You are on page 1of 30

TouchscreenTouchscreenTouchscreenTouchscreen

DefinitionDefinition
.A touchscreen is a display which candetect the presence and location of atouch
within the display area. Theterm generally refers to touch orcontact to the disp
lay of the deviceby a finger or hand. Touchscreens can
also sense other passive objects, such
as a stylus.
DefinitionDefinition
.A touchscreen is a display which candetect the presence and location of atouch
within the display area. Theterm generally refers to touch orcontact to the disp
lay of the deviceby a finger or hand. Touchscreens can
also sense other passive objects, such
as a stylus.
O
OOne
nene p
ppo
ooi
iint
ntnt T
TTo
oouc
ucuch &
h &h & Mu
MuMul
llt
tti
iiT
TTo
oou
uuc
cch
hh
.
Until the early 1980s, most consumertouchscreens could only sense onepoint of co
ntact at a time, and few
have had the capability to sense how
hard one is touching. This is startingto change with the commercialisation
of multi-touch technology.
.
Attributes ofTouchscreenAttributes of Touchscreen
.It enables one to interact with what is
displayed directly on the screen,
where it is displayed, rather than
indirectly with a mouse or touchpad.
.It lets one do so without requiring anyintermediate device, again, such as asty
lus that needs to be held in thehand.
Attributes ofTouchscreenAttributes of Touchscreen
.It enables one to interact with what is
displayed directly on the screen,
where it is displayed, rather than
indirectly with a mouse or touchpad.
.It lets one do so without requiring anyintermediate device, again, such as asty
lus that needs to be held in thehand.
HistoryHistory
.Touchscreens emerged from academic andcorporate research labs in the second hal
fof the 1960s. One of the first places wherethey gained some visibility was in t
he
terminal of a computer-assisted learningterminal that came out in 1972 as part o
fthe PLATO(Programmed Logic for AutomaticTeaching Operations) project. They have
subsequently become familiar in kiosksystems, such as in retail and tourist
settings, on point of sale systems, onATMsand on PDAs where a stylus issometimes
used to manipulate the GUI andto enter data.
HistoryHistory
.Touchscreens emerged from academic andcorporate research labs in the second hal
fof the 1960s. One of the first places wherethey gained some visibility was in t
he
terminal of a computer-assisted learningterminal that came out in 1972 as part o
fthe PLATO(Programmed Logic for AutomaticTeaching Operations) project. They have
subsequently become familiar in kiosksystems, such as in retail and tourist
settings, on point of sale systems, onATMsand on PDAs where a stylus issometimes
used to manipulate the GUI andto enter data.
.
The popularity of smart phones, PDAs,
portable game consoles and manytypes of information appliances is
driving the demand for, and theacceptance of, touchscreens.
.Historically, the touchscreen sensor and itsaccompanying controller-based firmw
are
have been made available by a wide arrayof after-market system integrators and n
ot
by display, chip or motherboardmanufacturers. With time, however, displaymanufac
turers and System On Chip (SOC)
manufacturers worldwide have
acknowledged the trend toward acceptanceof touchscreens as a highly desirable us
erinterface component and have begun tointegrate touchscreen functionality into
thefundamental design of their products.
.Historically, the touchscreen sensor and itsaccompanying controller-based firmw
are
have been made available by a wide arrayof after-market system integrators and n
ot
by display, chip or motherboardmanufacturers. With time, however, displaymanufac
turers and System On Chip (SOC)
manufacturers worldwide have
acknowledged the trend toward acceptanceof touchscreens as a highly desirable us
erinterface component and have begun tointegrate touchscreen functionality into
thefundamental design of their products.
