,

.

1'"e A,si8 foun[\alio

n

J01;lTIlalistcS'Safety:: Involving Media Owners Copy.r.igh~·' 2010 Fry the C~meJ!"for Media Pl\eedom aad Re'Sron~Lha~ty This monograpb i-sm~de possible by thegenerous So1JPpoort of the Ameri.cm people through (he Umred States Ag'e1lcy for International Developmem (lJSJl.ID)" The contents are the resptm~uhituty of lk Center {or Media Preedem and R.e-zpondbiliily aM do ]10l: necessarily re:tlecl views of USAID, the UIlited StatecSGOYe.rrunenI, or Tha Asia. Fcundaeicn,

ACKNOWLEDGEM,EN'TS
A grant from the United States Agency for International Developmern {USAID) through The Asia Foundation made this

publication possi hie.
and Luis V. T eodoro edited. tills monograph, Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility staff members Kathryn Roja G. Ra.ym1j]]}do~, M.elanie Y.Pinlac:~ Martha A. Teodoro, Rupert FrarucisD. ManglE t, Hector Bryan t L Macale, and Alaysa T <ligumpay E. Escandor provided research, initial reports, and. other editorial. support.
eS1IJS

me

Me:Hnd.aQuinws de

J

Ai] righrs reserved, No part of t1tic~monograph ~y bot reproduced rn. Jill'}' form or by ~ec~roruc or mechanical means, inclndingiafenaaticn ~{lrage:md retrieval systems, without pe rm]5'Sion in wri:~il!'lgrom the ptl~lisher, ~cep(c by a reviewer f who ~ quotebrief passages iaa review.
c

Photos by Lito Ocampo.

Cover and li:aY01!'u design by Design Plus,

THE MINDANAO

EXPERlENCE

45

Protocols and. trainings

4."7

INTRODUCTION

,,,

"?
7

More than the bottom. line

Priva te ownership of media ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION
ON MEDIA SAFETY 2010 The role of national associations , ,

10
15 16

National effort Other efforts

48 49

CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATIONS

51 55
55
56

MATRIX ON MEDIA OWNERSHIP
Government-owned

Landscape of impunity
Legal awareness SafetY' principles.
Danger z'ones map .." Safety communication Impact of the discussions

,.."
,
"" system ,

""

"
,

,....] 8
" ".......19

and -controlled media

Members of national media associations

" ...................•..•...•.... 20
" 29 30

Philippine mass media and their owners
CMPRDATABASE ON THE KILUNG OF JOURNAliSTS AND MEDIA WORKERS IN mE PHILIPPINES SINCE 198,6, ' , THE iJHILElP:PlNE JOURNAUST'S CODE OF ETHICS

57

.32 " , 3.2
35 ,, 35 36
IIl •• IIl •••

69 85

Coordinating

actions

MEDIA DE:FENSE AND SAfETY THE VISA Y AS EXPERffiNCE "Peaceful" cities Legalharassment ,
;roi;i++;;+~!I

""
...

~~+.~~+~."'''''''....... '''•• ,••• ••
•• "' •• ~"~.",,,, i ~ +. i ~

'.io ....

·;, ....

·~i ... -ti++t;t..t;!",,,,

37
JI.

Closure

+!!o'!' •• "' ••

1Il

IIl

,•••

"'

+ i ;t.+.~~.+ ~ ~ ",.~. '" ~

~

""•• ""•• "'

n,. •••

,39 .39
40 41

Engagement ., ,

,,

"

,..,..,
"

Professionalism as protection
A strong, press. community

INTRODUCTlON
MOorethan the bottom Iine THE SAFETY of journalists and media workers has been an issue in. the Philippines since the restoration of the institutions and fundamentals of liberal democracy, ]nduding free expression

and press freedom, in 19'86, when the 21-year-old government of Ferdinand Marcos was overthrown by the civilian-military mutiny known as EDSA L Although the Center for: Media Freedom and Responsibility (CMFR) had. started a database on killings in 1991, it wok 18 years from the fan of the Marcos dictarorship for the issue of journalists' safety 'to become a central concern tor the national media.
community. In200f, work-related killings spiked to seven.Bur for

the first time ja witness to a killing was, wi]Jing to' testify, and the prospect of prosecuting, the murder OE broadcaster Edgar Damalerio
encouragedthe creation of a network of media organizations and press freedom advocacy groups in a national campaign against impunity. The same network established the Freedom Fund for Filipino Journalists Inc. (FFF]) which focused on providing legal

and other assistance

to

besieged j ournalists end the families of the

slain, among other aims. The dismantling .of the Marcos; government and Corazon Aquino's assuming,the presidency was £oUowed within two months

by the killing of Reuters correspondent Willy Vicoy. Vicoy was
7

IPre$$ Fi'e!ldol'll ProtecliO'n' a,!t<ll J'ouma'is1:s,' A MF;!d~aCllmmlLln~~s Re~p(J<l'lsih1li~

Safety:

killed while working in a conflict zone. By the end, of Aquino's

as a coru;~q:u~nce(If hath gove.rnment policy (the killing of activists was pan; of rhe anti-insurgency policy) as well as indifference. But in

six year term in 11.992, 1 journalists had been kiUed in die line 2 of duty" CMFR' s study of the cases e.stablished that the killings were perpetrated by various groups and wi!h varying motives. The murders were a result in part of the unleashing of violent forces following the end of military contrel, poor law enforcement, and judicial corruption and delays. None of [he cases ,had ever been
taken
to court,

[he case of j ouenalists the k]Ilin:gs also occurred in the context of the
Arroyo governmear's an ti-pressand anti-media initiatives, which induded. the :6Jing o:f numerous libel s.uin. threats to withdraw
j

nerwo rk franchises and to file charges of inciting to sedition <ligainst some media crganizaticns, and dace inclusion of journalists' the nemraljzatien of the members of thegroups listed ..

groups

in. the: military's dreaded Orders of Batrle, which in effect authorize during the term (1992-199'8) of

The killings continued

Aquino's successor Fidel V. Ramos, although the number was less,

,of Joseph Estrada was no ,exception" though "only" six journalists wer-e killed between 1998 and 200], when Estrada, was removed from office by the popular uprising: known as EDSA .2.
at]. 1" The short -~]ved administration Estrada was succeeded by G]oria M<li.Capagal Arroyo, who not only served.the rest of Estrada' s six-yearterm from 200 lLto lG04, she also Ih<!JIilaged remain in pow€'r after the 2004 elections, whiidl she to claims to have won. until In addition

the initiatives media organizations took in 2003, when they recognizedthe needto do something about the killing o:f journalists"
Among

was thefoum:ling by avtFfR, the Center for Community

Journalisrn

and Development, the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas (KJ3P ~ Association of Broadcasters of the Philippines], Philippine Center for fuves:tigaJJttve J01il.ffiilism (pan, Ph.ilippine News, and me Philippine Press Instiaae (PPQ of the FFFJ.
These groups, along with. the National U nion of Joumalists

2mo.. This

!:'l.UD

of events made Arroyo

of the Philippines (NUJP); had been. conducting safety and. security
training. FFFJ had also identified media ethics as :iI. necessary componem of jcurnalist protection as good practice earns strong commnnity suppon and protection, Since then the campaign .against the culture of impunity that has encouraged the continuing killing of journalistsand media workers has beena key element of the advocacies of a, number of journalists' and media advocacy groups .. KBP and. PP[, as organizations, repres;enJ the owners of brorilidcastmdprim news organizations, respectively, 13m beyond this institutional in.volvemen.t, the owners ·of brge media corporations limittheir protective measures only to their employees and some of these measures: were sometimes inadequate, especially,

the longest serving: President of the Philippines sinceMarcos,
to

ove..r a thousand

poLi6c.:rulactivists killed,a record Massacre

19' journalists and media workers were also slain in the nine years of the Arroyo. watch, including 32 in the AJ1(Ip~nlm '~~ndanao)

of 2009..The end of Arroyo's term and the begi:nning of mOlt of the current Pr,es.iderut, enigno Aquino m:, in Ku[y~2010" d]d nor end the B kiUing of j QUffiIDstSC. Radii) broadcaster Mi~n~lBel.en was shot by an assailant ridling tandem on a motorcycle on July 9. Belen survived me
attack but died.Jrny 31. The record Hl(lmber of political activists and journalists killed during the nine years when Arroyo was in power has been, explained

Press f~O!oiM IPwtsclloFi and JO!JmaIMs." A. Media Comiitl:liilit)f's RoslXlnslbilibP

&aMy:

for those working as correspondents and stringers, Most of the owners of community news Q.rgan.izaticHil8 cannot affomw provide even minimal protection. CM:FR found tb,~t few newsrooms even conduct basic safety measures.

to the home! business) airlines and shippingto

fast food franchises to shopping malls, pu blic utilities. Inevitably the defenseand

adv<U1oementof these interests h"ai.v€elped shape media r-eponing, h commeatary ,md analysis. Although. not allowners intervene in the d..li:ily operations of their newspaper or broadcast network,
editors, and other decision makers are nevertheless w,eil aware of owner il1!mef'e'Sts~andtherefore, their probable preferences in the

Private owne:rgh~p of media
The development of the Philippine press) mduding radio

and relievlslo'I!l) ad always been in the hands h

on private

owners, But

cov,erage 'Of an event or issue that's likely to have an impact on the

the efforts of media <li.dvl;)cacy lndjournalists> groups have not been, < supplemented or echoed by the corporations that own broadcast networks and newspapers, An.d yet the private ownership 0:£ the Philippine media has been an important facror in the willy journalists and media workerscover and comment: on events, Philippine media are net only privately owned; the corporations that own them are also part of Qouglome.raJileswith interestsother than broadcasting or publ:i.shmg, h most cases these conglomerates also have political interests, given the reoillilty of store :regulartlDill over commercial enterprises in the Philippines But some media org:an:izaciom have

business .!U!ldl political concerns of media owners, or
The system of media ownership has made the public service

that the m.edi~.are, prival1rd.y owned and funcriceingfor the defense and enhancement o:f private int,eE'eli1r'$~ l'I!lwhich the bottom line,
or pro:fibbmty~ particularly in the hroedcasr nenv'OE'ks;) has been

shaping ed!:i.rori.al policy ..The bottom lline is at the root of such media pm blems as bias and lack of fairness) sensationalism, and the drive for exc]usives, whicbat times havepur j ournalisrs in danger. In one instance, a broadcaster s search for an exclusive in behalf of boosting
her network's ratings, for example, led to her and her camera crew's being kidnapped by thekidnap-for ..ransom Abu. Sayya£ Group. On the other lund" the broadcast organizations' focus on

direct politica] ]mks, interms of their pulblish.e.Dl being the,[llSleMves political pllaye.r.s and even candidates for various offices indudiog me Presidency .
]fs a pattemestabllished of defending an inserument during the

excl usivity has a1$'0 led
to be £aJse. Inthe

to

airing stories

"ill

hich were later found
incidenr, the same which.

u.s.

colonial period rivals as wen as

A ugusr .23 hosrage-raking

(1.900..:l9'1t6)~when political parties went into pub~ishm,g~s a means themsel ves ~gain.st their political in advancing their political interests, Eventually,

competitive environment

lied to one error afteranother

contributed to its bloody outcome Butoniinary compels journalists

(eight hostages werekilled],

day~w,1ay reponing has also put journalists in to report corruption,

bus~nf:ss interests

also went into publishing, and expa:l1ded into

danger, particularly in. environments where responsible journalism.

broadcast ing aher the SecondWorld War. The .pattern has held tal the present, The economic interests

bad governrn.ce~ and

of rnediaowners have ranged from. real estate to teleoomffiunicilitions

crirninal activity ,@IS was the case with some 90 percent of those journalists killed. in the Philippines since ]986.
111

PreS$ Freedom PlV!e(;lio:!'I aild JCil.lmaJis!S' Sall$!y
A Medii! Ct:!mmynib'iSl ~e5POI!::;llbilib

Most of the owners of the media have nevertheless been remarkably aloofto the imperative ofasslJIring me safety and security of the staBs, of their broadcast networks and. vewsp@pers. This must change. The OWners. of u:hemedlia must recognize that the safety of those who assure them thepro:6:.ts that keep them in business, and on whose skins depend the contin ned existence (If radii.oand TV networks as wdl as newspapersand online news sites, should be
Ol!S

media workers in the PhHippines.. These have been. the staple of the training provided by journalist and media advocacy gm1!.iplS for yean. Bult to these must he added. the media ewaers' assumin:_g greater responsibility as well, for the safety of jOUfI!l;3iJists <lindmedia workers

their concern as it has beenm;;l!lt of indivrudu<ID1.p.racuitioners as jo:urnal]sts' ar!iJd .media.a.dv,(lcacy gmuptS.

well

This reeegni cion can and shouldtake specific forms, among them provid~ng with appropriate equipment and insurancethose

j ournalists in dangerous areas a[]!dthose whO' censent
haza~d.ou:'il heats, .making in trouble, <lind holding s:Jifety training regularly)

1;0

cover

legal assistance available to j ournalists among others.

