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Chapter 6 Key Concepts: - Water work standards for distribution systems - Distribution system design - Water storage design Water supply, storage, pumps, mains, and service connections are all part of the general layout of a distribution system. It is often an engineer’s job to design a suitable and valid distribution system for a particular water system. The engineer must follow regulations and general distribution guidelines while designing the various components of a distribution system.
Regulatory Standards for Distribution Systems (California Regulations p. 169-188)
A regulation containing comprehensive distribution system standards has not been published or passed on the federal level. It is mainly up to individual states to set regulatory standards for distribution systems. California outlines distribution system regulations in its Title 22 Code of Regulations under Chapter 16: California Waterworks Standards. The California regulations are related to quantity of supply, source capacity, reservoir design, system pressure, water mains, flushing, valves, and other distribution appurtenances. Besides regulations, other details and recommendations are considered when designing a distribution system. Important details, recommendations and regulations are outlined below.
General Considerations and Recommendations for Distribution Systems • • • • Should be free of structural and sanitary hazards Protect the distribution system against contamination by backflow Withstand, with ample safety factors, the physical stresses imposed during normal operation Minimize the effects of events such as: o Power supply failure (i.e. back up generator) o Equipment failure (i.e. multiple pumps) o Structural failures
o Earthquakes, Fires, Floods o Sabotage that is reasonably foreseeable • • Protect against unauthorized entry and/or vandalism (i.e. fence, security system, alarms) Protect against freezing weather – Most pipe breaks occur in winter for CA and USA
Quantity of Supply Requirements and Determining Source Capacity Distribution systems are required to have sufficient water sources and distribution reservoirs to meet the water system’s maximum demand conditions. Maximum day demand (MDD) is the water utilized during the highest day of use in a year and peak hour demand (PHD) is the water utilized during the highest hour of use during the maximum day. Generally, a water system must be able to meet the MDD for a 24 hour period and the PHD for a 4 hour period. Total source capacity, total storage volume, and the total number of service connections are used to determine if all requirements are met. Total source capacity means the total amount of water available, expressed as a flow, from all active groundwater, surface water, and purchased water. Here are guidelines for determining total source capacity: • • • • The source capacity of a well shall be based on the sustained yield of the well or pump output, whichever is less. The source capacity of a surface water supply or a spring shall be the lowest anticipated daily yield, based on adequately supported and documented data. The source capacity of a purchased water connection between two public water systems shall be included in the total source capacity. Where the capacity of a source varies seasonally, the source capacity shall be the capacity at the time of maximum day demand.
System Pressure Requirements The maximum pressure requirement is typically 48 psi. Compliance with maximum pressure requirements for pressure zones is determined from the total water supply available from the water sources and inter-zonal transfers directly supplying the zone. Distribution systems are designed to maintain an operating pressure at all service connections of at least 20 psi. The pressure is determined from user maximum hour demand or user average day demand 2
plus design fire flow, whichever is lower. Often users cannot meet the 20 psi requirement and water suppliers may furnish a service to a user which does not comply with a user's agreement in writing. Also, expensive hydropneumatic pumps can be used to get 20 psi to individual properties. Water mains must be designed to have at least 5 psi pressure throughout mainly to prevent bacterial growth in the distribution system.
Basic Design Requirements for Distribution Reservoirs • • Distribution reservoirs must be covered. Vents, overflows, drain outlets and other reservoir openings must be located and constructed to protect the water stored in the reservoir from contamination. To help prevent contamination, vents and overflows must be screened and vents must not open upward. • • • • • Overflows must be large enough to dispose of reservoir overflow rates equal to the maximum reservoir filling rate Provisions must be made to facilitate removal of floating material from the free water surface and for dewatering the reservoir. Outlets must minimize movement of sediment from the reservoir floor to the distribution system water mains by being located near the top of the reservoir. Provisions must be made for isolating reservoirs and appurtenant facilities from the distribution system. Sites must not be used for non-water works purposes that would: o Result in unrestricted public access o Create a contamination hazard • Reservoirs must be disinfected and sampled once a month for bacteriological quality in accordance with AWWA procedures.
Water Main Characteristics and Requirements Layout of Water Mains Water mains should be laid out only in segmented grids and loops and should be located within streets. A segmented grid system minimizes the effect of water main breaks by allowing the break to be isolated. Dead-end water mains should only be installed if: 3
Looping or gridding is impractical due to topography, geology, pressure zone boundaries, unavailability of easements or locations of users; or The main is to be extended in the near future and the planned extension will eliminate the dead-end conditions.
