeze it in single servings (1 ounce) in ice cube trays. We prefer microwave cooking for several reasons: saves time because foods cook faster. you must use a steamer basket. chop and peel the fruits and vegetables. per week. flavor. . peel. taste and smell. boiling food reduces nutrient content. If you are using frozen produce. color. Pop the baby food cubes from the freezer trays. you will need to wash. you only need to make baby food once.

To serve. Puree to a smooth texture. and return immediately to the freezer. thaw them and feed them to your baby. Remove cubes from trays. you can begin making meal time more interesting and introduce your baby to array of tastes. by combining different foods to create medleys. you can easily thin it by adding some breast milk or formula. thinner food is better than thicker food. Age to introduce: About 6 months Serving Homemade Baby Food  Using the ice cube tray method of making baby food makes it is easy to create a large variety of food cubes in your freezer. Cook an additional 5 minutes. When it is time for feeding. If you are just starting solids. Here are some examples of foods cubes that taste great together: y y y y y y Green peas and sweet potatoes Green beans and white potatoes Broccoli. If you defrost the food and see that it is too thick. corn and mashed tofu Peaches. The apples are done when they can be pierced easily with a fork. Step 4: Freeze . select frozen apple cubes from the freezer. at room temperature or slightly warm. You may want to warm the food first. Makes 24 1-ounce servings. defrost and warm. and the food is too thin.Place apples in a microwave safe dish. Cook 5 minutes and let stand for 5 minutes. velvety consistency.Spoon into So Easy Baby Food Trays or ice cube trays. Cover. pears and rice cereal Mango. Step 3: Puree . Papaya and banana . and always check the temperature of food or drinks before feeding them to your baby.µ Step 2: Cook . but to eat intelligently is an art. Place in freezer eight to 10 hours or overnight.Place apples and cooking juices into a blender or a food processor. mashed banana or plain yogurt. simply select the food cubes from the freezer.  Baby food should have soft. Stays fresh for two months in the freezer. If the opposite happens. Cover. you can easily thicken the food by adding a little baby cereal. This also adds a little extra nutrition too. Never serve hot food to your baby. place in storage container or freezer bag. check the temperature and feed.´To eat is a necessity.  After your baby has been introduced to a variety of single flavor foods and he is a little older. Baby food can be served cold. cauliflower and melted cheese Butternut squash.

How does FDA regulate Infant Formulas? The safety and nutritional quality of infant formulas are ensured by requiring that manufacturers follow specific procedures in manufacturing infant formulas. They serve as substitutes for human milk. Manufacturers must analyze each batch of formula to check nutrient levels and make safety checks. Infant formulas have a special role to play in the diets of infants because they are often the only source of nutrients for infants. but to eat intelligently is an art.which gives FDA special authority to create and enforce standards for commercial infant formulas.µ y Raspberries.known as the Infant Formula Act -. They must then test samples to make sure the product remains in good condition while it is on the market shelf. apples. the composition of commercial formulas is carefully controlled and FDA requires that these products meet very strict standards. For this reason. In fact. Infant formulas must also have codes on their containers to identify each batch and manufacturers must keep very detailed records of production and analysis. Does FDA have nutrient specifications for infant formulas? . yogurt and ground walnuts Infant Formula Basics What is an Infant Formula? Infant formulas are liquids or reconstituted powders fed to infants and young children.´To eat is a necessity. there is a law -.

FDA's nutrient specifications for infant formulas are set at levels to meet the nutritional needs of infants. Manufacturers must provide assurances that they are following good manufacturing practices and quality control procedures and that the formula will allow infants to thrive. Do "house brand" or generic infant formulas differ nutritionally from name brand formulas? All infant formulas marketed in the United States must meet the nutrient specifications listed in FDA regulations. manufacturers set nutrient levels for their label claims that are generally above the FDA minimum specifications and they add nutrients at levels that will ensure that their formulas meet their label claims over the entire shelf-life of the product. but to eat intelligently is an art. If infants are fed a low-iron formula. If such assurances are not provided. All formulas marketed in the United States must meet these nutrient requirements. Infant formula manufacturers may have their own proprietary formulations but they must contain at least the minimum levels of all nutrients specified in FDA regulations without going over the maximum levels.µ FDA regulations list specifications for minimum amounts of 29 nutrients and maximum amounts for 9 of those nutrients. How do parents know what formula to feed to their infant? A wide selection of different types of infant formulas is available on the market. As more information becomes available about infants' nutrient needs. Parents should ask their infant's health care provider if they have questions about selecting a formula for their infant. Do infants fed infant formulas need to take additional vitamins and minerals? Infants fed infant formulas do not need additional nutrients unless a low-iron formula is fed. Does FDA approve infant formulas before they are marketed? The law does not require that FDA approve infant formulas but instead requires companies to provide certain information to FDA before they market new infant formulas. however. the manufacturer may market the new infant formula over FDA's objection. when maximum levels are specified. FDA's nutrient specifications for infant formulas may be modified to incorporate that information. particularly after 4 months of age. a health care professional may recommend a supplemental source of iron.´To eat is a necessity. . In addition. FDA will object to the manufacturer's marketing of the formula.

Infants who are intolerant to certain ingredients and are fed such a counterfeit formula could experience serious adverse health consequences. it is safe to mix formula using ordinary cold tap water that is brought to a boil and boiled for one minute or as directed on the label of the infant formula. Some water companies wish to make available bottled waters which . but to eat intelligently is an art. and call the manufacturer's toll-free number with any concerns or questions. selected by the manufacturer based on tests and other information. As a second example. parents or other caregivers should always look for any changes in formula color. smell.and diglycerides added to ensure that the formula doesn't separate during shelf-life. a counterfeit label may bear a false "use by" date to obscure the fact that the product may no longer contain the amounts of nutrients listed on the label and may otherwise not be of acceptable quality. the infant formula will contain no less than the amount of each nutrient declared on the product label and will otherwise be of acceptable quality. carrageenan. if an infant formula is past the "use by" date. To protect infants. and mono. In most situations. What does the "use by" date mean on infant formula product labels? The "use by" date on infant formulas is a date. The "use by" date is required by FDA regulations on each container of infant formula. For example. What does this mean? The manufacturers of infant formula provide directions for mixing their products with water and usually do not specify the source of water other than to indicate that the water should be safe to drink. or taste. Why are those ingredients added? Ready-to-feed and concentrated liquid formulas often contain ingredients such as lecithin. an infant formula may be relabeled to disguise the true content of the product. Until that declared date. Diverted products may be relabeled with counterfeit labels to misrepresent the quality or identity of a formula. check containers for damage.´To eat is a necessity.µ Some ingredient statements on infant formula labels include ingredients in addition to nutrients and familiar components such as milk. What are counterfeit infant formulas? How can I avoid buying such products? Counterfeit infant formulas are infant formula products that have been diverted from normal distribution channels and relabeled. to inform retailers and consumers about the quality of the infant formula. I have seen bottled water marked for use in preparing infant formula. Parents should make sure the lot numbers and "use by" dates on the containers and boxes are the same (if buying by the case).

may benefit from direct consumption. The body can make DHA and ARA from certain other dietary fatty acids. Are there approved recipes for homemade infant formulas? FDA regulates commercially available infant formulas. Great care must be given to the decision to make infant formulas at home. What are these substances? DHA is docosahexaenoic acid and ARA is arachidonic acid. consumers should boil bottled water one minute before mixing with infant formula.´To eat is a necessity. such as premature infants. DHA and ARA are also consumed directly in the diet. but to eat intelligently is an art. including the fatty acids in infant formulas. which are marketed in liquid and powder forms. As with tap water. What foods contain the fatty acids DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and ARA (arachidonic acid)? DHA is contained in varying amounts in fish oils. DHA and ARA are also found in some algae and fungi. however. and in human breast milk. with oils from cold-water fish containing higher amounts. and safety should be of prime concern. the water must meet the same standards established for tap water by the Environmental Protection Agency. but does not regulate recipes for homemade formulas. Why is there interest in adding DHA and ARA to infant formulas? While infants can make these fatty acids from other ("essential") fatty acids in their diet. Water that is sterilized by the manufacturer and intended for use with infants must meet certain strict FDA standards. Some manufacturers make dietary supplements containing DHA and ARA. FDA does not recommend that consumers make infant formulas at home. The potential problems associated with errors in selecting and combining the ingredients for the formula are very serious and range from severe nutritional imbalances to unsafe products that can harm infants. some studies suggest that some infants. Because of these potentially very serious health concerns. When manufacturers label their water as intended for infants. Both are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. which are found in plant oils and other sources. DHA and ARA Basics I see formulas on the market that contain ingredients called DHA and ARA. eggs. The label must also indicate that the bottled water is not sterile.µ are marketed for infants and for use in mixing with infant formula. Other studies suggest no .