While providing journalists .in haZ3000us beats or assignmems insurance, .~:'il amoIIJJ,gthe preeautionssame media corp erations have ·taken.!this practice must be standardized across, the profession, and muSt besupplemented and others the recommendations of journalists,
to

by other measures. Those measures
which also includes aasuringthe safety owners that the Cebu Citizens Press
OOITltriblillte 11:0

are ae1tai]ed 1111. this menograph,

Council h~ preFaroo so' they can

EthkOlJ~and professiona] oompRiance) e.sm.blishin.g journalist networks, and. g~inin.g the respect of the communi tie~thi:s
monograph also points cur, <lire ~tinamoI!lg the approaches .necessary to put a swp to the conrin wag killing

or journalists

and

1:2

ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION ON MEDIIA SAFETY 2010
THE CENTER for Media Freedom and Responsibility

(CMFR) held a roundtable discussion on "Media Safety: Campaigp.
and Election Period 2010"' last March 5 in Makati City to address the need for safety measures of journalists covering campaign and elections. The start of the campaign In Fe bruary had, raised threat levels against journalists in a number of areas in the Philippines. The purpose of the discussion was to promote awareness by '[he press community of the safety mechanisms and means that can be adapted tor the greater protection of journalists and media workers,

CMFR organized this even t in cooperation and in partnership
with the' network of news organizations and media associations of the Freedom Fund for Filipino Journalists (FFFD, with grants from the Open Society Foundation Media Program and the U nited Sea tes Agency-for illnternational Development (USAID) through The Asia Foundation (TAF). The culture of violence constitutes acontinuingthreatnot only against journalists, Periods of political tension, such as campaigns and elections, raise levels of mediaactivity. As the political story unfolds; it in vires press atten don and covenge. As,tensions increase, how the press; reports the claims and counterclaims of con tending political forces becomes a critical factor in how the-public perceives one side and the other, journalists and. media workers become the targets of threats and attacks) even of assassinations, CMFR prepared an agenda thar would serve to consolidate the response of media to heightened threats and. attacks.
115,

IiJreSS F:lleo;ldom ProreGtiOI1i ar'!d JO!l.lnnalistS" .A 'Med:iOi COl!llmunity'~ ReWIIIIIl!lblllitJ

&o!ret~:

CMFR community, o:r~niLzatlow.
organizadom

recognizes dun but particularly

press freedom protection
that

and

j ournalists' safety requires the invoiv,ement (If the enrire media
of the owners of media Severru.media~oriented
non-governmental exercises. But it is the

(NGOs) have focused on ssfety training, And quite

(Mindana:o Cross); Eden Estopace (71;f Philippine :Star)~representing Mtcmio Kati,gbalk:;Jose Pavia (Mabuhay), Mal"IonPurificacion (The Journal Group of Jlub]iC:Jtions)~representing Augusto Villanueva, 1uaa Men:ado (press Foundation of Asia).; M ban Quirino (Ma.kiling ]ournif'); and Dalmacio Graul ~eyte.Samar Daily Express). members of the KEP board. o·f directors and offioe'rs who attended the discussion were: Raperto Nicdao Jr. (}.1anilia Broadcasting Company), Herman Basbafio (Bombo Radyo Philippines); Lucky Paul Taruc (Radio Corporation of the
The

a number of journalists have attendedthese

media owners and their appointed managers who have a, speci.al

resp onsi biller to establish internal and. communi ty-based :syStems that enhance the security of [heir workers.
The sessions of the day's programs identified safety and protection str-ategies. Resource persons shared information with
media; owners during the r01.. Jdulble discussion. The R 'I'D allowed u

Philippines), representing Francis Cardona; Erwin Gali"l:ng(GV Broadcasting System/Medi"lscape Inc.] j Rey Hulog (KBPexecutive director); and J oselito Yabut {Primax Broadcasting Sys1;em). The members of the boards of the Pf'I and the KlBP are elected each year. PPI has 70 member organizatioas, KBP' s member organizations include 143 television stationsand 604 AM and f'M broadcast stations, CMFR invited Rowena Paraan of the N ational Union

them and other members of the press community
to

toeXChafige

views on the feasibility of adopting measures used in. other places assist besieged journalists and prevent attacks and threats agains[
those covering the campaign

and elections.

The role of nationel

associatlons
board members of the

of J ouraalists of the Philippines (N'UNP) who is in. charge of the
InternationalPederation of JourD.aHst~NUJP Media Safety Office. She is abo a member of NUjP hoard. Paraan shared how her

To insure the participation of media owners in print and
hro<l!dcast~ CMFR invi ted the current

me

Kapisanan ng mga Brod/easter ng Pilipinas (ImP, Association of Broadcasters of me Phi~ippi1ile.s) nd the Philippine J?ress!ns-'(iun.€ a
(PPlli) which represent , the
tWO

organization prepares media practitioners who cover dangerous
assignments. CWR included her in the program so she could

largest national

associanons

of

inform the group what kind. of safety training the NUJP will be organizing for the election season, as some of NUJP members
be].ong tothe

media owners and their *lippoimed. epresentatives. r There were 32 participants from Luzon. Visayas and MIDdaml() incl uding the staff of CMFR and the presenters,

organizations represented by KRP and. PPL
members (;If the community press from
j.

Other participants incl uded representati yes ·0£ various news media organiaationsand GlMA-7, TV5, Su.'n,Srar Cebu and Ceb.u Daily New.

Members of the pp~ hoard of o,fficersand trustees who came to me J.n.eeting included. illsag..m.i Yarnbot (Philippine DaUy In..q#irer); Vergel Santos (pusinessWorl~,~ Fr. jonathan Domingo OM[

Prass. IFraedom PfM.octiOf'l aOO J!Gumalists' A Media CO_If!!lI'illnit)i"s !fIe~ponslblllbi'

SaJe\y:

Rbumllable

Illisc!JSsl:oo Oll M!l([iei Satety 201 (I

Landscape of imp!I]:oity
CMFR executive director Melinda QUintOiS de J esus presen ted. the broadanalytical framework of impunity. CMFR has found mat not all mem bers of the press communiry are familiar with the larger COIUext of the kllllngeand other threats and. attacks. It wasan opporruni t.y to present the £a.ct8 t.lwough use 1)£ file ml;eracrive map of journalists klUed in the CMFR website (http;!/www.cmfr-

nile of law. lhe rule of polirical warlords in some locajities also makes the participation ofguns for hire and "privatearmies' as wdli as Civilian Volunteer Organizations (CVOs) in these attacks inevitable. and media workers are- easy targets, especially those working in the community-based press. The proliferaeion of m.ediaorgaruizadons since 1986 led. to the increase in the n WIlber of journalists and media. practitioners nationwide; nowhere else in Asia are they so. numerous and so vls,ible.

J ournalists

me

ph.il.org/map/

index Juline .html] ..

eM.FR began its analysis of the killing of journalists and media practitioners in 1991. It, monitcrs artacks against m1Ld.threats to press jreedom and mairatains a database of journalists kiUed lin [he Hne of duty, CJvliFRalso trains a national network ·ofjournelists to report on assaults against the press. AU attacks and. threats, whether from libel and con tempt of courtcharges, or the closure of media organizatiom raise the vuloern.bni~y level of journalists. Violent. attacks aw.unst the media, includingthe killing of journalists and media workers have earned for the country the dubious distinction of being among the «most
j

Legal awarene-ss
Free Le;gal Assistance Group (FLAG) lawyer and University of the Philippines College of law pmfessorTheocio.l1e Te presented the legal do's and don'ts during election oovera:g~.He reviewed the mainfeatures of the election code thatare relevant to the press. The session instructed members of the press omtheir rights as wen as the limits imposed by law, This was designed to enhance the confidence of the members of the press about their ri,gh.t~which may be denied in a random fashion-on thew him. ·ofpoll or other officials who may interfere with media coverage of the various aspects of the campaign and elections. Legislation can limit journalism practice ..Teemphasized the need for awareness .of basic legal .rights of j ournalists andcitizens,
OInd. the

dangem1iJsasslgnm.enltS for j ournalists" in the world ..
PoHricalteruion raises these risks. The level of threat against the media had already been flagged with thekilling of 31 members of a convoy passing throughthe Maguin.dan<l!.D town of Ampa,v;u<ln while on its vm.ytothe Commission on Elections office in. Shariff Aguak, The group wasled by the wife of ESJl.1Olel"T ow" MilIn.gud1i'ld<1itu~ Bai Genalin Mangudadstu, who \V)lS: accompanied by other relatives and friends to file her husband's cenifica[e of candidacy. The massacre of 58 persons in [his instance involves most of the factors t ha t make ki]l]ug of jlforualisi:s so easy ~I!Ld et y so dHnc1iJl to prosecute: the failureof law enforcement agencies., t the involvement of some of their members, and the absence of the

procedures of the law to help media members r-eview

their practice. According to T e, for future application, the media. comm unity should undertake a review o·f the present election laws that are very pm blematicand whichare a potential danger to freedom ofexpression, . For example, the Fair Election (sic) Actor RepubHc Act 9006 makes [he ethieslconduct of j ournalists a matter of law, The tlext of the Act, particularly Section 6 which concerns the media and its practitioners, <l!lsohas too many undenned. qualitative standards.
19

ltiress rPreedolilllflrot~lit:m and J!ourna1i$t$' S.\Y~ A. Media CllmnwllUy's Respcmsibility

RO!lln.l:Iitablia Disou~lorn

0111Mledia

&afe1li 001 (l

The Commission most powerful institution

on Elections

(COMELEC)~ whi,h

is the RESPONSIBILITY OF MEDIA OWNERS

d uring the elections, is not competent in the field of media or press freedom. And yet,. the law gives it certain powers over media timeand sp.u;:,eas well as rights to intrude into

Because of th~ risks journalists. run while covering coui1.ict~"
rhe Paris-based Reporters Without Borders

how media facilitie-s. are used.
The right of reply (ROR) is also mandated by the Act. d.uring anelection period. There <lire ROlt bills pending in. Congressattempts to legislate the right have been resisted by almost every media. and. journalists' group. Safetypr~nciples
Directl Y 1"datied to j ournalists' sen ted the sections of the PC[FFFFJ

developed the
to

"Charter for the Safety of J ournalists Working in W 0111" Zones or Dangerous
extend

Areas". The Charter enjoins emp],Oyers
compenssrion, and guararrteesw

basic protection,

journalists working on d;;mgerous :1Ssrgnm:eniU. It consists of eight principles

Commitment. physical safety ~De Jesus promanual on safety, "Staying journalists

The

media,

public

autborities,.

and

themselves. shall systematicajly

seek ways to

assess and reduce the risks in war zones or dangerous

Aliv.e:i.l,which is designed as a basic system of institutionalizing: journalists' s:afety and. protection in and out of the newsroom. The manual deals. withthreats that are the TUOSt. common inexperience and contains simple instructions that can be irnplemented without expense: adopting the buddy sYSliJem editorial supervision of sensitive <lissig:nments~etc, The pu blication was distributed to the partlLCIpams.
j•

areas by consulting
information. journalists, personnel,

each other and exchanging all useful
to be taken

Risks
require

by staff or freelance
and support preparation,

their assistants, local employees, adequate information,

insurance, andequipment, Free will. Covering: wars involves acceptance by media
workers of the risks atta-ched and personal have the

comrni tment,

The man ual also discusses the obligations of the media management to prevent <lind.ed.llce the risks involved. in covering r
dangerous assignments:

which means they go on a strictly volun tary basis, Because of the risks) they should

rigbt to refuse such

assignments without explanation and without there being
any finding of un professional

co nduct, In the field, the
at the

assignment can be terminated
taken into aecoun
t'

request of the rep orter
[,8

or the edito rs after each side has consulted the other and

their mutual responsi bilities, Edito

should beware of exerting ao,y kind of pressure on special correspondents to take additional risks.

211

Pre$$ Fre!l>dol'l!l Prot!3diO.FI 1100 JOl!lmaJistS' A Media, Com.ifU.lnlity'1i ROllponlllblllty

Safety,:

Experience. War reporting
who are mature covering Teamwork

requires

special skills and

~ychQlogi,·al,(X)rmseli1lg .. Media ma1ila~m,ent

should

experience, so editors should choose :sU':<df orfreehm.oes
and. used to crisis

si ruations ..jonrnalists

a war for the fin:ttime

should not be sent there

ensurethat journalistsand their assistants who so desire have access t:o psyehelogical counseling after rerurni og from dangerous areas: or reporting on s.hocking events.

alone, but be accompanied

by a more experienced .repO[1[er.

in the field should. be encourager]. Editors should systemadcally debrief staff when they return so' as
to ~ea:r.rnrom their experiences. f

LegaJ protection.
are considered

Jcurnalists
under

on dangerous Article

assignments

79' of Additional Protocol Iofrhe Geneva Con venriens, provided they do not do anything or beha,Vf]I1lany way that might compraerise
civilians

Regular trai ning,in how to oope in war zones or dangerous areas will help reduce the risk to' JutlrnaJisu. Editors should inform staff andfreelances of any special training offered by nationally or imernaricnslly qu~Ji£ioo bodies <lnd. give them access ViO it. All j ournalists caJled
Prepamtio:n..

directly helpin.g a war, bearing arms or spying. Any deliberate attack on a j ournalisr that causes death or serious ph ysical in.jury isa major breach of [his Protocol ami deemed. 31. war 'crime'.
'[his status, such.
M

upon

to

work in a hostile environment should have first
Every accredited journalism scho 0] should its students with these issues, special corr,esp onden ts

-

"Staying Alive: A SOlfety Manual
for J ournalists" fruHppine Investigative Freedom.

aid tnining-" familiarize

Cen ter

for

Equipm)cnt; Editors shouldprcvide working in dangerous (bullet-proof vehicles], jackets, helrnets and,

jCI11:u:ualiism

areas with celia bolesajety equipment

if possible,
(locator

armored beaoo.ns)

Journalists

Fund for Filipino

communicarion

eqoipmear

;lind :SlIlFViV'31 and first-aid kits. Insuunce.