Minimum Diameter and Length of Water Mains • • • Water mains shall have a nominal inside diameter of at least 4 inches. Dead-end water mains exceeding 1,000 feet in length shall be constructed of pipe with a nominal inside diameter of at least 6 inches. Dead-end water mains exceeding 2,000 feet in length shall be constructed of pipe with a nominal inside diameter of at least 8 inches. Installation Requirements for Water Mains Water mains must be installed below the frostline or be protected from freezing. Also there must be at least 30 inches of cover over the top of the pipe. Typically water mains are about 4 to 5 feet below streets. Water mains must be installed at least: • • • Ten feet horizontally from and 1 foot higher than sanitary sewers located parallel to the main. One foot higher than sanitary sewers crossing the main. Ten feet and preferably 25 feet, horizontally from sewage leach fields, cesspools, seepage pits and septic tanks. Lesser separation than the required separation is permissible if contamination of the water in the main by sewer leakage is prevented by proper construction and installation, and adequate separation. Water mains must be disinfected before being placed in service.
Air and Vacuum Relief and Air Release Valves for Water Mains Vent openings for air and vacuum relief and air release valves must be: • • Extended at least one foot above grade and above maximum recorded high water. Provided with a screened, downward facing vent opening.
Where the requirements cannot be practicably met, vent openings may be located in a subsurface chamber or pit under the following conditions: • The pit is adequately drained to prevent bacterial growth. 4
The pit drain is not connected by pipe or other closed conduit to a sewer or storm drain without an air gap separation.
Requirements for other Appurtenances • Water main joints must be able to withstand the same working pressures for which the water main is designed. Jute, an old material used, must not be used as back up gasket material. • • • Fire hydrant laterals must be provided with shut off valves. Flushing valves and blowoffs must be installed at the end of each dead-end water main. Blowoffs are located at the bottom of a water line. Flushing systems must be designed to be able to handle a maximum flow velocity of at least 5 ft/s.
Distribution system components (Troubleshooting Guide)
Figure 1: A typical SWS distribution system (Troubleshooting Guide p. 1-1)
Valves The most common valves are gate valves, butterfly valves, and globe valves (see Figure 2). Gate valves and butterfly valves are types of shut off valves, which completely stop the flow of water automatically or intentionally. The gate valve is preferred and used more commonly than the butterfly valve. Globe valves are capable of controlling the flow rate as well as shutting off all water flow. However, they are typically expensive relative to shut off valves.
Figure 2: Commonly used distribution system valves (Troubleshooting Guide p. 6-3) Valve Type Description Swing Swing check Check Valve valves keep pressure in the water system even if pumps fail or are shut off. Diagram of Valve
Air Release Valve
Air release valves have a vent to release air and operate very similar to a toilet in reverse.
Double Double check Check Valve valves are used to prevent backflow, but are not used commonly and do not perform as well as other backflow prevention devices.
Pressure Regulating Valve
Pressure Reducing Valve
Pressure regulating valves are used to change a given pressure to a desired pressure in a water system. They are commonly used for gravity flow systems to minimize pressure and pipe size. Altitude valves are used to close a storage tank when a certain set point or altitude is reached. The pump to the storage tank also shuts off at this time. An accompanying check valve allows water to be fed to the system by gravity when demanded. Pressure reducing valves are typically required for water systems where the municipal water mains exceed 80 psi of pressure. Higher pressures could rupture pipes, damage fixtures, and injure the people using them. Table 1: Less commonly used distribution system valves (Troubleshooting Guide)
Water meters Water meters are used to measure total flow and water use of a water system. Also water meters are often placed at individual users to measure water consumption. As water meters get older there is slower rotation of the disk which measures water flow. Typically, water systems
are very interested in updating water meters to get the fastest disk rotation and more revenue from users.
Figure 3: Example of a Water Meter (Troubleshooting Guide p. 3-11)
Water pipe couplings Pipe couplings are used to connect two pieces of pipe or to repair a water pipe. Different sized pipe can be connected using certain pipe couplings. To repair pipe, couplings can also to be used to cover cracks or small openings. A saddle is used for small cracks such as in concrete and a clamp is used for bigger cracks (see Figure 4).
Figure 4: Pipe couplings – Same sized pipe connector (left); Saddle (center); Clamp (right)
Field locking pipe gasket bells and spigots Field locking gaskets are commonly used to restrain joints at high stress points along the distribution system. Restraining joints are particularly important in areas susceptible to earthquakes.