Some studies in infants suggest that including these fatty acids in infant formulas may have positive effects on visual function and neural development over the short term. Isn't there information from those countries on any long-term benefits or adverse consequences of formulas containing these fatty acids? Systematic monitoring efforts are not in place to collect and analyze information on effects of infant formulas containing DHA and ARA in countries where these formulas are in use. especially during the last trimester of pregnancy. but to eat intelligently is an art.µ benefit. Other studies in infants do not confirm these benefits. Why has FDA asked infant formula manufacturers to do postmarket surveillance of infants consuming formulas containing ARA or DHA? These are new ingredients that were not used in infant formulas in this country before early 2002. These fatty acids are also found in the fat of human breast milk.´To eat is a necessity. Pre-market clinical studies evaluating the effects of infant formulas containing DHASCO and ARASCO on physical growth and some aspects of development are short- . Blood levels of DHA and ARA are typically higher in breast-fed infants than in infants fed formulas not containing these fatty acids. It is known that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (DHA in particular) accumulate in brain and eye of the fetus. These manufacturers and consumers argue that adding oils containing these fatty acids to the fats and oils already in infant formula will provide an infant with both pre-formed DHA and ARA and the essential fatty acids an infant needs to make its own DHA and ARA. FDA views any evaluation of the safety of use of new food ingredients such as DHASCO and ARASCO as a time-dependent judgment that is based on general scientific knowledge as well as specific data and information about the ingredient. I understand that oils containing DHA and ARA have been added to infant formulas for several years in other countries. For these reasons. What is the evidence that addition of DHA and ARA to infant formulas is beneficial? The scientific evidence is mixed. Therefore. There are no currently available published reports from clinical studies that address whether any long-term beneficial effects exist. some infant formula manufacturers and consumers are interested in providing DHA and ARA directly to infants. scientific data that become available after specific products containing a new ingredient enter the market must be considered as a part of the totality of information about the ingredient. and infant formulas containing ARASCO (ARA Single Cell Oil) and DHASCO (DHA Single Cell Oil) have been marketed in other countries for only a few years.

so don't be in a rush to start solid baby foods.´To eat is a necessity. while some studies suggest that feeding of infant formulas with oils containing DHA and ARA to infants may have long-term effects on growth and development. manufacturers have been asked to closely monitor these new infant formulas in the marketplace Guide to Starting Solids  Starting your baby on solid foods is the beginning of lifelong eating habits that contribute to his or her overall health. This makes it easier to detect food allergies. which can present with diarrhea. don't add any seasonings to your baby's foods. such as turning away or showing disinterest. Starting solids too early can cause your baby to develop food allergies. do not give carbonated or caffeinated drinks. coughing. Food Allergies Preventing food allergies may be possible. honey or egg whites until your baby is at least one year of age. having other family members with food allergies. And contrary to the popular myth. as this allows sugar to pool in your baby's mouth and can lead to cavities.  Other practices to avoid are putting your baby down for a nap or sleep with a bottle of formula or juice. starting solids early will not help your child to sleep through the night. Also.  A third reason for holding off on solids is your baby's inability to swallow solids correctly before 4 to 6 months of age and this can potentially cause choking. For all these reasons.µ term studies. or having other . but to eat intelligently is an art. For this reason we have some general guidelines that can help you start your baby out on the right track to a healthy life. these are general guidelines and the amount and types of food that your baby eats may vary from day to day.  When offering a new type of food. Also. vomiting. candy or other foods that your baby may choke on. since younger babies can not offer you signals when they are full.  Breast milk or infant formula supplies all of your baby's nutritional needs for at least the first 4 to 6 months of life. especially if your child is at high risk of having a food allergy. always feed it for several days in a row before starting another new food. Don't feed your baby cow's milk.  Remember. including already having an allergy to aother food or formula. hives or a rash. Your baby's intestinal tract is not as fully developed during the first few months and introducing solids at this time can be too much to handle  Another reason for not giving solid foods earlier than 4 to 6 months is unintentional overfeeding. Do not offer mixed ingredient foods until you are sure that the baby isn't allergic to any of the individual ingredients.

Four to Five Months At this age. as avoiding too many foods may cause poor nutrition). breast milk or formula is the only food that your baby needs and he should be taking 4-6 feedings each day (24-32 ounces). but you can start to familiarize your baby with the feel of a spoon and introduce solid foods. If you are breastfeeding. then you should avoid peanuts and tree nuts in your own diet. Next you can introduce vegetables. and consider avoiding milk.´To eat is a necessity. formula or water and feed it to your baby with a spoon (not in a bottle). Start by feeding one tablespoon of an iron-fortified Rice . Also. Whole peanuts and tree nuts should be avoided until your child is four because of the choke hazard. you should also delay offering solids until he is at least six months old (and continue breastfeeding). because many infants that are allergic to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy). Foods to avoid until your infant is at least a year old include cow's milk. It is best to start with rice and oat cereals and introduce wheat cereals later. then consider using a hypoallergenic infant formula such as Nutramigen or Alimentum (soy formulas and goat's milk may not be good alternatives. and then noncitrus fruits and fruit juices. citrus fruits and juices. but avoid legumes (foods in the bean and pea family) at first. allergic rhinitis (hayfever) and/or asthma. Most importantly.µ 'allergic' type conditions or family members with these conditions. avoid giving peanuts (as smooth peanut butter). If your child is at high risk of having food allergies. do so slowly and only give one new food every four to five days. When you do introduce new foods. but to eat intelligently is an art. if your child does have a reaction or allergy. Cereal is the first solid you should give your baby and you can mix it with breast milk. then you will know which food caused it and you will be able to avoid giving it again. fish and shellfish until your child is at least three years old. This way. breastfeed and avoid supplementing with infant formula or offering solids for at least the first six months of your child's life. fish and eggs too (discuss this with your doctor. and wheat and egg whites until he is two. and begin with an iron fortified infant cereal. If you are not breastfeeding or need to supplement. such as eczema. Meat and protein foods can be added once your child is 8-9 months old.

 Start fruits about a month after starting vegetables and again. Start by mixing one part juice with two parts of water and offer it in a cup. pastas. such as soft fruit and vegetable pieces. Start with one tablespoon of a mild tasting vegetable. graham or saltine crackers. and dry cheerios.µ cereal at one feeding and then slowly increase the amount to 3-4 tablespoons one or two times each day. Eight to Nine Months  While continuing to give 3-4 feedings of breast milk or formula (24-32 ounces) and 4 or more tablespoons of cereal. then you can mix it with a vegetable that they already like as you offer it. you can now start to give wellcooked. or egg yolks (no egg whites as there is a high chance of allergic reactions in infants less than 12 months old). beef. Six to Seven Months  While continuing to give 4-5 feedings of breast milk or formula (24-32 ounces) and 4 or more tablespoons of cereal each day. If using commercially prepared jars of baby food. do not use vegetables with meat as they have little meat and less protein and iron than jars with plain meat. . or mashed vegetables or commercially prepared baby foods.´To eat is a necessity. cooked. vegetables and fruit one or two times each day. or canned fruits (but only those packed in light syrup or water) that have been blenderized or strained  You can also begin to offer 2-4 ounces of 100% fruit juices. Give soft. mild cheese. but to eat intelligently is an art. strained or ground plain meats (chicken. lamb. peas. squash or carrots and gradually increase to 4-5 tablespoons one or two times each day. boneless fish. but do not give these foods if the child is going to be unattended in case of choking. peanutbutter (this is controversial though). you can now start to give more protein containing foods. bite-size pieces of food. turkey.  You can also start to offer soft table foods and finger foods at this age. If your baby doesn't seem to like to eat plain meat. These include wellcooked.  Start with 1-2 tablespoons and increase to 3-4 tablespoons once each day. You can use peeled.  You can also begin to offer 3-4 ounces of formula or 100% fruit juice in a cup at this time. strained. veal. such as green beans. or liver). gradually increase to 4-5 tablespoons one or two times each day.

low fat. with 3 meals and 2 snacks each day and will include 3-4 feedings of breast milk or formula. then you should introduce an infant formula and not cow's milk. but to eat intelligently is an art. Twelve Months and Beyond  You may now give your baby homogenized whole cow's milk. If you wean before the age of one. iron fortified cereal (1/4 ± 1/2 cup at breakfast).´To eat is a necessity. Do not use 2%. It is important to offer a variety of foods to encourage good eating habits later.µ Ten to Twelve Months Your baby's diet will begin to resemble that of the rest of the families. It is also an age when most children can successfully drink from a cup and is therefore a good time to wean. or skim milk until your child is 2-3 years old. and some finger foods. The current recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics is to continue to breast feed until your child is at least age one. vegetables and fruits (1/2 cup/jar at lunch and dinner). . 100% fruit juice (2-6 ounces in a cup each day). protein foods (2-4 tablespoons each day). You can gradually wean your child from breast feeding by stopping one feeding every four or five days and then gradually reducing the amount of nursing when you are down to one feeding each day. Weaning There is no set age at which you should wean your baby.

making sure that your baby is able to cope comfortably with the new texture every step of the way. as they have little nutritional value. round foods (such as chunks of raw carrots. keep in mind that it is low fat.good health and delicious food. including chewing gum. or hot dogs).. As with weaning from breastfeeding. or try to make up for the reduced fat intake from milk in other areas of your child's diet. Making Your Own Baby Food The 6 Key Points to Preparing Your Own Baby Food Congratulations on taking the decision to prepare your own food for your baby! By doing so.´To eat is a necessity. Be sure to only give your baby foods that are appropriate for his/her age. TAKE IT IN STEPS Make the progression from thin liquid purees to more solid. nuts. you can wean from a bottle by stopping one bottle feeding every four or five days and then gradually reducing the amount in the bottle when you are down to one each day.  Following these guidelines will help you give your baby the good nutrition he or she needs to grow up to his or her full potential and a healthy life. grapes. Do not encourage your child to eat after he is full. chunks of peanut butter.  Until your child is at least 4 years old. Allow at least five days between each new food.  Large amounts of sweet desserts. chips or candy.µ  If using soy milk after your child is a year old. as this can lead to a habit of overeating. chunkier meals slowly. fruit-flavored drinks. celery. you're treating him to two of life's greatest gifts -. but to eat intelligently is an art. Introduce them at breakfast or lunch to reduce the risk of any allergic symptoms developing during the night. you should avoid foods that can cause choking. popcorn. Before you get started. sugarcoated cereals.  Remember that your baby's appetite may decrease and become pickier over the next few years as his growth rate slows. . This will give you time to spot any allergic reactions. should be avoided. or hard.. here are some important points to keep in mind.  Also avoid overfeeding.  Your child should now want to feed himself with his fingers and a spoon or fork and should be able to drink out of a cup. raisins. The next few months will be time to stop using a bottle. soft drinks. ONE AT A TIME Introduce new foods to your baby's diet one at a time. hard candy. A toddler soy formula may be a better alternative.

