CHANDIGARH COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE: CHANDIGARH Research Methodology –X My book of Architecture (research) by (Dhruv Mahajan, 06/06


Content Assignment No. 1 Assignment No. 2 Assignment No. 3 Assignment No. 4 Assignment No. 5 Assignment No. 6 Assignment No. 7



Assignment No. 1 Topic: Identify the possible research area in your topic of thesis giving general idea and

brief introduction.

What are the different topics, in your opinion, in which research could be conducted? Ans: My thesis topic is ‘Center for Sustainable Research and Design’. The purpose of this project is to promote and create awareness about sustainable architecture through exhibition spaces for general public and research facilities for professionals. The related topics on which research could be conducted are: 1. Current status of sustainable education and awareness in architecture. 2. Sustainable building materials module 3. Recycling and reuse module
Question 2:

How each topic will help the discipline and profession?
Write one or two paragraphs on each topic for possible directions of the research and expected possible outcomes and how it will add to knowledge of the discipline and profession. Describe the nature (basic or applied) of the research. 1. Current status of sustainable education and awareness in

architecture: Buildings have diverse effects on the environment during their entire life cycles. Although the tangible impacts are visible only after construction begins, decisions made on the drawing board have longterm environmental consequences. To achieve environmental sustainability in the building sector, it is crucial to educate architecture students and clients in environmental issues. (Applied Research) 2. Sustainable building materials module: Careful selection of environmentally sustainable building materials is the easiest way for architects to begin incorporating sustainable design principles in buildings. Traditionally, price has been the foremost consideration when comparing similar materials or materials designated for the same function. However, the “off-the-shelf” price of a building component represents only the manufacturing and transportation costs, not social or environmental costs. (Applied Research)
3. Recycling and reuse module:

” Safety and security in modern day Resorts” is a survey based topic and may require a questionnaire preparation and data collection from the sample of public or from the laboratory where experiments are conducted. (Applied Research) Assignment No. purpose & scope of different topics and research area? (Say. Question1: Select the one topic from your assignment number two and elaborate on the basic and applied nature of this particular topic. Write nature. This type research could lead to develop certain concepts. select two for further discussion in this assignment. (Say. for a students working in Safety and security in modern day Resorts. Current status of sustainable education and awareness in architecture: Nature: Survey oriented as well as investigative research Purpose: To promote sustainable architecture and to eradicate any shortcomings in the educational curriculum. Scope: This kind of research can be helpful in developing an architectural education system where sustainability can be an important part of.) Basic research (also called fundamental or pure research) has as its primary objective the advancement of knowledge and the theoretical understanding of the relations among . purpose & scope of research area in your topic of thesis Question1: From the topics elaborated for assignment one. 2.Research about recycling and reuse of materials can help in reducing production costs and help in waste management. Purpose: To improve existing and develop new materials to help in reducing the running cost as well as the embodied energy of the materials. Ans: 1. where as topics like safety in public places could be the applied research topic. could find the “concepts/Ideas in safety” as a basic research topic. which could useful tool for developing new design solutions (scope) In contrast. 3 Topic: Differentiate between basic and applied research areas available in relation to your topic of thesis. Sustainable building materials module: Nature: Study based research regarding the material properties and energy. Scope: Can be helpful in developing new typology of materials and production techniques. Assignment No. “Historically significant resorts” is a historically investigative topic (Nature) and may be essential to understand the various approaches tried in the past and will be essential for the deeper understanding of the resorts (Purpose). 2 Topic: Elaborate on the nature.