Figure 5: Field lock gasket
Service lateral design The water system is responsible for the installation and maintenance of the service lateral pipe, which is shown below. The user is responsible for and owns the pipe after the water meter to the user.
Figure 6: Typical design of a service lateral (Troubleshooting Guide p. 6-2)
Backflow prevention devices To prevent backflow from a storage tank, the inlet should be separated at least twice the pipe diameter from the opening of the storage tank (see Figure 7).
Figure 7: Diagram of a backflow prevention device at a storage tank inlet 40 (Troubleshooting Guide p. 7-2)
Reduced pressure zone (RPZ) backflow preventer RPZ backflow preventers use mechanical air to help insure there is no backflow. They are often required for factories, schools, parks, and irrigation where standards are more stringent, but also can be used for households. 9
Figure 8: Diagram of a RPZ backflow preventer 40 (Troubleshooting Guide p. 7-4)
Tanks and other Storage Storage tanks can either be on the ground or elevated (see Figure 9). Elevated storage tanks which are often called water towers allow for gravity flow when there is no natural elevation. However there are added structural risks in using elevated storage tanks, especially in areas susceptible to earthquakes such as California. Ground storage tanks are used most commonly because they are more reliable and cheaper. Most water towers are used in the Midwest where it is flat and earthquakes are rare.
Figure 9: Storage tanks on the ground and elevated
Ground storage tanks contain many components that play key roles in its operation (see Figure 6). It is essential for the diameter of the air vent to be at least four times greater than the water outlet diameter. This prevents a vacuum from forming in the tank that can cause implosion. Ninety percent of tanks have a common inlet and outlet pipe, which is not recommended because separate inlet and outlet pipes promote good water circulation.
Figure 6: Storage tank example with labeled components
Hydropneumatic tanks (see Figure 7) are generally smaller than storage tanks and are placed to after the water pump and before the water grid.
Figure 7: Diagram of typical hydropneumatic tank system 40 (Troubleshooting Guide p. 5-3)
A cistern (see Figure 8) is a reservoir of water usually placed underground for structural security and to lower cost. Cisterns are mainly used in developing or foreign countries and are good in wet or tropical areas to harvest rainwater.
Figure 8: Diagram of typical cistern
Pumps Positive displacement pumps are mainly used to feed chemicals into the water system, because they insure that no back flow will occur. The peristaltic positive displacement pump (see Figure 9) has a hefty suction lift that can achieve 200 psi.
Figure 9: Two types of positive displacement pumps 40 (Troubleshooting Guide p. 4-2)
Vertical turbine can pumps are the most commonly used pumps in distribution systems. They are mainly used in booster stations to lift water to reservoirs and storage tanks. In a vertical turbine can pump, a combination of pump bowls and centrifugal pumps are used for high or low lift applications.
Figure 10: Vertical turbine can pump
Horizontal centrifugal pumps are typically used for low pressure applications and are not as common as vertical turbine can pumps. Multiple stage versions are available for higher pressure applications. The horizontal centrifugal pump acts as a 2-way pump without a check valve. Generally the split case horizontal centrifugal pump (see Figure 11) is not recommended because the design is hard on the bearings.
Figure 11: Close coupled (left) 41 and split case (right) 42 horizontal centrifugal pumps (Maintaining Irrigation Pumps) and (Irrigation Water Management)
Fire hydrants Dry barrel hydrants are the most common fire hydrants and get their name because water is drained from the hydrant barrel after every use (see Figure 12). There are smaller hydrants called blow off hydrants that are not suitable for fire use and are generally used in low water use areas.
Figure 12: Types of dry barrel hydrants 40 (Troubleshooting Guide p. 6-4)
Distribution System Design
Typical Layout of a SWS Distribution System Well pumps and pump stations bring water to storage tanks. Storage is placed at a higher elevation than the elevation of the community in order to utilize gravity flow. Pressure change can be related to elevation change with the value 0.433 psi/ft. Hydropneumatic tanks are typically used to adjust pressure to the 20 psi minimum. Besides a pressure regulating valve another option to minimize pressure is to use a storage tank with an altitude valve.