J curnalists

and their

assistants

working

in

war zones or dangerous
Media management

areas should. have insurance to dis~bility, and loss of Me.

cover illness, repa triation,

shoeld take sll nocess:JJry' ueps to They should strictly comply with
and agreements.

provide this before sending or e mploying personnel on
dangerous assignments.

,all applicable prefessionel conventions

IPrass, Freooom Prolaciion ant:! J'oLtrnalists' Salklty:, A Media Community's Responsibility

Roundtable

discussant

Cherry

Ann Lim shared the official
violence against journalists ..

policy of her news organization survival guide for journalists. manual for Cebu-based

Sun.Star Ceb» on safety as well
"'Tabang (H,dp)!", which isa

as the Cehu Citizens Press Council's journelista experts.

Employers' obligations;' 1. SunStar commits to provide s...uety equipment and medical/health safeguards (e.g, i vaccinations) approp ria te
to the threats that its, journalists potentially hazardous areas. help after the face when 'assigned to

The press council produced and drew content

the handy
materials

from 1oe:11media practitioners.icommunity the writings of international

resource persons, and

Below are selected materials Journalists;

from the "Protecting handbook and the

Sun.Star

Policy and Protocol" Safety guide for Ce bu J ournalists":

"Tabang!

2.

Journalists

on staff in need of professional

covemge of distressing events

will

be afforded access to

confidential counseling. 3. The company shall secure insurance coverage, incl uding
coveragainst personal sent to hostile areas, injury and. death, for journal ists

PROTECTING SUN ..sTAR IOURNAUSTS: POLICY AND PROTOCOL
The policy-with for journalists The policy, a protocol and list of safety measures was adopted after

4. Sun.StanhaU provide legal assistance should. its j uurnalist
press charges persecution. over a physical attack, harassment or

in hazardous situations-

consult ations with editors and reporters. protocol, and other safety measures are available in a computer file accessible to s.un,StaT staff members and. co rrespondents, Materials were drawn from experiences of Sun .Siar journalists and from such sources as the Sun.Star Code of Standards & Ethics, Sun.Stat Central Newsroom Operations Manual, the International News & Safety Institute, and the Poynter Institute. What employers can do. Employers shall provide safety equipment and health safeg:uards, in addition to on-thejob insurance, needed for the dangerous assignment, legal aid, even access to confidential counseling for j ournalisrs covering stressful 0.1;" distressing events, Responsible and. ethical reponing and commentary limited to issues, not personalities, .can help stave off

TABANG[ SAFETY GUIDE FOR CEBU JOURNALISTS
When targeted Death and libel. threats
One of the best defenses against attacks is good, ethical journalism .. Provide accurate and balanced reporting. DQ not be a corrupt journalist.

Never

take threats

light]y" Immediately

inform

su pethe

riors, colleagues and. family about them. threats, Seek support from press groups.

Publicize

Vary your schedule and mutes to and from the office .

25

IP~ss Ffeetiom f'ro'iflCUOFlaoo Joumalists' Slalsly: ,1\ eella Curnlitulllty's Re!lpon~lbilitJ'

.. •

Drive dose to the center island. If you think you are being followed, go to the nearest police precinct. When in a bus, do not take the window seat. •

It describes the exact location and/or address of the place to be searched and lists down exactly what th ings are to be seized. It is used within 10 days fmm ilLS issuance. CaU your lawyer to tell him that your premises are about to be searched. On letting: the search party enter, ask for their names, rank and the office or unit which they belong. Get the commanding officer's name and

At ,checkpoints or roadlblocks
• Be polite. Avoid confrontation.

• • •

Identify yoursdf as a journalist. If 0111 foot, approach the checkpoint with only necessary papers on hand. When. in. a,vehicle, keeps windows and.doors locked, do not alight unless ordered 1:0 do so.
N ever try
to

rank.
• Accompany the group doing the search to prevem them from planting documents or weapons ..A search can be done only in 'the presence o:f the bwfuI occupant or any family member, or if they are not around, two witnesses of sufficient age and discretion residing in the locality.

film withoua permission.


'. ..

If soldiers or militia manning the checkpoint are hostile
or nervous, offer sweets or cigarettes. Let them know that people know where you are and. that you are expected back. Make them understand mat you are not a threat.

.'

U anything is taken from your home or office,

me

Sean::h
• Your house or office cannot be searched without a search warrant issued by a civilian judge. If there is a warrant, they can seize only those things described in the warrant. But if you are arrested, your person and immediate surroundings may be searched for dangerous weapons and evidence that you committed the crime for which Y01ll are being arrested. A search warrant is valid if: It specifies one offense only.

officer seizing the property must give you a copy of the detailed receipt. Make sure it reflects the original. Tell them 'to place a line across blank . .spa,c..es that they so don't "add" items later on that were not found during the search. • Don't sign anything without talking to your lawyer first.

Arrest

You may be arrested. only on me strength of a warrant issued by a judge, except when YOll have committed, are actually committing; or are artempting to commit an oHense in the presence of an arresting officer..

:26

27

Pmss Freedom Protec![oo an.dl J'Oumallsls' A Media Community's Re5\IIQ11sibility

Saf~:

If you are lawfully arrested, have a relative, friend
or even a stranger (g,et his name and address) witness your arrest. Ask the arresting officer where you will be taken. Ask that you be accompanied by the one who witnessed your arrest. Call your lawyer. If they don't let you, have your relative or other witness to your arrest do so.

• • •

Get social support from colleagues, friends and family .. Getting back to wor k helps recovery. Talk about it with colleagues, a partner or a trusted friend. If you'd rather not talk, write down what you

feel. • If the symptoms above last more than a month and
seriously debilitate you seek professional help.

If you are merely being invited for questioning. consult with your lawyer firSt. If they don't let you~ refuse to goC) with them, If they insist, their arts become an arrest.
Stay calm; follow steps ab ove. When arrested, you have the right to remain silent, to be assisted by a lawyer of your choice, and not to be subjected to threat or torture. YDU are entitled to due process.

F or the editor
• • When sending journalists out, advise them of themselves,
to

take care

Be cautious about sending at SitOlH member to cover a story "too close to horne." It is not about bias but the probability of exacerbating his Or her reaction or suffering. Show concern by asking someone fresh off the field how he is feeling before asking for his story. Proper debriefing helps. A clearer head also makes for a clearer story,.

Coping with field fatigue and (.'O'l"eragestress For thejoumalist • Recognize the symptoms:

• •

Having, inrrusiveIlashb acks or nightmares Being unable Unable
to to

talk of what happened

concentrate In. a. previous seminar on media and human. rights 'Organized by CMFR in Jan 1il.ary 2.Dla~the ag;endainel uded a session on media safety issues, It was noted. by participating j ournalists that the Comm.ission on Elections (OOMELEC) had. yet to release a list of "'11. . " I· 1· not , or d· ·angerous spots, Because tne COMELEC. was navmg so much trouble with the insrallaeion of the first automated vote and
,29

Sweating unusual! y Not wan ting
to

leave home-or

work

D ifficulties getti ng to sleep or sea ying asleep
Irritablli ty, restiveness, startlingeasily, hypervigilance

Pre~s F:reed~iI'I'Ill?m'I.Qdlon and JOlllmalists" Safu1y: A M'e!!.;;!! COmm ui'i Iry's RI!!:iIHIII'II1J!iUity

with. its low credibility, it was suggested that j ournalists work with GMFR to producetheir own daE!,g~r ffp. m With the help of inputs from voluI!l[fer journalists, CMFR produced an electsonic map w hich 1demi6.ed danger zones, The d.ang.e["zones inel uded. ehose areas [he Philippine Na.tio.nal Police,


.,

CouMthete be a nigger in the p.hones when there .is trouble (keyword~ help bunon) to he]p the journalist in the :6.e~dajefi[ his/her de'5k?~ System OOS[ and the possibility that it can be provided onan exch3Jnge deal basis {ads ~or service b:aL$is)~ The problemaeic impiemematio:rnofthe global posilionl(!!g system (GPS) given chefacr dux rhe technok:lgy is s,uiilll'e'xpensive in the ocmntry; and Concerns about con:6denti<1!lity and privacy.

the Armed Forces. of the Philippines, and the OOMELEC had classified as ~~ election hotspots" and included in. their "election
watehlisr" ..B1I1t the map also. drew from the imormatiolil provided by media practitioners aU over the COUll.try on 10 cal politicsand their perception of danger when working, in those places. Around 13 j.ournalists provided reports. The IDap was presented as a workin-progress, but was: lllP~oadecl £O'.r asy .fiefel1encefot .memlbets of e the media as well as the genet<ll public. The CMFR website hosts this map l(hup::IIWW'W .cmfr~phiLorgld~n~erzones/).


.,

The participmts also saw the difficu1.ty of implemeI!J.tlngan. .indwtry~wide location monitoring system ~d .S1JJgges'~~ [~.t each organization be res[ponsilble .£or its owapeople, The point was we'; taken: some smaUoommunity.based or~tiom may ibe assisted.by l:lirg~F O.rgooiutimlS mat ,ool.d.daKordto sukribe [0 the service.
. Someone pointed Ql!l!itj however, Ihatail.news: orgaIli.zadons~ their~a[]'<1gen and owners~ should .ob~ervetheit basic obligations 110 their workers andshoald at the very- least, ensureand maintaia oommu:oic3i~ion between the journalist MIdIthe desk when. repozters/ correspendenrs are in the field or in a remoteassignmem ...

Sa:fety CJo'mRl11!]nkad~)Jil system I(Location -based s~1 Glo bal. P,olSitioning System)
CMFRl1equested Smart Communications Inc, (SJ...{ART)~ can be used. one of the ]eadin:g telecemmunication fimu in the oountry,to

present models of tracking [ournalists' locarionsthat

by newsorganieations ..
A team from 5.MMT presented a.study of a communication sysremrhat would help keep track of jourualists working in danger

zones (person .. inder, a loearion-based SflN:!.ce).. The instrumear f
allows roO bile phone subscribers
I:~) locate

or Eollow other

CMFR pointed! out rllat ilie:sestfOl!tegies are just options .. N e~s orgaruizati.ons hi'l!v,e choioe in pushing drnro1ilgh willi the a. project or not. This may enhance security and Stafe1!Y joumalisrs of when reponing in dangerous areas come electiontime, The bIgg:e,st concern is for the smill players, who do not have as many resources: as the major llC'\VS organizations in the c.ountry.
Members of the board of the KEF <lind NUJP committed the d:D,emSldvesto a meet Ling, with the SMART ream for .further d!iSCUSS~OIlliS. SMAR'f said it was willing eo develop the technology OlCiOOrdlD:,g'w the needs of the media community. SMART asked Ear ilt. ].ea,s:[[WO weeks to' customizethe technology. Negotiadons are sun under way..

subscribers through text, ~)rshan mess<l!ging system (SMS), wireless access protocol 0WM), ~Fld/erthe In ternet, The p1flrticipautsasked detailed question-s about current

SMART services to assess the applicalbility and the affordabili ty of the services. Concerns focused on. me system itself;

~ress Free<tO'l'f! Pmllmtion aoo Journa'llsts'Sa1:ew: A Media Qonnmll.nlq,o'~ Flesp"'lislbillty

Impact of the discussions
Several news orgmizations and individuals published and

aired!reports on the rOlmdt;3J,ble discussion.

The COMELEC's total gun ban (from January 10 to June 9) belped ensure a more controlled and peaceful environment during the campaign period. But this did nor result in journelists' being free from threats and attacks. . Two journalists were killed within [he campaign period, although [he motives of these attacks were not considered as wcrk-related, DxGS radio block timer and Sapol (Hill) columnist Chito Abuzo wil!skiUedon March 1J in Genera! Santos City while freelance radio reporter Edwin Sigue was killed on April 14 in Ozarnis City, Miisaffi]S Oceidenta], :Both provinces are located in the southern Philippines, Vore Peace, a.national coalition 0'£ o.rg;.m.izationsadvocating pea.ceful elections, noted 1]9 cases:of election-related violence from Jan.uary 10 to May ]0. This figure was lowerthan the 2007 record of 1811. incidents. The importance of developing a strong nerworkameng journalists and media organizarions was emphasized by a local candidate'sthreatening six.journalists who had to seek. .r,efugein the house of allot her politician. In Camiguin, a,province in the southern Philippines, a gremp led by powerful local ·officialsattacke-d the Cagayan de Oro-based media practitioners who had witnessed. alleged cheatinga day before elections ..Through thecoordination between the local press and the NUJP M.edia Safety Office in. Manila, the media pracritioners ~er,e taken out of the province but Illanag;ed.to come home safely just two days after they were attacked, (For h,dl story ~see "Au<l!cks and threats" on page 46.)