little or no sugar and little or no fat to your baby's food. The story goes that this will help him/her sleep better at night. remember. Don't worry. Be sure to pay attention to good hygiene practices when preparing your baby's food. homemade rice cereal is simple and convenient.´To eat is a necessity. always keep in mind that every baby is unique. Keep in mind that your baby's mouth is more sensitive than yours. Your baby's body isn't ready to cope with any solid foods yet. your baby won't mind (it's still much tastier than anything that comes in a jar). the food seems to lack something. he/she will make up for it next time. Homemade Baby Cereal Baby's First Cereal: Make it from Scratch Rice is easily digested and has low allergen aspects. Let's leave the unwanted additives to the baby food manufacturers. Finally. Most babies begin the transition somewhere between five and seven months (no later than eight months is recommended).it is a myth. Give him/her the amount he/she wants. to you. but with the use of the freezer and a blender.µ KEEP IT WHOLESOME Add no salt. DON'T FORCE YOUR BABY TO EAT IF HE/SHE DOESN'T WANT TO We all have a tendency to over-react if our little bundle of joy doesn't want his supper. But.with the best of intentions -. but to eat intelligently is an art. Even if. NEVER BEFORE 4 MONTHS You may find that your friends and family -. DON'T FORGET THE BASICS Always test the temperature of the food before you serve it. so it is commonly recommended as the first food you introduce to your baby. we all have times when we just don't feel hungry -. . Please ignore this advice -.it's just that your baby has no way of telling you this. Do NOT give your baby ANY solid foods before he/she reaches four months of age. it's your baby who'll let you know when he/she is ready to try out new foods and it's your baby who'll tell you what he/she likes or doesn't like. Many of the recipes for making baby cereals are time consuming.will tell you to begin adding cereals to the bottle when your baby is just a few weeks old. While there are some rules that are true for every child. no more and no less. After all. feeding your baby is largely a process of 'learning on the job'.

3. pop the cubes out of the trays. You can also change the flavor of the cereal by adding fruit or veggie baby food. and add breast milk or formula to develop a smooth consistency. raisins and honey Fruit preserves Cinnamon sugar and dried fruit Preventing Iron Deficiency Anemia  Iron deficiency is still a big problem today. Warm the cereal. if desired. 2. nutmeg. Baby Cereal Serving Instructions: Defrost the cubes. Once frozen. 66-80% of the world¶s population.µ This recipe is perfect for infants. water. labeled with the date and return to the freezer. but by adding a few "extras" it will tempt the taste buds of kids and adults. but to eat intelligently is an art. the World Health Organization lists iron deficiency as one of the 'Top Ten Risk Factors Contributing to Death'. thin the cereal to a semi-liquid consistency. once your baby has started to eat those foods. For babies just starting solids. cover and freeze overnight. Pour the cereal into ice trays. Other facts about iron deficiency: y as many as 4-5 billion people. Baby Cereal Ingredients: y y 3 cups of brown rice. Place the cooked brown rice in a blender with the breast milk/water/formula. may be iron deficient . Lasts up to two months. Puree until completely smooth ± you cannot make this cereal too smooth. 4.´To eat is a necessity. 'Baby' Cereal Extras for Older Children: y y y y Ground nuts and maple syrup Cinnamon. or infant formula Baby Cereal Directions: 1. In fact. cooked according to package directions 12 ounces breast milk. place in a freezer bag or container.

According to the CDC. Why is battling iron deficiency important? Because 'iron deficiency anemia significantly impairs mental and psychomotor development in infants and children. 'although iron deficiency is more common in developing countries. respectively. iron deficiency anemia is not just a problem in developing countries of the world. such as toddlers and females of childbearing age.000 (1. 800.  So to prevent iron deficiency. 1%. it will then lead to iron deficiency anemia. preschool children. Babies.  Starting an iron supplement doesn't necessarily mean starting them on a vitamin with iron though.5 percent) of deaths worldwide are attributable to iron deficiency  Surprisingly.  Also at risk are premature babies who are born with low stores of iron in their bodies. but to eat intelligently is an art. After that.' leading to developmental delays and behavioral disturbances. and females aged 12--49 years.µ y y 2 billion people ± over 30% of the world¶s population ± are anemic. unless they are given an iron supplement. It can also increase the risk for a preterm delivery and delivering a lowbirthweight baby in pregnant women who are iron deficienct. The usual supplement is simply an iron fortified infant cereal . you should breastfeed or give your infant an iron fortified infant formula (avoiding low iron formula) until they are at least 12 months of age. unless they are born premature. and begin an iron supplement by about 6 months of age. are born with all of the iron they need for the first 5-6 months of life. If it continues.´To eat is a necessity. 7% of toddlers aged 1-2 years and 9-16% of adolescent and adult females aged 12-49 years were found to have iron deficiency. Prevention of Iron Deficiency in Infants and Toddlers  It can help to understand how to prevent iron deficiency if you understand how the body stores iron.'  In one study. mainly due to iron deficiency in total. they can develop iron deficiency. and 7% for toddlers.  Although the incidence of childhood iron-deficiency in the United States has been decreasing and iron deficiency anemia is uncommon. a significant prevalence was observed in the United States during the early 1990s among certain populations. which means that they don't have enough iron in their body. we are still above the Healthy People 2010 objectives of 5%.

 Unlike breastmilk and iron fortified formula. which is usually because they aren't getting enough iron. However.  After you have introduced an iron fortified infant cereal.´To eat is a necessity. although that is rare. cow's milk and goat's milk have minimal amounts of iron in them and they are poorly absorbed. preferably with meals. fruits. especially if they have heavy menstrual blood loss. Remember that preemies or low birth weight infants do usually also need a vitamin with iron.µ given once or twice a day. And toddlers who are drinking a lot of milk are likely getting filled up and probably aren't eating a lot of foods with iron in it anyway.. start one feeding a day of foods rich in vitamin C (e. but to eat intelligently is an art.  The risk does go up again during the teens years. are also at increased risk of iron deficiency. Prevention of Iron Deficiency in Teens . because they are growing rapidly and have increased iron requirements.g. Girls who have started their periods. Causes of Iron Deficiency  It is now easy to see why some infants develop iron deficiency. In addition to not having much iron in it. cow's milk decreases how well your body absorbes iron from other foods. vegetables. Most kids become iron deficient because they aren't getting: y y y breastmilk or an iron fortified infant formula until 12 months an iron supplement after 6 months a vitamin with iron if they were born premature or low birth weight or if they are getting cow's milk or goat's milk before 12 months. Cow's milk may also cause younger infants to have some gastrointestinal bleeding. which makes it even more likely that they will develop iron deficiency anemia. or juice) to improve iron absorption. instead of breastmilk or formula. other causes or iron deficinecy can include blood loss and impaired absorption of iron.  Toddlers who drink more than 16-24 ounces of milk are also at risk for developing iron deficiency.  Because preschool and younger school age children are not going through periods of rapid growth and they have lower ron requirements. they are not at big risk of iron deficiency.

Read the labels. 6 months later. and annually from ages 2 to 5 years. Screening for Iron Deficiency  The CDC recommends that children who are at high risk for iron-deficiency anemia should be tested for anemia between ages 9 and 12 months. mussels. and other fish Leafy greens of the cabbage family.chicken. rice. and turkey.µ To prevent iron deficiency in teens.  The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends screening by 9 months of age and again between ages 11 and 21 years for all menstruating teens. starting in adolescence. and oysters. but to eat intelligently is an art. lamb.beef. you should screen all nonpregnant women for anemia every 5-10 years throughout their childbearing years during routine health examinations. like clams. pasta.  It is also recommended that. and liver and other organ meats Poultry -. . Foods that are Good Sources of Iron y y y y y y y Meats -. such as pinto beans. Those who are at risk of becoming iron deficient should be tested and given an iron supplement if they do have iron deficiency. turnip greens. pork. and at the first prenatal care visit if they are pregnant. this usually means prescribing 3 mg/kg per day of iron drops to be administered between meals divided once or twice a day. treatment of iron deficiency involves giving the child an iron vitamin. especially dark meat.  No routine screening for iron deficiency is recommended for teen boys. collards Legumes. such as lima beans and green peas. they should be encouraged to eat iron-rich foods and foods that enhance iron absorption. For infants and younger children.shellfish. anchovies. black-eyed peas. kale. Adolescent girls and women who have anemia are usually prescribed an oral dose of 60120 mg/day of iron.´To eat is a necessity. liver Fish -. Treatment of Iron Deficiency In addition to improving the child's diet. annually for women having risk factors for iron deficiency. sardines. dry beans and peas. duck. such as broccoli. and canned baked beans Yeast-leavened whole-wheat bread and rolls Iron-enriched white bread. and cereals.