commercial. lower embodied energy. knowledge. often state. 4 Topic: Identify the Technical and behavioral . and supporting educational resources. assess the current status of research. although it may have unexpected results pointing to practical applications. (Say. It is conducted without any practical end in mind. 2. appropriate pedagogical models. In the development process. survey architectural educators in India (COA) Assignment No. compile information on new materials and products that enhance environmental sustainability (lower toxicity. and higher energy efficiency). for a specific.oriented research topics in your thesis. or client driven purpose.oriented research of this particular topic. and intuition. Choose the . Applied Research: Carrying out surveys and finding shortcomings in the present education system regarding sustainable architecture. interest. The terms “basic” or “fundamental” indicate that.variables (see statistics). It is exploratory and often driven by the researcher’s curiosity. development. An experimental data could lead to technical research whereas questionnaire could lead to behavioral research) Ans: 1. and design activities in this area. Assess the current status of research.higher recycled material content. I will: 1. and techniques. basic research provides the foundation for further. through theory generation. Question1: Select the one topic from your assignment number three and elaborate on the Technical and behavioral . sometimes applied research Applied research: is research accessing and using some part of the research communities' (the academy's) accumulated theories. I have developed this compendium specifically for teaching environmental Sustainability and pollution prevention in architecture. methods. and design activities in this area: Survey architecture educators to determine the current extent of environmental education in the field. 3. Ans: Current status of sustainable education and awareness in architecture: Basic Research: Studying the present education patterns and curriculums. Ans: To provide a framework. Question 2: Write one or two paragraphs on each topic for possible directions of the nature ( basic or applied) of the research. development.

.oriented research. Evaluating these consequences is difficult.” We shall evaluate each criterion’s relevance to sustainable design. 3. then delete or change that part of the document. lower embodied energy. Question 2: Write one or two paragraphs on each topic Technical and behavioral . 2. if not impossible. which are practically feasible and everything about the document should contribute to this goal. which can vary greatly from one brand to the next. Technical Oriented Research: The goal of technical writing is clarity. we need to survey building product manufacturers.architecture schools and environmental technology departments from members of the Council of Architecture. you cannot effectively achieve it. This rule also indicates that you should know exactly what points your document intends to make. higher recycled material content. Compile information on new materials and products that enhance environmental sustainability (lower toxicity. Survey architectural educators in India (COA): To evaluate the minimum educational requirements for environmental issues and sustainable design in architecture. and the processes used by manufacturers. and ultimate reuse or disposal — is associated with a range of environmental consequences. if you don't know the purpose. And hence a questionnaire shall be prepared for technical data. These minimal acceptable standards for an architectural education define three levels of educational objectives: going from lowest to highest. Knowledge of the material itself is not enough: the architect must know the source of the raw material. the methods of obtaining it. understanding and viability: the purpose is to communicate specific new ideas. and higher energy efficiency): Each step of the manufacturing process — gathering and refining raw materials. they are “awareness. concept or visions.” and “ability. we have to review the criteria used by the COA certifying schools of architecture in India. This will help us in technical research. If any part of the document does not do so.” “understanding. To assess the current status of sustainable building materials. installation. Send them one-page questionnaire to sought the status of environmental education in terms of the quantity and intensity of courses dealing with sustainability and the types of educational materials used in these courses.

and design activities in this area. 4. your opinion. i. 2. supporting points and a clear conclusion. simulation or measurements. A paper should focus on • • • describing the results in sufficient detail to establish their validity. A theory: consisting of a collection of theorems. 3.. A performance evaluation: obtained through analyses. Ans: 1.higher recycled material content. survey architectural educators in India (COA) . An algorithm. assess the current status of research. 3.e. and higher energy efficiency). Behavioral Oriented Research: Assignment No. compile information on new materials and products that enhance environmental sustainability (lower toxicity. 2. There are four types of technical results: 1. development. Question1: What are the different topics. A system construct: such as hardware design.A good technical research paper has a comprehensible statement of purpose.. software system. identifying the significance of the results: what improvements and impact do they suggest. lower embodied energy. etc. in which in research could be conducted? Select one topic and prepare a write up for it. what new knowledge is reported and what makes it non-obvious. protocol. The goal of a paper is to describe novel technical results. identifying the novel aspects of the results. 5 Topic: Design a questionnaire for getting a feedback from Public/Expert on an architectural project/Case study related to your thesis topic. It describes what has been done before about the main issue and what is new.