Sun.Sta.r Pdrnpangp: announced the danger zones .m~p-!auI!lch
(hup:! ; WVirW .sunstar .com.ph) pampanga/ media-youp-Iaunch -pollhotspots-map) . TV5 in
ItS

pril.netime

news program The Ev:ening N~

(TEN) reported the launch of the danger zones lntemcti ve map and the worsening violence against media practitioners in the country (Niarch 5). CMFR has sent the link to the danger zones map
to

me-

dia. organiz:ll,~iollS and practitioners including ABS-CBM 2 which had aliso developed its own hotspots map (http://blnpm .abs-cbnnews.com/hotspots]. Information.
0:11 the

.mJlp also received several

rerweets in the social networking

sire Twitter.

Seeing the practicality and importance of h<lv:in.g safety a handhookfortheir news organization, Ceb« Daily Ne'W:S publisher Eileen Mang:ubat ordered another 25 copies of "Sraying Alive", CMFR sent

me copies

by mail.

NUJP requested copies ·ofthe presentation on lega~do's and don'ts by FLAG's Te so i.t could include them in their own safety p:mg;ram. Coordinating

a.cdons
toWTI,

Since the massacre in Ampaman

M1Igumdanao last Nov.

23, 1009 that killed 58 individuals incloding 32 media workers, the killings of journalists) as we]] as other forms of election-relawd vio]ence" received more attention, especially during the campaign period,
32

MEDIA DEFENSE AND SAFETY

mE

VISA YAS EXPERIENCE
THE STATE of journalists' safety differs widely around the

country. Only a few journalists working in the National Capital! Region have be-enkilled, Many Manila·based companies have safety and security manuals. But their provincial counterparts have little protection against violent retaliation by those who hire assassins to silence critics. The Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility (CMFR) database on the killing of journalists/media practitioners shows that almost 47 percent of work-related killings happened outside metropolitan
areas,

National journalists' groups, have provided safety trainings
to

local journalists. They have also called on media owners and managers to help ensure the safety of their employees. However, ani y a tew, especially in the provinces, have internal safety
to

guid.elines. The same is true of those who can afford to provide insurance and protective equi pment their field reporters and staff..U sually those that have the capacity to provide these are the local bureaus, of national media organizations or the well -estahlished cornmu.nity~bas:edprint/broadcast companies, ClvfFR surveyed the press communities of Cebu City and T agbilaran City in the Visayas, which were among those conununities that reported relatively smaller numbers of killings

P~SIS F~edolilllProteocHon Illil(! JOUMn~list5' Safety: :A Med:ii! CQmmuni~l,s, ResplIllI,s;tbll ~

<U!ldlor threats, CMFR examined how these eommunities reduced the nu.mberof weatsand harassment of j ournalists or even prevented! them.

Cebu news .man~gers aliso ask their reporters measure.

10 pub]ish

such

incidents in their newspapers and radio programs; as a preeautionary "We dune inforrnation.i.so that everybody is informedthat

CMfR interviewed Chen:y Arm Lim (Sun.Star Cebu m<Ula;gmg
editor for special pages and Cebu Citizens Press Council [ccpe] assistant executive director); Nimrod Quifiones (The Freetnan managing edit-or), E ileen Mangll ba t (Cebu Da fly News puMisher) j, John Key Saav'edral (Bana.t N~sm<'llnag:i.ng editor); Carlo Dugaduga (dly XR Aksyon Radyo station manager and Kapisanan ng mgaBrodka'$Mr ng Pilipinas '[KBP ~Associasion of B,l(1oadiclster:s

'jrztng/emamaiJan namin, 'J11.a)! threat ...Kung mer-on trJangplano ~yung nagbi;gay ng threa t, ([hey) think. twice ku;ng arumg gagaw.in nile, kas.t marami ang nakakaalam (We share information so that everybody
is informed. that one of
QUE

colleagues is under threat. Those who

sent the threats wound think twice to push through with. their plans since many would be aware of the dang;er),,'j Dugaduga said. W.hi~e new'S managers essentially know whar
to
to

[).£ the Philippines] Cebu chapter chair); LeO' Lastimesa (drAB
Radyo Patrol station manager); Ciriaco "Boy" Guin.gguing (Hohol Sunday Pos; publisher]; Salvadm Dipma&o (Bo})o1Times editor in chief); aJud Peter Dejaxesto (Rohal Chronicle associate editor arud d.yRD general manager].

do in response

a threat, that is as far as they go. "'A ng mangyayari siguro nya:n is that, you win react according

to the demand. of the situation. 'Di kung mayroong threat you will have to devise some guidelines, Pero in the case n.a ·wala naman

talagang threat, why fix a problem. if it's not rtJ.ere?"(\Whart woulld.
m08t~i!k.dy happen is that you will react <l!.ccoiidm.go the demaJJ:!J.d t The media.managers interviewed all saw' that physica~. assaults and threats seldom happen 1111 their cities not because joumalists there are any less daring, butbecause CebuanQs and Boholanos are ":p~cefuL" "There areplenty bur the people su bj ected Dug<llduga claimed, However.
m05L

of the situstien. If there is athreat, you willI have to devise some guidelines. But incase there has not been a threat) why fix a pm b]em

if it's not therer]," Bohvl Sunday Post publisher Guingguing said,
in [he process admi tung that me media organizations still have
to

of hard-hitting eommentarors (in Cebu) ,
to

put together the guidelines needed

to

respondto

threats against

commentary

progrlli.ITISare more civil,"

j ournalists ..

media org;mizations €:IlCourage their employees

legal harassment
Although. they have seldom b een physically assaulted, j o1[lma~ist8 in the Visayas have had to deal with criminal cases like libel and. slander. The Visayas editors said libel was the most Common tool used by various groups to harass them.

to report threats and attacks. should these occur. Qumolle-s, explained that «If (a reporter is) threatened, one 'Of the things (he has) is) noto.eoessarily
to

do is inform the people in the office (evm if it
to

related

hils or her job."
36

Pf'9SS Freedbm P,ral~Ci'tlolilJ1Ii:! JOllnnaiiSISi Safllty: a
A Media Commullity's A~~OM\bililty

said Lim, "As, far as I know, we have never lost (a case) because the judge will see if there is malice and there is ahv-ays no
]But malice involved. Lim explained, Avery prominent case Sometimes, people sue us not because of anything something from a public document," we've said but for quoting

fi.l,ed. Another complainant also filed a motion to disqualify him from, availing of the services of the Public Attorney's Office. Only in 2009, when Revil filed his charges, did the Freedom Fund for Filipino Journalists receive repon:s, on Briones' cases,
he had previously

in the Visayaswas

the libel suit

[0 re.sponse to libel suits, SOme media. organizations have in= house lawyers, "In ,every libel case filed against US we assume the
full legal costs," Mangubat At said.

against G-u.i.ngguing for publishing on Oct. 13, ]991 radio block timer Cirse Torralba's criminal records) including photos of his

in an advertisement paid for by one Segundo Lim. While the Regional Trial Court and Court of Appeals found the accused
arrest,

guilty of the charges,
decisions

the

Supreme

Court

overturned.

their a

the same time" media organizations in Cebu, throug.h the cepe, have also tapped lawyers' groups waling to defend them. The Cebu Media Legal Aid, for example, consists of nine la-wyers who have volunteered to provide pro bono assistance to jOl,Irnalists ..

in 1006, pointing

out that Torralba was considered untrulrhful about what

public figure and that there was nothing was published. "The information of the cornplainarn, in
to

Closere
Media corporations
Some local politicians are also

went into the very character which his lLis.~eningpublic

and integrity has a very

vulnera hie

to

other

attacks.

have refused. to issue medii.<I. organizations interviewees.

legitimate interest .•.. By entering into this line of work, (Torralbe)

business permits and have threa tened them with closure on charges of tax evasion, said some of CMFR's For protracted example, Tagbilaran

.eft-ect gave the public a legitimate intere-st in his life ..He likewise g:ave them a stake in. finding out if he himself had. the integrity and
character
to

City

has, been a witness

to

a

have the right

to

criticize others for their conduct, first division

>l

the

decision of the Supreme Court's

in. 2006 reads,
Torralha had also

Aside from being a, radio commentator,
run for public office as
Ol'i.

'baran.gay captain.

Bo.hol Chronicle <Ind Mayor Dan N eri lim. The dispute starred with a story about Lim allegedly breaking his promise to build a city wastewater facility. Lim cried. "biased reponing," while the Rohal Chronicle cried "media harassment."
battle between the Justa few weeks before the election, Lim was reported in the province.
to have

The number of libel suits has been on the rise in the province-s.

announced

ill his radio prog.ram over dyTR that he was after the

Maswle Tribune: publisher Joaquin Briones
six months
Governor in jail. He was

WaJS

convicted

of six

closure- of the oldest media organization

counts of libel in 2000, for which he was sentenced to 12 years and

paroled in 200:i. But four years after) Briones was charged with five counts of libel by Masbate Vice
Vince Reviland the Masbate Electric Cooperative. due
to

Eng.agement But when broadcasters from dyRD, the B'ohol Chr:onide'$
sister radio oompany, were

Revil

also wan ted to have him arrested and recommitted

the cases

allegedly harassed by Mayor Lim,

1?te$S lFrn€:dorn

pr,ote.ctilin alld Jouma'li:rtS'

Safety:

A I"'Bdla Community'$

ResponoSlbllity

general manager Dejaresco opted to seek the Ph ilippine National
Police's (PNP') assistance.

Cel« Daily News~ have devised their ow 11 codes of standards and
ethics.

In harassment cases" said Dejaresco,
PNP superintendent we request the PNP the progress-(who
to to

""We

call [he p!t"ovin.cial

inform him who is under threat. Then investigate and gi.ve me an update on Then

A strong press commuuity
In some communi ties, keeping communicarion lines open between the pressandrhe community has:helped reduce the number of attacks <lindthreats against the media. Media organizations in

is the) suspect; (what happened).

more often than not, they provide us assurance that he will be under surveillance. (In. addition], the management always links with the ISAFP (Intelligence Service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines)," he said. In short, some media, organizations

Cebu City led the creation of the cepe, which has been a venue for redress 'by both '[he press and the community it serves. If
individuals find certain reports problematic. they may complain through

eng,ag:edifferent groups and. g,overnmem agencies
their repo rters' safety.

to

help assure

ccpe if the
+

complaint has been brought but
W:a!S

to

the attention

of the media organization
satisfactorily

~g~o.r,edor not addressed

Professionalismas protectien
Almost

an

Almost all Cebu Cily-baS!ed media organizations (newspapers interviewed believe that and TV and radio netwo.rks) are involved in the CCPC,w hich has a membership that includes editors in chief of the three English-language dailies and two Blsaya-language newspapers, two representatives from the broadcas industry as nominated by the

media

managers

responsilb1e and professional

prnctioe would he!p lessen; if not

eliminate. the contin lling arrack onjournalists.
"The biggest defense a media man could have is to be an excellent media (practitioner). Meaning you do your work, you don't suppr1essfacts, you give everyone a chance to speak his/her mind," Quifiones pointed out. Mangubat agreed. "Qournalists need, to) wake surethe
professional

local ch~pter ofthe KBlIPtWO j ournalism professors, and. six other ~
representatives from the public., The continuous dialogue within.

ccpe

has led

[0

the

creation of a unified code of practice and safety guidelines. The code of practice) which emphasizes the importance of fairness and accuracy; was created in 2.006 while the safety guidelines were produced in. 2009, and have been used addition to their own in-house manuals, "Safety Guidelines for Cebu Journalists" not only cnntains pointers when covering disasters, typhoons; raids, civil disorders and hostage-taking crises, bur also
41

standards are upheld because that's what keeps the

audiences and the sources, confident that whatever comes out, whatever stories come out, Carehas been given to producing it."
MoS'[ Visayas-based

by the eepe

members in

publications interviewed

have adopted

The Philippine JOUl'rnlli.s.:"s Code otEthics (drafted by the Philippine Press Institute and, the National Press Club), or the KBP' Broadcast Code. The mere-prominent newspapers, such as Sun-Star Cebu and

Specifically, the

cepe's

IF'res!SFreedom Proteclfooal'\ll:ll Jloumallsts,' A Medl:al CommunHy's bs.pOllsll:im~

SaIety:

inel udes instructions when targeted with threats and arrests, The pamphlet also lim emerg>erucynumbers when. situations call for police and medical assistance, The CC,pC~as assistant exeeuri ve director Cherry Arm its Lim said ]'n.<lfiinterview, has aJso helped reduee the number of attacks and threats agaimt the media. Lim told GMFR, "Through the OefC. we were also able ro mvi[e dilHerem stakeholders so they'll uaderseand also nnw we wo.rk. We in",[ted busmessmen, police, [and differen[] stakeholders, ir's ok, They .know
SlO

l:hey wiU also understand

why the media behavethe way they do. [f mey are being criticized,

res just work

[and they cam. always reply], The

thing is it should. be balanced. They undersrandrharrhae' of media."

s the role

4:2

MEDIA DEF'ENSE,AND SAFETY

THE MINDANAO EXPERIENCE
MINDANAO
journalists

IS one of the most dangerous places for in the Philippines. Sixty-one percent of media killings

since 1986 happened in Mindanao, with nearly all regions having at Least three incidents. Some of the most well- known cases in Mindanao are the murders of Marlene Esperat in 2005 and of Dennis Cuesta in 2008, and the massacre of 32 journalists and media pr-actitioners in Maguindan:ao on Nov. 23,2009.