 If you notice that your child develops symptoms after being exposed to certain foods. These symptoms usually develop fairly quickly after your child ingests the food he is allergic to. most younger children will outgrow these food allergies by the time they are three years old. which normally breaks down the sugar lactose. pecans. etc. because this reaction does not involve the immune system. develop symptoms after drinking lactose containing food products. vomiting. which occurs because of a deficiency of the enzyme lactase. parents often incorrectly assume that if he has eaten a food before and not had problems. and skin rashes. swelling in the mouth and throat. An example of such a reaction occurs in children with lactose intolerance. fish. it is not a real food allergy. although they are more common in younger children (affecting about 5-8% of younger children). However. diarrhea. tree nuts (walnuts.  More common than food allergies are intolerances to certain foods. such as congestion or a runny nose. are usually not caused by food allergies. shellfish. it is important to learn to read food labels because the food your child is allergic to may be an ingredient of many other foods.  When trying to determine what your child is allergic to. And fortunately. A severe reaction can include anaphylaxis. You should also avoid eating foods that may have been prepared using equipment that was also used to prepare the types of food that your child is allergic to. shock and even death. then he probably is not allergic to that food. often within minutes to hours. eggs (especially egg whites). especially new foods. decreased blood pressure. diarrhea. which can cause vomiting. Nasal symptoms by themselves. such as cow's milk.  Once you determine what your child is allergic to. including hives. milk. spitting up.  Symptoms of a food allergy can include wheezing and difficulty breathing. The most common foods that can cause allergies include: peanuts. itchy skin rashes. Children without this enzyme or who have a decreased amount of the enzyme. then you should avoid those foods.).µ Food Allergies  True food allergies are not as common as most people believe and only affect about 2% of children. and when he develops symptoms may help figure out what he is allergic to. it is important to keep in mind that it takes time for the immune system to build up a reaction against something that the body is . However. and wheat. They usually only suspect new foods as being able to cause a food allergy. depending on how much of the food your child ingested and how allergic he is to the food. with difficulty breathing. soy.  Symptoms may be mild or very severe. nausea. abdominal pain and swelling around his mouth and in his throat. but to eat intelligently is an art. Keeping a diary for a few weeks and recording what foods your child has been eating.´To eat is a necessity.

Preventing food allergies  may be possible. fish. either skin testing or RAST (radioallergosorbent test.  If your child is at high risk of having food allergies. especially if your child is at high risk of having a food allergy. peanuts. but to eat intelligently is an art. including already having an allergy to food or formula. especially if there is a strong family history of having allergies to foods.  In addition to avoiding what you think your child may be allergic to. In addition. but avoid legumes (foods in the bean and pea family) at first. then you should avoid milk. Also. citrus fruits and juices. your child will be prescribed an epinephrine autoinjection device (such as the EpiPen or EpiPen JR) and should wear a medical alert bracelet to notify others of his allergy. Whole peanuts and tree nuts should be avoided until your child is four because of the choke hazard. because many infants that are allergic to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy). breastfeed and avoid supplementing with infant formula or offering solids for at least the first six months. then consider using a hypoallergenic infant formula (soy formulas and goat's milk may not be good alternatives. or asthma. hayfever. Testing may be done.  Most importantly.´To eat is a necessity. and begin with an iron fortified infant cereal.  Foods to avoid until your infant is at least a year old include cow's milk and other dairy products. avoid giving eggs until age two. weeks. eggs. eczema. and peanuts (as smooth peanut butter) and shellfish until your child is at least three years old.µ allergic to. So your child may be allergic to a food even if he has eaten it many times before without problems. a blood test to check for antibodies against certain things your child may be allergic to) to see if specific food allergies can be found. . and wheat. and then non-citrus fruits and fruit juices. If you are not breastfeeding or need to supplement. It is best to start with rice and oat cereals and introduce wheat cereals later. Next you can introduce vegetables. or having other family members with these conditions or a food allergy. you should delay offering solids until he is at least six months old (and continue breastfeeding). Meat and protein foods can be added once your child is 8-9 months old. months or even years to build up enough of a response to cause noticeable symptoms. Preventing food allergies may be possible. children with more severe reactions should be evaluated by their Pediatrician or an allergist. and tree nuts in your own diet. It may take days. If you are breastfeeding.

Soy formulas and goat's milk may not be good alternatives in this case. yogurt. Older children who are unable to drink milk or eat milk based foods should be sure to have additional   To help prevent allergies to eggs.µ  When you do introduce new foods. Also avoid foods that are prepared with eggs. instant mashed potatoes. eggnog. nougat. To help prevent allergies to eggs.  Other foods to avoid if your child is allergic to cow's milk include. evaporated and condensed milk. it is a good idea to avoid giving egg whites to infants under a year old. bread. pasta. globulin. and other foods made with milk. but are not limited to. cheese. including calcium fortified juices. such as Nutramigen or Alimentum. do so slowly and only give one new food every four to five days. but to eat intelligently is an art. especially the proteins in egg whites are also a common cause of food allergies. if your child does have a reaction or allergy. buttermilk. which may include French toast. ice cream. then you will know which food caused it and you will be able to avoid giving it again Common Food Allergies  Cow's milk is the most common cause of food allergies (in addition to being a common cause of food intolerances).´To eat is a necessity. it is a good idea to avoid giving egg whites to infants under a year old. and foods that contain albumin. . margarine.  sources of calcium in their diet. but are not limited to foods that are derived from eggs. ice cream. sour cream. cake. cookies. including egg substitutes. This way. Unlike cow's milk intolerance which is usually a reaction to the sugar lactose. hydrolysates. allergies to cow's milk are usually from the proteins that are in the milk. puddings.  Eggs. lactalbumin. cream. although they usually are for older children. whey. casein. Infants who have an allergy to cow's milk based formulas should usually be changed to an elemental or hydrolyzed formula. creamy salad dressings and foods with custard or cream fillings. because many infants with allergies to cow's milk proteins are also allergic to the proteins in soy and goat's milk. pancakes. Other foods to avoid include. ovalbumin and vitellin.

 Tree nut allergies are also possible. corn syrup. Important Reminders y y While children often outgrow their food allergies. if your child had a severe reaction to a food. cashews. Children with allergies to peanuts can be very sensitive to foods with even very small amounts of peanuts in them. and is probably best to offer a rice or oat cereal first and delay giving wheat until after your child is 6-8 months old. and ingredients on a food labile including emulsifiers. veggie burgers and hot-dogs. chili. especially sulfites. but are not limited to tofu.  Peanuts are not true nuts. You should avoid foods prepared with tree nuts. then you should talk with your Pediatrician or allergist before reintroducing the food. almonds and hazel nuts and other nuts in hard shells. pecans. Other foods that contain soy proteins and may cause allergic symptoms in children allergic to soy include. peanut butter.  Wheat allergy can develop in infants given a wheat cereal. and can include allergies to walnuts. Also avoid foods with cornstarch. including candy.  Corn is rarely a cause of food allergies. hydrolyzed or textured vegetable protein. Other foods that may cause problems in children allergic to wheat include. Most people do not understand how serious food allergies can be. and caramel. including many kinds of candy. corn or rice) made with wheat flour or enriched flour. Avoid all foods with peanuts. since they are from separate plant families. baked goods. gluten. and may think it is all right to give just a small amount of a food that your child is allergic to. Asian. and mixed nuts. If your child does seem to be allergic to corn. Talk with and educate other family members and caregivers about your child's food allergies.µ   Soybean allergies are usually found in infants given a soy formula. and Indonesian foods). but to eat intelligently is an art. you should avoid corn based cereals and breads. baked goods and different oils. but can also be found in older children who drink soy milk. . such as walnuts or pecans. semolina. may also cause food allergy symptoms. miso soup. rye. foods prepared in soybean oil.´To eat is a necessity. but are not limited to many breads and cereals (unless they are made from oats. soy sauce. many ethnic foods (including Thai.  Certain food dyes and preservatives. all purpose or white flour. Children who are allergic to peanuts can often eat tree nuts. but rather are actually legumes from the pea and bean family.

Children with severe allergic reactions or anaphylaxis should wear a medical alert bracelet to notify others of his condition and should carry an epinephrine autoinjector (such as the EpiPen JR) to ensure rapid treatment during an allergic reaction. . by eating less and exercising more. If your child does not improve with these interventions or if he has had a severe allergic reaction.  And if it is hard for adults. starting when your kids are young. This can help the whole family to be healthy. So if your child is gaining an extra pound a week. which can be especially hard when your kids are eating at school.µ y y y y Educate your child about his allergy. Instead.  Being a good role model is also important. you can expect that it is even harder for kids. you will likely have to make some changes to his diet. so that he can learn to avoid foods that he is allergic to. Don't worry about counting calories and carbohydrates and fat grams. keep in mind that a pound is equal to about 3500 calories. But this isn't as hard as you think.  Instead.  It is also well known what you have to do to lose weight. but to eat intelligently is an art. then call the manufacturer before giving it to your child to be safe. Most importantly. Weight Loss Tips  It is well known that obesity or being overweight is a growing epidemic among children. then you should consider having him see an allergy specialist for testing to figure out what foods he is allergic to and to possibly start allergy injections. he needs to cut his diet back by 3500 calories a week or 500 calories a day so that he doesn't gain any more weight.´To eat is a necessity. The problem is that it is hard to stay motivated to do these things. If you don't know what an ingredient is.  If your child is already overweight. leading to increases in diabetes and other serious health effects. who don't necessarily understand the negative health effects of being overweight. learn to read food labels and look for ingredients that your child may be allergic to and practice strict avoidance of those foods. It doesn't have to involve counting every calorie that he eats and drinks. provide healthy meals and snacks and encourage regular physical activity. Losing Weight  How do you help your children lose weight?  It can help to stick to the basics.

