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Original Title: Orifice Equation

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Orifice Equation

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In 1843, Scientist and Mathematician Evangelista Torricelli proved that the flow of liquid through an opening is proportional to the square root of the

height of the liquid. Torricelli's Theorem (as it is now referred) can be mathematically stated as follows:

Q = A((2gZ)^0.5); where

Torricelli's equation can be derived from Bernoulli's theorem, which is mathematically expressed as:

Two points are selected in the tank shown above: (1) at the water surface and (2) at the orifice opening.

We can apply Bernoulli's equation to determine an equation for the velocity of the fluid coming out of the orifice opening.

0 (pressure at water surface) + Z (height of fluid) + 0 (velocity at the water surface) = 0 (pressure at the orifice - jet flow) + 0 (elevation at the orifice)

+ V2/2g

In rearranging the equation, we arrive at: V = (2gZ)^0.5); WE HAVE DERIVED TORRICELLI'S EQUATION!!!!

The form of Bernoulli's equation that we used to derive Torricelli's Equation neglected any minor or friction losses; We have modeled an IDEAL

FLUID FLOW (a fluid which experiences no friction). Scientists have used empirical data to model the flow of REAL FLUID (a fluid which

experiences friction) through an orifice. Depending on the shape and contour of the orifice, different discharge coefficients can be applied to

Torricelli's Equation to more accurately model the flow through an orifice. The following figure shows some common orifice shapes and their

respective discharge coefficients:

The java script shown below models the flow of fluid through a sharp edged orifice. The equations used in the script are as follows:

V = 0.61(2gZ)^0.5)

Q = 0.61A((2gZ)^0.5)

Enter different numbers into the height and cross sectional area boxes and see how the flow and velocity vary with the height of the fluid and cross

sectional area of the orifice!!!

Height:

Area:

Velocity:

Flow:

Calculate

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