The most violent attack against pr,essfreedom in the Philippines, the Ampstuan (Maguim:larnao)Massacre highlighted me dangers faced by journalists and mediapractitioners in Mindanan,
On Nov. 23, lOO9~ 58
pefSO]lS

induding

32 j,ourna]iSi$

and media practitioners were allegedly killed by Andal "U rna y" Ampatuan Jr. and some 100 of his men in Ampatuan town, Magu.indanao. The journalists and media practitioners were covering the filling of the Certificate of Candidacy (COG) of Esmael "Toto"
Mangudada tu who was, running for governor of the province. At the time of the massacre, the Ampatuans, one of the

most influential political families in the Autonomous of Maguindanao,

Region in

Muslim Mind.mao, had been unrivaled as the longtime kingpins
The media Joined the convoy of Genalin M~ng;udadatu in filin.g '[he COC of her husband Toto art the

p,~Il$S IFreedom fiwteC'lioo at!d JCllJmaJJsts' ~ A IMeciia Community'!!; Fle:~on&tbll iItJ

Commission

on Elections

office in Sharif

Aguak.. But before
Court

The Dumaguings of Catarrnan,

are now facing: cases of grave coercion and before the Municipal A Charlito Circuit Trill Camiguin, Sabael and a Joseph

reaching, Sharif Aguak, the convoy

was, stopped at a checkpoint

qualified trespass to dwelling

by arme d men allege,dl y led by some me m bers of the Amp atuan dan and b rough t to a dearing w heret hey were killed wit h highpowered au tomaticfirearms, The Ampatuan Massacre focused attention on
where private armies

Bitas who claimed that the Dumaguings forced t heir way into. their
homes in May 9, filed the twocases separately.

me dangers

to

The Metropolitan T rial Court of Catarman, Camiguin issued the warrants of arrest against the media workers. The Durnaguings have denied these
allegations.

journalists in election hotspots as well as those provinces and localities

ann Civilian

Volunteer Organizations

thrive',

A day before theelections of May W 2010~Herbert Hugo
j

The local media believe these cases were filed to harass the two. The Dumaguings and two other media workers filed a complaint againslr.Governor Romualdo and his men for illegal detention, grave threats, rob bery and violation of the total gun han during the election period,
In another case, a reporter of of

and Hubert Dumaguing, Alphyn Cabanog, and Albin Lobino of RR Productions were filmingthe local. elections in Bc;1.Fang.1.Y T ang;lro, Catarman town; Camiguin when they chanced upon supporters of
Gov.

the Manila-based ABS·CBN 2
were kidnapped

along with her cameraman and assistant cameraman by aHeged members

Jurdm

Jesus Rornualdo

and then mayoral

candidate Nestor bribe m,oney.

J <IDOl

handing out envelopes supposedl!ycoNtaining
to

the Abu Sa.yya£ Group in 2008 .. Beforethis, Arlyn dela Cruz; then a NET-25 reporter and producer, had also been hostaged by the same group.
Protocols and, trainings
Like .many news organizations based organizations in the Philippines, Mindanao-

the Dumaguings, the politicians' supporters" upon noticing 'mat they were be.ing filmed; mauled the team <lindtook their equipment. Romnaldo's men allegedly attacked two other journalists, who reported the mauling of the RR P.roducti,ol!lS'team to the police.
According
The six media workers, managed too make it home safely after two days when colleagues in the National U nion of J ournalists of

do not have their own safety man uals and do not safety training. This is where the safety manuals

conduct internal

and training provided

t-he Philippines
out of Camiguin,

(NUJP) pressed authorities

in Manila

to

take them.

by national and international organizations are useful. In an email interview, Cerura] Mindanao Newswat.cb editor Wal tee Hahne said. that while his p:aper does not have its.
andcorrespondents
were sent
to

Own safety manual, ('a]1reporters

The Ca:migWn incident

may serve as a model for awareness of

safety training workshops

where a safety manual/guidebook

from

safety precautions that quick and coordinated action within the media
community

the Internarional News Safety Institute was distributed,"

may save lives,
46
47'

prsss Freedom l'Ifot~lio!'l ai'l(l Jourllali~ts' StlJrety; A Me<li .. Cornmlll't]ty'li RBSjlo:nslb:ll_it)I'..:..

------

Caudon
Despite the lack of safety manuals,
interviewed assignments. she said Malu Manar said. her station '[he whereabouts the media "employs managers

in:ternational mg;l!uiza.tions
for Media Freedom

have made the region a priority sent its alerts

in

~heir Ji.n,ti~i.mpuni1i:yand safety initiatives ..For example, Center
ilnd. Responsibility officers

they do take care when covering dangerous
the 'buddy' of reporters.the

to look into the killling of journalists in Mindanao, The NUJ]>
has. also created the 1010 election a Mindaneo campaign, Bureau of its Safety Office. During: members of the Philippine Press

system and monitors

people he/

would meet and places he/she would visit (even outside his job/field ofassigrmlJen[) .." Manar is the program director of Notre Dame Broadcasting Corporation in. Kidapawau.
Balane for his part said. they have a feedback mechanism

Inst itu te also discussed The governmem

safety issues ..
has also recognizedthe
need to focus
011

in

Central Mindanao Ne"WS'Watch.The paper!s reporters also need
clearance fromedieors

to gelt a

whe-n going out of town. ill case of dangerous coverage, the new.spape'r Staff is "required. to stare (the) purpo-se 1)£ coverage,. sarEety precautions (<lire)being taken, (and, they have the) experience and. capacity (00 do the work]."

Mind<ilJnao. In J tine 2009,. the 0 ffi·ce 0 £ the Presiden t 's Task Force Against Po Litical Violence (TF 111) held the "S eminar- Workshop
on Ethical Standards, Practitioners"
was attended Cagayan Personal

Security and Protection oJ Media
media practitioners from from

in Cagayan de Oro City. The seminar-workshop
byalm.ost. a hundred provinces,

de Or-o and nearby

Represeatatives

Legal defense Like those interviewed in Bohol and Cebu, the media managers in Mindanao said they have in "house lawyers, However,
not

the Freedom
(its national

Fund For Filipino directorate)

J ournalists,

Inc, and. the NUJI?'

also attended TF 211 promised

the said event. During to create

the seminar-workshop, desk at the Regional

alocal help

all

of these companies

help

their

employees

in defending

State Prosecutor's

office,

themselves in libel cases and with paying bail.

100 is true in the case of the Notre Dame Broadcasting Corporaeion in Kidapawan, of which Manar Is also a repon:er. "I cannot
rememberan instance

Other efforts
Balane} who is a fellow at the Ateneo's Konrad Adenauer

when. the network provided a reporter his job here," Manar said.

at lawyer

School 0'£ Journalism}
in- house training

said his organization

is planning

to hold

when [he former was charged with libel, Because of wmt happened, an employee resigned from

sessions after he finishes his Master of Arts in

J Qum.aJiSJ.H
with other

course. "'W,e plan to invite experts later <lind. olla borate c

10c:a1 media outlets to share

C051:$.'"

Beca use even before

of Mindanao

has the most 23, Massacre,

rnsm ber of ki]J iugs several national and.

the November

Cam:ll1ilS1Qnand! Recommendations

CON,CLUSION AND
REC'OMMENDATIONS
lIN A country where a free market syseem operates and "[he Constitution guarantees press freedom and free expression, the defense of these rights and the fight to end the culture of impunity should be the priority of all the members of the media community. It is wron~, for bmb the press, and Philippine so ciery 'to, ~gfllorethis responsibili ty, when the Phili ppines has been.described as one of the most dangerous assignments for journalists and media. practitioners in the world, and in the context ofthe need to provide its people the information vital 'to it-S developmenr, The present challenge is to get 'one of the most import ant sectors of the media, the owners and managers,. to acknowledge and address the issae o,f press freedom protection and journalists' safety. Aside from coordinating actions, the sector needs
to

systematize

the media defense and safety programs in their own organizarions.
At the core o.f this campaign

is to ensure mat best journalism

practice is in place. The basic values and principles of truth-telling, freedQm) justice, humaneness and stewardship, from which the professioanal standards of aocuracy~ fairness, and completeness
Cannot

he separered, should be upheld.

The ethical imperative of truth-telling is realized through factual and contextual accuracy, that of freedom through the journalist"s independence, that of justice thmugh fairness and balance, that of humaneness through the proreerioa of the

p,~$ F,~d'om I?mISC'lilon aJ1IdJOI.ml:llls,ts' A. r.1i!dia CO.rtlitUinlt¥ls AmspolIl;l[bllVry

Safety:

<liJlI.d pow,edess,. Inforrned public opmH:m: developed thr .. ough responsible reporting and commen tmy win be the best
protection for all. The hope is for people threat to v.mue the work of

vulnerable

For media adlvocacy and j ournalists'

org<liniza.t.io.ns~ to
on ethicsand or hy other

continue training seminars and workshops p.rovided. hy their own news organizations wnoerneda..g~n.cies;

safety for jou..rrlJ;;JJ]is1:.sand media practi tioners, whether

jou.r.l1l0l1ists and media practisioners
prm:ectan.d deJen.d j ournalistsunder

so that the comrnanity

win.

andlor attack.

The Center for .MedJa, Freedom and. Resp~J:ns.ibility~the
March. 5 roundtable the differem

Forthe

media community

as a whole, to eomplete

an

participants,

and. the editors and. news maU<liger,s

interviewed emphasized the importance self-regulatcry mechanisms

of developing and. sustaining
of the media that accept

envirenmema] scan of the media andcreate a clatOllbtilise of journalists. <lnd.media pra.ctitlo:lJ;er.s in the C01iJ.Utry,
For the legal community, that ca!Jl provide
to

public complaints and which correct the media's professional and ethical lapses, The O1iWarene.ss 0'£ the public and the avm1abi~i1I:y f o the venues fDr complaints provide a~,ternaJ.1l1V'esm use ;of violence the and/or going to the courts to resolve issues against the media
a.

develop a group of ~aJwyers and. media practitioners

journalists

legal assistance;
the g~verfiIil1em) to addr .. ess the journalists and the culture of impunity by the coordination among and. the programs of its ageacies respensible for the delivery (phi]ippin.e N atiena] Pollee, Department
for courts of la.w, etc- ~j+. -kUling: of

Recemmeadatiensr
• F or media. owners,
to

improving of action
of justice

expand [he insurance coverage

(aocidental death and dis~b~emem) unprovoked m.urder and assault, medical reimbursement, burial expenses, hospital daily income benefit, etc.) of as well as provide sa~ety (buHet-pro'of jad'!:!eu, helmets~6.rS1I:~aid kits, etc.. and communication equipment 1)0 all employees )
including contractual as workers, talents, correspondents, ro all media.

'I

of justice,

etc. Other benefits such as health and tm.vd. insurance

well

<IS

hazard pay should be provided

employees,

especially those assigned to cover dangerous

assignments; • For the Kapi:sa:nan 11,gmga J3rookast-.e:r

ng Pilipinas (Association of Broadcasters of the P hilippiaesland the
IDa

Philippine Press Institute, to remind their members review <lind.observe their own standards;

.~.

!Matti!! On M(!ciia, Owilersllip

MATRIX ON MEDIA OWNERSHIP
GOVERNMENT~OWNED AND ..CON1'R:OLlED MEDIA

Television
National Broadcasting Network, Inc, (NBN-4) NBN-4 is the flagship government television network owned by the Philippine gov,ernment through the People's Television Network" IRc. In tercontinental Broadcasting Corporation, IBC~13

Radio Philippines Network Inc., Inc. RPN·9 (SoliarTV) Radio Philippine Broadcasting Service (PBS)
There are 28 stations nationwide, not .induding the Metro

Ma_uila stations: dzRB, - Radyo ng Bayan dzRP - Radyo Pilipinas dwBR - Business Radio
dzSR - Sp arts Radio

dzRM - Radyo Magas,in

Press, !Freedom PIlCitE)oClic)FI tlill J!tJumalists' a A Me<lla (lolillml!l'Iity's RBSP~'1ullb Ully

Safety:

----------------------------

Philippine News Agency {rNA) Philippine Information A~e'ncy (PIA)
Sources: http://www.pbs.gov.ph/
FM 25 TOTAL 289
315,

hupd /www.nbn.gov.ph/ http;!I'W\vw.pia.goy.ph/ MIDdBERS OF NATIONAL MEDIA. ASSOCIATIONS

14 220
Associatioll 143

Source, Kttpiltman n,gmg4 Brodko'lSler ng Pilipin.as (ImP, ]l.roru;!camts the Phllippines), 2009

or

oJ

Print
The Philippine Press Institute (PPQ has 70 activenewspaper organizations-members nationwide. PPI has six national da.i]ie,s~members,n Manila.: i
Bus.in;Bss

PHIUPD?INE M:A.SSMEDIA. .AND 1HEIR O\VNERS
The General Information Sheets of the Securities and Exchange Commission mel the Top 100 Stockholders ofrhe

Philjppine Stock Exchange provided the following information:
~'~dia

World

EnmV
ABB-CBN linC.