µ  Fortunately.  Keep in mind that this 'extra weight' is above what your child would be expected to normally gain each year. Your overweight teen is likely just gaining an extra 10-15 pounds a year. you can use the fact that he probably eats about the same number of calories each day to help him not gain any more weight. which would be equal to just 100 to 150 calories a day. . If your child is not very overweight and he hasn't finished puberty yet. most kids don't need to make such drastic changes to their diet. but to eat intelligently is an art. instead of counting all of your child's calories and trying to stay below some set goal.  Using the method above. then not gaining more extra weight might be not enough. as he gets taller and 'grows into' his weight. about equal to a can of non-diet soda.´To eat is a necessity. diet soda or a more healthy after school snack. Stoping Weight Gain  An important first goal for most overweight kids is to simply stop gaining weight.  So just figure out how much extra weight your child gained in the past year and adjust his diet to compensate for these extra calories. Extra Weight Gained Number of Calories to Last Year Eliminate Each Day 1 pound 5 pounds 10 pounds 15 pounds 20 pounds 25 pounds 30 pounds 10 calories/day 50 calories/day 100 calories/day 150 calories/day 200 calories/day 250 calories/day 300 calories/day  Cutting back on the above number of calories each day should help your child to stop gaining weight. The change might be as simple as changing to non-fat milk.

not gaining any more extra weight is an important first goal.  If your child is still gaining weight. how many calories does he get at each meal? After you look closely at your child's diet for a few days or a week. So he will need to cut back his diet by 150 calories a day. you should be able to see patterns of where the extra calories come from. then you will have to cut more calories out of his diet. Diet Analysis  Although you don't need to count calories each and every day and know where every fat gram is coming from.  So just like we said that you had to cut back your diet by 50 calories a day to lose 5 pounds a year. Cutting back on calories might be as easy as eliminating a bedtime snack. you could also think about how much exercise he needs to do to burn those calories.µ Losing Weight  Again. Some good questions to answer include: y y y y y How many calories does your child get from the things he drinks? How many snacks does he eat? What are his portion sizes like? On average.  You can use the same calculations to figure out how much more to cut your child's daily calories by to lose weight.´To eat is a necessity. cut his diet back by 50 calories a day. but many overweight kids also need to lose some weight. you do need to understand your child's diet to help him lose weight. or not super-sizing his portions. you could also exercise to burn an extra 50 calories a day and lose weight. For example. then that is a total of 15 pounds that you need to compensate for. and so on. changing to diet drinks or low fat milk. if you want to help your child lose 5 pounds a year. Instead of thinking about how to diet to decrease the number of calories your child is taking in. once your child is at a stable weight and not gaining. To lose 10 pounds. Exercise  More exercise and being more active is another good way to stop gaining and losing weight. . if he has been gaining an extra 5 pounds a year and he needs to lose 10 pounds. eliminate 100 calories a day. So. but to eat intelligently is an art.

do a combination of both. or forcing them to eat foods that they don't want. but to eat intelligently is an art. roller blading. there wouldn't be so many different exercise programs and diets. Preventing Feeding Problems  The best way to prevent feeding problems is to teach your children to feed himself as early as possible.  Once a teen finishes going through puberty. avoid giving large amounts of sweet desserts.  As a toddler. Older Kids and Adults  Younger children who are overweight have one big advantage. etc. they will often 'grow into' their weight. if they stop gaining weight. Mealtimes should be enjoyable and pleasant and not a source of struggle.  Eat less or exercise more or do some combination of both. fruit-flavored drinks.  This is not meant to minimize the difficulty of losing weight though. The same principles discussed above work though for both older teens and adults. bicyling. sugarcoated cereals. chips or candy. such as the Atkins diet. such as walking. An important way that children learn to be independent is through establishing independence about feeding. become a very picky eater or even go on binges where they will only want to eat a certain food. basketball or soccer. as they have little nutritional value. forcing your child to eat when they aren't hungry. to get thinner.  How can children burn 50 calories a day exercising?  Your children should be able to burn 50-100 calories a day in 30-60 minutes of regular activities that children enjoy. Since they are still getting taller. Even though your child may not be eating as well . and frequent advertising for 'easy' weight loss programs helps illustrate just how difficult losing weight is.µ  Or even better. The popularity of so many diets. provide them with healthy choices and allow experimentation.  But these basic tips should give you a better understanding of what you need to try to do to help your child get to a more healthy weight. Weight Watchers. he actually has to lose weight. your child may start to refuse to eat some foods. or playing baseball.´To eat is a necessity. they I said before. You can get more help from your pediatrician and/or a registered dietician. Also.  Common mistakes are allowing your child to drink too much milk or juice so that they aren't hungry for solids. soft drinks. If losing weight were easy.

but you should also not give him something else to eat. then it is okay that he doesn't want to eat much at dinner.  You should also not prepare more than one meal for your child. then he should not be forced to. Most children will try a new food after being offered it 10-15 times. limit eating and drinking to the table or high chair. Remember that early childhood is a period in his development where he is not growing very fast and doesn't need a lot of calories. limit mealtime conversation to positive and pleasant topics.  While you should provide three well-balanced meals each day. for example). as long as your child is growing normally and has a normal energy level. avoid punishing your child for not eating well.  Although your child will probably be hesitant to try new foods.µ rounded a diet as you would like. most children do not eat a balanced diet each and every day.  Also. but over the course of a week or so their diet will usually be well balanced. He will not starve after missing a single meal. there is probably little to worry about. and limit snacks to two nutritious snacks each day. it is important to keep in mind that most children will only eat one or two full meals each day.  Other ways to prevent feeding problems are to not use food as a bribe or reward for desired behaviors. If you child has had a good breakfast and lunch. you should still offer small amounts of them once or twice a week (one tablespoon of green beans. Food Refusal . although he probably doesn't need it. You can consider giving your child a daily vitamin if you think he is not eating well.´To eat is a necessity. avoid discussing or commenting on your child's poor eating habits while at the table. but to eat intelligently is an art. If he doesn't want to eat what was prepared for the rest of the family. and providing alternatives to the prepared meal will just cause more problems later.

if your child still refuses to take solids. then you should have an evaluation with your Pediatrician.  If your infant refuses to take the cereal with a spoon when you first introduce it. who may have been hospitilized at a young age. or if he coughs. . which can lead to esophagitis and pain when swallowing. but to eat intelligently is an art. especially in children that cough or gag when eating. An important way that children learn to be independent is through establishing independence about feeding. become picky eaters or even go on binges where they will only want to eat a certain food. causing irritability. then his refusing to take solids may very well be normal. Not all children are ready to begin solids at the same time. Cereal is the first solid you should give your baby and you can mix it with breast milk. if necessary. there is probably little to worry about.  It is recommended that infants be started on solids foods when they are about four to six months old.´To eat is a necessity. so that treatment. can be started.  An evaluation is especially important if your child is not gaining weight (failure to thrive) and developing normally. Start by feeding one tablespoon of an iron-fortified Rice cereal at one feeding and then slowly increase the amount to 3-4 tablespoons one or two times each day. chokes.  Food refusal in younger children and infants. gags. but it is important to rule out other disorders. requiring help breathing with a ventilator. formula or water and feed it to your baby with a spoon (not in a bottle). but are not limited to: y y y gastroesophageal reflux: children with this condition will usually spit up a lot.  Even though your child may not be eating as well rounded a diet as you would like. Remember that early childhood is a period in his development where he is not growing very fast and doesn't need a lot of calories.  By seven or eight months however. Common reasons for infants to refuse to take solids and have difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) include. oral motor dysfunction: can lead to aspiration and recurrent pneumonia. food aversion disorders: this usually occurs in children with a chronic medical problem. or vomits during feedings.µ  Older children may refuse to eat some foods. intravenous nutrition or tube feedings. is usually a different matter. then just wait a week or two and try again. as long as your child is growing normally and has a normal energy level. which may indicate that he is aspirating during feedings and can lead to recurrent respiratory problems. especially refusing to begin to take solids. If he is otherwise growing and developing normally.

especially if he seems hypersensitive to having things in his mouth. Special adaptive feeding devices may also be used. Anorexia causes an overwhelming fear of being overweight and a drive to be thin.  Treatments include changing the position the child is in when he feeds. barium with different consistencies is given to the child to drink. Eating Disorders  Anorexia nervosa is a common eating disorder that usually begins at the age of fourteen or fifteen. which is a type of barium swallow. In this test. many other anatomical and neuromuscular disorders can also cause dysphagia. obstruction: delayed gastric emptying or other gastrointestinal obstruction achalasia: an uncommon condition.  The most common test performed for children with swallowing difficulties is a video swallow or videofluoroscopy. but to eat intelligently is an art. or if he is not improving after a period of watchful waiting.´To eat is a necessity. Reflux is usually treated with an antacid. These specialists are usually part of the early childhood intervention programs that are available in most areas.  Additional testing may be required if your child has dysphagia and he is not growing and developing normally.  Further evaluation is usually with a speech pathologist or occupational therapist. It is more common in adolescent girls (affecting almost 1% of adolescent females). then it is not unreasonable to wait a month or two and continue to try and feed small amounts of solids. especially in younger children. foods of different consistencies. This test is usually done with the assistance of a speech pathologist who can observe and look for swallowing abnormalities. but it is also found in boys and its incidence has been increasing. with special attention to your child's growth and development. Food aversion and oral motor dysfunction is usually treated by a speech pathologist and/or an occupational therapist. The speech pathologist will also attempt to desensitize your child to having solid foods in his mouth. If your child is growing and developing normally and has good weight gain. in which the muscles of the esophagus do not work properly. is usually required for children with dysphagia. or attempts to swallow.µ y y y y neuromuscular disorders: such as cerebral palsy can cause trouble swallowing. and offering foods with different consistencies. so that foods do not move through the esophagus to the stomach normally.  A thorough evaluation by your Pediatrician. with another peak in incidence in eighteen year olds. X-rays are then taken to see if the barium is swallowed or aspirated. leading to a .  Treatments for dysphagia depend on the underlying cause. who can observe how your child swallows.