installation. and higher energy efficiency): Each step of the manufacturing process — gathering and refining raw materials. which can vary greatly from one brand to the next.Compile information on new materials and products that enhance environmental sustainability (lower toxicity. However. Objective for the Topic. and ultimate reuse or disposal — is associated with a range of environmental consequences. and the processes used by manufacturers. Question 2: The whole process will involve following stages: Evolve Purpose. higher recycled material content. we need to survey building product manufacturers. Knowledge of the material itself is not enough: the architect must know the source of the raw material. Research Statergy: The use of environmentally friendly building materials is the simplest step for achieving environmental sustainability in architecture. Ans: Purpose: assess the current status of sustainable building materials Objective: To assess the Current status of sustainable education and awareness in architecture. And hence a questionnaire shall be prepared for technical data. Develop a hypothesis Design a research strategy Collect Data: Secondary data through literature and case study Primary data through experiments and questionnaires Draw conclusion. Hypothesis: Good awareness and knowledge about sustainable materials will lead to sound sustainable architecture. if not impossible. “What attributes make a building material or product environmentally sustainable?” . Evaluating these consequences is difficult. lower embodied energy. architects cannot use such materials unless they can get answers to these questions: 1. To assess the current status of sustainable building materials. the methods of obtaining it.

“Where can designers find the information on sustainable building materials?” To assess the current status of sustainable building materials. “How can the environmental sustainability of a building material or product be measured?” 3.2. The presence of one or more of these features can assist in determining a building material’s relative sustainability. i will survey building product manufacturers and use collected data to come up to a conclusion. based on the building material life cycle.or Less-Toxic Materials • Renewable Energy Systems • Longer Life POST-BUILDING PHASE: DISPOSAL • Biodegradability • Recyclability • Reusability . PRE-BUILDING PHASE: MANUFACTURE • Waste Reduction • Pollution Prevention • Recycled Content • Embodied Energy Reduction • Use of Natural Materials BUILDING PHASE: USE • Energy Efficiency • Water Treatment/Conservation • Use of Non. Collected Data: Criteria for Sustainable Building Materials and Products We identified three groups of criteria. that can be used for evaluating environmental sustainability of building materials.

The State of Michigan recently repealed its energy efficiency requirements for new homes. and non.The results of the survey show a concentration of products featuring the waste reduction (56).2 These are also the most “conventional” areas of research and development in sustainable building materials. citing the additional upfront cost as a burden to potential home owners. . or natural materials (13). embodied energy reduction (19). energy efficiency (67).or less-toxic (57) criteria. The sources for the manufacturers surveyed were lists potentially biased toward these types of products. The energy crises of the 1970s seem to have been forgotten. by the public and the government. Few products featured renewable energy systems (5). recycled content (67). This may be due to several factors.

enclose additional information on buildings. more emphasis needs to be placed on a building material’s “afterlife. This is the least considered phase of architecture. In addition. as new products are being released daily. Question 2: Educational materials used: Home work/Lab exercise/Visual Aids Question 3: “Are specific buildings used as case studies in the course? Do field trips include visits to any buildings illustrating concepts of sustainability? List all types and. By designing products (and buildings) for disassembly and reuse.” which should be considered at the very beginning of the design and selection process. create a questionnaire for distribution to the target group. perhaps in an electronic format or online. and reduce waste and pollution from the manufacturing process. much more efficient use can be made of our limited natural resources.The low number of products with Post-Building phase features (33 total) could be expected. The responses also suggest the need for an industry standard and outside audit of “environmentally friendly” materials. a more current directory of sustainable building materials and manufacturers would be desirable. However. because most architects like to think that their buildings will stand forever.or non-toxic components. Question 3: Select the one topic from your assignment number one from the write up. • For Educational Institutes: Question 1: Currently offered courses related to environmental sustainability. utilize recycled material. have low.” Question 4: “Does your institution possess any unique facilities that demonstrate environmental properties?” . if possible. Conclusion: The survey results suggest that some positive gains have been made in producing building materials that are energy efficient.

or special courses offered by your institution relating to sustainability and pollution prevention.” Question 6: “List seminars. professional development series.Question 5: “List textbooks and readings assigned to the course(s).” • Building Product Manufacturers Survey Sample Form Sheet . conferences.



• COA Accreditation Review: .