Owner/s

MediH~late;l i34lsin2ss t1teresl$

Gloor ~u5In!!'Ss In~e~l~ lJJj)e~ Inc. OOrmerw &mprass}
&~an Telecom" m~nfua1ions 1-101& imgs (~anlle~ First P,llIlppine HtMmgs (Fir&!

Not<lble Stockholders

I miner Notes
I

Malaya Mdnila Standard Tbday Philippine Daily Inquirer The Journal Group The Philippine Star
Three members plus four associate members of PP]are in

bltA~nio ~,III

AB8-CBN Channel 2 dlMMAM
dwRHFM

M~nny\I.
PangilitiJM'S M~diaQu9$t h~ a nWlonl'y $~ in SkyCable. Tile

The Ph'Qjne CllntraJ
Depository,

ABS{lB1i4
R.egio:n.;JN~

D:ilip\, is a major
meholrS

reo Nominee

rompany

I~Q.'CD) is <I private

Groop
ABS·OIm Glo.W (.~FIlafiok 'D.n.e, Kapami~a

the N ational Capital Regio,n. Source: P:P[

Gen, 5~V D~elopm&!iJ1
~lion)

(This ocrnr,pan~ is also s. shareM.alder in all'le1 media OOfIlIpanies}.

ownem by lI3J'ious finanlJiaJ
illSliMons

(major CJPl~
market jJ~yers il1he
GOun1ry~1t

Chawl, ABS.
The IfIlipino Ch~mr.el)

Maraloo (i.qJeireS
are [eU 'I!~h 6.iB % Slake. Mlanny V. PangilWwri OO\!,1 Q\\ru majorily of tile shares.}

La Suerte CigaT ~apeHe

CBN IEdS)'Remit,

Co~y,

lormer '!IHl8 Pre::ident Noli d'e CesAro, SharOOJ Cune1a,.

jJ[(WiOOsan
aiilonnated ~e~lelllent ~!f$temfOl' til and e:tlJilry

Fedeno1JoM.
(1arr:ia, aM ~~

A"Itmo ~ minor
·~tockholders.

PreS$ Freedom Prorectlon ami Journalists' Serety: A Medi~ eDmmu.nlty·~ RespDn$lblll....:ty~

_

Malrix On Media OWllefshlp'

A13S'CBN
Jnteradi\le ~TIFC

Roliwell Land

Now, fl;ss,.OBN
OiJline, gamifll!JJt S1ar Magic ~taJerrt

Chtilg TiDIlIJ Keng, 11 Chinese DuSllessman \WIG also has shares in
Rob'irrGDllI9laoo

~el)lJrilles
inttte

Thus., it haUls reduce
tile lrisks of in;,regJment,

Pliippina.s.

maliliJ,e 01 d'ocu. Im!lfI1s aml M1llicaleS,
~iioorelal

de'J.telq~en1. rum) AS&CBNFilll1 PrOOlrotion (StaJr Cil'lEma, RoodrunAer
N&1l'i'Otk}

Md Bamo!')o(ie ON) Unibal!f!;, • h~, a nif1lJrity sla~e in ABS-CBN, Indi'tltlual ~'OOlISof'he Lapel iamily ~d shares.

tnS,lte oornpfll!l!J'

SkyC*Jle ~Ca.ilje TIl Service) Ca'be Chanl'let '[MvtJ lif$t)'le Nelwo~,l'avel, \ Hero, 1liaJ1$,AJ4G,

PC!D tw1rii~ Corpomlion (Ji()/JC) ~ffitesas Ns wbsidialY. Blililile sha~sheld i1lrPCNC

acts as a
nlll'in~

liml to \Wlich seculftie·s are
Ira~'

aoollXfga:f Infati itaJ:e'
1rn1i1sa1:tiOIiS

1he~r

whleleal!il'lll

00 not

gr,ilm.rojing pm'rersta,~,
ReglJleted b)' JIie Securities and IE)tha. (iCtmmisslom, lhePCNC Icg~ in and fadlitales iransaolions

[e.g"ll'e slotkJ'llil'dSl' wITJJ,ajE1s, hlSitl81 $100}:.£

CineiilaOoe,
dzMMTer~) AB&CBN Publahil11g (iWeJro, Kits. Foc.rJ:oe,. S!iarol'ial~
JIfyx../~Im,

as ili3at:1u
OI'iTlaf.SemJ-

oflarfng)

ril_les Lrld€f
flansaolbn

aJeM~
b~,aml

.Slar:Srtrdi'o, The
BVll, FaGd,

MerlO Wer.ldAAys,
Woitli1gMo.ll1, Mew Him, Metro

(e,g" purchase
ofstook:s)

ai~lilamed after" 1he POD I NomirLoo. •

Sodcty,~

InvolWilg ~lInlli~s,
{cedifi~e;s (if (bcLIi1eflJ1S

Ml!dia Entity ALe

Owner/s

r/:e.:lia-r~lated

I 01hl'::r 13uslness
lnterests

!iu5111ess I'Iterasts All1onto Ohua AIM IlroaOCtis.tillll Company [dIlIZ. AM, HomeHa-;jIb

Notable Stockho Iders

- OIher Notes

S'ludki 23 {VHF chanMlJ

lhat represent
lina cial
~,ilILl1!, eeg" ~oil'lf'OOl'l

Gr,Oltl ill

Comranies

Caba~

'97.9 FM)

AB8-CBN
Foundallon (Ba':f8Il nl JiWl, Banla.y

$tocks,

Pppine Busiooss Daitj Mimx Ino,

Iinsurance Co., Inll IE~emaIC~emalQly

Fortune ~Wdic<w Inc:. For1une Life

fQJiluneG~ Il'I5u~aooe
C«paration Etelmal Gard~

Beta, e-media, ABS-CSN Ucens~

BanIB.Y Ka a-san)

t<tttds) ,ele(ll'Onically, i!lS~ad(II

(BLlSJI!ess:Jdirro.rj Philipj)i~ Graphic Publica[ons Inc,

G¢fporalion
Bai11'l:

M'emOOal Palik

Ilirougllllle
actual

C.late SaWlgS

IPress Freedom IPmtec'~iOfi Oil'll!:! JOIIMnflJislJ!i' Sa'rely:

A

edia Communlty'5

Fle1lPIlMi lililfity

.N.C~illl.y
D~q]TOOlll CaIP-

-

GMA Mafkeling and Produdiol1lS
Inc. 13Mi!1 New Media
~I'IC- ~Fanab:1'.

Group
Managemiliil
l}evelopn~llI1lii1(::_

Talents, such as
JoIina M~J1gal

KieyFiJ\\l.l'loe iI_nd Imresbnel1ll: O!Hpora1iO!1 EaslemIN!fe~r
<Il'IdSeruIiy

San MigJJ:e1
~rati:on

and MWian Rivera, and repol1ers, SIJ~asKam
Daoo aFlliJ'a~ TaJUe., hold

A!!i~1lC)l

Brown MMonna
Press Inc,

tGMlA.b, IP"CP.J*i. COiil9Jlnerill1Q wi1h

minority.s.

Swrrvnit MeiJI~)
GMA Network

Cltlooy Bkis$\'itTIS
Hotel

Lisa 'ill
Filtrls\w:. GMiA Worldwide (Philipplles) 1:00,
SootnaIios Inll.. OOW.M~img and ProoIl!Il;OO!1s llit. (G'MA

Asia: SEturtly af1lilln~galioo
Age"rt:y

Go10ngwei molds minority shaJfes
(Gd<OI"l!JNe~!> 0';"11

!sum GiailOill'S
C_eTtlilief Hotel Manila Grai'ljjl
Opera Hat€t M~ia

If1I()..

the S!llI1Vl1~ Media, whidl pa;tlners witllGMANaIlf

Merlia in PEP,~l.
PCD NOllllinee

I OwnBF,Is

Me!li~fel~led

mher !Business
I

Entily

~, BusinessIrrteresls NET·25
dzEG AM

Intert!sls

Nota,ble Stoc~hllldie'ls

i

OlDer Nales

~rds)
Alia P'rodudiolilS

Eagle
Broadc

Jwbbe Seralin Cuevas

StoCkholOOllJ
3_1'e knCNlTl rg/6"$.~1

-

Gr(l""I~c. CiynetNePoork MaJikelifll\laM Prl!lllJaiions Ino, ~enteredblocklimS'
aQ~""'iIh

c:asUng
~rali«l,

niCilslo
(roelPJs
group)

rme:rribers.
- t,~et!ia I:llti~'

I Qrl'lnerls Felipe
GOlOO

rAe'.lia-relaled tlusmESS Interests G~Ut.·i' (GIMA
Piney N. GWi

Other Business
I

Notfble
StQcWlold~~s

i
I

01h~r INol~s

ZOE Ilroa!lcas1ing
Ne~l/oril:.lo pro!.i1de PrOJll'\1f'1lS for !he.

Inleresls &. De~1 Corp, Gown Devel~enl
Oofil),

GMA Netwti~ Inc,

fLG Management I Wina Gatllante,
GMAS!!IDVioe IPresilBll fGf
EiMeM.ainllllem

Lile TV, lre1Iiol'laJ
Gillleii'lo

d1anr*)

sJ:Mions.]

Duaml
M~a_rdo fI,

RGMA(dzM A!M,
d,l'o'i.S FM)

Corpma.ioo
I.i)' MI:l41ti'l'erde {Plega1 Filnvs; parlne~s il,some mcW~under GMI\ Films)

MediiJiIlnerge

Go'lon Foomda_1f;!)i'I
1«:,

Press Freedom f'roteocticocf'l ~Iild Joum:llists" A Medla CllmmUl'lity'15 IRi!!:spol!slbm~

Safety:.

Media EnIlLy, Mw\ila

- OW.lffi!lr/s 'Fred J. Elizalde (81'lZelde-

'l'.Iedla1elate~ Business Interesis

! Other Buslness Interests. ciA) Coolmercial

Nolable Slockhmders,

Other N~tes ,

d6lHAM

MaMiJi International P'olil Terminal Philippine ifl11i$1

Bred GaStitg
Company

and Il'I1M1liial Oo:rp. ~retailing
loo1Jireaf pndur.is

R~)

Bank
Cer1JlroEooolilT

HotI'M
96.3 EasyFIock

·AJ,ena,~ Ilh!aIioo, Puma, Dwpe, Ipanama,

&ms~ arid Styfe
J\iJ.i!IIaJ SGene'

UilINer:sity

G~eoolia)
Elro land

OmJiOO'Ililn
81ro BPO

Sf!0l HotIings Sen,rilles (lliledir.<!l
ltam~Mp1ion) Elm Tlrading Corp:tmOOri IRox_as and ComJlW1ll

Media Entil~
I

Ownerl~ Dante,IM" IiDlIII

1_~illa'lel~ed Busin~ In1en;$ls

OIher B uslness Interesls

t'Drabl~
S!ad:hDld~rs

Oiheq Notes

RliiJV

Mani~

Tne MaRila rIMes

TIoo: Manila Tgj'J8$
c:dl~ge·

--

-

-

Troos

IPutlishllg ~p,

ThIll Manila Tunes ThelManilaT~ Skills traifling
IllSlitllle Dante A Aflg amd AS&!lI!liares 100.

Go~kademy Inc.

FuegD tkldililQs
anm M13mageliTll'lnt Cl!Ifp.

~pllifrJ
re~lionsJ adiierli:>irf!:l 'Iiml) Med~ EntiN , Manila BLillelin Owner/s

i 'Media-l'el~teiI I O1iler Busl ness : Busillass 1.1ter2sts Interests
Manila &','eIin EliIr~MM

Notable stockhoilders,

Oln~r "otes
I __

Dal1(eAng~1
1fj0'!'1ii1~

Em . YaJl

Laborao~ TlMI,tIo &!ita ,Wa Ma:l1i!a PMoe
Ho1el Mai"ii1<l Hotel Garp.

Publishing
fANp.

Menzis remain ~ockOOldel'Si of !he Mam &ffIaiirr tthrol!lgh Ihe Men2i
Trust Fund~, witln P'250 rnilrmlfl wor1J:l

Bari);_ of lfJe Palp-

I[)l;,bekie,~ SEtiItaJ~ I\VlVlas{O£fl~

~·hm

pines)m-_m, ~_~II2000.

Uwarway
BIMy.e

US #WtOOlOlire Co, ConSl!lnjis,
GatcMlians O'~n
mil1ori~' sl1wes,

62

f'l'eSS Freetlom Protemw,1lI artd JCl<'Urnalists·"Satt:ty: ~ M!edl!l:l CO!l'lnu.lnl~s Responslb!iII~

Uedla EntiW

: OWAeris

MEl:li3-r,elat~d . Business Iflwes1s

. O'l'Aer Busi11J~~~ I~terests

tfot~ble S10CkjhDI>tI~fS

. Other Noles

Cd'ilas Verdes,
loc. ~Cardina1 Santos ~ical Cooler)

,~.