frequent dieting).  Early risk factors for eating disorders include having low self esteem and being dissatisfied with their body. which can lead to a failure to gain weight or to being underweight and can include skipping meals. skating. Other factors that put you at risk for an eating disorders is participating in certain competitive activities (especially ballet. calories and their weight restrictive eating patterns. and fashion modeling. exercising compulsively an extreme denial that there she may have an eating disorder withdrawal from friends and family wearing bulky clothing to hide weight loss has had a recent or past event in their life that was very stressful Questions you or a physician may ask if they suspect someone has an eating disorder include: y How do you feel about your weight? . followed by purging behaviors. fasting. Some other factors that you should look for if you suspect that your child has an eating disorders include: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y recent weight loss a fear of gaining weight or of being overweight purging behaviors (vomiting or using diuretics (water pills) or laxatives to lose weight) having a distorted image of their body's size or shape (for example. with a body mass index that is below normal. Use the body mass index calculator to see if your child is underweight. but to eat intelligently is an art. Eating disorders are probably also more common in children with a past history of physical or sexual abuse.µ restriction of calories that can lead to being underweight. but it does seem to be associated with certain genetic attributes and it is more common in children who have a firstdegree relative with an eating disorder. and having a parent with an eating disorder or weight problem (obesity. or eliminating entire food groups preference for eating alone amenorrhea (absence of menstrual cycles) or delayed onset of puberty and menarche being underweight.´To eat is a necessity. Teens with anorexia may also have bulimia nervosa. having a perfectionist or obsessive personality.). believing that she is overweight even though she is at a healthy weight) a preoccupation with thoughts of food.  It is not known what causes eating disorders. with a loss of control and binge eating. athletics.

but to eat intelligently is an art. dental erosions (especially on the back surfaces). including other psychiatric disorders (depression. being intolerant to cold.  There are many serious complications of anorexia. and having muscle wasting. obsessive compulsive disorder). irritability. heart failure. which parts of your body look best and worst and why? How often do you weigh yourself? Have you ever used diet pills. daily caloric intake. suicide. diabetes (usually accompanied by frequent urination (polyuria) and excessive drinking (polydipsia)). children with most of these medical problems don't have a preoccupation with food or a distorted body image. ensure a slow and steady weight gain and correct the medical complications . changes in mood. and dizziness and even death. diuretics (water pills) or vomiting to lose weight? Do you ever feel that your eating is out of control? And get a detailed history of what they eat each day at each meal and their daily exercise routine. and evaluating her for depression. Other signs found in teens with eating disorders include having dry and brittle hair. inflammatory bowel disease (which is usually accompanied by vomiting. anemia. constipation. kidney failure.  You should have your child seen by a physician as soon as possible if you think she might have an eating disorder. diarrhea and abdominal pain). drug abuse. decreased energy. hyperthyroidism. However. osteoporosis (brittle bones). including taking a look at her eating patterns.´To eat is a necessity. losing hair. electrolyte disorders.  The treatment of eating disorders is slow and difficult (and sometimes requires hospitalization) and should be overseen by a mental health professional that is familiar with treating patients with this disorder to begin psychotherapy and behavior modification. measuring her height.  Some physical signs that are found in patients with bulimia include an enlargement of the parotid glands (causing chubby cheeks).  Your doctor will also try and rule out other causes of weight loss and decreased appetite. your doctor will probably perform a nutritional assessment. and other medical problems. including fainting from low blood pressure. confusion. At this visit. and having calluses on their knuckles.µ y y y y y When you look in the mirror. laxatives. Patients with anorexia also require nutritional and medical intervention to make dietary recommendations. weight and body mass index. heart rhythm abnormalities. sleep problems.

like weakness and poor muscle tone. but can also be caused by drinking too much milk (more than 1216oz/d).  Keep in mind.  If you do think your infant has constipation. Constipation is most commonly caused by a diet that is low in fiber. the first symptoms of botulism in infants is usually constipation. then you can:  Increase fluids: Give 2-4 oz of water or diluted fruit juices (such as apple or prune) 1-2 times each day. but to eat intelligently is an art. It is usually defined as the passage of hard and painful stools or going four or more days without a bowel movement. even if it occurs infrequently. This creates a cycle that makes the constipation continue and become worse. then it is not constipation. you may also try feeding foods with a lot of fiber.  It can also be normal for infants (whether breastfed or drinking an iron fortified infant formula) to strain and groan when they have a bowel movement. if the bowel movement is soft or watery. The goal of treatment is for your child to have one to two soft stools each day. or try switching to a soy formula. You should not switch to a low iron formula because your child has constipation.  Once a child develops constipation and has hard and painful stools. strained prunes. such as cereals. then it is not constipation. it can be common for a baby that is exclusively breastfed to only have a bowel movement every one to two weeks. he will then begin to hold in his bowel movements to prevent it from hurting again. Diet Treatment for Infants  Constipation is uncommon in breastfed infants. Until the constipation has improved with a non-constipating diet. especially if he also has other symptoms. not drinking enough water or waiting too long to go to the bathroom. If the bowel movement is soft or watery. that although rare. apricots. If your infant has severe or difficult to treat constipation. or spinach. And remember that the iron in infant formulas does not cause constipation. your child will most likely also be on stool softeners. even if your infant has to strain or groan to have a bowel movement.  Increase fiber: If your infant is over four months old and has constipation.µ Constipation Treatment Guide  Constipation is a very common and frustrating problem in children. . Again.´To eat is a necessity. Treating Constipation Constipation is best treated by making changes in your child's diet. Because breastmilk is digested so well. ask your doctor about botulism.

Raw. Drinking too much milk (your child may only be drinking 2-3 cups a day.  Senokot is also often commonly used in children. they are generally not considered to be habit forming. peas. Give enough grams of fiber to equal their age in years plus 5 each day (check the nutritional label for high fiber foods and snacks with at least 3-4g of fiber per serving). and bananas. graham crackers. unpeeled fruits and vegetables (especially beans. Popcorn also has lots of fiber in it. then you are giving too much and you should cut back on the dose.µ Diet Treatment for Children  Constipation in children is best done by making changes in your child's diet.´To eat is a necessity. raw tomatoes and corn) have the most fiber. or mineral oil. Changing doses of Stool Softeners . Miralax. shredded wheat. They include Metamucil. You should use them once or twice a day and work up on the dose until your child is having a soft BM each day. If you child starts to have diarrhea. cheese. but it is actually a stimulant laxative and not a stool softener. Milk of magnesia. but is very effective. turnip greens. or whole wheat bread. so you may not want to use it for long periods of time. is available only by prescription to treat constipation. cooked carrots.  Decreasing constipating foods: The foods most notorious in causing constipation include cow's milk. Switching to soy milk has been shown to soften stools. sweet potatoes. If your child is unable to drink milk. See the table below for dosing information for treatment of children with constipation.  Increasing bran in your child's diet by offering bran cereals. then offer a daily multivitamin or other sources of calcium (such as calcium fortified orange juice).  Unlike laxatives in adults. but it may be too much for his system to handle) is heavily associated with having constipation. Vegetable soups are especially high in fiber and also add more fluid to your child's diet. Some things that you can do to treat and prevent constipation in your children include:  Increasing fluids: Increase the amount of water and fruit juices (minimum of 2-3 glasses) that your child drinks each day.  Increasing fiber: Increase the amounts of fruits and vegetables that your child eats.  A newer medicine. Stool Softeners  Most of these medicines for constipation are available in the pharmacy over the counter and do not require a prescription. Citrucel. but to eat intelligently is an art. yogurt. bran muffins.

Avoid embarrassing or punishing your child. but to eat intelligently is an art. Important Reminders y y y Be patient. If stools are still too hard then increase the dose by one-third. a glycerine suppository or high doses of mineral oil. See your pediatrician for information on how to start begin this treatment for acute constipation. Avoid the frequent use of enemas or suppositories. Call your pediatrician if your child's constipation is not improving in 2-3 weeks. Treatment for Acute Constipation If your child has been constipated for a long time or he is having discomfort or significant pain with bowel movements then you may need to µclean out' backed up stool before the stool softeners will work by using an enema. if he is regularly needing to use enemas or suppositories. or you will wind up µseesawing' with the doses. or he is soiling his pants because of leakage of stool (encopresis).  If stools are too loose then cut back on the dose by one-third. Medications for Constipation Stool Softeners Age Dose Metamucil/Citrucel 2-5 years 3/4 teaspoon 1-3 times each day (mix in 8oz 6-11 years 1/2 tablespoon 1-3 water/juice) >12 years . You can then gradually stop the stool softeners by slowly lowering the amount you are giving every 1-2 weeks. Have your child sit on the toilet for about ten minutes after meals 1-2 times each day. Avoid making changes in the medicines based on one bowel movement. The use of simple rewards or a daily calendar with stars or stickers for days that your child takes his medicine and has a bowel movement may be helpful.µ  Once your child is having 1-2 soft stools each day you should continue with the doses of the medicines that you are using for 6-12 months until he is accustomed to his new non-constipating diet.´To eat is a necessity. Constipation in children is a chronic problem that can take time to improve. Behavior Modification You should encourage your child to have regular bowel patterns.