A new illness (Disease B) has arisen that mimics some symptoms of Disease A. The interpretation of data. While this is . you are ready to test it. but with variation (such as the patient with Disease B has swollen lymph nodes and a low grade fever instead of no swelling and a high grade fever). Question1: What is scientific method of conducting research? What are the different stages involved in it? Ans: The scientific method is the means by which researchers are able to make conclusive statements about their studies with a minimum of bias. you reason that the same drug should be effective. You know that Drug A will wipe out Disease A. Now that you have a hypothesis.Identify the role of science and scientific methods in your thesis topic. Your hypothesis is that the cause of Disease A and Disease B is the same virus. This is based on observed phenomena that is either directly or indirectly related to the specific subject matter of your proposed research. you may have observed that Drug A is effective in treating an illness (Disease A) caused my Virus A. In order to minimize the influence of personal stakes and biased opinions. The researcher often has a personal stakes in the results of his work. can be laden with bias. Outbreaks of Disease B occur near outbreaks of Disease A. You must now use your hypothesis to predict other phenomena that have not yet been observed. The researcher often has a personal stakes in the results of his work.Assignment No. For example. The interpretation of data. How does the Scientific Method Work? The first step to using the scientific method is to have some basis for conducting your research. What is the purpose of the Scientific Method? The scientific method is the means by which researchers are able to make conclusive statements about their studies with a minimum of bias. The next step is to form a hypothesis to explain some aspect of your observations. for example the result of a new drug study. Remember. You can only fail to disprove it. As any skilled debater knows. These are the observations you make in your first step of using the Scientific Method. just about any opinion can be justified and presented as fact. The final step of the scientific method is to rigorously test your prediction. You speculate that the virus that causes Disease B is either Virus A or it is related to Virus A. 6 Topic: Science and scientific method . a standard method of testing a hypothesis is expected to be used by all members of the scientific community. you cannot "prove" your hypothesis. for example the result of a new drug study. can be laden with bias. If Disease B is caused by the same virus.

The scientific method requires a hypothesis to be eliminated if experiments repeatedly contradict predictions. even though a good debater may be quite convincing as he conveys the merits of his theory. which have undergone rigorous tests and have never been disproved. It represents a belief that a researcher possesses before conducting a satisfactory number of experiments that could potentially disprove that belief. You test your hypothesis by opening the container of milk and smelling it. A hypothesis brought about by common observations or common sense does not have scientific validity. they have very distinct connotations in the scientific community. You find that the milk doesn't smell sour after all. an investigation of the raw data from an experiment is always a good idea. There is no set number of tests or a set length of time in which a hypothesis can become a theory or a law. you open your refrigerator at home and are greeted with a horrible sour smell. it is only as good as it's ability to consistently predict experimental results. A hypothesis becomes a theory or law when it is the general consensus of the scientific community that it should be so. If a theory does not allow for predictions and experimental research to confirm these predictions. and a theory or law. A theory or law in the world of science is a hypothesis. Researchers sometimes toss out data that does not support their hypothesis. For example. A hypothesis is a 'small' cause and effect statement about a specific set of circumstances. so you must come up with another hypothesis (maybe it is the leftover lasagna from last week!). it is also the basis of creating theories and laws. Misapplications of the Scientific Method A common error encountered by people who claim to use the scientific method is a lack of testing. No matter how great a hypothesis example of how the scientific method is used in everyday research and hypothesis testing. It is based on the phenomena your are observing right now (sour smell) as well as knowledge from past experience (bad milk has a sour smell). Although the purpose of the scientific method is to eliminate researcher bias. What is a Hypothesis? It is important to distinguish between a hypothesis. people sometimes use these terms interchangeably. It should also be noted that a theory or hypothesis is not meaningful if it is not quantitative and testable. Although in everyday language. This is your hypothesis. As stated above. than it is not a scientific theory. or many hypotheses. logical arguments are not an acceptable replacement for experimental testing. You decide that the milk must have gone bad. . Theories and laws are not as easily discarded as hypotheses.