MediaQ~t HOOlings
~n{).

PLOT Bemeficia1
TliUsI Fm;II (MrumyV, Pa_ngilil'l3.lIj,

AtiC ~i'IiIe'J1I Gorp, (TVS, 7rf!o sIiaJre)
PiliIStal' Dairy Ino, (The Pb.\IJMlITle S1ir, 8% s1\lre)

Rirst Pacific
Oompa~, LtcL

I?ili&I~nel.mg

Dawao !)locbJfS
~pitaJ
-----

~lltep~

00. [Sman, PrreI,
,e1lWT. PLDT BailefiGial Tnlst FIJOO) MetmPaQfli~

Med i~ Enijitlj

Ownerl~

~'~Ili~fel~led Business Ir,'leresl5 ifrqr.llffi.rJlef ¥lint Tmrn {fEPP,~'ilillJ

OIher EIuslaess Inleresis Golden im ..Inll
p.

Notable StDckitold~rs

Other Notes

Na1ion Broo.de\3.5~ng
~~(An~

Pliiiiwine Dail~

MaJii:li
P,rie1D fliIro:andra

Inquirrer Imo,

(troo-p

I LRP Inc. ~.__~. ~,C'.!lm00yemil, 11a Roo$,Prle0)~d3 Maflll"$) 59.71 % sh_

R1!I!Iyo,MTV PiVlippine.s.) BusinessWorll1
Publishing

11i~_s
~lion:

Pre10

Oi:ip_,

lalildoo Paamo CorporaiiM
OMCl!-1MPIG Wa1€f

Aonw:aJdez
(Aufioo,.

Goldem [:Im]uts, [~, (Dunkin

IMi~iju-ar
nt~~Or~

P,~M

AJliarHl8 MOO'i3.

~ut<s)

Pninlinlg, Ina"
le;ffllOOh Digital

Conp::mtloo

00Jp.)

Imern<l1iona1 Falllitv FoOl!

PMe10 f~iIlilt tM~~~$,t1c..) hOld$~$

00, '~aynilad Watel" Sarf¢e~ M~iaSC'ape IrIG. {~ dzy~al1V1 I.oc" in par1:l1.e!$l'lp
i,II~hlhe >Can~mji$) ~xMi~ing ())I'poraiion

b.spaper

Seroires IIlI!!. (FtWks, Shakeys)

Para_alia

If'll}.

ABC Dffuelopment Coopoffi1]on mas
boLlghllO% stilares from file-

IPI1Jl!irer PubliGalWtns IJK;, C~ Dilily N6ws

8alaan 2fl2n (~Bataan

P.apar M~I$)

Inquirer,
Mann~

MPS PiVned'1<IImo, Upbeafli
IlWeslmem~ Inc,

Mart!i\l NoFltl Tollwa'l'$ Gorpor,a1ion
TolWtfI'S

&~ra

R'epubliD Chemical l!lduS1ries {lIli~~ sIlare)

V,

PanPliUl says PiBC ~I1Sno direzt i!'fl.!Ol\f$nIIetlI
in!nQ~$

Security Bank
(minoMl~~)

iB\i3il'leSS Vrmiuf*S,

IInc,

'Man~
Corpor,alion

Ma~.a1iGifil1!fm. r:ilJbes III Taucl!
(~xrQi\I-e Ooooormillium 'CiJrp.
~af$i

<\~ra!iorr.s"ABC D~~~ Corp. is maJorty
rrffi'led bVIi'l~ Medi~qoost Holdin[}5, UOOEf Pangilinan's PLOT ~icialTrrlJBt

Rewu~llii:, Mernlro me)
~_8%

putlbUon fm
FQlbes Palk)

The Ne1Gro~.p Carp,
The tlJet(jro~'p

Fund,

Rrl/ecid_e !MOO-IDaI
Centeli M\:d[c.al DoclOf:$, Inc. (Makaii Medical V€al1er)

AA'VA~ MMiIlI"y (e-:tOlIt5We'
maga2ine Qf Ayala. .A~g Village~

1'1rq',ect Managamerrt Corp,
The ~G~OUJl

ol.r~qWer
.

RepoFl$ ha\i1l ~ 1hat Pangjli~an acttJally owns ~Ll%

P~erty

Mi1Il1a~CoIp.

Press Freei:lonfl p~ectlOI'I aoo Journalists' Sa~; Ai l'I(!d~a CommunitY's Resp~!l$lbmty

Matrix. 'On Media Owoorshlp

Jl'Ie,~~omcial pubHta1ian

"j"he~'G[Q!IJp

Real E~ate
Mffilagemerrt

01 Phirlf.P~e
TownsiJips,ll'II1

s'llms, II$t of ~ is represeill.ed by ,r~qrJir,er board member Gil PangiliMfI (di~losed~ Victor Ag!Jslin, minorib/

Media Enli1y

Ownerfs Felioiano Belmonte andf~ihf

',lediH.~le;:I . OIher B usiness Busiress IrrlereS"15 Interesls

~'ota,bl~ StockhQId"~r~ Repmlledly, Manny V. PangiliMll ~h~ig1I his oompani~~~ mi~lharas~

other Notes

~

Philstar
Daily Inn.

~l)l;kiIolder and ful:rrner ooItlmni$1).
(V"ID1Df Aw.Gtin, Beliilda Duna_nan) and rnlTemt (Ma- Ceres

llt1ilStar.

M~

Mamageroom
1f1{).(he~1Jy Memo'\Bu~' Jimenez-, heftS 01 PLDT's r$liI
bu~tl$6

former

l:liJllol oollIn!'iSl$
looI_d minority

grol,(p} • 8% shar;e Hastings Holdings ~Madiaquest, underPLDT i3ene1iciai liflJ5! Food) - S'% sI1are Notable Srockho ldsrs Olh~f NiOtes

slnares..
Media IEntitjr IptUlippil'le
JOUrf!~ful.!3i

I

:

Q'tJIWTffi

1','edia·TeI~t€~ Bwsinm Int'er'ests Kamahalam Pillblisliling 1m;. (Maml'a Sl.aJwJai'd

. Otlll~r Business Il1Jt~rests Be~t

toIotabte S1()1;,kIIIglderS

Other Not~

MartiI'I
ROOiIuaJ)je~

I

~r:a1ion Ce'b~ Holdings Inc. r~R ~ IEstate
r~edi..a EJiJli!~' 1i1~1J) O'l'Merls rl!OOia-reI3~~~ Bu~ne~ Inlere51S Other 8d~9ness Inrerest~

Inc:.

Tl)jI;jy, Pre$$

KagHingan Priming

Eric, Henry

Poopie'$ J:Ntmal

Lepoolo ~rKJ'al:yj Milillng Corpmalion

MlfiI.'lanao
N~

Ca~
i·FM
Local mlio

P6opJe~ T.
J%l:ipta's Ta~

Milnil~ Yacht Club
f~ooi<l IEntity Tmrune Publishing
C«npal1~

Nali~, Wrmren'$ JC!nl'l18.l Ftelnsu~Ct: Cofll'JlltQ1 iPtJillppin!l!ii
Irmnrelnc.

simians
O'i'm!!rls W-iOOz r~edla-relaterl B'Jsinesstlter~slS ~ (}Uher Bus~ness . Interests ; r.:iolaille :!llor:tholder5 mher Not,~s

(II. ~he

pm weasing &
Solid eroUJlIn;.

CiaGho
Olivares and iamilv Olica De\lt.

~i~ roods ne,
VtctOOas Milling ~vlna.

~bOO

~.

Hliifllgs Ire. I

MIaMilll:On M'ed~ Ownership

CMFR DATAB,ASE ON THE
KILLING OF JOURNALISTS AND MEDIA WORKERS IN THE PHILIPPINES SINCE 1986:~
(Updated as of July 31, 2(10)

A.IIII rna~ killed s~nc;e,1986 jeu lsts by motive!'

non-work r'elat,ed
33%

work~relorted 118 67%

The Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility (CMFR) recorded 175 cases of kmiug of Filipino journalists/ media workers since 19'86.

69

PreSS Fre!idlllm protectlonl atld Joumalists' A Media eommuni~5 Responsibility

S2lfQty:

Joulrnallists/med;a workers killlled in ,the, Iline of duty shlCie 1986

JOIU Ilistsimedi a work,€! rs, kl lied in th,e rna llin.e 0" duty by r,egioln of place of Ikill'ing
40 --------------------------------~-3~ ----------------:::_30 --------------------------------

2S

20 ------------------'15 -~___ijil_l.____------------1
10 --::-----y_.----;;=-;;;--+---:6-----I--.5

01~~~~LJ.u~~~~u.L

Of the 175 journalists/media workers killed since ]'986, 118 were killed because of their work. Seventy-nine out of the 118 work.relat,ed cases happened during the Arroyo administration (F,ebruary 2001~June 30, 2010).

Most 0'£ the j eurnalists/ media workers killed in the line of duty since 19'86 were based in the provinces, The Autonomous Reg-jon ,of Muslim Mindanao registered the most num bel' ().4) of work-related killings since 1986" This ind,udes the 32 jouraalists/ media, practitioners killed in the Amparuan Massacre last Nov. 23 2009. ~ IFmpino ,jo'umaHsts/media workers kUled in the 1IIIneof dUlty by island groups

J1our,naUsts/mediial worke,rs kiUed in the liine of duty by administraJl'iion
&5.,Aquino III 1

"Troye
Es~rad~

751
Mlnd,sj"ul, 72

1.1

6i%

71

IF'i':ess IFlreedoliD IFirmecitioFl lintl Joumali'SlS' safel~ A Media CommunitY's 'Respom.ibilib

IFiUpino journali,sts/media, w,orker.s kUled iin the nne of duty by glender

FIUPINO JOURNAIllSTSlMEDIIA WORKERS KILLED IN l1HE OF DUTY SINCE 1986 (AS OF JULY 31, 2,0110) News o'rg-anlmllon

ILINE

l

Place of IKillinlgl

liegloo of Place ot
1'I:_~~n!l Region II

119SS'/!flf-24

~,BWJelUl

l~uegar®i) Cily.
'Gagaym Remers lugU9JF!ffi0' Cil)', Ga!J'f[an
Vigilio Pacala

RetToo II

MarLit,iUie San IMllo, '=i*.j1l18

Region IV-A Regiorn III

One hllilldlred and. ten (93 percent) of the IllS j ournalisrs/media workers killed in the line of duty since 1986 were male.
5 19871wg-.27

ImonisioPe~uo .kiIaq~in·

a~
Olo~Clt)',

Wews

Zamliales

NaJOiso Balani

Jouli'tili1llllisits!mredial wod~eni killed iin the line of duty by medium
-

GxRA DaiiOO City,Ollila() det

811'
6 19,57.Aug-27
Rngie lagado

!hR.A Sur

Region XI

1--";

.,
---

DMo 01ty. Cavan del
AegkmXI Diy. 1iM'oia;® de.l

d:!!ffiA
1!>a'i\1lIi)

-

--

/" ., +.» ~/ / /,./...
by those who worked for radio (45).

.1

1

II

,.

Sur
l.

1

I

CeS1l:f

Maglala~

dliAA IDalfaO,City,Dmoda &!!'