Touchscreen TechnologiesTouchscreen Technologies
.Resistive
.Surface acoustic wave
.Capacitive
.Projected Capacitance
.Strain gauge
.Optical imaging
.Dispersive signal technology
.Acoustic pulse recognition
Touchscreen TechnologiesTouchscreen Technologies
.Resistive
.Surface acoustic wave
.Capacitive
.Projected Capacitance
.Strain gauge
.Optical imaging
.Dispersive signal technology
.Acoustic pulse recognition
ResistiveResistive
.A resistive touchscreen panel is composedof several layers. The most importanta
re two thin metallic electricallyconductive and resistive layersseparated by thi
n space. When someobject touches this kind of touch panel ,
the layers are connected at a certainpoint; the panel then electrically actssimi
lar to two voltage dividers withconnected outputs. This causes achange in the el
ectrical current which isregistered as a touch event and sent tothe controller f
or processing.
.
ResistiveResistive
.A resistive touchscreen panel is composedof several layers. The most importanta
re two thin metallic electricallyconductive and resistive layersseparated by thi
n space. When someobject touches this kind of touch panel ,
the layers are connected at a certainpoint; the panel then electrically actssimi
lar to two voltage dividers withconnected outputs. This causes achange in the el
ectrical current which isregistered as a touch event and sent tothe controller f
or processing.
.
.
The Nintendo DS is an example of aproduct that uses resistivetouchscreen technol
ogy.
Surface acousticwaveSurface acoustic wave
.Surface acoustic wave (SAW)
technology uses ultrasonic waves thatpass over the touchscreen panel. Whenthe pa
nel is touched, a portion of thewave is absorbed. This change in theultrasonic w
aves registers the position ofthe touch event and sends this
information to the controller for
processing. Surface wave touchscreenpanels can be damaged by outsideelements. Co
ntaminants on the surface
can also interfere with the functionalityof the touchscreen.
Surface acousticwaveSurface acoustic wave
.Surface acoustic wave (SAW)
technology uses ultrasonic waves thatpass over the touchscreen panel. Whenthe pa
nel is touched, a portion of thewave is absorbed. This change in theultrasonic w
aves registers the position ofthe touch event and sends this
information to the controller for
processing. Surface wave touchscreenpanels can be damaged by outsideelements. Co
ntaminants on the surface
can also interfere with the functionalityof the touchscreen.
CapacitiveCapacitive
.A capacitive touchscreen panel is coatedwith a material, typically indium tinox
ide, that conducts a continuouselectrical current across the sensor.The
sensor therefore exhibits a preciselycontrolled field of stored electrons in
both the horizontal and vertical axes -it
achieves capacitance. The human bodyis also an electrical device which has
stored electrons and therefore also
exhibits capacitance. Capacitive sensorswork based on proximity, and do nothave
to be directly touched to betriggered.
CapacitiveCapacitive
.A capacitive touchscreen panel is coatedwith a material, typically indium tinox
ide, that conducts a continuouselectrical current across the sensor.The
sensor therefore exhibits a preciselycontrolled field of stored electrons in
both the horizontal and vertical axes -it
achieves capacitance. The human bodyis also an electrical device which has
stored electrons and therefore also
exhibits capacitance. Capacitive sensorswork based on proximity, and do nothave
to be directly touched to betriggered.
.
It is a durable technology that is used ina wide range of applications including
point-of-sale systems, industrial
controls, and public informationkiosks.
.It has a higher clarity than Resistivetechnology, but it only responds tofinger
contact and will not work with agloved hand or pen stylus. Capacitivetouch scre
ens can also support Multi-
touch. A good example of this is
Apple's iPhone and iPod Touch, andHTC's T-Mobile G1.
.
.It has a higher clarity than Resistivetechnology, but it only responds tofinger
contact and will not work with agloved hand or pen stylus. Capacitivetouch scre
ens can also support Multi-
touch. A good example of this is
Apple's iPhone and iPod Touch, andHTC's T-Mobile G1.
.