Figure 13: Example of a SWS distribution system design/layout showing changes in elevation
Example Calculation #1: Distribution System Pressure A storage tank is at an elevation of 350 feet and provides water to a community with a maximum elevation of 278 feet. Is a hydropneumatic tank required for this distribution system? • The storage tank must provide a minimum pressure of 20 psi to all users. Therefore user highest elevation in the community is chosen to determine the elevation difference
Elevation Change = 350 feet − 278 feet = 72 feet • Determine if the minimum pressure change is greater or equal to 20 psi
Minimum Pr essure Change = 0.433 psi / ft × 72 feet = 31.176 psi ≥ 20 psi
Therefore, a hydropneumatic tank is not required to raise the pressure for this system
Fire Hydrant Design
When designing a distribution system, proper fire hydrant design is essential for an adequate fire protection system. The design criteria for fire hydrants are highly dependent on local rules. Hydrant separation, hydrant sizing, and minimum hydrant flow are mainly set by city or county departments. There is generally 350 to 450 feet of separation between fire hydrants. Hydrant separation criteria can be dependent on fire flow requirements, number of hydrants, and distance from the street to the hydrant. Example Design Criteria: Hydrant sizing and minimum flow of Ventura County in California 43
(Fire Prevention Standard 14.5.3 p. 4)
Hydrant Type and Size.
o All new hydrants shall be 6 inch wet barrel. o A wharf head hydrant with a 4 inch riser and one 2 ½ inch outlet will be
acceptable in the following instances: For private on-site protection of one or two single-family homes when only 500 gpm fire flow is required. For remote residential projects with tanks, when approved. • Minimum Flow per Hydrant.
o 1) Single Family Dwelling (SFD), 1000 gpm. o 2) Multi family and Commercial, 1250 gpm. o 3) Industrial, 1500 gpm. 15
These standards can be seen as typical criteria to follow when designing fire hydrants for a distribution system.
Maintenance of a distribution system is required to insure public safety, lower overall costs, and maximize the lifetime of distribution system components. The three main maintenance tasks are valve exercising, flushing pipelines, and storage tank inspections. Below are benefits and suggested frequency of occurrence for each task:
Benefits Suggested Frequency Annually Improves reliability Familiarizes crews with valve location Identifies inoperable valves Locates obstructed valve boxes Ensures isolation of distribution system sections when necessary Flushing pipelines Annually for all piping. More • Removes aged water from the pipeline often in areas with water • Reduces buildup of biofilms and quality issues (e.g. dead ends) sediments • Restores disinfectant residual Storage tank inspections Daily or weekly for vandalism. • Detects vandalism Annually for other items. • Identifies defects • Ensures that access hatches are locked • Ensures that vents, overflows, and drains are screened Table 2: Maintenance frequency and benefits for common distribution system tasks • • • • • Task Valve exercising
The general rule when applying all storage calculations and estimates is to have at least one maximum day of storage. For SWSs, storage volume is usually dictated by fire protection requirements and not by community water use. The storage volume should never be smaller than one maximum day of water use. One way to estimate storage is to use charts that relate water needs to water system size (see Figure 14 and 15). Alternatively, the following correlations can be used to calculate average day demand, maximum day demand, and peak hourly demand from rainfall data:
8000 + 200 AAR MDD = 2 × ADD MDD PHD = × (C × N + F ) + 18 1440 ADD = ADD = Average day demand in gallons per day/ERU
AAR = Average annual rainfall in inches/year MDD = Maximum daily demand in gpd/ERU PHD = Peak hourly demand in gpm C = Coefficient associated with range of N N = Number of service connections or Equivalent residential units (ERUs) F = Factor associated with range of N The values for the coefficients C, N, and F are in table 3.
Range of N (ERUs) 15 - 50 51 - 100 101 - 250 251 - 500 > 500 C 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.8 1.6 F 0 25 75 125 225
Table 3: N, C, and F coefficient values for ADD, MDD and PHD calculations 44 (Water System Design Manual ch. 5 and 9)
Storage volume calculations can also be made from water use estimates for various facilities that are served by the water system. The water use estimates are added together to determine the maximum daily use. Water use estimates can be highly detailed and may include specific facilities such as a livestock farm, country club, or laundry mat.
