Sliding Mod Control of Torque Ripple in Wind Energy Conversion Systems with Slip Power Recovery

e

e m b De Battista

Ricardo J u l i b Mantz
National University of La Plata - CICpBA CC 91, (1900) La Plata, Argentina mantz@,venus.fisica.unb.edu.ar

d fluctuations, wind shear and tower

i. INTRODUCTION

nal speed is such that the ratio and wind speed, called tip speed any time. Therefore, cted directly to grid by stator and by rotor (Fig. 1). The features

Wind turbine generators are characterized by a low frequency mode of oscillation, which is a consequence of high turbine inertia and low effective shaft stiffness between turbine and generator [4,5]. This mode can be excited by different disturbances: - Random wind fluctuations [6]. - Tower shadow: When a blade passes in front of the tower, turbulence effects reduce the aerodynamic torque [7,8]. - Wind shear: The wind through the turbine is non-constant and depends on the height. That is, the power captured by each blade depends on its angular position [5]. These disturbances produce a periodical fluctuation in the aerodynamic torque. Its frequency is given by the product of the number of blades and the rotational speed. When the natural frequency falls into the range of wind disturbance frequencies, large torque oscillations may be transmitted through the drive train, leading in electric power fluctuations. Torque oscillations have harmful effects on the fatigue life of drive train components [7]. In addition, when the WECS is connected to a weak grid, fluctuation of the generated electric power may cause flicker [8]. External damping at the natural frequency is a way of reducing torque oscillations [6,9]. Based on this idea, a sliding mode control of the WECS with double-output induction generator is proposed. The f i g angle of the converter is controlled to track the optimum speed while damping torque oscillations. This control strategy provides robustness to uncertainties in electrical parameters of the generator and grid voltage disturbances. The advantages of the proposed control strategy, i.e. torque ripple attenuation and good efficiency of conversion, are verified by digital simulation. 11. MODEL OF THE WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM The power captured from the wind is given by

of conversion over static converter. generators or synchronous ones are where p is the air density, R is the blades length and f& is the turbine angular speed. Given a wind speed, this power is maximum at the optimum tip speed ratio ,Iopt (Fig. 2):

0-7803-4503-7/98~$10.00 1998 IEEE

65 1

Fig. the following expression of the aerodynamic torque can be obtained: (3) Usually. RR and RF are the resistance of stator. JT and JG do not correspond to the actual turbine and generator inertia but refer to the bodies of the model coupled by the effective flexible shaft.045 0. Vs is the stator voltage. 2. respectively. 3. Power (Cp)and torque (G) coefficients as fmctions of the tip speed ratio Rs.030 0. 1.e. A third order physical model of the WECS is considered [9]. and s is the generator slip. 0-7803-4503-7/98/$10.The aerodynamic torque model is described by (3). i. 4. Wind ee conversion system with double-output induction nr a generator. The effective shaft compliance and damping coefficients are Ks and Bs respectively. ct 3. 1 where Fig. Lds and L d R are the leakage inductance of stator and rotor windings. From (l). 3 shows the investigated plant. which is shown in Fig.015 0 Fig. l . Its expression can be obtained from the equivalent circuit of the generator shown in Fig. 4 [3]: For grid-linked squirrel cage induction generators. the prime objective of control is maximizing the efficiency of conversion. The generator torque TGis function of the generator speed aGand the fiing angle of the converter a.00 1998 IEEE 652 . The model of the WECS can be described by the following differential equations: x. Tis the shaft torque. The resonance lies in the most flexible part of the rotational system. respectively.This can be achieved adjusting the firing of the converter.060 0. 5.075 0. Therefore. Equivalent circuit of the generator.with and Fig. Wind shear and tower shadow effects are modeled as fluctuations of the wind speed w. forcing the tip speed ratio d to equalize its optimum value jlopr. rotor and dclink. 0 s and COS are the mechanical and electrical synchronous speed.d y p y + !2G Fig. the connection to the synchronous speed is very stiff. The turn ratio of the generator and transformer are nl and 122. Block diagram of the WECS.