Projected Capacitance TouchProjected Capacitance Touch
.Projected Capacitance Touch technology is atype of capacitive technology whichi
nvolves the relationship between an XYarray of sensing wires embedded within two
layers of non-metallic material, and a thirdobject. In touchscreen applications
the thirdobject can be a human finger. Capacitanceforms between the user s fingers
andprojected capacitance from the sensingwires. A touch is made, precisely meas
ured,
then passed on to the controller systemwhich is connected to a computer running
a
software application. This will thencalculate how the user s touch relates to
the computer software
Projected Capacitance TouchProjected Capacitance Touch
.Projected Capacitance Touch technology is atype of capacitive technology whichi
nvolves the relationship between an XYarray of sensing wires embedded within two
layers of non-metallic material, and a thirdobject. In touchscreen applications
the thirdobject can be a human finger. Capacitanceforms between the user s fingers
andprojected capacitance from the sensingwires. A touch is made, precisely meas
ured,
then passed on to the controller systemwhich is connected to a computer running
a
software application. This will thencalculate how the user s touch relates to
the computer software
.Visual Planet s ViP Interactive Foil is an
example of a product that uses ProjectedCapacitance Touch technology. Thistechno
logy allows a gloved hand tomake the touch, resulting in ProjectedCapacitance To
uch technology nowbeing common in external "throughwindow" touch applications (i
.e. thosewhere no direct physical contact withthe touchscreen is made)...
.
.Visual Planet s ViP Interactive Foil is an
example of a product that uses ProjectedCapacitance Touch technology. Thistechno
logy allows a gloved hand tomake the touch, resulting in ProjectedCapacitance To
uch technology nowbeing common in external "throughwindow" touch applications (i
.e. thosewhere no direct physical contact withthe touchscreen is made)...
.
strain gaugestrain gauge
.In a strain gauge configuration thescreen is spring-mounted on the fourcorners
and strain gauges are used todetermine deflection when the screen
is touched. This technology can alsomeasure the Z-axis. Typically used inexposed
public systems such as ticketmachines due to their resistance to
damage.
strain gaugestrain gauge
.In a strain gauge configuration thescreen is spring-mounted on the fourcorners
and strain gauges are used todetermine deflection when the screen
is touched. This technology can alsomeasure the Z-axis. Typically used inexposed
public systems such as ticketmachines due to their resistance to
damage.
OpticalImagingOptical Imaging
.A relatively-modern development intouchscreen technology, two or moreimage sens
ors are placed around theedges (mostly the corners) of thescreen. Infrared backl
ights are placed inthe camera's field of view on the other
sides of the screen. A touch shows up asa shadow and each pair of cameras canthe
n be triangulated to locate the touchor even measure the size of the touchingobj
ect. This technology is growing inpopularity, due to its scalability,
versatility, and affordability, especiallyfor larger units.
.
OpticalImagingOptical Imaging
.A relatively-modern development intouchscreen technology, two or moreimage sens
ors are placed around theedges (mostly the corners) of thescreen. Infrared backl
ights are placed inthe camera's field of view on the other
sides of the screen. A touch shows up asa shadow and each pair of cameras canthe
n be triangulated to locate the touchor even measure the size of the touchingobj
ect. This technology is growing inpopularity, due to its scalability,
versatility, and affordability, especiallyfor larger units.
.
DispersivesignalDispersive signaltechnologytechnology
.Introduced in 2002, this system uses sensors todetect the mechanical energy in
the glass thatoccurs due to a touch. Complex algorithms theninterpret this infor
mation and provide the actuallocation of the touch. The technology claims tobe u
naffected by dust and other outsideelements, including scratches. Since there is
noneed for additional elements on screen, it alsoclaims to provide excellent op
tical clarity. Also,
since mechanical vibrations are used to detect a
touch event, any object can be used to generatethese events, including fingers a
nd stylus. Adownside is that after the initial touch the system
cannot detect a motionless finger.
.
DispersivesignalDispersive signaltechnologytechnology
.Introduced in 2002, this system uses sensors todetect the mechanical energy in
the glass thatoccurs due to a touch. Complex algorithms theninterpret this infor
mation and provide the actuallocation of the touch. The technology claims tobe u
naffected by dust and other outsideelements, including scratches. Since there is
noneed for additional elements on screen, it alsoclaims to provide excellent op
tical clarity. Also,
since mechanical vibrations are used to detect a
touch event, any object can be used to generatethese events, including fingers a
nd stylus. Adownside is that after the initial touch the system
cannot detect a motionless finger.