Figure 14: Maximum day demand vs. service connections
Figure 15: Needed storage vs. service connections
Example Calculation #2: Estimating and Designing Storage A SWS has 38 service connections or ERUs, average annual rainfall of 25 inches, and a maximum average monthly air temperature of 70oF. What should be the water storage requirement for this SWS? • Use the ADD and MDD equations to calculate water storage requirement and use the graphs from Figure 15 to estimate water storage requirement
8000 8000 + 20 = + 20 = 340 gpd / ERU AAR 25 MDD = 2 × ADD = 2 × 340 gpd / ERU = 680 gpd / ERU One max day of storage = 680 gpd / ERU × 38 ERU = 25,840 gallons ADD = Estimated storage from graph ≈ 35,000 gallons • To be conservative, the higher estimate should be used and storage should be atleast 35,000 gallons. For a SWS, the fire flow should be considered and must be met. For example, if the fire flow requirement is 1000 gpm for 1 hour the required storage would be 60,000 gallons.
Below are the calculations for PHD and maximum day demand, which may be used for further design.
MDD 680 × (C × N + F ) + 18 = × (3.0 × 38 + 0) + 18 = 71.83 gpm 1440 1440
Maximum day demand from graph ≈ 55 gpm
Pump Calculations 45
When operating a pump, the main cost is for the power to run the pump. To calculate the power use and estimate the cost of operating a pump the following equations are used: Q× H WHp = 3960 Q× H BHp = 100 × 3960 × n
WHp = Work horsepower (in hp) BHp = Brake horsepower (in hp) Q = Flow rate (in gpm) H = Elevation change (in feet) n = efficiency (in %) A pump’s power use is dependent on the flow rate that is pumped and the change in elevation the pump must transport the water. A typical pump efficiency is about 65%, but the vertical turbine can pump can have an efficiency of 80%. A pump efficiency curve or performance curve is usually used to determine the pump efficiency in the power use calculation (see Figure 16).
Figure 16: A typical pump efficiency curve 46 (Chilled Water Tips: Pumps [webpage] figure 95)
Example Calculation #3: Pump Power and Efficiency Water is to be pumped 85 gpm of flow for an elevation increase of 45 feet. For a pump with the efficiency curve in Figure 16, what are the WHp and BHp requirements for pumping the water? • Determine the pump efficiency or value for n from the efficiency curve in Figure 16 by using 85 gpm for the x-axis and 45 feet for the y-axis Pump Efficiency ≈ 67% or n ≈ 67 Use the power use equations to determine the WHp and BHp requirements Q × H 85 gpm × 45 feet WHp = = = 0.966 hp 3960 3960 85 gpm × 45 feet Q× H BHp = 100 × = 1.44 hp = 100 × 3960 × 67 3960 × n •
Blending and Treatment Calculations
In distribution system design, calculations are required to compare the various blending and treatment options. When blending two water streams into one water stream, the basic equation used to determine the contaminant concentration and flow rate of each stream is:
Q12 × C12 = Q1 × C1 + Q2 × C 2
Q1 = flow rate of stream 1 C1 = contaminant concentration of stream 1 Q2 = flow rate of stream 2 C2 = contaminant concentration of stream 2 Q12 = flow rate of combined stream C12 = contaminant concentration of combined stream The equation can be easily altered to accommodate for three or more streams. The streams used in the equation can either be water sources or treated water to compare different water system options. For multiple water sources, blending calculations can be performed and for individual water sources sidestream treatment calculations can be performed. Even with two unknown values in the equation, a calculation can be performed if the two variables can be related like in the following example. Example Calculation #4: Blending The diagram below shows two flows from wells that are blended to go to treatment/storage. From the information given determine the flow rate from well 2 and the flow rate of the combined stream. 20
Since there are two unknown variables in this problem, two equations are required to solve. The blending equation and a simple addition of flows equation should be used.