The system state ( 5 ) is expanded with the state variable z=cosa. (17) (10) That is. This reference forces the system to follow wind speed variations. I B. at every time. On the other hand. and if the existence conditions are satisfied. (11) Its derivative is the input signal U: Fig.( x ) if s ( x ) < O u+(X)fU-(X) ' (13) 0. u .111 s(x) = 0. Switching surface The input signal takes the value U + or U* depending on the sign of a switching function s of the system state x Similar problems of resonance may occur in WECS with generators connecte to grid via a static converter.TG ---+ robust to uncertainties in the mentioned electrical variables and parameters. In fact. Phys cal model of turbine and generator. =a. the aerodynamic torque at . and can be written as of stator and rotor The discontinu . Sliding mode dynamics that reduces the peak of d by means of generator speed As a result of the control policy.Iopt and wind speed is w. a sliding regime exists on the switching surface [ 10. i and the shaft compliance A. the closed-loop system dynamics is order-reduced. i ~ ! (7) where and The reference torque is given by also causes resonanle but at a frequency WAR: (9) where Top. wi the reference speed ORequal to the optimum one for m ximizing the efficiency of conversion. 5. a contro action that forces the generator torque to be equal to its re rence T =TR . a control action that imposes I u + ( x ) if s(x)20 . causes a lightly da ped resonance at frequency wR. Thus. the state trajectory is constrained to the surface.

a trade off exists in the design of BG between torque ripple elimination and tracking of the optimum speed.+-S__ j JG 3 JG The equivalent control ueq(x) is defiied as the continuous control action that forces the system state to slide on the switching surface. In order to establish a sliding regime on the switching surface.must satisfy the necessary and sufficient condition: + The poles of the system are the roots of the characteristicpolynomial P(s). the better the optimum speed tracking.BG ' Do) and results and AT. Aw . " P A .. Fig.00 1998 IEEE 654 . Existence conditions 2 JT JT -I 0 B -BG A = Ks-- Bs'BT JT 0 -Bs*-+__ I JG ( . There is a set of values of BG. it is follows that BT is proportional to the mean wind speed wo. t ) < uq (x) < U . C. 6 shows the wind disturbance rejection responses for different values of the feedback gain BG. from (24). . = T. and then. BT . KS Be BT TO is the aerodynamic torque at Aopland mean wind speed T wo. the larger the torque fluctuations. frequency. U (x.jG)-K. Torque ripple due to wind shear and tower shadow is therefore almost eliminated. that provides adequate damping of the torsional mode. With regards to wind speed variations.From (2) and (3).(TTo..A it can be . 7 shows the reference tracking responses for different values of the feedback gain BG. = 3 . Fig. U + and U . The resultant dynamic model is linear: The intrinsic turbine speed feedback BT is weak [8]. and generator and dc-link resistances and inductances. Lightly damped resonance occur when BG=Oand BG+oo.(x. this dynamics is completely robust to uncertainties in grid voltage. 0-7803-4503-7/98/$10. and its influence on the pole placement is negligible over the entire range of operation.Turbine torque linearization If the aerodynamic torque model is linearized at mean wind speed wo and optimum tip speed ratio. and no the optimum speed at wo. Its expression is obtained from the invariance condition [ 101 r -T J s(x) =0 (19) Bw=[$ 0]ij AT. Hence. written as and where m a1 = JT - + JG +z.The nonlinear expression of the generator torque does not appear in the resultant dynamics. t ) * (21) where D.

