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VISUAL TOOLS

et-Nick Studio

HYDRAULICS
ESSENTIALS OF CE

WATER ENGINEERING

OPEN CHANNEL
OPEN CHANNEL FRICTION FACTOR
Open or closed conduit which allows partial flow only. 64
1 f=
Re
BASIC FORMULA Reynold's no., Re
1. BERNOULI'S ENERGY EQUATION VD
4. MANNING'S EQUATION b. Channel bed slope, So d. Head loss,hl Re = ; =
" Law of conservation of Energy " - Energy lost due to pipe friction.
metric system So = S ; for Uniform Flow = VD ; circular pipes
= 1n R S
2/3 1/2 = EGL ( Energy Grade Line ) slope
V - Energy Gradient Line
lost energy - Head Loss Manning's headloss ,fluid density
= 1 R .R S
1/6 1/2 1/2
( friction )
V hl ,viscosity
n hl S= 10.29n2 L Q
2
,kinematic viscosity
added energy or L
( pump ) hl = 16/3
, in terms of discharge
4VR ; non-circular pipes
= c RS D =
V 1 h1
flow velocity, m/s channel bed slope 2 So =
So L c = 8g
2 2 2 2 2
V1 + P1 + Z + h P2 6.35 n2 LV
1 a = Z2 + + V2 + hl1-2 c = 1 R1/6
Hydraulic radius
L hl = , in terms of velocity
2
f
2g 2g n
; Manning's constant for Manning's Equation
( metric sytem ) channel bed D
4/3

c= 1 R
1/6
; Manning's
0.001245 L Q
2
n coeffecient
c = 1.486 R ; Manning's constant for Manning's Equation
1/6
Elevation head hl = , hl in concrete n = 0.11
- Elevation from sea level or any n D
4/3 0.3164
defined reference line ( level ) ( english sytem ) 3
f= ; Blasius

Pressure head c. Constant number, c Re1/4 formula

= 1.486
2/3 1/2
- defined by the Hydraulic Grade Line, HGL english system V n R S Manning's constant C
Velocity head Darcy-Weisbach's headloss ?
VALUES OF MANNING'S ROUGHNESS COEFFECIENT, n Metric system English system 2
1 = 1.14 - 29 log e +
- defined by the Energy Grade Line, EGL 0.0826 fLQ 4 9.35
c = 1R c = 1.486 R
1/6
Glass, plastic, machined metal 0.010 1/6
hl = , in terms of discharge f D Re f
Dressed timber with joints flushed 0.011 n n D
5
1 = 2 log 2.51
Sawn timber with uneven joints 0.014 f 3.7D + Re f
2 ; Colebrook formula
2. CONTINUITY FLOW FORMULA Plastered cement 0.011
hl = f
L V , in terms of velocity -relative roughness, see charts
Steel troweled concrete 0.012 Kutter's C D 2g
Q = AV Unfinished and timber-formed concrete 0.014 FRICTION FACTOR
Metric system f= 0.008 to 0.07
Velocity of flow Brickwork or dressed masonry 0.014 1 0.00155 1k
discharge, m 3/sec. Wetted area Rubble work set on cement
Smooth earth with no weeds
0.017 n + 23 + s n Hazen - Williams' headloss
Q 1 = Q 2 =... . . Q n
0.020 c = or c =
Stoned and weeded earth 0.025 n 0.00155 n 1.85
1+ 23 + 1+ k Q
Water supply and sewerage by McGhee R s R hl = 2.63
see pg.50 table 3-5 0.278cD L
3. CHEZY FORMULA k = 23 + 0.00155
s
English system Notations c - Hazen coeffecient
V = c RS parameters : 1.811 0.00281 1k Q - discharge g - gravity
n +
41.67 +
flow velocity, m/s channel bed slope, So s n
a. Hydraulic Radius, R c = or c = L - length of conduit n - roughness coeffecient
c, constant may be obtained from : So = S n 0.00281 n
- Ratio between the wetted Area and Perimeter
1+ 41.65 + 1+ k V - velocity of flow f - friction factor
= 1 R ; Manning's constant for Manning's Equation
1/6
= EGL ( Energy Grade Line ) slope
A R s R
n Kutter's C ;
- Energy Gradient Line
R = P wetted D - inside diameter ( circular conduits )
or wetted k = 41.65 + 0.00281
s
Bazin's C example : La = 0r ; radians
La , length of arc
2
Bazin's C Other minor losses
Awet = D (2 - 0 + sin0 )
8 Metric system
4. HAZEN - WILLIAM EQUATION r 0 r
Awetted = Acircle - Asegment c = 87 Headloss due to Contraction
2
Headloss due to Enlargement
2
d
hl = kc V hl = k e V
0.63 0.54 Pwet
V =kc R S 1+
0.552
m
wetted perimeter 2 2
R 2g 2g
flow velocity channel bed slope, D D - D(
0.849 m/s or 1.318 ft/s Hydraulic radius " inside diameter " 0 - sin0 ) roughness coeffecient
4 8 A
Headloss due to obstructions Headloss due to bends/curves
factor of relative roughness segment
2 2
Pwetted = Pcircle - La
hl = kg V hl = kb V
English system
r r
HAZEN - WILLIAM COEFFECIENTS FOR VARIOUS PIPE MATERIALS, c or
0
c = 157.6
Cast iron (new) 130 Asegment 2g 2g
Concrete 120 D - D0 r 0 r 1+
m
m where k is a function of changes in direction, obstructions, or changes in velocity. K is not
2 Asegment = Asector - Atriangle
Asector

R a friction factor, it can be determined by various formula ( see page 38 and App-2: Water Supply and
= D (2 - 0 )
La
Plastic 150 Pwet = 02 r2 - 12 r2 sin0 roughness coeffecient Sewerage by McGhee also translated as Table and Charts on this research ). K values are also furnished by
see pg. 32 Table 3-2
Asbestos cement 140 Water supply and sewerage by McGhee 2 recall: arc lenghts recall: segments valve or fitting suppliers.

2007
Q= 0.278 cD S
2.63 0.54
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