Milk of magnesia <2 years (mix with 1-2 tsp. 2-5 years of Tang or Nestle 6-11 years Quick) >12 years Senokot (stimulant 1-5 years laxative to be used less than a week at 5-15 years a time) Colace Syrup (20mg/5ml) 1-3 years 3-6 years >6 years Maltsupex (mix in 8oz water/juice) Lactulose (10g/15ml) <2 years >2 years >6 months By prescription only . but to eat intelligently is an art.µ times each day 1 tablespoon 1-3 times each day 1-4 teaspoons 1-2 times each day 1-3 tablespoons 1-2 times each day 1-3 teaspoons 1-2 times each day 1-2 tablespoons 1-2 times each day 2-4 tablespoons 1-2 times each day 1/2 -1 teaspoons 1-2 times each day 1-2 teaspoons 1-2 times each day 1/2 ²2 teaspoons each day 1-3 teaspoons each day 1 ²2 tablespoons each day 1 ²2 tablespoons 1-2 times each day Mineral oil 4-11 years (stir into oatmeal >12 years or mix with orange juice).´To eat is a necessity.

crossing two or more percentiles on their growth charts. and the presence of any chronic medical problems. Your Pediatrician may just want to follow his growth and development at his normal well child checkups. including inadequate nutrition. it is often difficult to find a reason for a child's poor growth. even those under 18 months.µ Failure to Thrive  Parents are often concerned about their children's weight. his nutritional status. Weight for length measurements can also be plotted on a growth curve and can help to determine a child's fat stores. Still. and many chronic medical conditions. especially if he continues to have poor growth.´To eat is a necessity. which can be determined from the height of his parents.  It is also important to look at a child's length.  Children normally grow at a rate of about 30 g (1 ounce)/day in early infancy (birth to 3 months) and this then slows to about 20 g/day from 3-6 months and to only 12-15 g/day in later infancy (6 . and preschool age children at about 6g/day. it is usually concerning if any child. A child's skin fold thickness. including congenital heart disease. parasite infestations. While there are many medical causes for being small and having poor weight gain. but to eat intelligently is an art. with toddlers (1-3 years) growing. for example. but by 24 months.12 months). crosses more than two major percentiles downward.  Failure to thrive is a term commonly used to describe younger children who aren't gaining weight normally. but he has been gaining weight normally and has a growth curve that runs parallel to the 3rd or 5th percentile and he has no other symptoms. Older children grow even more slowly. Children with failure to thrive usually have a weight that is below the 3rd or 5th percentile for their age and a declining growth velocity (meaning they are not gaining weight as expected) and/or a shift downward in their growth percentiles. etc. hyperthyroidism. most children follow their growth curve and stay on the same percentile or growth channel. going from the 80th percentile to the 40th (crossing the 75th and 50th percentiles). at about 8 g/day.. in relation to his weight. then he probably has a normal weight. Children with failure to thrive usually have a growth curve that over time is moving further away from the 3rd or 5th percentile or is becoming flat. especially if they seem to be smaller than other children that are the same age.  Among the influences on a child's growth is his overall genetic potential for growth. renal failure. which can be . metabolic diseases. gastroesophageal reflux.  Many children between the ages of 6 and 18 months move up or down on their growth percentiles.  If your child is just below the 3rd or 5th percentile for his weight.

liver disease. a . usually with diarrhea which can be foul smelling and oily. congenital heart disease or chronic lung problems. such as renal disease. having a restrictive or fad diet preparing formula improperly poor milk supply for breastfeeding moms physical abnormalities that cause difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). Among the conditions that can cause your child to have a diet that doesn't provide enough calories for normal growth (decreased intake of calories) include: y y y y y y anorexia or refusal to eat from chronic medical problems. HIV infection. hyperthyroidism. such as from having a chronic infection. If you need assistance ask about getting help from WIC or other government programs.. or gastroesophageal reflux with esophagitis. increased urination (polyuria) and increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia) and other metabolic conditions. This will include a detailed nutritional history. intestinal obstructions (such as a volvulus). There are many conditions that can cause an increased loss of calories including: y y y illnesses that can cause persistent vomiting (such as pyloric stenosis. cancer. metabolic disorders. Also.  There are many causes of failure to thrive. Children may also have failure to thrive from having an increased requirement for calories. inflammatory bowel disease. such as from cystic fibrosis.µ determined by measuring their mid upper arm circumference is another measure of subcutaneous fat stores and malnutrition. Among the ways to categorize the different conditions that cause failure to thrive and poor weight gain is to group them into conditions that cause a decreased intake of calories or an increased loss of calories. such as neurological disorders including cerebral palsy. trauma to the mouth. including amounts and types of foods that your child eats and drinks (including the amount of juice he drinks). a child's head circumference should be measured and followed. or disorders with motility or movement of the uppger gastrointestinal tract (such as achalasia). but to eat intelligently is an art. celiac disease. congenital abnormalities. poverty can lead to inadaquate access to food. conditions associated with malabsorption. allergies. parasite infestations or other intestinal infections.  Children with failure to thrive should have a full evaluation by their Pediatrician. or a brain tumor).´To eat is a necessity. congenital heart disease. diabetes mellitus (usually includes weight loss.

µ description of associated symptoms (especially vomiting. There are many Pediatric specialists that can evaluate a child with failure to thrive. you can: . stool tests for fat. especially if they have gastrointestinal symptoms. If your child is not growing well. Feedings may be given orally. Treatment of failure to thrive is usually carried out with a team approach. and he has a healthy diet and no associated symptoms. a physical exam and a review of prior growth records to evaluate your child's rate of growth. then your Pediatrician may just observe his weight gain over the next few months. but to eat intelligently is an art. an HIV test. If your child is below the 3rd or 5th percentile. a urinalysis and urine culture (can show evidence of a renal tubular acidosis or chronic renal disease or infections). a sweat chloride test (for cystic fibrosis). a Pediatric Gastroenterologist will evaluate your child. depending on your Pediatrician's suspicion of the cause. moving downward across more than 2 major percentile or is moving further away from the 3rd or 5th percentile. and upper or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy for persistent vomiting and/or chronic diarrhea.     To make mealtimes easier and maximize the chances that your child will eat. but is growing normally with a growth curve that is parallel to the 3rd or 5th percentile. serum glucose to look for diabetes. Often. The rate of growth is among the most important things that will be assessed. and may include (but are not limited to) an upper gastrointestinal series for persistent vomiting. This may be done in the hospital over a few weeks or it may begin as an outpatient. by a nasogastric tube (usually as overnight slow drip feedings) if your child just won't eat enough calories. Other testing will depend on a child's specific symptoms. diarrhea. culture and parasites. with a growth curve that is flat.´To eat is a necessity. and appropriate specialist referrals as indicated. protein and mineral levels (calcium and magnesium)). and albumin. such as vomiting or chronic diarrhea. or by an intravenous (IV) line as total parenteral nutrition (TPN) if your child is not able to digest and absorb oral feedings. liver function tests. BUN and creatinine (renal function tests). Treatment depends on the underlying cause. This testing will usually include a complete blood count (screens for anemia or low blood counts). then often treatment will consist of nutritional therapy to see if your child will gain weight if given an adequate amount of calories. with your Pediatrician. blood and urine tests to look for metabolic problems. a Pediatric nutritionist. If no medical reason is found for your child's failure to thrive. thyroid function tests. erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR which can be elevated with inflammation or infections). or fever). PPD (for tuberculosis) and a blood lead level. then your Pediatrician may do further testing. blood chemistry tests (includes electrolytes.

a packet of instant breakfast powder and a cup of ice cream blended together (can provide over 400 calories). when baking and cooking. and fruits or blended with milk. vegetables. Avoid large amounts of juices. Offer milk or formula. ice cream or yogurt make a high calorie fruit snack using fruits canned in heavy syrup. under the direction of your Pediatrician or a nutritionist. especially since he will need additional calories to help him catch-up with his growth. or mix whole milk with a packet of instant breakfast powder (adds 130 calories) or dry milk powder (adds 33 calories per tablespoon) to increase calories. your infant's formula can be concentrated to provide more than the regular 20 calories/ounce. Allow your child to feed himself. Only offer liquids. which may have calories. but are usually low in protein. for high calorie snacks. add cheese as a topping for sandwiches. add sugar or yogurt to fresh fruit or add a packet of instant breakfast powder to strained fruits. for older children. half and half. which have more calories and protein. evaporated milk or condensed milk mixed with dry milk powder for water or milk. such as candy. instead of milk. especially juice. make high calorie jello by substituting fruit juice for water in its preparation serve meats and breads with added butter. use peanut butter (about 100 calories/tablespoon) as a snack and as a topping for vegetables. substitute whole milk. including (disclaimer: only use these suggestions for increasing the calories that you are giving your child under the guidance of your Pediatrician or a Pediatric nutritionist): y y y y y y y y y y y y y avoid junk foods. as much as possible. or water. over 12 months of age. instead. but to eat intelligently is an art. you can offer Pediasure. Have a schedule for meals and snacks. A Pediatric nutritionist can also suggest ways that you can provide your child with more calories by offering high calorie foods that are high in protein with lots of nutrients. gravy or sauces serve fried foods. margarine. sodas. such as fish and chicken and add breading or flour before cooking .´To eat is a necessity. Turning meals into a power struggle usually doesn't help and may make your child more resistant to eating. after the meal. crackers. pudding can also provide a lot of calories if you add 1/2 cup of dry milk powder to the milk and instant pudding mix.µ y y y y y avoid trying to force or bribe your child to eat. offer milk shakes made with a cup of whole milk. for younger children. etc. which should include 3 meals and 2-3 snacks each day of high calorie foods with lots of nutrients (see below). which has 30 calories/ounce (vs 20 calories/ounce for whole milk) 2-3 times a day. especially finger foods.