.
AcousticpulseAcoustic pulserecognitionrecognition
.This system uses more than two piezoelectrictransducers located at some positio
ns of thescreen to turn the mechanical energy of a touch(vibration) into an elec
tronic signal. The screenhardware then uses an algorithm to determinethe locatio
n of the touch based on the transducer
signals. This process is similar to triangulationused in GPS. The touchscreen it
self is made of
ordinary glass, giving it good durability andoptical clarity. It is usually able
to function withscratches and dust on the screen with goodaccuracy. The technol
ogy is also well suited todisplays that are physically larger. As with theDisper
sive Signal Technology system, after theinitial touch, a motionless finger canno
t bedetected.
.
AcousticpulseAcoustic pulserecognitionrecognition
.This system uses more than two piezoelectrictransducers located at some positio
ns of thescreen to turn the mechanical energy of a touch(vibration) into an elec
tronic signal. The screenhardware then uses an algorithm to determinethe locatio
n of the touch based on the transducer
signals. This process is similar to triangulationused in GPS. The touchscreen it
self is made of
ordinary glass, giving it good durability andoptical clarity. It is usually able
to function withscratches and dust on the screen with goodaccuracy. The technol
ogy is also well suited todisplays that are physically larger. As with theDisper
sive Signal Technology system, after theinitial touch, a motionless finger canno
t bedetected.
.
DevelopmentDevelopment
.Virtually all of the significanttouchscreen technology patents werefiled during
the 1970s and 1980s andhave expired. Touchscreencomponent manufacturing andprod
uct design are no longerencumbered by royalties or legalities
with regard to patents and themanufacturing of touchscreen-
enabled displays on all kinds ofdevices is widespread.
DevelopmentDevelopment
.Virtually all of the significanttouchscreen technology patents werefiled during
the 1970s and 1980s andhave expired. Touchscreencomponent manufacturing andprod
uct design are no longerencumbered by royalties or legalities
with regard to patents and themanufacturing of touchscreen-
enabled displays on all kinds ofdevices is widespread.
.
The development of multipoint touch
screens facilitated the tracking ofmore than one finger on the screen,
thus operations that require morethan one finger are possible. Thesedevices also
allow multiple users tointeract with the touchscreen
simultaneously.
.
.With the growing acceptance of manykinds of products with an integraltouchscree
n interface the marginal costof touchscreen technology is routinelyabsorbed into
the products thatincorporate it and is effectivelyeliminated. As typically occu
rs with anytechnology, touchscreen hardware andsoftware has sufficiently matured
andbeen perfected over more than threedecades to the point where its reliabilit
yis unassailable.
.With the growing acceptance of manykinds of products with an integraltouchscree
n interface the marginal costof touchscreen technology is routinelyabsorbed into
the products thatincorporate it and is effectivelyeliminated. As typically occu
rs with anytechnology, touchscreen hardware andsoftware has sufficiently matured
andbeen perfected over more than threedecades to the point where its reliabilit
yis unassailable.
.touchscreen displays are found today in
airplanes, automobiles, gamingconsoles, machine control systems,
appliances and handheld displaydevices of every kind. With theinfluence of the m
ulti touch-enabled
iPhone and the Nintendo DS, the
touchscreen market for mobile
devices is projected to produce US$5billion in 2009.
.touchscreen displays are found today in
airplanes, automobiles, gamingconsoles, machine control systems,
appliances and handheld displaydevices of every kind. With theinfluence of the m
ulti touch-enabled
iPhone and the Nintendo DS, the
touchscreen market for mobile
devices is projected to produce US$5billion in 2009.