EXAMPLE Fig.4 2. V. v) I Fig. CONCLUSIONS Converter-fed wind turbine generators can be controlled to rotate at the optimum speed to maximize the conversion efficiency. 109 . I . .~ 5 10 15 Time (s) 20 25 30 * E2 2. 27 . (a) From ATwto AT. (Fig. The serious problems of resonance that may occur due to the stiff connection to the synchronous speed can be solved by partial state feedback. The robustness of the proposed control strategy to changes in grid voltage. The sliding mode dynamics B) that the system operates in system state is constrained to a e switching surface. but changing the mentioned variables and parameters. The waveforms of speed and torque obtained under the same wind conditions. . . 8 and 9.8 1 lV. . It provides damping at the torque resonance frequency and allows the system to track wind speed fluctuations. 9. . Obviously. This torque components and may cause a also shows (with solid line) the wind disturbances due to wind shear and tower shadow coincides with the natural frequency wR of the system. 8a. ... 22 . with dotted line) a rque in case A. do not differ from those shown in Figs. (b) From ATwto ATG.3 2. . i IO0 Frequew (Hz) 1801 " " " ' 4 ' 2. . The control law proposed in this paper establishes a sliding regime on a switching surface in the state space. as /$10. lo-' . . frequency and various parameters of the generator has been verified by simulation. I . aveforms of the generator torque. . I . 2. this robustness property is verified whenever condition (21) holds. 3w. .. . I 3 2. ..9 2 21 . .00 1998 IEEE 655 . . 10 -o g -20 0 ' L f 1.5 T h e (9) 28 . Generator torque with control of case A (dotted line). . 6. and case B (solid line). Frequency respo ses.

Man. vol. 1992.2837-2845. Uctug. Mar. “Various induction generator schemes for wind-electricity generation”. pp. “Differential geometric methods in f variable structure control”. Argentina. M. “Power Quality Measurements Performed on a Low-Voltage Grid Equipped with Two Wind Turbines”. 48. vol.N. [2] M. Y. D. pp.F. 1995.J. Ekelund. Thiringer. EC-11. H. 6. Chalmers Univ. on Energy Conversion. Demirekler. Mukhedkar. no. [9] P Novak. 71-83. “Dynamics and Stability of Wind Turbine Generators”. McNerney.is completely robust to grid voltage disturbances and generator parameters uncertainties. Jun. T. 1988. Ekelund.P. 0-~803-4503-7/98/$10. EC-1. Electric Power Systems Research.Berlin. 3. Hinrichsen. [6] T. pp. Jovik. and G. vol. 2. 4. no. 2640-2648. on Power Apparatus and Systems. 104-112. Univ. vol. Saribatir. IEEE Trans.T. Aug. 378-389. Sezer and I. 1982. 4. 23.M.M. I. 93. pp. PAS-100. “Modeling and Control of a Variable-Speed WindTurbine Drive-System Dynamics”. 1992. 1986. on Energy Conversion. Int.00 1998 IEEE 656 . no.E. Dessaint. pp. Utkin. Control o wind energy conversion f system using double-output induction generator. Cardici. Ertan. Sweden. “Propagation and Elimination of Torque Ripple in a Wind Energy Conversion System’: IEEE Trans. Sullivan. [ll]V. IEEE Control Systems Magazine. vol. PhD Thesis. Modeling and Linear Quadratic Optimal f Control o Wind Turbines. on Power Apparatus and Systems. Nov. 15. 8. Puleston. Mar. IEEE Trans. “Dynamic Behavior of a Class of Wind Turbine Generators During Random Wind Fluctuations”. Sira-Ramirez. Nakra. no. [8] T. no. 1981. 1997.Springer-Verlag. 28-38. REFERENCES [ 11 R. Schmidtbauer. 601-606. Journal o Control. Sliding Modes in Control and Optimization. Goteborg. 3. no. La Plata. B. vol. Jun. [7] L. “Wind Energy Systems”. PAS-101. of Technology. vol. pp. Richardson. Wasynczuk. H. PhD Thesis. 81. vol. M. Ermis. IEEE Proceedings. [3] P. and D. [4] E.D. 1996. no.I. [101H. Sep. and P. IEEE Trans. Nolan.1359-1390.D. and J. pp. and B. 1997 (In Spanish). [5] 0. pp.

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