ReiJf:oo XI

Most of the journalists and media workers killed in the line of
duty worked solely for prim (49 of the 118 or 4f2 percear], frOUo,wed The number of prj nt journalists who were killed increased after the Maguindanao massacre where most (24 out of the 32 fatalities) were working, solely for print. This includes Reynaldo "Bebot" Momay whose body has yet to be found.
11 1961.()ct·, D

Martin CaSllor lU.mom NOOIejas beoEnriq~m Kytico mews s!l:f'l1ioo',
W~rliillesl PeopJe~ Journal Celm (»y, GW!I

NatiOl"lal C!lPilal Region RegiDrnVIII

13

74

Press I'reedQfiTl protectkm a_i'!CiI JOldnnalislS" A Media Communily's, Re!;podslbllity

Safu:1y::

3!1 39

.:IDIl11·J.a.I\" 00·
2DD1-J;eb-24

Rolli!lldb· U1~eta...

dyKR Kaifu, Aklan dxlO
P!)gadian

RegO!1 VI

51

20041.Jun·11

Elpilio

.,~J:I'BiOO)'.a" MBC-d2iAH Aadyo· Na1in R8g~XII
~I SaJltoo Cily, SWlh~to

Mohammad Yu~h

Oily,

RegoolX

52
53

20Q4.Ju131 20D4-Aug'iJ5

ROgel Mari3.00 (A}

dz_J(;

Re!Jjon I ~ionlV·A

ZarrIOOeJ1g~ Sur del 40 2U01·May-30 Candel~riQ·Jhun"

SHn Nioolas., llocl~. Norte Regiom IX
Iilimel MBJrialo''''

ca~na"

d'\J!Lt Zall1bDallga Oily., Zambnanga del &m

dzRH, &igar, DpJJo 'Vrmlas

Ba.uan,IBaIa.s
Remare, Burga_f, MI, Sama~F''OO.D'Ii Sta. ha, IlIlar, BiJl8~n Region III

41

2OO~·Mat13

EdgarOmeno •

dl:KP, Zamti~&;nbe, MifldafJ3fi SrNdSlar Pa~diana~.
ZarOOoan!J3, ,ctal Sur

lilegion IX

54

2()!)4.Sept·29

Rvmoo BwmgcaJ

42

2002·A.ug..22

RhlXle Sim;'
Esgl.I5na /I!.oam1ar.~

K~

~1~~'l().11 Cable

:Rep IV·A

56

2004·Dllt-19' 2004·Nw-12 2004J-Nov·t5
200-!ii-Mar-24

Eldy Gabinllle'S, EldySablas

a

d:<JR·FM Radio Real Tandag, &nrlgao del Sur

AegiollXlI1 ARMM

1"1/
San P,a'bbCil)', 1~),Jna ReglomV

56
57 Region 1111-/\

Gene 8l:'IIfd L~mawag

MlndaN6<NS Jolo,SLim <lyIN ·11lt!n1)Q Rady-o IKaflbo", Aklan
Ta.uliDf1I.;JICit)i,S Kudarat

,43

200a·~·28 2.OOS·May·17 2003..JIlII·OB 200J..Aug·19

John Eielen\lillimUe'i',a, dzGil Carna~ Albay Jr. Apon ario 'flollf Poba:l\t" Bonifacio 61'$gorlo NDallIillarante" GYiTI
LlJ~a City, (l;Jezon

Herson !{nolan ••• Maik-il_e ESp,>9fat"""

Re!,JonVi
Region Xil

44 4S

56 ~ionlll
59

TiW' Mid!imd ReL1e~~ aA

~Bana1 La Pail, larloo

46

Sta Crul, LagulQ
dKSIF

me ,laguna SeNe, dzJV

2[1[l5..M\3.~

Klein CaJntooeros'

d:rM

Region IX

Reg'oi11\1-A

~'ag my, Zaimbal:lt1ga del~

47

~OOt.'Mug.2C

Rico R8Imirez:

RegkmXlI1

60
6;1

:2005·May-l0
:rooS-.Jul'D5

Phi[p AgIlls1in .... Rolanoo Mor.~1e6

SlaJline rli1t~ R800fd9r
Dingal&n, Aurora

Regkm III Reg~XJI

SanFrarll~o ~usan del Sur dd3,Q Oa~itO CUy, Dallao dell Sur Ili;'ME
Ma.sball.lCi1y, ~bate

d_xMD
'GiooeralSantos ~, Soo!h Ctitabab!)

4B

2DOa.:sept.oo

Juan·.hI"

Pa!a

Region XI
B2

20~·18 21'.11Ji&N!:w·2IjJ
2tIJ6·[)ec--l)1

Ricardo Uy fk:,,~rtRanws""

~RS·/!JM

Region V Region IV·A Regioll
1111

SOF~on OHy, Sor:sogon Region V ~onV

49
50

2003-081>002

Nelm Nadwr~
Ro'III~DErmlal'"

63
64

Ka~t Cahi¥ao, lag~1IIiI dyDO
G-'ebuC~y,QD

2OOHeb·11

dzRC, MarIO Maws Lemazpil City, Miay

Geor@ Bemaoian'

71

Press Freedom ProtecOOflJ arK! JOl,fma'lIs'I.s' Stlle1¥: A Media Com n1L1lnlty's Responsibility

SiJ,

zooo.JaJ1l.2(I

Rolly Cal'iete

d~PR P.~ian arty, ~ngadelSiJr
Tilr:Iac ProfIJe,

'Re.goo IX

18

2~"2

boo 1..tMila

~~oMa~in San IRoq~ t40~her.n Samar d~SY OroqUie111 ity, MisaJliii:l C fuidental d\liDO Sa_nJt!se C~y,OxidentllJI Mii'dIJl'O' ~ [ialirrtB'i!ilig ltIarobo, SlIIigao del &If
C-()/d Slar D.%iIy

R~ionVIIi

66

2Um.Apr'lJt2

Oi1ando

Mefijlml

Fqjonlll

rai1'aGP~~
Tarl~City,T~ dfR A~gion I,V.8

19

:IDOO-F00-23.

6r~IRollln'"

Rsgion X

167

200B~Mav·22

Fernando BaM'"

Puerto P~ncreS<l Oily,
'Regtoo )(11, ~iQnXII

!MI

:~~JIIl~'

Cli~n :Pel'ez'''

A..egionIIV-6

PaJawan

68
fill

.~lSI

GE!ilirgel[~.o Maooel AI~'!Jigo

dl:NO

81
82

~Jlj.27

Cllldoirafo ,liIaJ)l·'" BE-AgieAdolfo'"

Region XIII

Kk!3pawan, ,~~o Kldaptwam, {)o1abato
dxQ:S.

2D06.Jun· 1'9

dlND

~N'bY--23

A_fllI;ltLlJfl taWIl,
~)!!ind1lf1ai!l ctiRH .mlmm,
Mag.~ind8nro

ARMM

70

200&J~1·18

Armanoo 'R.achman"

AegioBXI

M

2IXl1NfJJli'-23

HenlY Araneta'"

JiiRMM

Paoo"
Carnnelo~
Pamiios

DigosCi~, Damlfel Sur d[RB Sla. 'Rosa" Nuell'.3JEcija. dxGO
iLla'RO

71

ZKl'i\O,PF·18

R~m Aegio~ XI

8:4.

:l'llJ(l~}N'G'i'"Z3

Mo DelbeM 'Ma>iI-IiIlaa"

mala.··· 8S 2lilOS·Nov-23 Au~ Ba1alu!1!i"

umv
A._101m\

A!RMM

M~lJind~~

n
73

2007-IDet'24

rOOlando 'Ba1lf!t!f I!Jnluan (Aj. Mar,ros Mataro

Cit)1, Da'laO d;iJ IRegioo111

Sur :axta·April-27 LINN :Sm SW01I tolll g;t~e, North L!JU(m E:qlressway dzA T SaMayll,. ~O:~ diVR 86 2!OOS·No1l-23

G~SWruNy ~lBntalm.
M~uindanM hfirXJiro lni' .Annpa1lran ~DWIll, Maguindilm MJ'd18nd Re~'
.AMpalWr!

AlRMM

MLIIO Belia'"

MMM

74

200B-June-3l]

Eao "Ben' Siton'"

IRomeoJinIl1~ 'P.ahl.r

~'bI~"

~o~.

AAMM

Maguinda~

Aoxas City'. Gapiz
d;.;MD R~gion XII ~ Regm X

Ma:rile:; CabIDas.·.. •

7e

20!lWwg,·g

"-Iews FtIais., RPN • dl;OX AAMM AmpatJJJan iawn,
MaguinBafnO
~111$

GermJ. SMlos. Oily, Sou1h Com_b~tQ
/Ii~to Padri!}3.o"'· dxRS _RadyoINa1in Gmgoog rn,. Misamis Ootal

---------------- c.achu€lb .. , --------------------~--~ - --I-lallnibal ~. SJ~r,Pj#1,!i? AHMM
J!.mpmuan Icmn" MaguililliilJ1an,

Pres.s Freedom Pretectlcnand Joumali&I8!' Siaklly: A MedIa OolilmliLnlty's Re5f,lollt!;i'bility

00

2(!I[MlNk:w-23

JepIlOI1

CadagdagOR'" 91 20Q9.Nov·23 Johll Canibari· ...

,Saksi Maim AIn;pa!L13I1town,
Maglil!ldallOO

ARMM

101

201l9-tlJiw·23

AeyMelisro'"

Pe!icdioo 1m
li.m,palUtmbj'Na,

AflMM

M.MdaniiO

PerJoo.oo flli,
SLllla~ Kl43ra1 Gazette Ampatuan towm, MaguiFlliamao

ARMM

100:

2(IOO.MlII'·2;J

Re},na1ij(l

"Bebol"

M:lInay
103

Ma'tand Reilimr
Ampatwn ~O\m. Maguindanao

ARMM

2009~0l/·28

Marire

<

00:

m·rti)o'-23

~I'lg'

Ele~1l:lf "Lwh' ~amiDj",

~T~y
~lliial'ltawn;

ARMM

Monlano'"

SaksjB~, dliCP AlI1pa1uan town,

ARMM

oMaglJhj'a_nao 104 2~·23 ARMM
105 2IOO9·Nov-23 AHMM
,Rosell Momles ....

Ma,lndai'i!ll.Q

93

20~·:23

No!!.' DaO!nf! ...

PerirxJioo

.mi, Rapirto

News Focus Maguindam

Amp!l!1uamtmm, MaguimaD 9~

i\nfatmmn tOLm,

ARMM

200S·Nov-28

Vic«N Nuiiel"

UNTV

GII\3J Dele Gruz···

SaMiBa~'M
AmpabllllJl (trim,

ARMM

Mag,uindmao 9S 2()l!llNlw·23

AmpaliJan (()'j'In, MagwiPiiJlanao

he "JJioi Duhay ....
J

GokjStIlr

Oany

lOB
ARMM

2009·Nov-23

Joel PareD h''''

_LIalI ,.
M~uilRao,

PronJ9mllYeftli

mimi,

ARMM

Alnpah.lan t01'lll1\ Magllitdanoo

~nJindaFJa0 GokJ Stat [)aNy lJ,nnpaluan ~1lW11, Period.\:Jo Ini
Ampa1U(ijlb)WJl,

107' ro;)9·Nov-23 AAMM

IbiInie Peralit1e

96

201l9-N0lI·2,3

Jolito E~aJdo ...

UNirV cAmpatuantQWJ1J, Magui~ao
IrlIrIiflll'i'la~~tle

ARkOil

108 2a09-N1l'II·,23
A!RMM 100 ,2~N'cw-23 ARMM

97

2009·No'l-23

Sa!1!1ol> GaWhali;m

JI... • 96 200;J.M:ilr-2'3
BienverrlOOL_a
Jr.
... .iI

Arrfaluan ~I)'i'm, Ma.!Jlindaooo
tQ~'im,

Fernaildo' "RaJllY' RazlJn··' A1ejartll'O 'iBnilg' REblanoo'"

MlMM
AR M

~Mtgli~danfiO

1'~BlJ.h7, Reure.rs
ArilpatuEn to'l'lTl, Maguindanao

P~rofui AmJlil,llJail

'MagWldanoo

110 2009-Nov·23 AR'MM
111 ~()oo"N'(W-23

99

200B-'ND'II'2,'3

Lildo, Lwpogmn"·

MMr:Jao Daily Ga_ze~ Amp<l1JJanMM'~, Maguiooanao Bonnba iWI~aronaOOl Ci1y
~t!M_1)

NapoJe.xi &!Jarsav ... CJearVIe1iI' ~fle !!illlp~1uan towm, MagLild'anao

ARMM

100

2D09·No~-2a

Eroosro "earnbo 1~.If Marallilla'"

A'RMM 112 2009,Nov·23

SubaJ:g Jr.···

Framcisoo, "Jan"

Socsksa!!}M Today Ampa_w 101m,
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The f'hilipprl'le Jounnalisfs ~(!'e. of E~k:s

THE PHILIPPINE ,JOURNAL.IST'S CODE O'F ETHICS
1.
I shall scrupulously report and interpret the news, taking care not to suppress essential facts or to distort the truth by omission Or improper em,p,has]s.! recognize the duty to air the other side and the duty to correct subsranrive errors promptly.

D.
III.

[shan not violate confidential. information or material given me in the exercise of my calhng,
I shall resort only to f<lirand honest methods in my effort 'W obtain news, photographs, and/or documents, and shall properly idemify myself as ,<1 representative of the press when obtaining: any personal interview intended for publication,

IV.

I shall refrain from writing reports which will adversely
affect: a private reputationunless the public interest justifies it. At the S·MIIJe time. I shall fight vigorously for public access to information.

V.

I shall nor. let personal motives Or interests influence me in the performance of my duties; nor shall I accept or offer any pre-sent, gift or other considers tion of a nature which. may cast doubt on my professional integrity. I shall not commit any act of piagiarism ..

VI.

VII. I shall not in any manner ridicule, cast aspersions on, or

PI'9SS FreooQrn Ptotec.th:m O!i'!di JOlinnalisls' Safety: A Media Comm!lni~"~ FI~5Pjjtioli,''IIility

degrade any person by reason of sex, creed, religious belief political conviction, cultural and ethnic origin. ' Vlll, I shall presume penons accused of crime of bein:g innocent until proven. otherwise. I shall exercise caution in publishiu,g names of minors and. women involved. in criminal cases so that they IDAlly notunjust] y lose their standing in society. IX. X. I shall not take unfair advantage of fellow journalists. I shall accept only such tasks as are compatible with the integrity and dignity .of my profession, invoking the 'conscience clause' when duties imposed on me conflict with the voice of XI.
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conscience,

I shall comport myself in public of while performing my duties as journalist in such man ner as to maintain the dignity of my profession. When in doubt, decency should be my watch word.

(Drafted by the' Phili.ppjne Press Institute and the N ational Press Club)

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