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et-Nick Studio

HYDRAULICS

ESSENTIALS OF CE

WATER ENGINEERING

OPEN CHANNEL

OPEN CHANNEL FRICTION FACTOR

Open or closed conduit which allows partial flow only. 64

1 f=

Re

BASIC FORMULA Reynold's no., Re

1. BERNOULI'S ENERGY EQUATION VD

4. MANNING'S EQUATION b. Channel bed slope, So d. Head loss,hl Re = ; =

" Law of conservation of Energy " - Energy lost due to pipe friction.

metric system So = S ; for Uniform Flow = VD ; circular pipes

= 1n R S

2/3 1/2 = EGL ( Energy Grade Line ) slope

V - Energy Gradient Line

lost energy - Head Loss Manning's headloss ,fluid density

= 1 R .R S

1/6 1/2 1/2

( friction )

V hl ,viscosity

n hl S= 10.29n2 L Q

2

,kinematic viscosity

added energy or L

( pump ) hl = 16/3

, in terms of discharge

4VR ; non-circular pipes

= c RS D =

V 1 h1

flow velocity, m/s channel bed slope 2 So =

So L c = 8g

2 2 2 2 2

V1 + P1 + Z + h P2 6.35 n2 LV

1 a = Z2 + + V2 + hl1-2 c = 1 R1/6

Hydraulic radius

L hl = , in terms of velocity

2

f

2g 2g n

; Manning's constant for Manning's Equation

( metric sytem ) channel bed D

4/3

c= 1 R

1/6

; Manning's

0.001245 L Q

2

n coeffecient

c = 1.486 R ; Manning's constant for Manning's Equation

1/6

Elevation head hl = , hl in concrete n = 0.11

- Elevation from sea level or any n D

4/3 0.3164

defined reference line ( level ) ( english sytem ) 3

f= ; Blasius

= 1.486

2/3 1/2

- defined by the Hydraulic Grade Line, HGL english system V n R S Manning's constant C

Velocity head Darcy-Weisbach's headloss ?

VALUES OF MANNING'S ROUGHNESS COEFFECIENT, n Metric system English system 2

1 = 1.14 - 29 log e +

- defined by the Energy Grade Line, EGL 0.0826 fLQ 4 9.35

c = 1R c = 1.486 R

1/6

Glass, plastic, machined metal 0.010 1/6

hl = , in terms of discharge f D Re f

Dressed timber with joints flushed 0.011 n n D

5

1 = 2 log 2.51

Sawn timber with uneven joints 0.014 f 3.7D + Re f

2 ; Colebrook formula

2. CONTINUITY FLOW FORMULA Plastered cement 0.011

hl = f

L V , in terms of velocity -relative roughness, see charts

Steel troweled concrete 0.012 Kutter's C D 2g

Q = AV Unfinished and timber-formed concrete 0.014 FRICTION FACTOR

Metric system f= 0.008 to 0.07

Velocity of flow Brickwork or dressed masonry 0.014 1 0.00155 1k

discharge, m 3/sec. Wetted area Rubble work set on cement

Smooth earth with no weeds

0.017 n + 23 + s n Hazen - Williams' headloss

Q 1 = Q 2 =... . . Q n

0.020 c = or c =

Stoned and weeded earth 0.025 n 0.00155 n 1.85

1+ 23 + 1+ k Q

Water supply and sewerage by McGhee R s R hl = 2.63

see pg.50 table 3-5 0.278cD L

3. CHEZY FORMULA k = 23 + 0.00155

s

English system Notations c - Hazen coeffecient

V = c RS parameters : 1.811 0.00281 1k Q - discharge g - gravity

n +

41.67 +

flow velocity, m/s channel bed slope, So s n

a. Hydraulic Radius, R c = or c = L - length of conduit n - roughness coeffecient

c, constant may be obtained from : So = S n 0.00281 n

- Ratio between the wetted Area and Perimeter

1+ 41.65 + 1+ k V - velocity of flow f - friction factor

= 1 R ; Manning's constant for Manning's Equation

1/6

= EGL ( Energy Grade Line ) slope

A R s R

n Kutter's C ;

- Energy Gradient Line

R = P wetted D - inside diameter ( circular conduits )

or wetted k = 41.65 + 0.00281

s

Bazin's C example : La = 0r ; radians

La , length of arc

2

Bazin's C Other minor losses

Awet = D (2 - 0 + sin0 )

8 Metric system

4. HAZEN - WILLIAM EQUATION r 0 r

Awetted = Acircle - Asegment c = 87 Headloss due to Contraction

2

Headloss due to Enlargement

2

d

hl = kc V hl = k e V

0.63 0.54 Pwet

V =kc R S 1+

0.552

m

wetted perimeter 2 2

R 2g 2g

flow velocity channel bed slope, D D - D(

0.849 m/s or 1.318 ft/s Hydraulic radius " inside diameter " 0 - sin0 ) roughness coeffecient

4 8 A

Headloss due to obstructions Headloss due to bends/curves

factor of relative roughness segment

2 2

Pwetted = Pcircle - La

hl = kg V hl = kb V

English system

r r

HAZEN - WILLIAM COEFFECIENTS FOR VARIOUS PIPE MATERIALS, c or

0

c = 157.6

Cast iron (new) 130 Asegment 2g 2g

Concrete 120 D - D0 r 0 r 1+

m

m where k is a function of changes in direction, obstructions, or changes in velocity. K is not

2 Asegment = Asector - Atriangle

Asector

R a friction factor, it can be determined by various formula ( see page 38 and App-2: Water Supply and

= D (2 - 0 )

La

Plastic 150 Pwet = 02 r2 - 12 r2 sin0 roughness coeffecient Sewerage by McGhee also translated as Table and Charts on this research ). K values are also furnished by

see pg. 32 Table 3-2

Asbestos cement 140 Water supply and sewerage by McGhee 2 recall: arc lenghts recall: segments valve or fitting suppliers.

2007

Q= 0.278 cD S

2.63 0.54

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