Q12 = Q1 + Q2
Q12 × C12 = Q1 × C1 + Q2 × C 2
Manipulate the equations to solve for one of the unknown variables, Q12 or Q2
(Q1 + Q2 ) × C12 = Q1 × C1 + Q2 × C 2
Q1 × C12 + Q2 × C12 = Q1 × C1 + Q2 × C 2 Q2 × (C12 − C 2 ) = Q1 × C1 − Q1 × C12 Q2 = Q2 = • Q1 × C1 − Q1 × C12 C12 − C 2 50 gpm × 0.015 mg / L − 50 gpm × 0.008 mg / L = 116.7 gpm 0.008 mg / L − 0.005 mg / L Determine Q12 using the addition of flows equation
Q12 = Q1 + Q2 = 50 gpm + 116.7 gpm = 166.7 gpm
Pipeline Hydraulics 45
To determine and design appropriate velocities, pressures, and flow rates in a distribution system, understanding of pipeline hydraulics is required. Here are some typical values involved with pipeline hydraulics: Average pipe flow velocity = 5 fps Maximum pipe flow velocity = 10 fps Normal pressure = 40 to 80 psi Preferred fire flow = 1500 gpm Minimum main size = 4 inches
The flow equation is used to relate the flow rate and velocity in a pipe and is the most basic pipeline hydraulic equation: Flow Rate = Area × Velocity Area = cross sectional area of pipe Velocity = water velocity in pipe The flow equation can be modified to calculate flow rate in and out of a storage tank:
Flow Rate =
(L1 − L2 ) × Area
L1 = initial height of water in storage tank L2 = final height of water in storage tank Area = cross sectional area of storage tank Time = period between initial and final water heights The experimentally-based Hazen-Williams equations are used to calculate velocity and flow in a pipe based on relative roughness of the pipe and slope of the energy line: V = k × C × R 0.63 × S 0.54 Q = 0.432 × C × D 2.63 × S 0.54 [english units] Q = 0.278 × C × D 2.63 × S 0.54 [metric units] V = velocity C = Hazen-Williams factor for relative roughness R = hydraulic radius S = slope of the energy line = hf/L (hf = head loss and L=length of pipe) D = diameter k = “conversion” factor for unit system (k = 0.849 for units of m/sec and k = 1.318 for units of ft/sec) These equations are used to determine whether the velocity or head loss in a pipe are out of their reasonable ranges. Example Calculation #5: Pipeline Sizing What is the velocity in a 6-inch pipeline at the inlet of a storage tank if: The water level in the tank rose 3 feet in 1,800 seconds (30 minutes) The storage tank is 20 feet diameter • Determine the cross sectional area of the storage tank
⎛ 20 feet ⎞ 2 Cross Sectional Area = π × r = π × ⎜ ⎟ = 314.16 ft ⎝ 2 ⎠
Determine the volume of water entering the tank in 1800 seconds
Volume = h × Area = 3 feet × 314.16 ft 2 = 942.5 ft 3 • Q= Determine the flow rate
Volume 942.5 ft 3 = = 0.5236 ft 3 / sec time 1800 sec Determine the velocity in the 6-inch or 0.5-ft pipeline using the velocity equation Flow Rate Q 0.5236 ft 3 / sec = 2.67 ft / sec = = 2 Area π ×r2 ⎛ 0.5 ft ⎞ π ×⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Example Calculation #6: Pipeline Hydraulics
Determine the head loss in a 1000-m pipeline with a diameter of 500 mm that is discharging 0.25 m3/sec. Assume that the Hazen-Williams coefficient for the pipe equals 130. • Convert variables to appropriate units and pick appropriate pipeline hydraulics equation 1m = 0.5 m Q = 0.25 m 3 / sec C = 130 1000 mm
L = 1000 m D = 500 mm × Q = 0.278 × C × D 2.63 × S 0.54 •
(in metric units )
⎛ ⎞ 0.25 m 3 / sec ⎟ =⎜ 2.63 ⎟ ⎜ 0.278 × 130 × (0.5 m ) ⎝ ⎠
Pick the pipeline hydraulics equation in appropriate units and rearrange it to solve for S
Q ⎛ ⎞ S =⎜ 2.63 ⎟ ⎝ 0.278 × C × D ⎠
Use the equation for S to solve for head loss
h f = S × L = 0.00294 × 1000 m = 2.94 m
Troubleshooting Guide: For Small Ground Water Systems with Hypochlorination. 1999. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 11 Aug. 2008 <http://www.epa.gov/ OGWDW/dwa/pdfs/gw-tsg.pdf>. Maintaining Irrigation Pumps, Motors, and Engines. 2006. ATTRA – National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service 2009. <http://attra.ncat.org/attrapub/PDF/maintaining_pumps.pdf>. Irrigation Water Management: Training Manual No. 1 – Introduction to Irrigation. 1985. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. <http://www.fao.org/ docrep/R4082E/r4082e06.htm>. Fire Prevention Standard 14.5.3. January 2008. Ventura County Fire Department. 11 Aug. 2008 <http://fire.countyofventura.org/departmentservices/fireprevention/ standards/standardsPDF's/14_5_3.pdf>. Water System Design Manual. August 2001. Washington State Department of Health. 11 Aug. 2008 <http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/dw/publications/design.htm>. Hauser, Barbara A. Practical Hydraulics Handbook. 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC. 1996. Chilled Water Tips: Pumps. www.nanomagnetics.org. 2007. <http://www.nanomagnetics.org/chilledwatertips/pumps.php>.
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