Finger StressFinger Stress
.An ergonomic problem of touchscreens istheir stress on human fingers when usedf
or more than a few minutes at a time,
since significant pressure can be requiredand the screen is non-flexible. This c
an be
alleviated with the use of a pen or otherdevice to add leverage, but the introdu
ctionof such items can sometimes be
problematic depending on the desired usecase (for example, public kiosks such as
ATMs). Also, fine motor control is betterachieved with a stylus, because a finge
r isa rather broad and ambiguous point ofcontact with the screen.
Finger StressFinger Stress
.An ergonomic problem of touchscreens istheir stress on human fingers when usedf
or more than a few minutes at a time,
since significant pressure can be requiredand the screen is non-flexible. This c
an be
alleviated with the use of a pen or otherdevice to add leverage, but the introdu
ctionof such items can sometimes be
problematic depending on the desired usecase (for example, public kiosks such as
ATMs). Also, fine motor control is betterachieved with a stylus, because a finge
r isa rather broad and ambiguous point ofcontact with the screen.
Fingernail as stylusFingernail as stylus
.These ergonomic issues of direct touchcan be bypassed by using a differenttechn
ique, provided that the user's
fingernails are either short orsufficiently long. Rather than pressingwith the s
oft skin of an outstretched
fingertip, the finger is curled over, sothat the top of the forward edge of afin
gernail can be used instead
Fingernail as stylusFingernail as stylus
.These ergonomic issues of direct touchcan be bypassed by using a differenttechn
ique, provided that the user's
fingernails are either short orsufficiently long. Rather than pressingwith the s
oft skin of an outstretched
fingertip, the finger is curled over, sothat the top of the forward edge of afin
gernail can be used instead
F
FFi
iin
nng
gge
eer
rrp
ppr
rri
iin
nnt
tts
ss
.
Touch screens also suffer from the
problem of fingerprints on the display.
This can be mitigated by the use ofmaterials with optical coatings
designed to reduced the visibleeffects of fingerprint oils.
.
Gorilla ArmGorilla Arm
.Gorilla arm was a side-effect that
destroyed vertically-oriented touch-
screens as a mainstream inputtechnology despite a promising start inthe early 19
80s. Designers of touch-
menu systems failed to notice thathumans are not built to hold their arms
at waist-or head-height, making smalland precise motions. After a short periodof
time, cramp may begin to set in, andarm movement becomes painful andclumsy the
operator looks like agorilla while using the touch screen andfeels like one afte
rwards.
Gorilla ArmGorilla Arm
.Gorilla arm was a side-effect that
destroyed vertically-oriented touch-
screens as a mainstream inputtechnology despite a promising start inthe early 19
80s. Designers of touch-
menu systems failed to notice thathumans are not built to hold their arms
at waist-or head-height, making smalland precise motions. After a short periodof
time, cramp may begin to set in, andarm movement becomes painful andclumsy the
operator looks like agorilla while using the touch screen andfeels like one afte
rwards.
.This is now considered a classic cautionarytale to human-factors designers;
"Remember the gorilla arm!" is shorthandfor "How is this going to fly in real us
e?".
Gorilla arm is not a problem for specialist
short-term-use devices such as ATMs, since
they only involve brief interactions whichare not long enough to cause gorilla a
rm.
Gorilla arm also can be mitigated by theuse of horizontally-mounted screens such
as those used in Tablet PCs, but these needto account for the user's need to res
t their
hands on the device. This can increase the
amount of dirt deposited on the device, andoccludes the user's view of the scree
n
.This is now considered a classic cautionarytale to human-factors designers;
"Remember the gorilla arm!" is shorthandfor "How is this going to fly in real us
e?".
Gorilla arm is not a problem for specialist
short-term-use devices such as ATMs, since
they only involve brief interactions whichare not long enough to cause gorilla a
rm.
Gorilla arm also can be mitigated by theuse of horizontally-mounted screens such
as those used in Tablet PCs, but these needto account for the user's need to res
t their
hands on the device. This can increase the
amount of dirt deposited on the device, andoccludes the user's view of the scree
n