articles. Other times. Your question should be specific. You may need to gather more information before you decide on your final question. and the general public. etc. computer databases) to gather the information I need? Where will I conduct this research? Where are the organisms or events I want to study? What resources are available to me--time. ask yourself: What do I know about my topic? What additional information would help me? How can I use different sources of information (experts. the better research question you can ask. We are all familiar with "breaking news" (that seems to break nearly every day!) about a new miracle drug or herbal remedy. The more information you have. Forming a Hypothesis/Hypotheses:This step helps you answer the question: What do I expect to find once I’ve conducted my research? Locating Resources/Gathering Information & Materials: This step helps you to become smarter about the topic you are researching and how you can research it. facilities. Look for multiple sources to confirm a hypothesis before you hand your money over for a new product. it is sometimes done because the researcher so passionately believes in his hypothesis that he assumes unsupportive data must have been obtained in error. books. independent experiments. You may have three different lab reports. people. money. In most cases. outside forces (such as the corporation sponsoring and conducting the research) may put extreme pressure on the researcher to get specific results. If possible.This isn't necessarily done with the intent of deception. this "breaking news" was released by a single source--usually a source with financial stakes in the new miracle. equipment.? Planning the Research/Developing Data Collection Methods: This step involves making a very specific plan about how you will conduct your . all confirming that Drug A is the most effective cure. also try to discover where the funding came from in these experiments. To help you gather information. to deal with these errors is to promote multiple. Defining the Question: This step involves narrowing possible topics and then choosing the question to be the focus of your research. The best way for the scientific community. but if all three laboratories are funded by the same drug company-you may want to raise an eyebrow.

research and collect your data. line graphs. journal) will I use? Are my data collection techniques organizedand thorough? Are there sequential steps to my research? If so. data sheet. including extremes or “oddball data” in my analysis? How might my sampling or data collection methods have affected these results? What answer do my results provide to my original question? How do my results compare to what I expected to happen (my hypothesis)? What can I conclude from my results? How do my conclusions affect the community or “big picture” (implications)? Communicating the Results: Now it’s time to share your work. ask yourself: Am I recording all relevant data? Can I read and understand my notes? Am I keeping track of what I did at each step? Am I being objective in my data collection? Organizing & Analyzing the Data: This step gives you the chance to pull together the data you’ve collected and look at it more closely. tests. pie charts. Ask yourself: How will I organize and summarize the data I’ve collected? What do my data show? How should I present my data graphically so that others can see the results clearly? (e. tables. Ask yourself: What alternative hypotheses might explain these results? Am I considering all relevant data. When you collect the data. In the end. do I need to manipulate variables? How many (samples. what are they? How will I plan my time? Collecting Data: Be sure that you write down all of the information (data) that could affect the answer to your research question. Compare and contrast the information you’ve gathered to see the results of your research.) Are the results significant? Are there tests I might use to tell me if the results are significant? Interpreting the Data & Drawing Conclusions:In this step. Ask yourself: . ask yourself: How will I answer my research question/test my hypotheses? What data do I need to collect? How will I collect these data? What equipment or supplies do I need? Do I have a reference point (control) with which to compare my data? To answer my question. your procedure should be clear enough so that someone else could follow it exactly.g. etc. Decide what conclusions you can graphs.g. etc. To plan your research and develop your procedure. sites. stand back from your data and look at it more critically.) do I need? What record-keeping techniques (e.

Refer it properly and where in library you will find it. Question1: What is referencing and cataloging method of conducting research? Explain and give example of two books in your area of research and cataloging number in your field of study. The Future of life: Edward O. Sustainable Construction Details: Mark Hamburg 2. What is ISBN? Ans: ISBN: International Serial Book Number.An Armageddon is approaching at the beginning of the third millennium. It is a unique 13 digit number given to the book by its publishers. Write one or two paragraphs on each topic. Wilson Question 2: Find and quote one of the most influencing article or book or write up which has shaped your architectural thoughts. Ans: 1. oral or poster presentation. purpose of this research and why it is interesting or matters Description of methods used to collect data Results Conclusions What questions are raised by my research? How do others respond to my work? Question 2: Select the one topic from your assignment number one and elaborate on it . video. (Wilson 2002) Book: The Future of Life Author: Edward O. etc. Format: Write up on A4 size sheet about two to three pages. written report. Assignment No. Quote: Species of plants and animals are disappearing a hundred or more times faster than before the coming of humanity.) What visual aids will help my audience clearly understand this research? Have I addressed all of the following components of my research in my communication?: Introduction to question. 7 Topic: Method of referencing and cataloging used in architectural publications. and as many as half may be gone by the end of this century.Who is my audience? What is the best way to communicate to my audience? (e. It is the wreckage of the planet by an exuberantly plentiful and ingenious humanity.g. Wilson . But it is not the cosmic war and fiery collapse of mankind foretold in sacred scripture.

ISBN: 0078054246272 .

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