because that would imply that there is something easy to fix or change that could tackle this big problem. it is a combination of things. aren't active enough to burn excess calories. but to eat intelligently is an art. Psychosocial factors can also cause a child to have failure to thrive. fast food. which are converted to fat. or too much time in front of a Play Station playing video games? Most likely. poor appetite and/or poor nutrition chronic abdominal pain and diarrhea persistent fever weight loss chronic worsening headaches and/or vomiting a growth curve very much below the 3rd percentile a height that is much below that predicted by mid-parental height if your child's short stature is disproportionate or he has other dysmorphic signs which can indicate a chromosomal disorder. For example. Is it fruit juice and soda.. Among the factors that will make your Pediatrician suspicious that there is a medical reason for your child's low weight and that a further evaluation is necessary include: y y y y y y y y y if your child's plotted weight on a growth curve is crossing percentiles downward.´To eat is a necessity. it would have to be calories. or psychological factors in the parents and their relationship with their child. if his height had been following along at the 70th percentile and has now moved down to the 20th (crossing the 50th and 25th percentiles). or are doing a combination of both of these things.µ Your child may also need to see an occupational therapist or speech therapist if he has a food aversion or difficulty swallowing. unhealthy school lunches. Kids are either eating and drinking too many calories. Why Kids Are Fat y y y y y There has been a lot of debate lately about why so many kids are overweight. It would be nice to have someone to blame though. . especially after he is 18-24 months of age or if it has crossed more than two major percentiles. If you really want to narrow the reason for the rise in obesity to only one thing.. This may involve behavioral factors of the child that make him difficult to handle and feed.

and choosing healthier drinks. The new food pyramid assessment tools can also help you evaluate your child's diet and level of physical activity. or other activities. but to eat intelligently is an art. eliminating the bedtime snack. preferably all. would help this child quickly get to a good first goal of not gaining any more weight. days of the week. many kids get extra calories by eating extra meals. This might include a team sport. If you added in the 2-3 glasses of fruit drinks and soda he was drinking each day. An Obesity Evaluation If you aren't sure why your child is overweight or what you can do about it. like low fat milk. be sure to schedule an appointment with your Pediatrician to talk about it. who would have a peanut butter and jelly sandwich as an after school snack and a bowl of cereal at bedtime. or diet drinks. Too Many Calories In In addition to oversized portions. Remember that the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that children and adolescents should 'engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity on most.µ y y y y y y y y y y y y Remember that you gain weight if your body has more calories going in (the stuff you eat and drink) than are going out (calories burned by daily activity and extra exercise and physical activity).' In addition to encouraging more 'free play' afterschool and on weekends. Not Enough Calories Out The other big problem is that most kids aren't active enough. Consider an overweight seven year old I recently talked to. you can help your kids get more active by getting them involved in sports at an early age. water. .´To eat is a necessity. individual sports. that easily translated into an extra 600 or 700 calories each day and helps explain why he gained about 35 pounds in the past year and now weighs as much as the average 14 year old! Switching to a more reasonable afterschool snack. like baseball or soccer. like gymnastics or a dance class.

popcorn. peanuts. Your child should want to feed himself with his fingers and a spoon or fork and should be able to drink out of a cup. low fat. Two to Three Years You should now be giving your child homogenized whole cow's milk. soft drinks. Also avoid giving foods that your child can choke on. You should limit milk and dairy products to about 16-24oz each day and y .µ Toddler Nutrition Fifteen to Eighteen Months y y y y You may now give your baby homogenized whole cow's milk. or skim milk instead. low fat. tough meats. as they have little nutritional value. with 3 meals and 2 nutritious snacks each day. or skim milk until your child is 2-3 years old. You should limit milk and dairy products to about 16oz each day (in a cup or bottle) and 100% fruit juice to 4-6oz each day (offered in a cup only) and offer a variety of foods to encourage good eating habits later. Your baby's diet will begin to resemble that of the rest of the families. He should have given up the bottle by now. fruit-flavored drinks. To avoid having to supplement with fluoride. chips or candy. sugarcoated cereals.´To eat is a necessity. You can also begin to use 2%. Feeding practices to avoid are giving large amounts of sweet desserts. Your child's diet should resemble that of the rest of the families. whole grapes. with 3 meals and 2 snacks each day. then your child may need fluoride supplements (check with the manufacturer for your water's fluoride levels). chewing gum or hard candy. Your baby should also have given up middle of the night feedings by this age. such as raw carrots. Do not use 2%. use fluorinated tap water. but to eat intelligently is an art. If you are using bottled or filtered water only. Remember that your baby's appetite may decrease and become pickier over the next few years as his growth rate slows.

it is important to keep in mind that most children will only eat one or two full meals each day. most children do not eat a balanced diet each and every day. While you should provide three well-balanced meals each day. avoid giving large amounts of sweet desserts. An important way that children learn to be independent is through establishing independence about feeding. chips or candy. fruit-flavored drinks. Also avoid giving foods that your child can choke on. provide them with healthy choices and allow experimentation. there is probably little to worry about. sugarcoated cereals. Your child should feed himself with his fingers and a spoon or fork and should be able to drink out of a cup. tough meats. but over the course of a week or so their diet will usually be well balanced. Also. Your child may now start to refuse to eat some foods. Common mistakes are allowing your child to drink too much milk or juice so that they aren't hungry for solids. Mealtimes should be enjoyable and pleasant and not a source of struggle. as they have little nutritional value. soft drinks. You can consider giving your child a daily vitamin if you think he is not eating well. Although your child will probably be hesitant to try new y y y y y y . If not. Feeding practices to avoid are continuing to use a bottle. chips or candy. popcorn. you can wean from a bottle by stopping one bottle feeding every four or five days and then gradually reducing the amount in the bottle when you are down to one a day. although he probably doesn't need it. Also. forcing your child to eat when they aren't hungry. as they have little nutritional value. giving large amounts of sweet desserts. sugarcoated cereals. soft drinks. If you child has had a good breakfast and lunch. then your baby may need fluoride supplements (check with the manufacturer for fluoride levels). or forcing them to eat foods that they don't want. Remember that this is a period in his development where he is not growing very fast and doesn't need a lot of calories. Prevention of Feeding Problems The best way to prevent feeding problems is to teach your child to feed himself as early as possible. use fluorinated tap water. Remember that your baby's appetite may decrease and become pickier over the next few years as his growth rate slows. He should have given up the bottle by now. If you are using bottled or filtered water only. become a very picky eater or even go on binges where they will only want to eat a certain food. Even though your child may not be eating as well rounded a diet as you would like.´To eat is a necessity. peanuts. but to eat intelligently is an art. as long as your child is growing normally and has a normal energy level. then it is okay that he doesn't want to eat much at dinner. chewing gum or hard candy.µ 100% fruit juice to about 4-6oz each day and offer a variety of foods to encourage good eating habits later. whole grapes. fruit-flavored drinks. To avoid having to supplement with fluoride. such as raw carrots.

y CONCLUSION y y y y y y y Diet and nutrition for kids is a challenge. limit the energy intake from total fats and shift fat consumption away from saturated fats to unsaturated fats. limit the intake of sugars. individuals and populations are advised to: increase the consumption of fruit and vegetables. Currently there is no dietary recommendation of global utility available for children and adolescents. Healthy nutrition in early life enables healthy adulthood and ageing. limit eating and drinking to the table or high chair. avoid punishing your child for not eating well. You should also not prepare more than one meal for your child. whole grains and nuts. Healthy nutrition contributes to decreasing the risk of today's leading health problems in children and adolescents (including obesity. cardiovascular diseases. Most children will try a new food after being offered it 10-15 times. and providing alternatives to the prepared meal will just cause more problems later. y y y . Most children are bombarded with persuasive and attractive advertising from a very young age. limit mealtime conversation to positive and pleasant topics. Children need to be given a choice and must be allowed to eat little and often. Reasons to promote a healthy nutrition Healthy nutrition strengthens the learning potential and well-being of children and adolescents.µ foods. However. you should still offer small amounts of them once or twice a week (one tablespoon of green beans. then he should not be forced to. but to eat intelligently is an art. Other ways to prevent feeding problems are to not use food as a bribe or reward for desired behaviors.´To eat is a necessity. avoid discussing or commenting on your child's poor eating habits while at the table. for example). but you should also not give him something else to eat. and limit snacks to two nutritious snacks each day. If he doesn't want to eat what was prepared for the rest of the family. cancer and eating disorders). as well as legumes. Most foods advertised tend to be high in sugar or salt and are often sponsored by colorful cartoon characters. He will not starve after missing a single meal.

in /CHILDREN¶S NUTRITION 8. Rullere Wilkin.´To eat is a necessity. www. 2007 Pp-234-240 4. Marotz Lynn R.keepkidshealthy. Children¶s Nutrition: A Consumer¶s Guide Rennes Publishing. 1984 Copyright Pp-184-189 2. The Yale Guide to Children¶s Nutrition Randy Publishing 1997 Copyright Pp-415-417 3. www. www. copyright 2004 Pp78-90 .google. Sizer Frances. Weiswasser Janet.com 7. Tamoralane William V.books. Chidren¶s Guide to Nutrition Grand Publishing. but to eat intelligently is an art. Coffin Lewis A. Whitney Ellie Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies William & William Publishers.co.google.com 6. Brown Judith E. Isaac Janet S Nutrition The Life Cycle 2007 Copyright 5.µ BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.

µ COLLEGE OF NURSING DHAMTARI CHILD HEALTH NURSING SEMINAR .´To eat is a necessity. but to eat intelligently is an art.

but to eat intelligently is an art.PAUL MSc.S.µ ON NUTRITION AND NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT IN CHILDREN SUBMITTED TO: MRS.´To eat is a necessity.NSG LECTURER COLLEGE OF NURSING DHAMTARI SUBMITTED BY: MS.EUDORA BLAH MSc.NSG 1ST YEAR COLLEGE OF NURSING DHAMTARI .

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